Posts Tagged spectroscopic redshifts

Recent Postings from spectroscopic redshifts

The XMM-LSS survey: the Class 1 cluster sample over the extended 11 deg$^2$ and its spatial distribution

This paper presents 52 X-ray bright galaxy clusters selected within the 11 deg$^2$ XMM-LSS survey. 51 of them have spectroscopic redshifts ($0.05<z<1.06$), one is identified at $z_{\rm phot}=1.9$, and all together make the high-purity "Class 1" (C1) cluster sample of the XMM-LSS, the highest density sample of X-ray selected clusters with a monitored selection function. Their X-ray fluxes, averaged gas temperatures (median $T_X=2$ keV), luminosities (median $L_{X,500}=5\times10^{43}$ ergs/s) and total mass estimates (median $5\times10^{13} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$) are measured, adapting to the specific signal-to-noise regime of XMM-LSS observations. The redshift distribution of clusters shows a deficit of sources when compared to the cosmological expectations, regardless of whether WMAP-9 or Planck-2013 CMB parameters are assumed. This lack of sources is particularly noticeable at $0.4 \lesssim z \lesssim 0.9$. However, after quantifying uncertainties due to small number statistics and sample variance we are not able to put firm (i.e. $>3 \sigma$) constraints on the presence of a large void in the cluster distribution. We work out alternative hypotheses and demonstrate that a negative redshift evolution in the normalization of the $L_{X}-T_X$ relation (with respect to a self-similar evolution) is a plausible explanation for the observed deficit. We confirm this evolutionary trend by directly studying how C1 clusters populate the $L_{X}-T_X-z$ space, properly accounting for selection biases. We point out that a systematically evolving, unresolved, central component in clusters and groups (AGN contamination or cool core) can impact the classification as extended sources and be partly responsible for the observed redshift distribution.[abridged]

Clustering-based Redshift Estimation: Comparison to Spectroscopic Redshifts

We investigate the potential and accuracy of clustering-based redshift estimation using the method proposed by M\’enard et al. (2013). This technique enables the inference of redshift distributions from measurements of the spatial clustering of arbitrary sources, using a set of reference objects for which redshifts are known. We apply it to a sample of spectroscopic galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and show that, after carefully controlling the sampling efficiency over the sky, we can estimate redshift distributions with high accuracy. Probing the full colour space of the SDSS galaxies, we show that we can recover the corresponding mean redshifts with an accuracy ranging from $\delta$z=0.001 to 0.01. We indicate that this mapping can be used to infer the redshift probability distribution of a single galaxy. We show how the lack of information on the galaxy bias limits the accuracy of the inference and show comparisons between clustering redshifts and photometric redshifts for this dataset. This analysis demonstrates, using real data, that clustering-based redshift inference provides a powerful data-driven technique to explore the redshift distribution of arbitrary datasets, without any prior knowledge on the spectral energy distribution of the sources.

Searching for highly obscured AGN in the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog

The majority of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are obscured by large amounts of absorbing material that makes them invisible at many wavelengths. X-rays, given their penetrating power, provide the most secure way for finding these AGN. The XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog is the largest catalog of X-ray sources ever produced; it contains about half a million detections. These sources are mostly AGN. We have derived X-ray spectral fits for very many 3XMM-DR4 sources ($\gtrsim$ 114 000 observations, corresponding to $\sim$ 77 000 unique sources), which contain more than 50 source photons per detector. Here, we use a subsample of $\simeq$ 1000 AGN in the footprint of the SDSS area (covering 120 deg$^2$) with available spectroscopic redshifts. We searched for highly obscured AGN by applying an automated selection technique based on X-ray spectral analysis that is capable of efficiently selecting AGN. The selection is based on the presence of either a) flat rest-frame spectra; b) flat observed spectra; c) an absorption turnover, indicative of a high rest-frame column density; or d) an Fe K$\alpha$ line with an equivalent width > 500 eV. We found 81 highly obscured candidate sources. Subsequent detailed manual spectral fits revealed that 28 of them are heavily absorbed by column densities higher than 10$^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$. Of these 28 AGN, 15 are candidate Compton-thick AGN on the basis of either a high column density, consistent within the 90% confidence level with N$_{\rm H}$ $>$10$^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$, or a large equivalent width (>500 eV) of the Fe K$\alpha$ line. Another six are associated with near-Compton-thick AGN with column densities of $\sim$ 5$\times$10$^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$. A combination of selection criteria a) and c) for low-quality spectra, and a) and d) for medium- to high-quality spectra, pinpoint highly absorbed AGN with an efficiency of 80%.

Optical Confirmation and Redshift Estimation of the Planck Cluster Candidates overlapping the Pan-STARRS Survey

We report results of a study of Planck Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy cluster candidates using the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) imaging data. We first examine 150 Planck confirmed galaxy clusters with spectroscopic redshifts to test our algorithm for identifying optical counterparts and measuring their redshifts; our redshifts have a typical accuracy of $\sigma_{z/(1+z)} \sim 0.022$ for this sample. We then examine an additional 237 Planck galaxy cluster candidates that have no redshift in the source catalogue. Of these 237 unconfirmed cluster candidates we are able to confirm 60 galaxy clusters and measure their redshifts. A further 83 candidates are so heavily contaminated by stars due to their location near the Galactic plane that we do not attempt to identify counterparts. For the remaining 94 candidates we find no optical counterpart but use the depth of the Pan-STARRS1 data to estimate a redshift lower limit $z_{\text{lim}(10^{15})}$ beyond which we would not have expected to detect enough galaxies for confirmation. Scaling from the already published Planck sample, we expect that $\sim$12 of these unconfirmed candidates may be real clusters.

Interacting LAEs at z = 5.1. Episodic star formation in a group of LAEs at z= 5.07

We are undertaking a search for high-redshift low luminosity Lyman Alpha sources in the SHARDS survey. Among the pre-selected Lyman Alpha sources 2 candidates were spotted, located 3.19 arcsec apart, and tentatively at the same redshift. Here we report on the spectroscopic confirmation with GTC of the Lyman Alpha emission from this pair of galaxies at a confirmed spectroscopic redshifts of z=5.07. Furthermore, one of the sources is interacting/merging with another close companion that looks distorted. Based on the analysis of the spectroscopy and additional photometric data, we infer that most of the stellar mass of these objects was assembled in a burst of star formation 100 Myr ago. A more recent burst (2 Myr old) is necessary to account for the measured Lyman Alpha flux. We claim that these two galaxies are good examples of Lyman Alpha sources undergoing episodic star formation. Besides, these sources very likely constitute a group of interacting Lyman Alpha emitters (LAEs).

Photometric redshift analysis in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

We present results from a study of the photometric redshift performance of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), using the early data from a Science Verification (SV) period of observations in late 2012 and early 2013 that provided science-quality images for almost 200 sq.~deg.~at the nominal depth of the survey. We assess the photometric redshift performance using about 15000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts available from other surveys. These galaxies are used, in different configurations, as a calibration sample, and photo-$z$’s are obtained and studied using most of the existing photo-$z$ codes. A weighting method in a multi-dimensional color-magnitude space is applied to the spectroscopic sample in order to evaluate the photo-$z$ performance with sets that mimic the full DES photometric sample, which is on average significantly deeper than the calibration sample due to the limited depth of spectroscopic surveys. Empirical photo-$z$ methods using, for instance, Artificial Neural Networks or Random Forests, yield the best performance in the tests, achieving core photo-$z$ resolutions $\sigma_{68} \sim 0.08$. Moreover, the results from most of the codes, including template fitting methods, comfortably meet the DES requirements on photo-$z$ performance, therefore, providing an excellent precedent for future DES data sets.

