Posts Tagged spectroscopic redshifts

Recent Postings from spectroscopic redshifts

The systematics of strong lens modeling quantified: the effects of constraint selection and redshift information on magnification, mass, and multiple image predictability

Until now, systematic errors in strong gravitational lens modeling have been acknowledged but never been fully quantified. Here, we launch an investigation into the systematics induced by constraint selection. We model the simulated cluster Ares 362 times using random selections of image systems with and without spectroscopic redshifts and quantify the systematics using several diagnostics: image predictability, accuracy of model-predicted redshifts, enclosed mass, and magnification. We find that for models with $>15$ image systems, the image plane rms does not decrease significantly when more systems are added; however the rms values quoted in the literature may be misleading as to the ability of a model to predict new multiple images. The mass is well constrained near the Einstein radius in all cases, and systematic error drops to $<2\%$ for models using $>10$ image systems. Magnification errors are smallest along the straight portions of the critical curve, and the value of the magnification is systematically lower near curved portions. For $>15$ systems, the systematic error on magnification is $\sim2\%$. We report no trend in magnification error with fraction of spectroscopic image systems when selecting constraints at random; however, when using the same selection of constraints, increasing this fraction up to $\sim0.5$ will increase model accuracy. The results suggest that the selection of constraints, rather than quantity alone, determines the accuracy of the magnification. We note that spectroscopic follow-up of at least a few image systems is crucial, as models without any spectroscopic redshifts are inaccurate across all of our diagnostics.

Uncertain Photometric Redshifts

Photometric redshifts play an important role as a measure of distance for various cosmological topics. Spectroscopic redshifts are only available for a very limited number of objects but can be used for creating statistical models. A broad variety of photometric catalogues provide uncertain low resolution spectral information for galaxies and quasars that can be used to infer a redshift. Many different techniques have been developed to produce those redshift estimates with increasing precision. Instead of providing a point estimate only, astronomers start to generate probabilistic density functions (PDFs) which should provide a characterisation of the uncertainties of the estimation. In this work we present two simple approaches on how to generate those PDFs. We use the example of generating the photometric redshift PDFs of quasars from SDSS(DR7) to validate our approaches and to compare them with point estimates. We do not aim for presenting a new best performing method, but we choose an intuitive approach that is based on well known machine learning algorithms. Furthermore we introduce proper tools for evaluating the performance of PDFs in the context of astronomy. The continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) and the probability integral transform (PIT) are well accepted in the weather forecasting community. Both tools reflect how well the PDFs reproduce the real values of the analysed objects. As we show, nearly all currently used measures in astronomy show severe weaknesses when used to evaluate PDFs.

HIFLUGCS: X-ray luminosity -- dynamical mass relation and its implications for mass calibrations with the SPIDERS and 4MOST surveys

We present the X-ray luminosity (L) versus dynamical mass (M) relation for 63 nearby clusters in the HIFLUGCS. The luminosity measurements are obtained based on ~1.3 Ms of clean XMM data and ROSAT pointed observations. The masses are estimated using optical spectroscopic redshifts of 13647 cluster galaxies in total. Given sufficient numbers of member galaxies in computing the dynamical masses, the L-M relations agree between the disturbed and undisturbed clusters. The cool-core clusters still dominate the scatter in the L-M relation even when a core corrected X-ray luminosity is used, which indicates that the scatter mainly reflects the structure formation history of the clusters. As shown by the clusters with a small number of redshifts, the dynamical masses can be underestimated leading to a biased scaling relation. To investigate the potential of spectroscopic surveys to follow up high-redshift galaxy clusters/groups observed in X-ray surveys for the identifications and mass calibrations, we carried out Monte-Carlo re-sampling of the cluster galaxy redshifts and calibrated the uncertainties of the redshift and dynamical mass estimates when only reduced numbers of galaxy redshifts per cluster are available. The re-sampling considers the SPIDERS and 4MOST configurations, designed for the follow-up of the eROSITA clusters, and was carried out for each cluster at the actual cluster redshift as well as at z=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. For following up very distant cluster/groups, we carried out the mass calibration based on the re-sampling with only 10zs/cluster, and redshift calibration based on the re-sampling with only 5zs/cluster and 10zs/cluster, respectively. Our results demonstrate the power of combining upcoming X-ray and optical spectroscopic surveys for mass calibration. The scatter in the dynamical mass estimates for the clusters with at least ten members is within 50%.

PRIMUS: One- and Two-Halo Galactic Conformity at $0.2 < z < 1$

We test for galactic conformity at $0.2<z<1.0$ to a projected distance of 5 Mpc using spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS). Our sample consists of $\sim60,000$ galaxies in five separate fields covering a total of $\sim5.5$ square degrees, which allows us to account for cosmic variance. We identify star-forming and quiescent "isolated primary" (i.e., central) galaxies using isolation criteria and cuts in specific star formation rate. We match the redshift and stellar mass distributions of these samples, to control for correlations between quiescent fraction and redshift and stellar mass. We detect a significant $(>3\sigma)$ one-halo conformity signal, or an excess of star-forming neighbors around star-forming central galaxies, of $\sim5$% on scales of 0-1 Mpc and a $2.5\sigma$ two-halo signal of $\sim1$% on scales of 1-3 Mpc. These signals are weaker than those detected in SDSS and are consistent with galactic conformity being the result of large-scale tidal fields and reflecting assembly bias. We also measure the star-forming fraction of central galaxies at fixed stellar mass as a function of large-scale environment and find that central galaxies are more likely to be quenched in overdense environments, independent of stellar mass. However, we find that environment does not affect the star formation efficiency of central galaxies, as long as they are forming stars. We test for redshift and stellar mass dependence of the conformity signal within our sample and show that large volumes and multiple fields are required at intermediate redshift to adequately account for cosmic variance.

ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular gas reservoirs in high-redshift galaxies

We study the molecular gas properties of high-$z$ galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets a $\sim1$ arcmin$^2$ region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3mm and 1mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities $L_{\rm{}IR}>10^{11}$ L$_\odot$, i.e. a detection in CO emission was expected. Out these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than typically found in starburst/SMG/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star-formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): The CO-detected galaxies in the UDF tend to reside on the low-$L_{\rm{}IR}$ envelope of the scatter in the $L_{\rm{}IR}-L'_{\rm{}CO}$ relation, but exceptions exist. For the CO-detected sources, we find an average depletion time of $\sim$ 1 Gyr, with significant scatter. The average molecular-to-stellar mass ratio ($M_{\rm{}H2}$/$M_*$) is consistent with earlier measurements of main sequence galaxies at these redshifts, and again shows large variations among sources. In some cases, we also measure dust continuum emission. On average, the dust-based estimates of the molecular gas are a factor $\sim$2-5$\times$ smaller than those based on CO. Accounting for detections as well as non-detections, we find large diversity in the molecular gas properties of the high-redshift galaxies covered by ASPECS.

ALMACAL II: Extreme star-formation-rate densities in a pair of dusty starbursts at $z = 3.442$ revealed by ALMA 20-milliarcsec resolution imaging

We present ALMA ultra-high-spatial resolution ($\sim 20 \, {\rm mas}$) observations of dust continuum at $920 \, {\rm \mu m}$ and $1.2 \, {\rm mm}$ in a pair of submm galaxies (SMGs) at $z = 3.442$, ALMACAL-1 (A-1: $S_{\rm 870 \mu m} = 6.5 \pm 0.2 \, {\rm mJy}$) and ALMACAL-2 (A-2: $S_{\rm 870 \mu m} = 4.4 \pm 0.2 \, {\rm mJy}$). The spectroscopic redshifts of A-1 and A-2 have been confirmed via serendipitous detection of up to nine emission lines. Our ultra-high-spatial resolution data reveal that about half of the star formation in each of these starbursts is dominated by a single compact clump (FWHM size of $\sim 350 \, {\rm pc}$). This structure is confirmed by independent datasets at $920 \, {\rm \mu m}$ and $1.2 \, {\rm mm}$. The star-formation rate (SFR) surface densities of all these clumps are extremely high, $\Sigma_{\rm SFR} \sim 1200$ to $\sim 3000 \, {M_\odot \, {\rm yr}^{-1} \, {\rm kpc}^{-2}}$, the highest found in high-redshift galaxies. There is a small probability that A-1 and A-2 are the lensed components of a background source gravitationally amplified by the blazar host. If this was the case, the effective radius of the source would be $R_{\rm eff} \sim 40 \, {\rm pc}$, and the de-magnified SFR surface density would be $\Sigma_{\rm SFR} \sim 10000 \, {M_\odot \, {\rm yr}^{-1} \, {\rm kpc}^{-2}}$, comparable with the eastern nucleus of Arp 220. Despite being unable to rule out an AGN contribution, our results suggest that a significant percentage of the enormous far-IR luminosity in some dusty starbursts is concentrated in very small star-forming regions. The high $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ in our pair of SMGs could only be measured thanks to the ultra-high-resolution ALMA observations used in this work, demonstrating that long-baseline observations are essential to study and interpret the properties of dusty starbursts in the early Universe.

