# Posts Tagged spectroscopic redshifts

## Recent Postings from spectroscopic redshifts

### The 2XMMi/SDSS Galaxy Cluster Survey. III. Clusters associated with spectroscopically targeted luminous red galaxies in SDSS-DR10

We present a sample of 383 X-ray selected galaxy groups and clusters with spectroscopic redshift measurements (up to z ~ 0.79) from the 2XMMi/SDSS Galaxy Cluster Survey. The X-ray cluster candidates were selected as serendipitously detected sources from the 2XMMi-DR3 catalogue that were located in the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7). The cluster galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts were selected from the SDSS-DR10. We developed an algorithm for identifying the cluster candidates that are associated with spectroscopically targeted luminous red galaxies and for constraining the cluster spectroscopic redshift. A cross-correlation of the constructed cluster sample with published optically selected cluster catalogues yielded 264 systems with available redshifts. The present redshift measurements are consistent with the published values. The current cluster sample extends the optically confirmed cluster sample from our cluster survey by 67 objects. Moreover, it provides spectroscopic confirmation for 78 clusters among our published cluster sample, which previously had only photometric redshifts. Of the new cluster sample that comprises 67 systems, 55 objects are newly X-ray discovered clusters and 52 systems are sources newly discovered as galaxy clusters in optical and X-ray wavelengths. Based on the measured redshifts and the fluxes given in the 2XMMi-DR3 catalogue, we estimated the X-ray luminosities and masses of the cluster sample.

### Quasi-periodical components in the radial distributions of cosmologically remote objects

A statistical analysis of radial (line-of-sight) 1D-distributions of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) within the redshift interval $0.044 \leq z \leq 0.78$ and Mg II absorption-line systems ($0.37 \leq z \leq 2.28$) is carried out. Power spectra and two-point radial correlation functions are calculated. It is found that both radial distributions of spectroscopic redshifts of 52,683 BCGs and 32,840 Mg II absorption systems incorporate similar quasi-periodical components relatively to the comoving distance. Significance of the components exceeds $4\sigma$-level and admits an increase ($\geq 5\sigma$) for some broad subsamples. For the {\Lambda}CDM cosmological model the periodicities correspond to spatial comoving scales ($98 \pm 3$) and ($101 \pm 2$)h$^{-1}$ Mpc, respectively. These quasi-periods turn out to be close to the characteristic scale ($101 \pm 6$)h$^{-1}$Mpc of the quasi-periodical component obtained earlier for the radial distribution of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). On the other hand, the scales are close to the spatial scale corresponding to the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) revealed by many authors at the last decade. Fourier transform phases obtained for the BCGs and LRGs are found to be close, while the phases calculated for the Mg II absorption systems and LRGs are opposite. Discussions of the results in a context of the BAO and large-scale structure characteristic scales are outlined.

### A UV to Mid-IR Study of AGN Selection

We classify the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 431,038 sources in the 9 sq. deg Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). There are up to 17 bands of data available per source, including ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (NDWFS), near-IR (NEWFIRM), and mid-infrared (IRAC/MIPS) data, as well as spectroscopic redshifts for ~20,000 objects, primarily from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We fit galaxy, AGN, stellar, and brown dwarf templates to the observed SEDs, which yield spectral classes for the Galactic sources and photometric redshifts and galaxy/AGN luminosities for the extragalactic sources. The photometric redshift precision of the galaxy and AGN samples are sigma/(1+z)=0.040 and sigma/(1+z)=0.169, respectively, with the worst 5% outliers excluded. Based on the reduced chi-squared of the SED fit for each SED model, we are able to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic sources for sources brighter than I=23.5. We compare the SED fits for a galaxy-only model and a galaxy+AGN model. Using known X-ray and spectroscopic AGN samples, we confirm that SED fitting can be successfully used as a method to identify large populations of AGN, including spatially resolved AGN with significant contributions from the host galaxy and objects with the emission line ratios of "composite" spectra. We also use our results to compare to the X-ray, mid-IR, optical color and emission line ratio selection techniques. For an F-ratio threshold of F>10 we find 16,266 AGN candidates brighter than I=23.5 and a surface density of ~1900 AGN per deg^2.

### Spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies within the Frontier Fields

We present a catalog of 1848 spectroscopic redshifts measured in the fields of the massive galaxy clusters MACSJ0416.1-2403 ($z=0.397$), MACSJ0717.5+3745 ($z=0.546$), and MACSJ1149.5+2223 ($z=0.544$), i.e., three of the four clusters selected by STScI as the targets of the Frontier Fields (FF) initiative for studies of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing. Compiled in the course of the MACS project (Massive Cluster Survey) that detected the FF clusters, this catalog is provided to the community for three purposes: (1) to allow the identification of cluster members for studies of the galaxy population of these extreme systems, (2) to facilitate the removal of unlensed galaxies and thus reduce shear dilution in weak-lensing analyses, and (3) to improve the calibration of photometric redshifts based on both ground- and spacebased observations of the FF clusters.