Lens models and magnification maps of the six Hubble Frontier Fields clusters

We present strong-lensing models, as well as mass and magnification maps, for the cores of the six HST Frontier Fields galaxy clusters. Our parametric lens models are constrained by the locations and redshifts of multiple image systems of lensed background galaxies. We use a combination of photometric redshifts and spectroscopic redshifts of the lensed background sources obtained by us (for Abell 2744 and Abell S1063), collected from the literature, or kindly provided by the lensing community. Using our results, we (1) compare the derived mass distribution of each cluster to its light distribution, (2) quantify the cumulative magnification power of the HFF clusters, (3) describe how our models can be used to estimate the magnification and image multiplicity of lensed background sources at all redshifts and at any position within the cluster cores, and (4) discuss systematic effects and caveats resulting from our modeling methods. We specifically investigate the effect of the use of spectroscopic and photometric redshift constraints on the uncertainties of the resulting models. We find that the photometric redshift estimates of lensed galaxies are generally in excellent agreement with spectroscopic redshifts, where available. However, the flexibility associated with relaxed redshift priors may cause the complexity of large-scale structure that is needed to account for the lensing signal to be underestimated. Our findings thus underline the importance of spectroscopic arc redshifts, or tight photometric redshift constraints, for high precision lens models. All products from our best-fit lens models (magnification, convergence, shear, deflection field) and model simulations for estimating errors are made available via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

The zCOSMOS Redshift Survey: evolution of the light in bulges and discs since z~0.8

We studied the chronology of galactic bulge and disc formation by analysing the relative contributions of these components to the B-band rest-frame luminosity density at different epochs. We present the first estimate of the evolution of the fraction of rest-frame B-band light in galactic bulges and discs since redshift z~0.8. We performed a bulge-to-disc decomposition of HST/ACS images of 3266 galaxies in the zCOSMOS-bright survey with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.7 < z < 0.9. We find that the fraction of B-band light in bulges and discs is $(26 \pm 4)%$ and $(74 \pm 4)%$, respectively. When compared with rest-frame B-band measurements of galaxies in the local Universe in the same mass range ($10^{9} M_{\odot}\lessapprox M \lessapprox 10^{11.5} M_{\odot}$), we find that the B-band light in discs decreases by ~30% from z~0.7-0.9 to z~0, while the light from the bulge increases by ~30% over the same period of time. We interpret this evolution as the consequence of star formation and mass assembly processes, as well as morphological transformation, which gradually shift stars formed at half the age of the Universe from star-forming late-type/irregular galaxies toearlier types and ultimately into spheroids.

The VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey: ~10,000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to study galaxy assembly at early epochs 2<z<~6

We present the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), a spectroscopic redshift survey of ~10.000 very faint galaxies to study the major phase of galaxy assembly 2<z<~6. The survey covers 1 deg^2 in 3 separate fields: COSMOS, ECDFS and VVDS-02h, with targets selection based on an inclusive combination of photometric redshifts and color properties. Spectra covering 3650<lambda<9350 A are obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT with integration times of 14h. Here we present the survey strategy, the target selection, the data processing, as well as the redshift measurement process, emphasizing the specific methods adapted to this high redshift range. The spectra quality and redshift reliability are discussed, and we derive a completeness in redshift measurement of 91%, or 74% for the most reliable measurements, down to i_AB=25, and measurements are performed all the way down to i_AB=27. The redshift distribution of the main sample peaks at z=3-4 and extends over a large redshift range mainly in 2 < z < 6. At 3<z<5, the galaxies cover a large range of luminosities -23< M_U < -20.5, stellar mass 10^9 M_sun< M_star < 10^{11} M_sun, and star formation rates 1 M_sun/yr< SFR < 10^3 M_sun/yr. We discuss the spectral properties of galaxies using individual as well as stacked spectra. The comparison between spectroscopic and photometric redshifts as well as color selection demonstrate the effectiveness of our selection scheme. With ~6000 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts in 2<z<6 expected when complete, this survey is the largest at these redshifts and offers the opportunity for unprecedented studies of the star-forming galaxy population and its distribution in large scale structures during the major phase of galaxy assembly.

The 2XMMi/SDSS Galaxy Cluster Survey. III. Clusters associated with spectroscopically targeted luminous red galaxies in SDSS-DR10

We present a sample of 383 X-ray selected galaxy groups and clusters with spectroscopic redshift measurements (up to z ~ 0.79) from the 2XMMi/SDSS Galaxy Cluster Survey. The X-ray cluster candidates were selected as serendipitously detected sources from the 2XMMi-DR3 catalogue that were located in the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7). The cluster galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts were selected from the SDSS-DR10. We developed an algorithm for identifying the cluster candidates that are associated with spectroscopically targeted luminous red galaxies and for constraining the cluster spectroscopic redshift. A cross-correlation of the constructed cluster sample with published optically selected cluster catalogues yielded 264 systems with available redshifts. The present redshift measurements are consistent with the published values. The current cluster sample extends the optically confirmed cluster sample from our cluster survey by 67 objects. Moreover, it provides spectroscopic confirmation for 78 clusters among our published cluster sample, which previously had only photometric redshifts. Of the new cluster sample that comprises 67 systems, 55 objects are newly X-ray discovered clusters and 52 systems are sources newly discovered as galaxy clusters in optical and X-ray wavelengths. Based on the measured redshifts and the fluxes given in the 2XMMi-DR3 catalogue, we estimated the X-ray luminosities and masses of the cluster sample.

Quasi-periodical components in the radial distributions of cosmologically remote objects

A statistical analysis of radial (line-of-sight) 1D-distributions of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) within the redshift interval $0.044 \leq z \leq 0.78$ and Mg II absorption-line systems ($0.37 \leq z \leq 2.28$) is carried out. Power spectra and two-point radial correlation functions are calculated. It is found that both radial distributions of spectroscopic redshifts of 52,683 BCGs and 32,840 Mg II absorption systems incorporate similar quasi-periodical components relatively to the comoving distance. Significance of the components exceeds $4\sigma$-level and admits an increase ($\geq 5\sigma$) for some broad subsamples. For the {\Lambda}CDM cosmological model the periodicities correspond to spatial comoving scales ($98 \pm 3$) and ($101 \pm 2$)h$^{-1}$ Mpc, respectively. These quasi-periods turn out to be close to the characteristic scale ($101 \pm 6$)h$^{-1}$Mpc of the quasi-periodical component obtained earlier for the radial distribution of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). On the other hand, the scales are close to the spatial scale corresponding to the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) revealed by many authors at the last decade. Fourier transform phases obtained for the BCGs and LRGs are found to be close, while the phases calculated for the Mg II absorption systems and LRGs are opposite. Discussions of the results in a context of the BAO and large-scale structure characteristic scales are outlined.

A UV to Mid-IR Study of AGN Selection

We classify the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 431,038 sources in the 9 sq. deg Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). There are up to 17 bands of data available per source, including ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (NDWFS), near-IR (NEWFIRM), and mid-infrared (IRAC/MIPS) data, as well as spectroscopic redshifts for ~20,000 objects, primarily from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We fit galaxy, AGN, stellar, and brown dwarf templates to the observed SEDs, which yield spectral classes for the Galactic sources and photometric redshifts and galaxy/AGN luminosities for the extragalactic sources. The photometric redshift precision of the galaxy and AGN samples are sigma/(1+z)=0.040 and sigma/(1+z)=0.169, respectively, with the worst 5% outliers excluded. Based on the reduced chi-squared of the SED fit for each SED model, we are able to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic sources for sources brighter than I=23.5. We compare the SED fits for a galaxy-only model and a galaxy+AGN model. Using known X-ray and spectroscopic AGN samples, we confirm that SED fitting can be successfully used as a method to identify large populations of AGN, including spatially resolved AGN with significant contributions from the host galaxy and objects with the emission line ratios of "composite" spectra. We also use our results to compare to the X-ray, mid-IR, optical color and emission line ratio selection techniques. For an F-ratio threshold of F>10 we find 16,266 AGN candidates brighter than I=23.5 and a surface density of ~1900 AGN per deg^2.

Spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies within the Frontier Fields

We present a catalog of 1848 spectroscopic redshifts measured in the fields of the massive galaxy clusters MACSJ0416.1-2403 ($z=0.397$), MACSJ0717.5+3745 ($z=0.546$), and MACSJ1149.5+2223 ($z=0.544$), i.e., three of the four clusters selected by STScI as the targets of the Frontier Fields (FF) initiative for studies of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing. Compiled in the course of the MACS project (Massive Cluster Survey) that detected the FF clusters, this catalog is provided to the community for three purposes: (1) to allow the identification of cluster members for studies of the galaxy population of these extreme systems, (2) to facilitate the removal of unlensed galaxies and thus reduce shear dilution in weak-lensing analyses, and (3) to improve the calibration of photometric redshifts based on both ground- and spacebased observations of the FF clusters.

Spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies within the Frontier Fields [Replacement]

We present a catalog of 1921 spectroscopic redshifts measured in the fields of the massive galaxy clusters MACSJ0416.1–2403 ($z=0.397$), MACSJ0717.5+3745 ($z=0.546$), and MACSJ1149.5+2223 ($z=0.544$), i.e., three of the four clusters selected by STScI as the targets of the Frontier Fields (FF) initiative for studies of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing. Compiled in the course of the MACS project (Massive Cluster Survey) that detected the FF clusters, this catalog is provided to the community for three purposes: (1) to allow the identification of cluster members for studies of the galaxy population of these extreme systems, (2) to facilitate the removal of unlensed galaxies and thus reduce shear dilution in weak-lensing analyses, and (3) to improve the calibration of photometric redshifts based on both ground- and spacebased observations of the FF clusters.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): A quiescent formation of massive red-sequence galaxies over the past 9 Gyr

We explore the evolution of the Colour-Magnitude Relation (CMR) and Luminosity Function (LF) at 0.4<z<1.3 from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) using ~45,000 galaxies with precise spectroscopic redshifts down to i’_AB<22.5 over ~10.32 deg^2 in two fields. From z=0.5 to z=1.3 the LF and CMR are well defined for different galaxy populations and M^*_B evolves by ~1.04(1.09)+/-0.06(0.10) mag for the total (red) galaxy sample. We compare different criteria for selecting early-type galaxies (ETGs): (1) fixed cut in rest-frame (U-V) colours, (2) evolving cut in (U-V) colours, (3) rest-frame (NUV-r’)-(r’-K) colour selection, and (4) SED classification. Regardless of the method we measure a consistent evolution of the red-sequence (RS). Between 0.4<z<1.3 we find a moderate evolution of the RS intercept of Delta(U-V)=0.28+/-0.14 mag, favouring exponentially declining star formation (SF) histories with SF truncation at 1.7<=z<=2.3. Together with the rise in the ETG number density by 0.64 dex since z=1, this suggests a rapid build-up of massive galaxies (M>10^11 M_sun) and expeditious RS formation over a short period of ~1.5 Gyr starting before z=1. This is supported by the detection of ongoing SF in ETGs at 0.9<z<1.0, in contrast with the quiescent red stellar populations of ETGs at 0.5<z<0.6. There is an increase in the observed CMR scatter with redshift, two times larger than in galaxy clusters and at variance with theoretical models. We discuss possible physical mechanisms that support the observed evolution of the red galaxy population. Our findings point out that massive galaxies have experienced a sharp SF quenching at z~1 with only limited additional merging. In contrast, less-massive galaxies experience a mix of SF truncation and minor mergers which build-up the low- and intermediate-mass end of the CMR.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Never mind the gaps: comparing techniques to restore homogeneous sky coverage [Replacement]

[Abridged] Non-uniform sampling and gaps in sky coverage are common in galaxy redshift surveys, but these effects can degrade galaxy counts-in-cells and density estimates. We carry out a comparison of methods that aim to fill the gaps to correct for the systematic effects. Our study is motivated by the analysis of the VIMOS Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), a flux-limited survey (i<22.5) based on one-pass observations with VIMOS, with gaps covering 25% of the surveyed area and a mean sampling rate of 35%. Our findings are applicable to other surveys with similar observing strategies. We compare 1) two algorithms based on photometric redshift, that assign redshifts to galaxies based on the spectroscopic redshifts of the nearest neighbours, 2) two Bayesian methods, the Wiener filter and the Poisson-Lognormal filter. Using galaxy mock catalogues we quantify the accuracy of the counts-in-cells measurements on scales of R=5 and 8 Mpc/h after applying each of these methods. We also study how they perform to account for spectroscopic redshift error and inhomogeneous and sparse sampling rate. We find that in VIPERS the errors in counts-in-cells measurements on R<10 Mpc/h scales are dominated by the sparseness of the sample. All methods underpredict by 20-35% the counts at high densities. This systematic bias is of the same order as random errors. No method outperforms the others. Random and systematic errors decrease for larger cells. We show that it is possible to separate the lowest and highest densities on scales of 5 Mpc/h at redshifts 0.5<z<1.1, over a large volume such as in VIPERS survey. This is vital for the characterisation of cosmic variance and rare populations (e.g, brightest galaxies) in environmental studies at these redshifts.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Never mind the gaps: comparing techniques to restore homogeneous sky coverage

[Abridged] Non-uniform sampling and gaps in sky coverage are common in galaxy redshift surveys but these effects can degrade galaxy counts-in-cells and density estimates. We carry out a comparison of methods that aim to fill the gaps to correct for the systematic effects. Our study is motivated by the analysis of the VIMOS Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), a flux-limited survey (i<22.5) based on one-pass observations with VIMOS, with gaps covering 25% of the surveyed area and a mean sampling rate of 35%. Our findings are applicable to other surveys with similar observing strategies. We compare 1) two algorithms based on photometric redshift, that assign redshifts to galaxies based on the spectroscopic redshifts of the nearest neighbours, 2) two Bayesian methods, the Wiener filter and the Poisson-Lognormal filter. Using galaxy mock catalogues we quantify the accuracy of the counts-in-cells measurements on scales of R=5 and 8 Mpc/h after applying each of these methods. We also study how they perform to account for spectroscopic redshift error and inhomogeneous and sparse sampling rate. We find that in VIPERS the errors in counts-in-cells measurements on R<10 Mpc/h scales are dominated by the sparseness of the sample. All methods underpredict by 20-35% the counts at high densities. This systematic bias is of the same order as random errors. No method outperforms the others. Random and systematic errors decrease for larger cells. We show that it is possible to separate the lowest and highest densities on scales of 5 Mpc/h at redshifts 0.5<z<1.1, over a large volume such as in VIPERS survey. This is vital for the characterisation of cosmic variance and rare populations (e.g, brightest galaxies) in environmental studies at these redshifts.

Optical Galaxy Clusters in the Deep Lens Survey

We present the first sample of 882 optically selected galaxy clusters in the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), selected with the Bayesian Cluster Finder. We create mock DLS data to assess completeness and purity rates, and find that both are at least $70\%$ within 0.1$\le z \le$ 1.2 for clusters with $M_{200}\ge 1.2\times 10^{14}M_{\odot}$. We verified the integrity of the sample by performing several comparisons with other optical, weak lensing, X-ray and spectroscopic surveys which overlap the DLS footprint: the estimated redshifts are consistent with the spectroscopic redshifts of known clusters (for $z>0.25$ where saturation in the DLS is not an issue); our richness estimates in combination with a previously calibrated richness-mass relation yields individual cluster mass estimates consistent with available SHeLS dynamical mass estimates; synthetic mass maps made from the optical mass estimates are correlated ($>3\sigma$ significance) with the weak lensing mass maps; and the mass function thus derived is consistent with theoretical predictions for the CDM scenario. With the verified sample we investigated correlations between the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) properties and the host cluster properties within a broader range in redshift (0.25 $\le z \le$ 0.8) and mass ($\ge2.4\times 10^{14}M_{\odot}$) than in previous work. We find that the slope of the BCG magnitude-redshift relation throughout this redshift range is consistent with that found at lower redshifts. This result supports an extrapolation to higher redshift of passive evolution of the BCG within the hierarchical scenario.