Illuminating gas in-/outflows in the MUSE deepest fields: discovery of Ly-alpha nebulae around forming galaxies at z~3.3

We report on the discovery of extended Ly-alpha nebulae at z~3.3 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF, ~ 40 kpc X 80 kpc) and behind the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACSJ0416 (~ 40kpc), spatially associated with groups of star-forming galaxies. VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy reveals a complex structure with a spatially-varying double peaked Ly-alpha emission. Overall, the spectral profiles of the two Ly-alpha nebulae are remarkably similar, both showing a prominent blue emission, more intense and slightly broader than the red peak. From the first nebula, located in the HUDF, no X-ray emission has been detected, disfavoring the possible presence of AGNs. Spectroscopic redshifts have been derived for 11 galaxies within two arcsec from the nebula and spanning the redshift range 1.037<z<5.97. The second nebula, behind MACSJ0416, shows three aligned star-forming galaxies plausibly associated to the emitting gas. In both systems, the associated galaxies reveal possible intense rest-frame-optical nebular emissions lines [OIII]4959-5007+Hbeta with equivalent widths as high as 1500A rest-frame and star formation rates ranging from a few to tens of solar masses per year. A possible scenario is that of a group of young, star-forming galaxies sources of escaping ionising radiation that induce Ly-alpha fluorescence, therefore revealing the kinematics of the surrounding gas. Also Ly-alpha powered by star-formation and/or cooling radiation may resemble the double peaked spectral properties and the morphology observed here. If the intense blue emission is associated with inflowing gas, then we may be witnessing an early phase of galaxy or a proto-cluster (or group) formation.

ZFIRE: A KECK/MOSFIRE Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies in Rich Environments at z~2 [Replacement]

We present an overview and the first data release of ZFIRE, a spectroscopic redshift survey of star-forming galaxies that utilizes the MOSFIRE instrument on Keck-I to study galaxy properties in rich environments at $1.5<z<2.5$. ZFIRE measures accurate spectroscopic redshifts and basic galaxy properties derived from multiple emission lines. The galaxies are selected from a stellar mass limited sample based on deep near infra-red imaging ($\mathrm{K_{AB}<25}$) and precise photometric redshifts from the ZFOURGE and UKIDSS surveys as well as grism redshifts from 3DHST. Between 2013--2015 ZFIRE has observed the COSMOS and UDS legacy fields over 13 nights and has obtained 211 galaxy redshifts over $1.57<z<2.66$ from a combination of nebular emission lines (such as \Halpha, \NII, \Hbeta, \OII, \OIII, \SII) observed at 1--2\micron. Based on our medium-band NIR photometry, we are able to spectrophotometrically flux calibrate our spectra to \around10\% accuracy. ZFIRE reaches $5\sigma$ emission line flux limits of \around$\mathrm{3\times10^{-18}~erg/s/cm^2}$ with a resolving power of $R=3500$ and reaches masses down to \around10$^{9}$\msol. We confirm that the primary input survey, ZFOURGE, has produced photometric redshifts for star-forming galaxies (including highly attenuated ones) accurate to $\Delta z/(1+z\mathrm{_{spec})}=0.015$ with $0.7\%$ outliers. We measure a slight redshift bias of $<0.001$, and we note that the redshift bias tends to be larger at higher masses. We also examine the role of redshift on the derivation of rest-frame colours and stellar population parameters from SED fitting techniques. The ZFIRE survey extends spectroscopically-confirmed $z\sim 2$ samples across a richer range of environments, here we make available the first public release of the data for use by the community.\footnote{\url{http://zfire.swinburne.edu.au}}

ZFIRE: A KECK/MOSFIRE Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxies in Rich Environments at z~2

We present an overview and the first data release of ZFIRE, a spectroscopic redshift survey of star-forming galaxies that utilizes the MOSFIRE instrument on Keck-I to study galaxy properties in rich environments at $1.5<z<2.5$. ZFIRE measures accurate spectroscopic redshifts and basic galaxy properties derived from multiple emission lines. The galaxies are selected from a stellar mass limited sample based on deep near infra-red imaging ($\mathrm{K_{AB}<25}$) and precise photometric redshifts from the ZFOURGE and UKIDSS surveys as well as grism redshifts from 3DHST. Between 2013--2015 ZFIRE has observed the COSMOS and UDS legacy fields over 13 nights and has obtained 211 galaxy redshifts over $1.57<z<2.66$ from a combination of nebular emission lines (such as \Halpha, \NII, \Hbeta, \OII, \OIII, \SII) observed at 1--2\micron. Based on our medium-band NIR photometry, we are able to spectrophotometrically flux calibrate our spectra to \around10\% accuracy. ZFIRE reaches $5\sigma$ emission line flux limits of \around$\mathrm{3\times10^{-18}~erg/s/cm^2}$ with a resolving power of $R=3500$ and reaches masses down to \around10$^{9}$\msol. We confirm that the primary input survey, ZFOURGE, has produced photometric redshifts for star-forming galaxies (including highly attenuated ones) accurate to $\Delta z/(1+z\mathrm{_{spec})}=0.015$ with $0.7\%$ outliers. We measure a slight redshift bias of $<0.001$, and we note that the redshift bias tends to be larger at higher masses. We also examine the role of redshift on the derivation of rest-frame colours and stellar population parameters from SED fitting techniques. The ZFIRE survey extends spectroscopically-confirmed $z\sim 2$ samples across a richer range of environments, here we make available the first public release of the data for use by the community.\footnote{\url{http://zfire.swinburne.edu.au}}

A spectroscopic follow-up program of very massive galaxies at 3<z<4: confirmation of spectroscopic redshifts, and a high fraction of powerful AGN

We present the analysis and results of a spectroscopic follow-up program of a mass-selected sample of six galaxies at 3 < z < 4 using data from Keck-NIRSPEC and VLT-Xshooter. We confirm the z > 3 redshifts for half of the sample through the detection of strong nebular emission lines, and improve the zphot accuracy for the remainder of the sample through the combination of photometry and spectra. The modeling of the emission-line-corrected spectral energy distributions (SEDs) adopting improved redshifts confirms the very large stellar masses of the sample (M_* ~ 1.5-4 x 10^11 Msun) in the first 2 Gyrs of cosmic history, with a diverse range in stellar ages, star formation rates and dust content. From the analysis of emission line luminosities and widths, and far-infrared (FIR) fluxes we confirm that >80% of the sample are hosts to luminous hidden active galactic nuclei (AGNs), with bolometric luminosities of ~10^(44-46) erg/s. We find that the MIPS 24um photometry is largely contaminated by AGN continuum, rendering the SFRs derived using only 24um photometry to be severely overestimated. Potential contamination of the observed SEDs from the AGN continuum are constrained, finding that the stellar masses derived based only on medium- and broad-band photometry are overestimated by ~ 0.1-0.2 dex. We calculate upper limits to SFRs by constraining the contribution of AGN to the IR SED (SFR < 300 - 600 Msun/yr).

Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by M\'enard et al. (2013) when applied to VIPERS and CFHTLS real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clus- tering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state of the art spectroscopic measurements with iAB < 22.5 from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) as reference population to infer the redshift distribution of galaxies from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) T0007 release. VIPERS provides a nearly representative sample to the flux limit iAB < 22.5 at redshift > 0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based red- shift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean color-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the one of reference and we give an estimate of the color-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large redshift surveys which suffer from the need of a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS [Replacement]

We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by M\'enard et al. (2013) when applied to VIPERS and CFHTLS real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clus- tering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state of the art spectroscopic measurements with iAB < 22.5 from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) as reference population to infer the redshift distribution of galaxies from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) T0007 release. VIPERS provides a nearly representative sample to the flux limit iAB < 22.5 at redshift > 0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based red- shift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean color-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the one of reference and we give an estimate of the color-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large redshift surveys which suffer from the need of a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

The Canarias Einstein Ring: a Newly Discovered Optical Einstein Ring

We report the discovery of an optical Einstein Ring in the Sculptor constellation, IAC J010127-334319, in the vicinity of the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy. It is an almost complete ring ($\sim 300^{\circ}$) with a diameter of $\sim 4.5\, {\rm arcsec}$. The discovery was made serendipitously from inspecting Dark Energy Camera (DECam) archive imaging data. Confirmation of the object nature has been obtained by deriving spectroscopic redshifts for both components, lens and source, from observations at the $10.4$ m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) with the spectrograph OSIRIS. The lens, a massive early-type galaxy, has a redshift of ${\rm z}=0.581$ while the source is a starburst galaxy with redshift of ${\rm z}=1.165$. The total enclosed mass that produces the lensing effect has been estimated to be ${\rm M_{tot}=(1.86 \pm 0.23) \,\cdot 10^{12}\, {\rm M_{\odot}}}$.

A Systematic Survey of Protoclusters at $z\sim3\mathrm{-}6$ in the CFHTLS Deep Fields

We present the discovery of three protoclusters at $z\sim3\mathrm{-}4$ with spectroscopic confirmation in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey Deep Fields. In these fields, we investigate the large-scale projected sky distribution of $z\sim3\mathrm{-}6$ Lyman break galaxies and identify 21 protocluster candidates from regions that are overdense at more than $4\sigma$ overdensity significance. Based on cosmological simulations, it is expected that more than $76\%$ of these candidates will evolve into a galaxy cluster of at least a halo mass of $10^{14}\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$ at $z=0$. We perform follow-up spectroscopy for eight of the candidates using Subaru/FOCAS, KeckII/DEIMOS, and Gemini-N/GMOS. In total we target 462 dropout candidates and obtain 138 spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm three real protoclusters at $z=3\mathrm{-}4$ with more than five members spectroscopically identified, and find one to be an incidental overdense region by mere chance alignment. The other four candidate regions at $z\sim5\mathrm{-}6$ require more spectroscopic follow-up in order to be conclusive. A $z=3.67$ protocluster, which has eleven spectroscopically confirmed members, shows a remarkable core-like structure composed of a central small region ($<0.5\,\mathrm{physical\>Mpc}$) and an outskirts region ($\sim1.0\,\mathrm{physical\>Mpc}$). The Ly$\alpha$ equivalent widths of members of the protocluster are significantly smaller than those of field galaxies at the same redshift while there is no difference in the UV luminosity distributions. These results imply that some environmental effects start operating as early as at $z\sim4$ along with the growth of the protocluster structure.

Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys

[Abridged] We exploit the synergy between low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric redshifts to study environmental effects on galaxy evolution in slitless spectroscopic surveys from space. As a test case, we consider the future Euclid Deep survey (~40deg$^2$), which combines a slitless spectroscopic survey limited at H$\alpha$ flux $\leq5\times 10^{-17}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and a photometric survey limited in H-band ($H\leq26$). To test the power of the method, we use Euclid-like galaxy mock catalogues, in which we anchor the photometric redshifts to the 3D galaxy distribution of the available spectroscopic redshifts. We then estimate the local density contrast by counting objects in cylindrical cells with radius ranging from 1 to 10 h$^{-1}$Mpc over the redshift range 0.9<z<1.8. We compare this density field with the one computed in a mock catalogue with the same depth as the Euclid Deep survey (H=26) but without redshift measurement errors. We find that our method is successful in separating high from low density environments with an efficiency that increases at low redshift and large cells. The fraction of low density regions mistaken by high density peaks is below 1% for all scales and redshift explored, but for scales of 1 h$^{-1}$Mpc for which is a few percent. When small (1 h$^{-1}$Mpc) cells are used, our technique is successful, at z~1.5, at spotting the regions where the most massive galaxy clusters reside. These results show that we can efficiently study environment in photometric samples if spectroscopic information is available for a smaller sample of objects that sparsely samples the same volume. We demonstrate that these studies will be possible in the Euclid Deep survey, i.e. in a redshift range in which environmental effects are different from those observed in the local universe, hence providing new constraints for galaxy evolution models.

GPz: Non-stationary sparse Gaussian processes for heteroscedastic uncertainty estimation in photometric redshifts [Replacement]

The next generation of cosmology experiments will be required to use photometric redshifts rather than spectroscopic redshifts. Obtaining accurate and well-characterized photometric redshift distributions is therefore critical for Euclid, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Square Kilometre Array. However, determining accurate variance predictions alongside single point estimates is crucial, as they can be used to optimize the sample of galaxies for the specific experiment (e.g. weak lensing, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae), trading off between completeness and reliability in the galaxy sample. The various sources of uncertainty in measurements of the photometry and redshifts put a lower bound on the accuracy that any model can hope to achieve. The intrinsic uncertainty associated with estimates is often non-uniform and input-dependent, commonly known in statistics as heteroscedastic noise. However, existing approaches are susceptible to outliers and do not take into account variance induced by non-uniform data density and in most cases require manual tuning of many parameters. In this paper, we present a Bayesian machine learning approach that jointly optimizes the model with respect to both the predictive mean and variance we refer to as Gaussian processes for photometric redshifts (GPz). The predictive variance of the model takes into account both the variance due to data density and photometric noise. Using the SDSS DR12 data, we show that our approach substantially outperforms other machine learning methods for photo-z estimation and their associated variance, such as TPZ and ANNz2. We provide a Matlab and Python implementations that are available to download at https://github.com/OxfordML/GPz .

GPz: Non-stationary sparse Gaussian processes for heteroscedastic uncertainty estimation in photometric redshift

The next generation of cosmology experiments will be required to use photometric redshifts rather than spectroscopic redshifts. Obtaining accurate and well-characterized photometric redshift distributions is therefore critical for Euclid, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Square Kilometre Array. However, determining accurate variance predictions alongside single point estimates of photometric redshifts is crucial, as they can be used to optimize the sample of galaxies for the specific experiment (e.g. weak lensing, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae), trading off between completeness and reliability in the galaxy sample. The various sources of uncertainty (and noise) in measurements of the photometry and redshifts put a lower bound on the accuracy that any model can hope to achieve. The intrinsic uncertainty associated with estimates is often non-uniform and input-dependent. However, existing approaches are susceptible to outliers and do not take into account variance induced by non-uniform data density and in most cases require manual tuning of many parameters. In this paper, we present a Bayesian machine learning approach that jointly optimizes the model with respect to both the predictive mean and variance we refer to as Gaussian processes for photometric redshifts (GPz). The predictive variance of the model takes into account both the variance due to data density and photometric noise. Using the SDSS DR12 data, we show that our approach substantially outperforms other machine learning methods for photo-z estimation and their associated variance, such as TPZ and ANNz2. We provide a Matlab and Python implementations that are available to download at https://github.com/OxfordML/GPz.

The Spitzer Data Fusion : Contents, Construction and Applications to Galaxy Evolution Studies

We present the Spitzer Data Fusion, a database incorporating far-ultraviolet to far-infrared flux measurements as well as photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for 4.4 million IRAC-selected sources detected over 8 extragalactic fields covering 65 deg$^2$ observed by Spitzer in all IRAC and MIPS bands during its cryogenic mission. Deeper Spitzer observations carried out during its warm mission over 5 sub-fields as part of the SERVS project are also presented and analysed in a similar fashion, detecting 2.8 million IRAC-selected sources over 18 deg$^2$ and merging them with multi-wavelength catalogues within the SERVS Data Fusion. When combined with Herschel SPIRE surveys and radio continuum observations over the same fields, the Spitzer Data Fusion and the SERVS Data Fusion provide an invaluable resource for multi-wavelength galaxy formation and evolution studies at infrared/millimetre/radio wavelengths. The catalogues and their future updates will be released at \url{http://www.mattiavaccari.net/df/} and on CDS/VizieR.

