### Seismic Sounding of Convection in the Sun

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Our Sun, primarily composed of ionized hydrogen and helium, has a surface temperature of 5777~K and a radius $R_\odot \approx 696,000$ km. In the outer $R_\odot/3$, energy transport is accomplished primarily by convection. Using typical convective velocities $u\sim100\,\rm{m\,s^{-1}}$ and kinematic viscosities of order $10^{-4}$ m$^{2}$s$^{-1}$, we obtain a Reynolds number $Re \sim 10^{14}$. Convection is thus turbulent, causing a vast range of scales to be excited. The Prandtl number, $Pr$, of the convecting fluid is very low, of order $10^{-7}$\,–\,$10^{-4}$, so that the Rayleigh number ($\sim Re^2 Pr$) is on the order of $10^{21}\,-\,10^{24}$. Solar convection thus lies in extraordinary regime of dynamical parameters, highly untypical of fluid flows on Earth. Convective processes in the Sun drive global fluid circulations and magnetic fields, which in turn affect its visible outer layers ("solar activity") and, more broadly, the heliosphere ("space weather"). The precise determination of the depth of solar convection zone, departures from adiabaticity of the temperature gradient, and the internal rotation rate as a function of latitude and depth are among the seminal contributions of helioseismology towards understanding convection in the Sun. Contemporary helioseismology, which is focused on inferring the properties of three-dimensional convective features, suggests that transport velocities are substantially smaller than theoretical predictions. Furthermore, helioseismology provides important constraints on the anisotropic Reynolds stresses that control the global dynamics of the solar convection zone. This review discusses the state of our understanding of convection in the Sun, with a focus on helioseismic diagnostics. We present our considerations with the interests of fluid dynamicists in mind.