Using neural networks to estimate redshift distributions. An application to CFHTLenS

We present a novel way of using neural networks (NN) to estimate the redshift distribution of a galaxy sample. We are able to obtain a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy using a classification neural network. The method is applied to 58714 galaxies in CFHTLenS that have spectroscopic redshifts from DEEP2, VVDS and VIPERS. Using this data we show that the stacked PDF’s give an excellent representation of the true $N(z)$ using information from 5, 4 or 3 photometric bands. We show that the fractional error due to using N(z_(phot)) instead of N(z_(truth)) is <=1 on the lensing power spectrum P_(kappa) in several tomographic bins. Further we investigate how well this method performs when few training samples are available and show that in this regime the neural network slightly overestimates the N(z) at high z. Finally the case where the training sample is not representative of the full data set is investigated. An IPython notebook accompanying this paper is made available here: https://bitbucket.org/christopher_bonnett/nn_notebook

Properties of star forming galaxies in AKARI Deep Field-South

The main aim of this work is the characterization of physical properties of galaxies detected in the far infrared (FIR) in the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF-S) survey. Starting from a catalog of the 1 000 brightest ADF-S sources in the WIDE-S (90$\mu$m) AKARI band, we constructed a subsample of galaxies with spectral coverage from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. We then analyzed the multiwavelength properties of this 90$\mu$m selected sample of galaxies. For galaxies without known spectroscopic redshifts we computed photometric redshifts using the codes Photometric Analysis for Redshift Estimate (Le PHARE) and Code Investigating GALaxy Emission (CIGALE), tested these photometric redshifts using spectroscopic redshifts, and compared the performances of both codes. To test the reliability of parameters obtained by fitting spectral energy distributions, a mock cataloge was generated. We built a large multiwavelength catalog of more than 500 ADF-S galaxies. We successfully fitted Spectral Energy Distributions of 186 galaxies with $\rm{\chi^2_{min}<4}$, and analyzed the output parameters of the fits. We conclude that our sample consists mostly of nearby actively star-forming galaxies, and all our galaxies have a relatively high metallicity. We estimated photometric redshifts for 113 galaxies from the whole ADF-S sample. Comparing the performance of Le PHARE and CIGALE, we found that CIGALE gives more reliable redshift estimates for our galaxies, which implies that including the IR photometry allows for substantial improvement of photometric redshift estimation.

Rest-frame ultra-violet spectra of massive galaxies at z=3: evidence of high-velocity outflows [Replacement]

Galaxy formation models invoke the presence of strong feedback mechanisms that regulate the growth of massive galaxies at high redshifts. In this paper we aim to: (1) confirm spectroscopically the redshifts of a sample of massive galaxies selected with photometric redshifts z > 2.5; (2) investigate the properties of their stellar and interstellar media; (3) detect the presence of outflows, and measure their velocities. To achieve this, we analysed deep, high-resolution (R~2000) FORS2 rest-frame UV spectra for 11 targets. We confirmed that 9 out of 11 have spectroscopic redshifts z > 2.5. We also serendipitously found two mask fillers at redshift z > 2.5, which originally were assigned photometric redshifts 2.0 < z < 2.5. In the four highest-quality spectra we derived outflow velocities by fitting the absorption line profiles with models including multiple dynamical components. We found strongly asymmetric, high-ionisation lines, from which we derived outflow velocities ranging from 480 to 1518 km/s. The two galaxies with highest velocity show signs of AGN. We revised the spectral energy distribution fitting U-band through 8 micron photometry, including the analysis of a power-law component subtraction to identify the possible presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The revised stellar masses of all but one of our targets are >1e10 Msun, with four having stellar masses > 5e10 Msun. Three galaxies have a significant power-law component in their spectral energy distributions, which indicates that they host AGN. We conclude that massive galaxies are characterised by significantly higher velocity outflows than the typical Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3. The incidence of high-velocity outflows (~40% within our sample) is also much higher than among massive galaxies at z < 1, which is consistent with the powerful star formation and nuclear activity that most massive galaxies display at z > 2.

Rest-frame ultra-violet spectra of massive galaxies at z=3: evidence for high-velocity outflows [Replacement]

Galaxy formation models invoke the presence of strong feedback mechanisms that regulate the growth of massive galaxies at high redshifts. In this paper we aim to: (1) confirm spectroscopically the redshifts of a sample of massive galaxies selected with photometric redshifts z > 2.5; (2) investigate the properties of their stellar and interstellar media; (3) detect the presence of outflows, and measure their velocities. To achieve this, we analysed deep, high-resolution (R~2000) FORS2 rest-frame UV spectra for 11 targets. We confirmed that 9 out of 11 have spectroscopic redshifts z > 2.5. We also serendipitously found two mask fillers at redshift z > 2.5, which originally were assigned photometric redshifts 2.0 < z < 2.5. In the four highest-quality spectra we derived outflow velocities by fitting the absorption line profiles with models including multiple dynamical components. We found strongly asymmetric, high-ionisation lines, from which we derived outflow velocities ranging between 480 and 1518 km/s. We revised the spectral energy distribution fitting U-band through 8 micron photometry, including the analysis of a power-law component subtraction to identify the possible presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The revised stellar masses of all but one of our targets are >1e10 Msun, with four having stellar masses > 5e10 Msun. Three galaxies have a significant power-law component in their spectral energy distributions, which indicates that they host AGN. We conclude that massive galaxies are characterised by significantly higher velocity outflows than the typical Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3. The incidence of high-velocity outflows (~40% within our sample) is also much higher than among massive galaxies at z < 1, which is consistent with the powerful star formation and nuclear activity that most massive galaxies display at z > 2.

Rest-frame ultra-violet spectra of massive galaxies at z=3: evidence for high-velocity outflows [Replacement]

Galaxy formation models invoke the presence of strong feedback mechanisms that regulate the growth of massive galaxies at high redshifts. In this paper we aim to: (1) confirm spectroscopically the redshifts of a sample of massive galaxies selected with photometric redshifts z > 2.5; (2) investigate the properties of their stellar and interstellar media; (3) detect the presence of outflows, and measure their velocities. To achieve this, we analysed deep, high-resolution (R~2000) FORS2 rest-frame UV spectra for 11 targets. We confirmed that 9 out of 11 have spectroscopic redshifts z > 2.5. We also serendipitously found two mask fillers at redshift z > 2.5, which originally were assigned photometric redshifts 2.0 < z < 2.5. In the four highest-quality spectra we derived outflow velocities by fitting the absorption line profiles with models including multiple dynamical components. We found strongly asymmetric, high-ionisation lines, from which we derived outflow velocities ranging from 480 to 1518 km/s. The two galaxies with highest velocity show signs of AGN. We revised the spectral energy distribution fitting U-band through 8 micron photometry, including the analysis of a power-law component subtraction to identify the possible presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The revised stellar masses of all but one of our targets are >1e10 Msun, with four having stellar masses > 5e10 Msun. Three galaxies have a significant power-law component in their spectral energy distributions, which indicates that they host AGN. We conclude that massive galaxies are characterised by significantly higher velocity outflows than the typical Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3. The incidence of high-velocity outflows (~40% within our sample) is also much higher than among massive galaxies at z < 1, which is consistent with the powerful star formation and nuclear activity that most massive galaxies display at z > 2.