The Spitzer Data Fusion : Contents, Construction and Applications to Galaxy Evolution Studies [Replacement]

We present the Spitzer Data Fusion, a database incorporating far-ultraviolet to far-infrared flux measurements as well as photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for 4.4 million IRAC-selected sources detected over 8 extragalactic fields covering 65 deg$^2$ observed by Spitzer in all IRAC and MIPS bands during its cryogenic mission. Deeper Spitzer observations carried out during its warm mission over 5 sub-fields as part of the SERVS project are also presented and analysed in a similar fashion, detecting 2.8 million IRAC-selected sources over 18 deg$^2$ and merging them with multi-wavelength catalogues within the SERVS Data Fusion. When combined with Herschel SPIRE surveys and radio continuum observations over the same fields, the Spitzer Data Fusion and the SERVS Data Fusion provide an invaluable resource for multi-wavelength galaxy formation and evolution studies at infrared/millimetre/radio wavelengths. The catalogues and their future updates will be released at http://www.mattiavaccari.net/df/ and on CDS/VizieR.

The Spitzer Data Fusion: Contents, Construction and Applications to Galaxy Evolution Studies [Replacement]

We present the Spitzer Data Fusion, a database incorporating far-ultraviolet to far-infrared flux measurements as well as photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for 4.4 million IRAC-selected sources detected over 8 extragalactic fields covering 65 deg$^2$ observed by Spitzer in all IRAC and MIPS bands during its cryogenic mission. Deeper Spitzer observations carried out during its warm mission over 5 sub-fields as part of the SERVS project are also presented and analysed in a similar fashion, detecting 2.8 million IRAC-selected sources over 18 deg$^2$ and merging them with multi-wavelength catalogues within the SERVS Data Fusion. When combined with Herschel SPIRE surveys and radio continuum observations over the same fields, the Spitzer Data Fusion and the SERVS Data Fusion provide an invaluable resource for multi-wavelength galaxy formation and evolution studies at infrared/millimetre/radio wavelengths. The catalogues and their future updates will be released at http://www.mattiavaccari.net/df/ and on CDS/VizieR.

The COSMOS2015 Catalog: Exploring the 1<z<6 Universe with half a million galaxies

We present the COSMOS2015 catalog which contains precise photometric redshifts and stellar masses for more than half a million objects over the 2deg$^{2}$ COSMOS field. Including new $YJHK_{\rm s}$ images from the UltraVISTA-DR2 survey, $Y$-band from Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam and infrared data from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Spitzer legacy program, this near-infrared-selected catalog is highly optimized for the study of galaxy evolution and environments in the early Universe. To maximise catalog completeness for bluer objects and at higher redshifts, objects have been detected on a $\chi^{2}$ sum of the $YJHK_{\rm s}$ and $z^{++}$ images. The catalog contains $\sim 6\times 10^5$ objects in the 1.5 deg$^{2}$ UltraVISTA-DR2 region, and $\sim 1.5\times 10^5$ objects are detected in the "ultra-deep stripes" (0.62 deg$^{2}$) at $K_{\rm s}\leq 24.7$ (3$\sigma$, 3", AB magnitude). Through a comparison with the zCOSMOS-bright spectroscopic redshifts, we measure a photometric redshift precision of $\sigma_{\Delta z/(1+z_s)}$ = 0.007 and a catastrophic failure fraction of $\eta=0.5$%. At $3<z<6$, using the unique database of spectroscopic redshifts in COSMOS, we find $\sigma_{\Delta z/(1+z_s)}$ = 0.021 and $\eta=13.2\% $. The deepest regions reach a 90\% completeness limit of 10$^{10}M_\odot$ to $z=4$. Detailed comparisons of the color distributions, number counts, and clustering show excellent agreement with the literature in the same mass ranges. COSMOS2015 represents a unique, publicly available, valuable resource with which to investigate the evolution of galaxies within their environment back to the earliest stages of the history of the Universe. The COSMOS2015 catalog is distributed via anonymous ftp (ftp://ftp.iap.fr/pub/from_users/hjmcc/COSMOS2015/) and through the usual astronomical archive systems (CDS, ESO Phase 3, IRSA).

The redshift distribution of dusty star forming galaxies from the SPT survey

We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Cycle 1 to determine spectroscopic redshifts of high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected by their 1.4mm continuum emission in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. We present ALMA 3mm spectral scans between 84-114GHz for 15 galaxies and targeted ALMA 1mm observations for an additional eight sources. Our observations yield 30 new line detections from CO, [CI] , [NII] , H_2O and NH_3. We further present APEX [CII] and CO mid-J observations for seven sources for which only a single line was detected in spectral-scan data from ALMA Cycle 0 or Cycle 1. We combine the new observations with previously published and new mm/submm line and photometric data of the SPT-selected DSFGs to study their redshift distribution. The combined data yield 39 spectroscopic redshifts from molecular lines, a success rate of >85%. Our sample represents the largest data set of its kind today and has the highest spectroscopic completeness among all redshift surveys of high-z DSFGs. The median of the redshift distribution is z=3.9+/-0.4, and the highest-redshift source in our sample is at z=5.8. We discuss how the selection of our sources affects the redshift distribution, focusing on source brightness, selection wavelength, and strong gravitational lensing. We correct for the effect of gravitational lensing and find the redshift distribution for 1.4mm-selected sources with a median redshift of z=3.1+/-0.3. Comparing to redshift distributions selected at shorter wavelengths from the literature, we show that selection wavelength affects the shape of the redshift distribution.

Compact Symmetric Objects and Supermassive Binary Black Holes in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey

We present multi-frequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) follow-up observations of VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey sources identified as likely compact symmetric objects (CSOs) or super-massive binary black holes (SBBHs). We also present new spectroscopic redshifts for 11 sources observed with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. While no new SBBHs can be confirmed from these observations, we have identified 24 CSOs in the sample, 15 of which are newly designated, and refuted 52 candidates leaving 33 unconfirmed candidates. This is the first large uniform sample of CSOs which can be used to elicit some of the general properties of these sources, including morphological evolution and environmental interaction. We have detected polarised emission from two of these CSOs the properties of which are consistent with Active Galactic Nuclei unification schemes.

X-ray Detected Active Galactic Nuclei in Dwarf Galaxies at $0<z<1$

We present a sample of accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in low-mass galaxies at $z<1$. We identify dwarf galaxies in the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey with stellar masses $M_{\star}<3\times 10^{9} M_{\odot}$ that have spectroscopic redshifts from the DEEP2 survey and lie within the region covered by deep ($>200$ ks) archival \textit{Chandra} X-ray data. From our sample of $\sim 600$ low-mass galaxies, $10$ exhibit X-ray emission consistent with that arising from AGN activity. If black hole mass scales roughly with stellar mass, then we expect that these AGN are powered by SMBHs with masses of $\sim 10^5-10^6 \ M_{\odot}$ and typical Eddington ratios $\sim 5\%$. Furthermore, we find an active fraction consistent with extrapolations of other searches of $\sim 0.006-3\%$ for $10^9 \ M_{\odot} \leq M_{\star} \leq 3\times 10^{9} \ M_{\odot}$ and $0.1<z<0.6$. This is the first time an active fraction has been directly measured outside of the local universe for these SMBH mass ranges. We find good agreement with semi-analytic models, suggesting that as we search larger volumes we may use comparisons between observed active fractions and models to understand seeding mechanisms in the early universe.

The Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect with Projected Fields: A Novel Probe of the Baryon Distribution with Planck, WMAP, and WISE Data

The kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect - the Doppler boosting of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons due to Compton-scattering off free electrons with non-zero bulk velocity - is an ideal tool to probe the abundance and distribution of baryons in the Universe. All kSZ measurements to date have explicitly required spectroscopic redshifts. Here, we implement a novel estimator for the kSZ - large-scale structure cross-correlation based on projected fields: it does not require redshift estimates for individual objects, allowing kSZ measurements from large-scale imaging surveys for the first time. We apply this estimator to cleaned CMB temperature maps constructed from Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and a galaxy sample from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We measure the kSZ effect at 3.8-4.5$\sigma$ significance, depending on the use of additional WISE galaxy bias constraints. We verify that our measurements are robust to possible dust emission from the WISE galaxies. Assuming the standard LCDM cosmology, we directly constrain $(f_b/0.155) (f_{\rm free}/1.0) = 1.48 \pm 0.19$ (statistical error only) at redshift $z \approx 0.4$, where $f_{b}$ is the fraction of matter in baryonic form and $f_{\rm free}$ is the free electron fraction. This is the tightest kSZ-derived constraint reported to date on these parameters. The consistency between the $f_{b}$ value found here and the values inferred from analyses of the primordial CMB and Big Bang nucleosynthesis verifies that baryons approximately trace the dark matter distribution down to ~Mpc scales. While our projected-field estimator is already competitive with other kSZ approaches when applied to current datasets, it will yield enormous signal-to-noise when applied to upcoming high-resolution, multi-frequency CMB surveys.

The Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect with Projected Fields: A Novel Probe of the Baryon Distribution with Planck, WMAP, and WISE Data [Replacement]

The kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect --- the Doppler boosting of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons due to Compton-scattering off free electrons with non-zero bulk velocity --- probes the abundance and distribution of baryons in the Universe. All kSZ measurements to date have explicitly required spectroscopic redshifts. Here, we implement a novel estimator for the kSZ -- large-scale structure cross-correlation based on projected fields: it does not require redshift estimates for individual objects, allowing kSZ measurements from large-scale imaging surveys. We apply this estimator to cleaned CMB temperature maps constructed from Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and a galaxy sample from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We measure the kSZ effect at 3.8-4.5$\sigma$ significance, depending on the use of additional WISE galaxy bias constraints. We verify that our measurements are robust to possible dust emission from the WISE galaxies. Assuming the standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, we directly constrain $( {f_{b}}/{0.158} ) ( {f_{\rm free}}/{1.0} ) = 1.48 \pm 0.19$ (statistical error only) at redshift $z \approx 0.4$, where $f_{b}$ is the fraction of matter in baryonic form and $f_{\rm free}$ is the free electron fraction. This is the tightest kSZ-derived constraint reported to date on these parameters. The consistency between the $f_{b}$ value found here and the values inferred from analyses of the primordial CMB and Big Bang nucleosynthesis verifies that baryons approximately trace the dark matter distribution down to $\sim$Mpc scales. While our projected-field estimator is already competitive with other kSZ approaches when applied to current datasets (because we are able to use the full-sky WISE photometric survey), it will yield enormous signal-to-noise when applied to upcoming high-resolution, multi-frequency CMB surveys.

The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACSJ0416.1-2403 using Frontier Field imaging and GLASS spectroscopy

We present a strong and weak gravitational lens model of the galaxy cluster MACSJ0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 31 multiple images belonging to 16 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for 6 of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and 9 multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting total mass density map is compared with a stellar mass density map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total mass in the cluster. We find that the projected stellar mass to total mass ratio, $f_{\star}$, varies considerably with the stellar surface mass density. The mean projected stellar mass to total mass ratio is $\langle f_{\star} \rangle= 0.009 \pm 0.003 $ (stat.), but with a systematic error as large as $0.004-0.005$, dominated by the choice of the IMF. We find agreement with several recent measurements of $f_{\star}$ in massive cluster environments. The lensing maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available to the broader community in the standard HFF format.

Comparison of the spatial and the angular clustering of X-ray AGN

The angular correlation function is a powerful tool for deriving the clustering properties of AGN and hence the mass of the corresponding dark matter halos in which they reside. However, studies based on the application of the angular correlation function on X-ray samples, yield results apparently inconsistent with those based on the direct estimation of the spatial correlation function. The goal of the present paper is to attempt to investigate this issue by analysing a well defined sample. To this end we use the hard-band (2-10 keV) X-ray selected sources of the Chandra AEGIS fields, chosen because of the availability of accurately derived flux sensitivity maps. In particular we use the 186 hard-band sources with spectroscopic redshifts in the range z=0.3-1.3, a range selected in order to contain the bulk of the AGN while minimizing the contribution of unknown clustering and luminosity evolution from very high redshifts. Using the projected spatial auto-correlation function, we derive a clustering comoving length of 5.4+-1.0 Mpc (for gamma=1.8), consistent with results in the literature. We further derive the angular correlation function and the corresponding spatial clustering length using the Limber's inversion equation and a novel parametrization of the clustering evolution model that also takes into account the bias evolution of the host dark matter halo. The Limber's inverted spatial comoving clustering length of 5.5+-1.2 Mpc at a median redshift of z~0.75, matches the directly measured one, from the spatial correlation function analysis, but for a significant non-linear contribution to the growing mode of perturbations, estimated independently from literature results of x_0 at different redshifts. Therefore, using this sample of X-ray AGN and our clustering evolution parametrization we have found an excellent consistency between the angular and spatial clustering analysis.

The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey - I: UV and NIR Observations, multi-color catalogues and photometric redshifts [Replacement]

We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet (UV) with the GALEX satellite (far and near UV channels) and the near infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera ($K_s$-band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg$^2$, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimized to measure the physical properties (e.g., SFR, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 < z < 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions and the build-up of the multi-color catalogues. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-{\chi}^2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the $K_s$-band photometry, while the T0007 u-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches $NUV_{AB}$~25 (at 5{\sigma}) and $K_{AB}$~22 (at 3{\sigma}). The large spectroscopic sample (~51,000 spectroscopic redshifts) allows us to highlight the robustness of our star/galaxy separation, and the reliability of our photometric redshifts with a typical accuracy $\sigma_z \le$ 0.04 and a catastrophic failure rate {\eta} < 2% down to i~23. We present various tests on the $K_s$ band completeness and photometric redshift accuracy by comparing with existing, overlapping deep photometric catalogues. Finally, we discuss the BzK sample of passive and active galaxies at high redshift and the evolution of galaxy morphology in the (NUV-r) vs (r-K_s) diagram at low redshift (z < 0.25) thanks to the high image quality of the CFHTLS. The images, catalogues and photometric redshifts for 1.5 million sources (down to $NUV \le$ 25 or $K_s \le$ 22) are about to be released at this URL: http://cesam.lam.fr/vipers-mls/

The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey - I: UV and NIR Observations, multi-color catalogs and photometric redshifts

We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet (UV) with the GALEX satellite (far and near UV channels) and the near infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera ($K_s$-band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg$^2$, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimized to measure the physical properties (e.g., SFR, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 < z < 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions and the build-up of the multi-color catalogs. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-{\chi}^2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the $K_s$-band photometry, while the T0007 u-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches $NUV_{AB}$~25 (at 5{\sigma}) and $K_{AB}$~22 (at 3{\sigma}). The large spectroscopic sample (~51,000 spectroscopic redshifts) allows us to highlight the robustness of our star/galaxy separation, and the reliability of our photometric redshifts with a typical accuracy $\sigma_z \le$ 0.04 and a catastrophic failure rate {\eta} < 2% down to i~23. We present various tests on the $K_s$ band completeness and photometric redshift accuracy by comparing with existing, overlapping deep photometric catalogues. Finally, we discuss the BzK sample of passive and active galaxies at high redshift and the evolution of galaxy morphology in the (NUV-r) vs (r-K_s) diagram at low redshift (z < 0.25) thanks to the high image quality of the CFHTLS. The images, catalogs and photometric redshifts for 1.5 million sources (down to $NUV \le$ 25 or $K_s \le$ 22) are about to be released at this URL: http://cesam.lam.fr/vipers-mls/