Rest-frame ultra-violet spectra of massive galaxies at z=3: evidence for high-velocity outflows

Galaxy formation models invoke the presence of strong feedback mechanisms that regulate the growth of massive galaxies at high redshifts. In this paper we aim to: (1) confirm spectroscopically the redshifts of a sample of massive galaxies selected with photometric redshifts larger than 2.5; (2) investigate the properties of their stellar and interstellar media; (3) detect the presence of outflows, and measure their velocities. To achieve this, we analysed deep, high-resolution (R=2000) FORS2 rest-frame UV spectra for 11 targets. We confirmed that 9 out of 11 have spectroscopic redshifts larger than 2.5. We also serendipitously found two mask fillers at redshift larger than 2.5, which originally were assigned photometric redshifts between 2.0 and 2.5. In the four highest-quality spectra we derived outflow velocities by fitting the absorption line profiles with models including multiple dynamical components. We found strongly asymmetric, high-ionisation lines, from which we derived outflow velocities ranging between 480 and 1528 km/s. We revised the spectral energy distribution fitting U-band through 8 micron photometry, including the analysis of a power-law component subtraction to identify the possible presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The revised stellar masses of all but one of our targets are larger than 1e10 solar masses, with four having stellar masses 5e10 solar masses. Three galaxies have a significant power-law component in their spectral energy distributions, which indicates that they host AGN. We conclude that massive galaxies are characterised by significantly higher velocity outflows than the typical Lyman break galaxies at redshifts around 3. The incidence of high-velocity outflows (approximately 40 per cent within our sample) is also much higher than among massive galaxies at redshifts below 1. (Abridged)

Dusty Universe viewed by AKARI far infrared detector

We present the results of the analysis of multiwavelength Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of far-infrared galaxies detected in the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF–S) Survey. The analysis uses a carefully selected sample of 186 sources detected at the 90 $\mu$m AKARI band, identified as galaxies with cross-identification in public catalogues. For sources without known spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate photometric redshifts after a test of two independent methods: one based on using mainly the optical — mid infrared range, and one based on the whole range of ultraviolet — far infrared data. We observe a vast improvement in the estimation of photometric redshifts when far infrared data are included, compared with an approach based mainly on the optical — mid infrared range. We discuss the physical properties of our far-infrared-selected sample. We conclude that this sample consists mostly of rich in dust and young stars nearby galaxies, and, furthermore, that almost 25% of these sources are (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies. Average SEDs normalized at 90 $\mu$m for normal galaxies (138 sources), LIRGs (30 sources), and ULIRGs (18 galaxies) a the significant shift in the peak wavelength of the dust emission, and an increasing ratio between their bolometric and dust luminosities which varies from 0.39 to 0.73.

A large-scale galaxy structure at z = 2.02 associated with the radio galaxy MRC0156-252

We present the spectroscopic confirmation of a structure of galaxies surrounding the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 at z = 2.02. The structure was initially discovered as an overdensity of both near-infrared selected z > 1.6 and mid-infrared selected z > 1.2 galaxy candidates. We use the VLT/FORS2 multi-object spectrograph to target ~80 high-redshift galaxy candidates; we obtain robust spectroscopic redshifts for more than half the targets. The majority of the confirmed sources are star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5. In addition to the radio galaxy, two of its close-by companions (< 6”) also show AGN signatures. Ten sources, including the radio galaxy, lie within |z – 2.020| < 0.015 (i.e., velocity offsets < 1500 km/s) and within 2Mpc comoving of the radio galaxy. Additional evidence suggest not only that the galaxy structure associated with MRC0156-252 is a forming galaxy cluster but also that this structure is most probably embedded in a larger scale structure.

A large-scale galaxy structure at z = 2.02 associated with the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 [Replacement]

We present the spectroscopic confirmation of a structure of galaxies surrounding the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 at z = 2.02. The structure was initially discovered as an overdensity of both near-infrared selected z > 1.6 and mid-infrared selected z > 1.2 galaxy candidates. We use the VLT/FORS2 multi-object spectrograph to target ~80 high-redshift galaxy candidates; we obtain robust spectroscopic redshifts for more than half the targets. The majority of the confirmed sources are star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5. In addition to the radio galaxy, two of its close-by companions (< 6") also show AGN signatures. Ten sources, including the radio galaxy, lie within |z – 2.020| < 0.015 (i.e., velocity offsets < 1500 km/s) and within projected 2Mpc comoving of the radio galaxy. Additional evidence suggests not only that the galaxy structure associated with MRC0156-252 is a forming galaxy cluster but also that this structure is most probably embedded in a larger scale structure.

A large-scale galaxy structure at z = 2.02 associated with the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 [Replacement]

We present the spectroscopic confirmation of a structure of galaxies surrounding the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 at z = 2.02. The structure was initially discovered as an overdensity of both near-infrared selected z > 1.6 and mid-infrared selected z > 1.2 galaxy candidates. We used the VLT/FORS2 multi-object spectrograph to target ~80 high-redshift galaxy candidates, and obtain robust spectroscopic redshifts for more than half the targets. The majority of the confirmed sources are star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5. In addition to the radio galaxy, two of its close-by companions (< 6”) also show AGN signatures. Ten sources, including the radio galaxy, lie within |z – 2.020 | < 0.015 (i.e., velocity offsets < 1500 km/s) and within projected 2 Mpc comoving of the radio galaxy. Additional evidence suggests not only that the galaxy structure associated with MRC0156-252 is a forming galaxy cluster but also that this structure is most probably embedded in a larger scale structure.

Cosmological Parameter Estimation with Large Scale Structure Observations

We estimate the sensitivity of future galaxy surveys to cosmological parameters, using the redshift dependent angular power spectra of galaxy number counts, $C_\ell(z_1,z_2)$, calculated with all relativistic corrections at first order in perturbation theory. We pay special attention to the redshift dependence of the non-linearity scale and present Fisher matrix forecasts for Euclid-like and DES-like galaxy surveys. We show that for surveys with photometric redshifts the analysis with the redshift dependent angular power spectra performs significantly better than the usual analysis based on the three-dimensional matter power spectrum $P(k,z)$. For spectroscopic redshifts, however, the large number of redshift bins needed to fully profit from the redshift information, leads to a significant degradation of the $C_\ell(z_1,z_2)$ analysis due to shot noise. We also identify surveys which can measure the lensing contribution and we study the monopole, $C_0(z_1,z_2)$.

The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. I - optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of candidate obscured and normal AGN selected in the mid-infrared

We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGN closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L_bol~10^10L_sun, to highly luminous quasars (L_bol~10^14L_sun), and with redshifts from 0-4.3. Samples of candidate AGN were selected through mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 micron flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGN and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type-1 AGN with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type-2 objects with extinctions A_V>~5 towards their AGN, 96 (14%) are AGN with lower extinctions (A_V~1) and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. 50% of the survey objects have L_bol >10^12L_sun, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type-2 quasars and for objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared – emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross-correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) there exist mid-infrared selected AGN candidates which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra, but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGN often differ.

The first analytical expression to estimate photometric redshifts suggested by a machine

We report the first analytical expression purely constructed by a machine to determine photometric redshifts ($z_{\rm phot}$) of galaxies. A simple and reliable functional form is derived using $41,214$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS-DR10) spectroscopic sample. The method automatically dropped the $u$ and $z$ bands, relying only on $g$, $r$ and $i$ for the final solution. Applying this expression to other $1,417,181$ SDSS-DR10 galaxies, with measured spectroscopic redshifts ($z_{\rm spec}$), we achieved a mean $\langle (z_{\rm phot} – z_{\rm spec})/(1+z_{\rm spec})\rangle\lesssim 0.0086$ and a scatter $\sigma_{(z_{\rm phot} – z_{\rm spec})/(1+z_{\rm spec})}\lesssim 0.045$ when averaged up to $z \lesssim 1.0$. This work is the first use of symbolic regression in cosmology, representing a leap forward in astronomy-data-mining connection.