The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey. I. UV and NIR Observations, multi-color catalogues and photometric redshifts [Replacement]

We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet (UV) with the GALEX satellite (far and near UV channels) and the near infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera ($K_s$-band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg$^2$, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimized to measure the physical properties (e.g., SFR, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 < z < 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions and the build-up of the multi-color catalogues. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-{\chi}^2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the $K_s$-band photometry, while the T0007 u-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches $NUV_{AB}$~25 (at 5{\sigma}) and $K_{AB}$~22 (at 3{\sigma}). The large spectroscopic sample (~51,000 spectroscopic redshifts) allows us to highlight the robustness of our star/galaxy separation, and the reliability of our photometric redshifts with a typical accuracy $\sigma_z \le$ 0.04 and a catastrophic failure rate {\eta} < 2% down to i~23. We present various tests on the $K_s$ band completeness and photometric redshift accuracy by comparing with existing, overlapping deep photometric catalogues. Finally, we discuss the BzK sample of passive and active galaxies at high redshift and the evolution of galaxy morphology in the (NUV-r) vs (r-K_s) diagram at low redshift (z < 0.25) thanks to the high image quality of the CFHTLS. The images, catalogues and photometric redshifts for 1.5 million sources (down to $NUV \le$ 25 or $K_s \le$ 22) are released and available at this URL: http://cesam.lam.fr/vipers-mls/

Probing the sparse tails of redshift distributions with Voronoi tessellations

We introduce an algorithm to estimate the redshift distribution of a sample of galaxies selected photometrically given a subsample with measured spectroscopic redshifts. The approach uses a non-parametric Voronoi tessellation density estimator to interpolate the galaxy distribution in the redshift and photometric color space. We test the method on a mock dataset with a known color-redshift distribution. We find that the Voronoi tessellation estimator performs well at reconstructing the tails of the redshift distribution of individual galaxies and gives unbiased estimates of the first and second moments. The source code is publicly available at http://bitbucket.org/bengranett/tailz.

The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey First Data Release: spectra and spectroscopic redshifts of 698 objects up to z~6 in CANDELS

This paper describes the first data release (DR1) of the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). The DR1 includes all low-resolution spectroscopic data obtained in 276.9 arcmin2 of the CANDELS-COSMOS and CANDELS-ECFDS survey areas, including accurate spectroscopic redshifts z_spec and individual spectra obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT. A total of 698 objects have a measured redshift, with 677 galaxies, two type-I AGN and a small number of 19 contaminating stars. The targets of the spectroscopic survey are selected primarily on the basis of their photometric redshifts to ensure a broad population coverage. About 500 galaxies have z_spec>2, 48 with z_spec>4, and the highest reliable redshifts reach beyond z_spec=6. This dataset approximately doubles the number of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts at z>3 in these fields. We discuss the general properties of the sample in terms of the spectroscopic redshift distribution, the distribution of Lyman-alpha equivalent widths, and physical properties including stellar masses M_star and star formation rates (SFR) derived from spectral energy distribution fitting with the knowledge of z_spec. We highlight the properties of the most massive star-forming galaxies, noting the large range in spectral properties, with Lyman-alpha in emission or in absorption, and in imaging properties with compact, multi-component or pair morphologies. We present the catalogue database and data products. All data are publicly available and can be retrieved from a dedicated query-based database available at http://cesam.lam.fr/vuds.

The extended epoch of galaxy formation: age dating of ~3600 galaxies with 2<z<6.5 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

We aim at improving constraints on the epoch of galaxy formation by measuring the ages of 3597 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts 2<z<6.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We derive ages and other physical parameters from the simultaneous fitting with the GOSSIP+ software of observed UV rest-frame spectra and photometric data from the u-band up to 4.5 microns using composite stellar population models. We conclude from extensive simulations that at z>2 the joint analysis of spectroscopy and photometry combined with restricted age possibilities when taking into account the age of the Universe substantially reduces systematic uncertainties and degeneracies in the age derivation. We find galaxy ages ranging from very young with a few tens of million years to substantially evolved with ages up to ~1.5-2 Gyr. The formation redshifts z_f derived from the measured ages indicate that galaxies may have started forming stars as early as z_f~15. We produce the formation redshift function (FzF), the number of galaxies per unit volume formed at a redshift z_f, and compare the FzF in increasing redshift bins finding a remarkably constant 'universal' FzF. The FzF is parametrized with (1+z)^\zeta, with \zeta~0.58+/-0.06, indicating a smooth 2 dex increase from z~15 to z~2. Remarkably this observed increase is of the same order as the observed rise in the star formation rate density (SFRD). The ratio of the SFRD with the FzF gives an average SFR per galaxy of ~7-17Msun/yr at z~4-6, in agreement with the measured SFR for galaxies at these redshifts. From the smooth rise in the FzF we infer that the period of galaxy formation extends from the highest possible redshifts that we can probe at z~15 down to redshifts z~2. This indicates that galaxy formation is a continuous process over cosmic time, with a higher number of galaxies forming at the peak in SFRD at z~2 than at earlier epochs. (Abridged)

Size evolution of star-forming galaxies with $2<z<4.5$ in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

We measure galaxy sizes on a sample of $\sim1200$ galaxies with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts $2 \leq z_{spec} \leq 4.5$ in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), representative of star-forming galaxies with $i_\mathrm{AB} \leq 25$. We first derive galaxy sizes applying a classical parametric profile fitting method using GALFIT. We then measure the total pixel area covered by a galaxy above a given surface brightness threshold, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring sizes of galaxies with irregular shapes. We then compare the results obtained for the equivalent circularized radius enclosing 100\% of the measured galaxy light $r_T^{100}$ to those obtained with the effective radius $r_{e,\mathrm{circ}}$ measured with GALFIT. We find that the sizes of galaxies computed with our non-parametric approach span a large range but remain roughly constant on average with a median value $r_T^{100}\sim2.2$ kpc for galaxies with $2<z<4.5$. This is in stark contrast with the strong downward evolution of $r_e$ with increasing redshift, down to sizes of $<1$ kpc at $z\sim4.5$. We analyze the difference and find that parametric fitting of complex, asymmetric, multi-component galaxies is severely underestimating their sizes. By comparing $r_T^{100}$ with physical parameters obtained through SED fitting we find that the star-forming galaxies that are the largest at any redshift are, on average, more massive and more star-forming. We discover that galaxies present more concentrated light profiles as we move towards higher redshifts. We interpret these results as the signature of several, possibly different, evolutionary paths of galaxies in their early stages of assembly, including major and minor merging or star-formation in multiple bright regions. (abridged)

Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z~2.3--5

We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 50 massive star-forming galaxies and 14 weak AGN with reliable spectroscopic redshifts at z~2.3--5.8. We analyzed HST WFC3/UVIS mosaics of the ERS field in three UV filters, and ACS B in the GOODS-South field to sample the rest-frame LyC over these redshifts. The average LyC emission of galaxies at z_mean=2.38, 2.68, 3.47, and 5.02 is detected at the >=3sigma level in image stacks of 11--15 galaxies in the WFC3/UVIS F225W, F275W, F336W, and ACS/WFC F435W filters. Their average LyC flux corresponds to AB~29.5--30.7 mag. The LyC flux of weak AGN is typically ~1 mag brighter at z~2.3--4.8, but averaged over ~4x fewer galaxies. The stacked galaxy LyC profiles are flatter than their non-ionizing UV-continuum profiles out to r~0".7, possibly indicating a radial porosity dependence in the ISM. The average LyC emission from AGN is more extended and sometimes more elongated compared to galaxies without AGN, possibly due to the viewing-angle at which LyC escapes. With SED fits to UV-continuum longwards of Lya and IGM transmission models, we find absolute LyC escape fractions of fesc_abs~0.1--18% at z~2.3--3.9, and marginal constraints at z=5.02. Available data for galaxies, including published work, suggests a sudden increase of f_esc at z~3. Our models imply that dust accumulating in (massive) galaxies may be a major factor in reducing f_esc at z<=3. Our best fits of f_esc(z) suggest that star-forming galaxies collectively contributed to maintaining cosmic reionization at redshifts z>=3--6, while AGN likely dominated reionization at z<=2.5.

A survey of the cold molecular gas in gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at z>2

Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we conducted a survey of CO J=1-0 and J=2-1 line emission towards strongly lensed high-redshift dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) previously discovered with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Our sample comprises 17 sources that had CO-based spectroscopic redshifts obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). We detect all sources with known redshifts in either CO J=1-0 or J=2-1. Twelve sources are detected in the 7-mm continuum. The derived CO luminosities imply gas masses in the range (0.5-11)x10^{10} M_sun and gas depletion timescales <200 Myr, using a CO to gas mass conversion factor alpha_CO=0.8 M_sun (K km/s pc^2)^{-1}. Combining the CO luminosities and dust masses, along with a fixed gas-to-dust ratio, we derive alpha_CO factors in the range 0.4-1.8, similar to what is found in other starbursting systems. We find small scatter in alpha_CO values within the sample, even though inherent variations in the spatial distribution of dust and gas in individual cases could bias the dust-based alpha_CO estimates. We find that lensing magnification factors based on the CO linewidth to luminosity relation (mu_CO) are highly unreliable, but particularly when mu<5. Finally, comparison of the gas and dynamical masses suggest that the average molecular gas fraction stays relatively constant at z=2-5 in the SPT DSFG sample.

Limits on the LyC signal from z~3 sources with secure redshift and HST coverage in the E-CDFS field

Aim: We aim to measure the LyC signal from a sample of sources in the Chandra deep field south. We collect star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, for which Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage and multi-wavelength photometry are available. Method: We selected a sample of about 200 sources at z~3. Taking advantage of HST resolution, we applied a careful cleaning procedure and rejected sources showing nearby clumps with different colours, which could be lower-z interlopers. Our clean sample consisted of 86 SFGs (including 19 narrow-band selected Lya emitters) and 8 AGN (including 6 detected in X-rays). We measured the LyC flux from aperture photometry in four narrow-band filters covering wavelengths below a 912 A rest frame (3.11<z<3.53). We estimated the ratio between ionizing (LyC flux) and 1400 A non-ionizing emissions for AGN and galaxies. Results: By running population synthesis models, we assume an average intrinsic L(1400 A)/L(900 A) ratio of 5 as the representative value for our sample. With this value and an average treatment of the lines of sight of the inter-galactic medium, we estimate the LyC escape fraction relative to the intrinsic value (fesc_rel(LyC)). We do not directly detect ionizing radiation from any individual SFG, but we are able to set a 1(2)sigma upper limit of fesc_rel(LyC)<12(24)%. This result is consistent with other non-detections published in the literature. No meaningful limits can be calculated for the sub-sample of Lya emitters. We obtain one significant direct detection for an AGN at z=3.46, with fesc_rel(LyC) = (72+/-18)%. Conclusions: Our upper limit on fescrel(LyC) implies that the SFGs studied here do not present either the physical properties or the geometric conditions suitable for efficient LyC-photon escape.

Compact Groups of Galaxies with Complete Spectroscopic Redshifts in the Local Universe

Dynamical analysis of compact groups provides important tests of models of compact group formation and evolution. By compiling 2066 redshifts from FLWO/FAST, from the literature, and from SDSS DR12 in the fields of compact groups in \citet{McC09}, we construct the largest sample of compact groups with complete spectroscopic redshifts in the redshift range $0.01 < z < 0.22$. This large redshift sample shows that the interloper fraction in the \citet{McC09} compact group candidates is $\sim 42\%$. A secure sample of 332 compact groups includes 192 groups with four or more member galaxies and 140 groups with three members. The fraction of early-type galaxies in these compact groups is 62\%, slightly higher than for the original Hickson compact groups. The velocity dispersions of early- and late-type galaxies in compact groups change little with groupcentric radius; the radii sampled are less than $100 ~h^{-1}$ kpc, smaller than the radii typically sampled by members of massive clusters of galaxies. The physical properties of our sample compact groups include size, number density, velocity dispersion, and local environment; these properties slightly differ from those derived for the original Hickson compact groups and for the DPOSS II compact groups. Differences result from subtle differences in the way the group candidates were originally selected. The space density of the compact groups changes little with redshift over the range covered by this sample. The approximate constancy of the space density for this sample is a potential constraint on the evolution of compact groups on a few Gigayear timescale.

Invisible Active Galactic Nuclei. II Radio Morphologies & Five New HI 21 cm Absorption Line Detections

We have selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper 1. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and HI 21cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz VLA continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.5" and flux density >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The most compact 36 sources were then observed with the VLBA at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, a detection rate of CSOs ~3 times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty seven sources were observed for HI 21cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only 6 detections made (one detection is tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21cm line in a RFI-free spectral window. It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude HI detections in similar sources (only one detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 14 of which have only photometric redshifts). Future searches for highly-redshifted HI and molecular absorption can easily find more distant CSOs among bright, blank field' radio sources but will be severely hampered by an inability to determine accurate spectroscopic redshifts for them due to their lack of rest-frame UV continuum.

CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions $p(z)$. Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin $j$ into a spectroscopic redshift bin $i$ using the sum of the $p(z)$ for the galaxies residing in bin $j$. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when $i \neq j$ as a function of the measured angular cross-correlation when $i=j$. We also account for enhanced clustering arising from lensing magnification using a halo model. The comparison of this prediction with the measured signal provides a consistency check on the validity of using the summed $p(z)$ to determine galaxy redshift distributions in cosmological analyses, as advocated by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We present an analysis of the photometric redshifts measured by CFHTLenS, which overlaps the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We also analyse the Red-sequence Cluster Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), which overlaps both BOSS and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We find that the summed $p(z)$ from both surveys are generally biased with respect to the true underlying distributions. If unaccounted for, this bias would lead to errors in cosmological parameter estimation from CFHTLenS by less than $\sim 4\%$. For photometric redshift bins which spatially overlap in 3-D with our spectroscopic sample, we determine redshift bias corrections which can be used in future cosmological analyses that rely on accurate galaxy redshift distributions.

The Relationship between black hole accretion and host star formation in dusty AGNs

We study the relationship between the X-ray luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) in an unbiased sample of dusty active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected in both the hard X-ray and far-infrared (IR) bands in the XMM-LSS field. The sample consists of 451 AGNs with spectroscopic redshifts of 0.04 < z <3.3, and spans an X-ray luminosity range of L(2-10keV)=10^41-45 erg/s. We find a positive correlation between the X-ray luminosity and SFR derived from AGN-removed IR luminosity. We find that binning the sample by SFR instead of LX results in a more positive correlation. This is consistent with the scenario in which the shorter variability time scale of AGN than star formation flattens the observed correlation between AGN and star formation. We do not find significant diversity in the observed correlation when considering subsets selected based on supermassive black hole mass or Eddington ratio, indicating that AGN accretion has at most a limited effect on the SFR-Lx relation. Comparing to results in the literature, we propose a picture in which the correlation depends on sample composition. Additionally, we find a constant ratio between the SFR and the black hole accretion rate (BHAR) of log(SFR/BHAR)=(3.03+/-0.55). This value coincides with the ratio between galaxy bulge/total stellar mass and SMBH mass found in the local universe. Our results are consistent with the secular evolution scenario, in which dusty AGNs are coevolving with the host from the same gas supply at a constant rate regardless of accretion activity.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function

We exploit the first public data release of VIPERS to investigate environmental effects in galaxy evolution between $z\sim0.5$ and $0.9$. The large number of spectroscopic redshifts over an area of about $10\,\mathrm{deg}^2$ provides a galaxy sample with high statistical power. The accurate redshift measurements, with $\sigma_z = 0.00047(1+z_\mathrm{spec})$, allow us to robustly isolate galaxies living in the lowest- and highest-density environments, as defined in terms of spatial 3D density contrast. We estimate the stellar mass function (SMF) of galaxies residing in these two environments, and constrain its high-mass end with unprecedented precision. We find that the galaxy SMF in the densest regions has a different shape than that measured at low densities, with an enhancement of massive galaxies and a hint of a flatter (less negative) slope at $z<0.8$. We normalise each SMF to the comoving volume occupied by the corresponding environment, and relate estimates from different redshift bins. We observe an evolution of the SMF of VIPERS galaxies in high densities, while the low-density one is nearly constant. We compare these results to semi-analytical models and find consistent environmental signatures. We discuss how the halo mass function and fraction of central/satellite galaxies depend on the environments considered, making intrinsic and environmental properties of galaxies physically coupled, and therefore difficult to disentangle. The evolution of our low-density regions is well described by the formalism introduced by Peng et al.~(2010), and is consistent with the idea that galaxies become progressively passive because of internal physical processes. The same formalism could also describe the evolution of the SMF in the high density regions, but only if a significant contribution from dry mergers is considered. [Abridged]

ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: A concentration of dusty starbursts in a z=3.09 protocluster core

We report the results of $1^{\prime}.5 \times3^{\prime}$ mapping at 1.1~mm with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward the central region of the $z=3.09$ SSA22 protocluster. By combining our source catalog with archival spectroscopic redshifts, we find that eight submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with flux densities, $S_{\rm 1.1~mm}=0.7-6.4$~mJy ($L_{\rm IR}\sim10^{12.1}-10^{13.1}L_\odot$) are at $z=3.08-3.10$. Not only are these SMGs members of the protocluster but they in fact reside within the node at the junction of the 50 Mpc-scale filamentary three-dimensional structure traced by Lyman-$\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) in this field. The eight SMGs account for a star formation rate density (SFRD) $\sim$10 $M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ in the node, which is two orders of magnitudes higher than the global SFRD at this redshift. We find that four of the eight SMGs host a X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our results suggest that the vigorous star formation activity and the growth of super massive black holes (SMBHs) occurred simultaneously in the densest regions at $z\sim3$, which may correspond to the most active historical phase of the massive galaxy population found in the core of the clusters in the present universe. Two SMGs are associated with Lyman-$\alpha$ blobs (LABs), implying that the two populations coexist in high density environments for a few cases.

Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\% and 68\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6<z<1.2, for the most secure spectroscopic redshifts, the mean redshift for the bright and faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS [Replacement]

We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\% and 68\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6<z<1.2, for the most secure spectroscopic redshifts, the mean redshift for the bright and faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

Mapping the Galaxy Color-Redshift Relation: Optimal Photometric Redshift Calibration Strategies for Cosmology Surveys

Calibrating the photometric redshifts of >10^9 galaxies for upcoming weak lensing cosmology experiments is a major challenge for the astrophysics community. The path to obtaining the required spectroscopic redshifts for training and calibration is daunting, given the anticipated depths of the surveys and the difficulty in obtaining secure redshifts for some faint galaxy populations. Here we present an analysis of the problem based on the self-organizing map, a method of mapping the distribution of data in a high-dimensional space and projecting it onto a lower-dimensional representation. We apply this method to existing photometric data from the COSMOS survey selected to approximate the anticipated Euclid weak lensing sample, enabling us to robustly map the empirical distribution of galaxies in the multidimensional color space defined by the expected Euclid filters. Mapping this multicolor distribution lets us determine where - in galaxy color space - redshifts from current spectroscopic surveys exist and where they are systematically missing. Crucially, the method lets us determine whether a spectroscopic training sample is representative of the full photometric space occupied by the galaxies in a survey. We explore optimal sampling techniques and estimate the additional spectroscopy needed to map out the color-redshift relation, finding that sampling the galaxy distribution in color space in a systematic way can efficiently meet the calibration requirements. While the analysis presented here focuses on the Euclid survey, similar analysis can be applied to other surveys facing the same calibration challenge, such as DES, LSST, and WFIRST.

Stellar masses and star formation rates of lensed dusty star-forming galaxies from the SPT survey

To understand cosmic mass assembly in the Universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of stellar mass and star formation rate of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and star formation rates of six high-redshift ($2.8\leq z \leq 5.7$) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from ALMA observations. We have conducted follow-up observations, obtaining multi-wavelength imaging data, using {\it HST}, {\it Spitzer}, {\it Herschel} and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX). We use the high-resolution {\it HST}/WFC3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in {\it Spitzer}/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and star formation rates (SFRs). The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value $\sim$ 5 $\times 10^{10}M_{\Sun}$. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4$\times 10^{12}L_{\Sun}$ to 4$\times 10^{13}L_{\Sun}$. They all have prodigious intrinsic star formation rates of 510 to 4800 $M_{\Sun} {\rm yr}^{-1}$. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing the ongoing strong starburst events which may be driven by major mergers.

Shadow of a Colossus: A z=2.45 Galaxy Protocluster Detected in 3D Ly-a Forest Tomographic Mapping of the COSMOS Field

Using moderate-resolution optical spectra from 58 background Lyman-break galaxies and quasars at $z\sim 2.3-3$ within a $11.5'\times13.5'$ area of the COSMOS field ($\sim 1200\,\mathrm{deg}^2$ projected area density or $\sim 2.4\,h^{-1}\,\mathrm{Mpc}$ mean transverse separation), we reconstruct a 3D tomographic map of the foreground Ly$\alpha$ forest absorption at $2.2<z<2.5$ with an effective smoothing scale of $\sigma_{3d}\approx3.5\,h^{-1}\,\mathrm{Mpc}$ comoving. Comparing with 61 coeval galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the same volume, we find that the galaxy positions are clearly biased towards regions with enhanced IGM absorption in the tomographic map. We find an extended IGM overdensity with deep absorption troughs at $z=2.45$ associated with a recently-discovered galaxy protocluster at the same redshift. Based on simulations matched to our data, we estimate the enclosed dark matter mass within this IGM overdensity to be $M_{\rm dm} (z=2.45) = (9\pm4)\times 10^{13}\,h^{-1}\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$, and argue based on this mass and absorption strength that it will form at least one $z\sim0$ galaxy cluster with $M(z=0) = (3\pm 2) \times 10^{14}\,h^{-1}\mathrm{M_\odot}$, although its elongated nature suggests that it will likely collapse into two separate clusters. We also point out a compact overdensity of six MOSDEF galaxies at $z=2.30$ within a $r\sim 1\,h^{-1}\,\mathrm{Mpc}$ radius and $\Delta z\sim 0.006$, which does not appear to have a large associated IGM overdensity. These results demonstrate the potential of Ly$\alpha$ forest tomography on larger volumes to study galaxy properties as a function of environment, as well as revealing the large-scale IGM overdensities associated with protoclusters and other features of large-scale structure.

The Lyman Continuum escape fraction of galaxies at z=3.3 in the VUDS-LBC/COSMOS field

The Lyman continuum (LyC) flux escaping from high-z galaxies into the IGM is a fundamental quantity to understand the physical processes involved in the reionization epoch. We have investigated a sample of star-forming galaxies at z~3.3 in order to search for possible detections of LyC photons escaping from galaxy halos. UV deep imaging in the COSMOS field obtained with the prime focus camera LBC at the LBT telescope was used together with a catalog of spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) to build a sample of 45 galaxies at z~3.3 with L>0.5L*. We obtained deep LBC images of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the interval 3.27<z<3.40 both in the R and deep U bands. A sub-sample of 10 galaxies apparently shows escape fractions>28% but a detailed analysis of their properties reveals that, with the exception of two marginal detections (S/N~2) in the U band, all the other 8 galaxies are most likely contaminated by the UV flux of low-z interlopers located close to the high-z targets. The average escape fraction derived from the stacking of the cleaned sample was constrained to fesc_rel<2%. The implied HI photo-ionization rate is a factor two lower than that needed to keep the IGM ionized at z~3, as observed in the Lyman forest of high-z QSO spectra or by the proximity effect. These results support a scenario where high redshift, relatively bright (L>0.5L*) star-forming galaxies alone are unable to sustain the level of ionization observed in the cosmic IGM at z~3. Star-forming galaxies at higher redshift and at fainter luminosities (L<<L*) can be the major contributors to the reionization of the Universe only if their physical properties are subject to rapid changes from z~3 to z~6-10. Alternatively, ionizing sources could be discovered looking for fainter sources among the AGN population at high-z.

 

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