The first analytical expression to estimate photometric redshifts suggested by a machine [Replacement]

We report the first analytical expression purely constructed by a machine to determine photometric redshifts ($z_{\rm phot}$) of galaxies. A simple and reliable functional form is derived using $41,214$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS-DR10) spectroscopic sample. The method automatically dropped the $u$ and $z$ bands, relying only on $g$, $r$ and $i$ for the final solution. Applying this expression to other $1,417,181$ SDSS-DR10 galaxies, with measured spectroscopic redshifts ($z_{\rm spec}$), we achieved a mean $\langle (z_{\rm phot} – z_{\rm spec})/(1+z_{\rm spec})\rangle\lesssim 0.0086$ and a scatter $\sigma_{(z_{\rm phot} – z_{\rm spec})/(1+z_{\rm spec})}\lesssim 0.045$ when averaged up to $z \lesssim 1.0$. The method was also applied to the PHAT0 dataset, confirming the competitiveness of our results when faced with other methods from the literature. This is the first use of symbolic regression in cosmology, representing a leap forward in astronomy-data-mining connection.

The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey final data release: a spectroscopic sample of 35016 galaxies and AGN out to z~6.7 selected with 17.5<=i_{AB}<=24.7 [Replacement]

We describe the completed VIMOS VLT Deep Survey, and the final data release of 35016 galaxies and type-I AGN with measured spectroscopic redshifts up to redshift z~6.7, in areas 0.142 to 8.7 square degrees, and volumes from 0.5×10^6 to 2×10^7h^-3Mpc^3. We have selected samples of galaxies based solely on their i-band magnitude reaching i_{AB}=24.75. Spectra have been obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT, integrating 0.75h, 4.5h and 18h for the Wide, Deep, and Ultra-Deep nested surveys. A total of 1263 galaxies have been re-observed independently within the VVDS, and from the VIPERS and MASSIV surveys. They are used to establish the redshift measurements reliability, to assess completeness, and to provide a weighting scheme taking into account the survey selection function. We describe the main properties of the VVDS samples, and the VVDS is compared to other spectroscopic surveys. In total we have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for 34594 galaxies, 422 type-I AGN, and 12430 Galactic stars. The survey has enabled to identify galaxies up to very high redshifts with 4669 redshifts in 1<=z_{spec}<=2, 561 in 2<=z_{spec}<=3 and 468 with z_{spec}>3, and specific populations like LAE have been identified out to z=6.62. We show that the VVDS occupies a unique place in the parameter space defined by area, depth, redshift coverage, and number of spectra. The VVDS provides a comprehensive survey of the distant universe, covering all epochs since z, or more than 12 Gyr of cosmic time, with a uniform selection, the largest such sample to date. A wealth of science results derived from the VVDS have shed new light on the evolution of galaxies and AGN, and their distribution in space, over this large cosmic time. A final public release of the complete VVDS spectroscopic redshift sample is available at http://cesam.lam.fr/vvds.

Brighter galaxy bias: underestimating the velocity dispersions of galaxy clusters

We study the systematic bias introduced when selecting the spectroscopic redshifts of brighter cluster galaxies to estimate the velocity dispersion of galaxy clusters from both simulated and observational galaxy catalogues. We select clusters with Ngal > 50 at five low redshift snapshots from a semi-analytic model galaxy catalogue, and from a catalogue of SDSS DR8 groups and clusters across the redshift range 0.021<z<0.098. We employ various selection techniques to explore whether the velocity dispersion bias is simply due to a lack of dynamical information or is the result of an underlying physical process occurring in the cluster, for example, dynamical friction. The velocity dispersions and stacked particle velocity distributions of the parent dark matter (DM) halos are compared to the corresponding cluster dispersions and galaxy velocity distribution. We find a clear bias between the halo and the semi-analytic galaxy cluster velocity dispersion on the order of sigma gal / sigma DM = 0.87-0.95 and a distinct difference in the stacked galaxy and DM particle velocity distribution. We identify a systematic underestimation of the velocity dispersions when imposing increasing absolute I-band magnitude limits. This underestimation is enhanced when using only the brighter cluster members for dynamical analysis on the order of 5-35%, indicating that dynamical friction is a serious source of bias when using galaxy velocities as tracers of the underlying gravitational potential. In contrast to the literature we find that the resulting bias is not only halo mass-dependent but that the nature of the dependence changes according to the galaxy selection strategy. We make a recommendation that, in the realistic case of limited availability of spectral observations, a strictly magnitude-limited sample should be avoided to ensure an unbiased estimate of the velocity dispersion.

Cluster Lensing Profiles Derived from a Redshift Enhancement of Magnified BOSS-Survey Galaxies

We report the first detection of a redshift-depth enhancement of background galaxies magnified by foreground clusters. Using 300,000 BOSS-Survey galaxies with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, we measure their mean redshift depth behind four large samples of optically selected clusters from the SDSS surveys, totalling 5,000-15,000 clusters. A clear trend of increasing mean redshift towards the cluster centers is found, averaged over each of the four cluster samples. In addition we find similar but noisier behaviour for an independent X-ray sample of 158 clusters lying in the foreground of the current BOSS sky area. By adopting the mass-richness relationships appropriate for each survey we compare our results with theoretical predictions for each of the four SDSS cluster catalogs. The radial form of this redshift enhancement is well fitted by a richness-to-mass weighted composite Navarro-Frenk-White profile with an effective mass ranging between M_200 ~ 1.4-1.8 10^14 M_sun for the optically detected cluster samples, and M_200 ~ 5.0 10^14 M_sun for the X-ray sample. This lensing detection helps to establish the credibility of these SDSS cluster surveys, and provides a normalization for their respective mass-richness relations. In the context of the upcoming bigBOSS, Subaru-PFS, and EUCLID-NISP spectroscopic surveys, this method represents an independent means of deriving the masses of cluster samples for examining the cosmological evolution, and provides a relatively clean consistency check of weak-lensing measurements, free from the systematic limitations of shear calibration.

A Pilot for a VLA HI Deep Field

High-resolution 21-cm HI deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved neutral gas maps at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0<z<0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hours, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of view of 34′ x 34′ and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of HI and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA’s B-array is the ideal configuration for HI deep fields since its long spacings mitigate RFI. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future HI deep fields planned with other SKA pathfinders.

A Pilot for a VLA HI Deep Field [Replacement]

High-resolution 21-cm HI deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved neutral gas maps at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0<z<0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hours, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of view of 34′ x 34′ and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of HI and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA’s B-array is the ideal configuration for HI deep fields since its long spacings mitigate RFI. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future HI deep fields planned with other SKA pathfinders.

A Generalized Power-Law Diagnostic for Infrared Galaxies at z>1: Active Galactic Nuclei and Hot Interstellar Dust

I present a generalized power-law diagnostic that allows to identify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in infrared (IR) galaxies at z>1, down to flux densities at which the extragalactic IR background is mostly resolved. I derive this diagnostic from the analysis of 174 galaxies with Snu(24)>80 microJy and spectroscopic redshifts zspec>1 in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), for which I study the rest-frame UV/optical/near-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), after subtracting a hot-dust, power-law component with three possible spectral indices alpha=1.3, 2.0 and 3.0. I obtain that 35% of these 24micron sources are power-law composite galaxies (PLCGs), which I define as those galaxies for which the SED fitting with stellar templates, without any previous power-law subtraction, can be rejected with >2sigma confidence. Subtracting the power-law component from the PLCG SEDs produces stellar-mass correction factors <1.5 in >80% of cases. The PLCG incidence is especially high (47%) at z=1.0-1.5. To unveil which PLCGs host AGN, I conduct a combined analysis of 4Ms X-ray data, galaxy morphologies, and a greybody modelling of the hot dust. I find that: 1) 77% of all the X-ray AGN in my 24micron sample at z=1.0-1.5 are recognised by the PLCG criterion; 2) PLCGs with alpha=1.3 or 2.0 have regular morphologies and T_dust >~1000 K, indicating nuclear activity. Instead, PLCGs with alpha=3.0 are characterised by disturbed galaxy dynamics, and a hot interstellar medium can explain their dust temperatures T_dust ~700-800 K. Overall, my results indicate that the fraction of AGN among 24 micron sources is between ~30% and 52% at z=1.0-1.5.

A Generalized Power-Law Diagnostic for Infrared Galaxies at z>1: Active Galactic Nuclei and Hot Interstellar Dust [Replacement]

I present a generalized power-law diagnostic that allows to identify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in infrared (IR) galaxies at z>1, down to flux densities at which the extragalactic IR background is mostly resolved. I derive this diagnostic from the analysis of 174 galaxies with Snu(24)>80 microJy and spectroscopic redshifts zspec>1 in the Chandra Deep Field South, for which I study the rest-frame UV/optical/near-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), after subtracting a hot-dust, power-law component with three possible spectral indices alpha=1.3, 2.0 and 3.0. I obtain that 35% of these 24micron sources are power-law composite galaxies (PLCGs), which I define as those galaxies for which the SED fitting with stellar templates, without any previous power-law subtraction, can be rejected with >2sigma confidence. Subtracting the power-law component from the PLCG SEDs produces stellar-mass correction factors <1.5 in >80% of cases. The PLCG incidence is especially high (47%) at z=1.0-1.5. To unveil which PLCGs host AGN, I conduct a combined analysis of 4Ms X-ray data, galaxy morphologies, and a greybody modelling of the hot dust. I find that: 1) 77% of all the X-ray AGN in my 24micron sample at z=1.0-1.5 are recognised by the PLCG criterion; 2) PLCGs with alpha=1.3 or 2.0 have regular morphologies and T_dust >~1000 K, indicating nuclear activity. Instead, PLCGs with alpha=3.0 are characterised by disturbed galaxy dynamics, and a hot interstellar medium can explain their dust temperatures T_dust ~700-800 K. Overall, my results indicate that the fraction of AGN among 24 micron sources is between ~30% and 52% at z=1.0-1.5.

X-ray selected galaxy clusters in the Pan-STARRS Medium-Deep Survey

[abridged] We present the results of a pilot study for the extended MACS survey (eMACS), a comprehensive search for distant, X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.5. Our pilot study applies the eMACS concept to the 71 deg^2 area extended by the ten fields of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey (MDS). Candidate clusters are identified by visual inspection of PS1 images in the g,r, i, and z bands in a 5×5 arcmin^2 region around X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). To test and optimize the eMACS X-ray selection criteria, our pilot study uses the largest possible RASS database, i.e., all RASS sources listed in the Bright and Faint Source Catalogs (BSC and FSC) that fall within the MDS footprint. Scrutiny of PS1/MDS images for 41 BSC and 200 FSC sources combined with dedicated spectroscopic follow-up observations results in a sample of 11 clusters with estimated or spectroscopic redshifts of z>0.3. X-ray follow-up observations will be crucial in order to establish robust cluster luminosities for eMACS clusters. Although the small number of distant X-ray luminous clusters in the MDS does not allow us to make firm predictions for the over 20,000 deg^2 of extragalactic sky covered by eMACS, the identification of two extremely promising eMACS cluster candidates at z>0.6 (both yet to be observed with Chandra) in such a small solid angle is encouraging. Representing a tremendous gain over the presently known two dozen such systems from X-ray, optical, and SZ cluster surveys combined, the sample of over 100 extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 expected from eMACS would be invaluable for the identification of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe, as well as for in-depth and statistical studies of the physical properties of the most massive galaxy clusters out to z~1.

X-ray selected galaxy clusters in the Pan-STARRS Medium-Deep Survey [Replacement]

[abridged] We present the results of a pilot study for the extended MACS survey (eMACS), a comprehensive search for distant, X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.5. Our pilot study applies the eMACS concept to the 71 deg^2 area extended by the ten fields of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey (MDS). Candidate clusters are identified by visual inspection of PS1 images in the g,r, i, and z bands in a 5×5 arcmin^2 region around X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). To test and optimize the eMACS X-ray selection criteria, our pilot study uses the largest possible RASS database, i.e., all RASS sources listed in the Bright and Faint Source Catalogs (BSC and FSC) that fall within the MDS footprint. Scrutiny of PS1/MDS images for 41 BSC and 200 FSC sources combined with dedicated spectroscopic follow-up observations results in a sample of 11 clusters with estimated or spectroscopic redshifts of z>0.3. X-ray follow-up observations will be crucial in order to establish robust cluster luminosities for eMACS clusters. Although the small number of distant X-ray luminous clusters in the MDS does not allow us to make firm predictions for the over 20,000 deg^2 of extragalactic sky covered by eMACS, the identification of two extremely promising eMACS cluster candidates at z>0.6 (both yet to be observed with Chandra) in such a small solid angle is encouraging. Representing a tremendous gain over the presently known two dozen such systems from X-ray, optical, and SZ cluster surveys combined, the sample of over 100 extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 expected from eMACS would be invaluable for the identification of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe, as well as for in-depth and statistical studies of the physical properties of the most massive galaxy clusters out to z~1.

The evolution of the AGN content in groups up to z~1

Determining the AGN content in structures of different mass/velocity dispersion and comparing them to higher mass/lower redshift analogs is important to understand how the AGN formation process is related to environmental properties. We use our well-tested cluster finding algorithm to identify structures in the GOODS North and South fields, exploiting the available spectroscopic redshifts and accurate photometric redshifts. We identify 9 structures in GOODS-south (presented in a previous paper) and 8 new structures in GOODS-north. We only consider structures where at least 2/3 of the members brighter than M_R=-20 have a spectroscopic redshift. For those group members that coincide with X-ray sources in the 4 and 2 Msec Chandra source catalogs respectively, we determine if the X-ray emission originates from AGN activity or it is related to the galaxies’ star-formation activity. We find that the fraction of AGN with Log L_H > 42 erg/s in galaxies with M_R < -20 is on average 6.3+-1.3%, much higher than in lower redshift groups of similar mass and more than double the fraction found in massive clusters at a similarly high redshift. We then explore the spatial distribution of AGN in the structures and find that they preferentially populate the outer regions. The colors of AGN host galaxies in structures tend to be confined to the green valley, thus avoiding the blue cloud and, partially, also the red-sequence, contrary to what happens in the field. We finally compare our results to the predictions of two sets of semi analytic models to investigate the evolution of AGN and evaluate potential triggering and fueling mechanisms. The outcome of this comparison attests the importance of galaxy encounters, not necessarily leading to mergers, as an efficient AGN triggering mechanism. (abridged)

Mass assembly in quiescent and star-forming galaxies since z=4 from UltraVISTA [Replacement]

We estimate the galaxy stellar mass function and stellar mass density for star-forming and quiescent galaxies with 0.2<z<4. We construct a deep K<24 sample of 220000 galaxies selected using the UltraVISTA DR1 data release. Our analysis is based on precise 30-band photometric redshifts. By comparing these photometric redshifts with 10800 spectroscopic redshifts from the zCOSMOS bright and faint surveys, we find a precision of sigma(dz/(1+z))=0.008 at i<22.5 and sigma(dz/(1+zs))=0.03 at 1.5<z<4. We derive the stellar mass function and correct for the Eddington bias. We find a mass-dependent evolution of the global and star-forming populations. This mass-dependent evolution is a direct consequence of the star formation being quenched in galaxies more massive than M>10^10.7Msun. For the mass function of the quiescent galaxies, we do not find any significant evolution of the high-mass end at z<1; however we observe a clear flattening of the faint-end slope. From z~3 to z~1, the density of quiescent galaxies increases over the entire mass range. Their comoving stellar mass density increases by 1.6 dex between z~3 and z~1 and by less than 0.2dex at z<1. We infer the star formation history from the mass density evolution and we find an excellent agreement with instantaneous star formation rate measurements at z<1.5, while we find differences of 0.2dex at z>1.5 consistent with the expected uncertainties. We also develop a new method to infer the specific star formation rate from the mass function of star-forming galaxies. We find that the specific star formation rate of 10^10Msun galaxies increases continuously in the redshift range 1<z<4. Finally, we compare our results with a semi-analytical model and find that these models overestimate the density of low mass quiescent galaxies by an order of magnitude, while the density of low-mass star-forming galaxies is successfully reproduced.

Updated catalog of 132,684 galaxy clusters and evolution of brightest cluster galaxies

We identified 132,684 clusters in the redshift range of 0.05<z<0.8 from SDSS DR8. The spectroscopic redshifts of 52,683 clusters have been included in the catalog using SDSS DR9 data. We found that BCGs are more luminous in richer clusters and at higher redshifts.

A Redshift Survey of Herschel Far-Infrared Selected Starbursts and Implications for Obscured Star Formation

We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500um, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS). The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) peaks at z=0.85, with 731 sources at z<2 and a tail of sources out to z~5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (<delta_z>/(1+z)>=0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. We estimate that the vast majority (72-83%) of z<2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1mm. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star-formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z<1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24um extrapolations of the LIRG, ULIRG and total infrared contributions. This work significantly increased the number of spectroscopically confirmed infrared-luminous galaxies at z>>0 and demonstrates the growing importance of dusty starbursts for galaxy evolution studies and the build-up of stellar mass throughout cosmic time. [abridged]

A Redshift Survey of Herschel Far-Infrared Selected Starbursts and Implications for Obscured Star Formation [Replacement]

We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500um, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS). The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) peaks at z=0.85, with 731 sources at z<2 and a tail of sources out to z~5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (<delta_z>/(1+z)>=0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. We estimate that the vast majority (72-83%) of z<2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1mm. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star-formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z<1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24um extrapolations of the LIRG, ULIRG and total infrared contributions. This work significantly increased the number of spectroscopically confirmed infrared-luminous galaxies at z>>0 and demonstrates the growing importance of dusty starbursts for galaxy evolution studies and the build-up of stellar mass throughout cosmic time. [abridged]

Proto-groups at 1.8<z<3 in the zCOSMOS-deep sample [Replacement]

We identify 42 candidate groups lying between 1.8<z<3.0 from a sample of 3502 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the zCOSMOS-deep redshift survey within the same redshift interval. These systems contain three to five spectroscopic galaxies that lie within 500kpc in projected distance (in physical space) and within 700km/s in velocity. Based on extensive analysis of mock catalogues that have been generated from the Millennium simulation, we examine the likely nature of these systems at the time of observation, and what they will evolve into down to the present epoch. Although few of the "member" galaxies are likely to reside in the same halo at the epoch we observe them, 50% of the systems will eventually bring them all into the same halo, and almost all (93%) will have at least part of the member galaxies in the same halo by the present epoch. Most of the candidate groups can therefore be described as "proto-groups". An estimate of the overdensities is also consistent with the idea that these systems are being seen at the start of the assembly process. We also examine present-day haloes and ask whether their progenitors would have been seen amongst our candidate groups. For present-day haloes between 10^14-10^15Msun/h, 35% should have appeared amongst our candidate groups, and this would have risen to 70% if our survey had been fully-sampled, so we can conclude that our sample can be taken as representative of a large fraction of such systems. There is a clear excess of massive galaxies above 10^10Msun around the locations of the candidate groups in a large independent COSMOS photo-z sample, but we see no evidence in this latter data for any colour differentiation with respect to the field. This is however consistent with the idea that such differentiation arises in satellite galaxies, as indicated at z<1, if the candidate groups are indeed only starting to be assembled.

The Low Mass End of the Fundamental Relation for Gravitationally Lensed Star Forming Galaxies at 1<z<6

We present VLT/X-shooter spectra of 13 galaxies in the redshift range 1< z < 6, which are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters. Spectroscopic redshifts are measured for nine galaxies, while three sources have redshifts determined from continuum breaks in their spectra. The stellar masses of the galaxies span four orders of magnitude between 10^7 and 10^11 M_sun and have luminosities at 1500 A rest-frame between 0.004 and 9 L^* after correcting for the magnification. This allows us to probe a variety of galaxy types from young, low-mass starburst galaxies to massive evolved galaxies. The lensed galaxies with stellar masses less than 10^10 M_sun have a large scatter compared to the fundamental relation between stellar mass, star formation rates and oxygen abundances. We provide a modified fit to the fundamental relation for low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies with a weaker dependence of the metallicity on either the star formation rate or stellar mass compared to low-redshift, high-mass and high-metallicity SDSS galaxies.

Automated measurement of redshift from mid-infrared low resolution spectroscopy

We present a new SED-fitting based routine for redshift determination that is optimised for mid-infrared (MIR) low-resolution spectroscopy. Its flexible template scaling increases the sensitivity to slope changes and small scale features in the spectrum, while a new selection algorithm called Maximum Combined Pseudo-Likelihood (MCPL) provides increased accuracy and a lower number of outliers compared to the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. Unlike ML, MCPL searches for local (instead of absolute) maxima of a ‘pseudo-likelihood’ (PL) function, and combines results obtained for all the templates in the library to weed out spurious redshift solutions. The capabilities of MCPL are demonstrated by comparing its results to those of regular ML and to the optical spectroscopic redshifts of a sample of 491 Spitzer/IRS spectra from sources at 0<z<3.7. MCPL achieves a redshift accuracy dz/(1+z)<0.005 for 78% of the galaxies in the sample compared to 68% for ML. The rate of outliers (dz/(1+z)>0.02) is 14% for MCPL and 22% for ML. chi^2 values for ML solutions are found to correlate with the SNR of the spectra, but not with redshift accuracy. By contrast, the peak value of the normalised combined PL (gamma) is found to provide a good indication on the reliability of the MCPL solution for individual sources. The accuracy and reliability of the redshifts depends strongly on the MIR SED. Sources with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission obtain much better results compared to sources dominated by AGN continuum. Nevertheless, for a given gamma the frequency of accurate solutions and outliers is largely independent on their SED type. This reliability indicator for MCPL solutions allows to select subsamples with highly reliable redshifts. In particular, a gamma>0.15 threshold retains 79% of the sources with dz/(1+z)<0.005 while reducing the outlier rate to 3.8% (abridged).

"Invisible AGN" I: Sample Selection and Optical/Near-IR Spectral Energy Distributions

In order to find more examples of the elusive high-redshift molecular absorbers, we have embarked on a systematic discovery program for highly obscured, radio-loud "invisible AGN" using the VLA Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) radio survey in conjunction with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify 82 strong (> 300 mJy) radio sources positionally coincident with late-type, presumably gas-rich galaxies. In this first paper, the basic properties of this sample are described including the selection process and the analysis of the spectral-energydistributions (SEDs) derived from the optical (SDSS) + near-IR (NIR) photometry obtained by us at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m. The NIR images confirm the late-type galaxy morphologies found by SDSS for these sources in all but a few (6 of 70) cases (12 previously well-studied or misclassified sources were culled). Among 70 sources in the final sample, 33 show galaxy type SEDs, 17 have galaxy components to their SEDs, and 20 have quasar power-law continua. At least 9 sources with galaxy SEDs have K-band flux densities too faint to be giant ellipticals if placed at their photometric redshifts. Photometric redshifts for this sample are analyzed and found to be too inaccurate for an efficient radio-frequency absorption line search; spectroscopic redshifts are required. A few new spectroscopic redshifts for these sources are presented here but more will be needed to make significant progress in this field. Subsequent papers will describe the radio continuum properties of the sample and the search for redshifted H I 21 cm absorption.

 

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