### The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): A quiescent formation of massive red-sequence galaxies over the past 9 Gyr

We explore the evolution of the Colour-Magnitude Relation (CMR) and Luminosity Function (LF) at 0.4<z<1.3 from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) using ~45,000 galaxies with precise spectroscopic redshifts down to i’_AB<22.5 over ~10.32 deg^2 in two fields. From z=0.5 to z=1.3 the LF and CMR are well defined for different galaxy populations and M^*_B evolves by ~1.04(1.09)+/-0.06(0.10) mag for the total (red) galaxy sample. We compare different criteria for selecting early-type galaxies (ETGs): (1) fixed cut in rest-frame (U-V) colours, (2) evolving cut in (U-V) colours, (3) rest-frame (NUV-r’)-(r’-K) colour selection, and (4) SED classification. Regardless of the method we measure a consistent evolution of the red-sequence (RS). Between 0.4<z<1.3 we find a moderate evolution of the RS intercept of Delta(U-V)=0.28+/-0.14 mag, favouring exponentially declining star formation (SF) histories with SF truncation at 1.7<=z<=2.3. Together with the rise in the ETG number density by 0.64 dex since z=1, this suggests a rapid build-up of massive galaxies (M>10^11 M_sun) and expeditious RS formation over a short period of ~1.5 Gyr starting before z=1. This is supported by the detection of ongoing SF in ETGs at 0.9<z<1.0, in contrast with the quiescent red stellar populations of ETGs at 0.5<z<0.6. There is an increase in the observed CMR scatter with redshift, two times larger than in galaxy clusters and at variance with theoretical models. We discuss possible physical mechanisms that support the observed evolution of the red galaxy population. Our findings point out that massive galaxies have experienced a sharp SF quenching at z~1 with only limited additional merging. In contrast, less-massive galaxies experience a mix of SF truncation and minor mergers which build-up the low- and intermediate-mass end of the CMR.

### The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Never mind the gaps: comparing techniques to restore homogeneous sky coverage

[Abridged] Non-uniform sampling and gaps in sky coverage are common in galaxy redshift surveys but these effects can degrade galaxy counts-in-cells and density estimates. We carry out a comparison of methods that aim to fill the gaps to correct for the systematic effects. Our study is motivated by the analysis of the VIMOS Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), a flux-limited survey (i<22.5) based on one-pass observations with VIMOS, with gaps covering 25% of the surveyed area and a mean sampling rate of 35%. Our findings are applicable to other surveys with similar observing strategies. We compare 1) two algorithms based on photometric redshift, that assign redshifts to galaxies based on the spectroscopic redshifts of the nearest neighbours, 2) two Bayesian methods, the Wiener filter and the Poisson-Lognormal filter. Using galaxy mock catalogues we quantify the accuracy of the counts-in-cells measurements on scales of R=5 and 8 Mpc/h after applying each of these methods. We also study how they perform to account for spectroscopic redshift error and inhomogeneous and sparse sampling rate. We find that in VIPERS the errors in counts-in-cells measurements on R<10 Mpc/h scales are dominated by the sparseness of the sample. All methods underpredict by 20-35% the counts at high densities. This systematic bias is of the same order as random errors. No method outperforms the others. Random and systematic errors decrease for larger cells. We show that it is possible to separate the lowest and highest densities on scales of 5 Mpc/h at redshifts 0.5<z<1.1, over a large volume such as in VIPERS survey. This is vital for the characterisation of cosmic variance and rare populations (e.g, brightest galaxies) in environmental studies at these redshifts.

### Optical Galaxy Clusters in the Deep Lens Survey

We present the first sample of 882 optically selected galaxy clusters in the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), selected with the Bayesian Cluster Finder. We create mock DLS data to assess completeness and purity rates, and find that both are at least $70\%$ within 0.1$\le z \le$ 1.2 for clusters with $M_{200}\ge 1.2\times 10^{14}M_{\odot}$. We verified the integrity of the sample by performing several comparisons with other optical, weak lensing, X-ray and spectroscopic surveys which overlap the DLS footprint: the estimated redshifts are consistent with the spectroscopic redshifts of known clusters (for $z>0.25$ where saturation in the DLS is not an issue); our richness estimates in combination with a previously calibrated richness-mass relation yields individual cluster mass estimates consistent with available SHeLS dynamical mass estimates; synthetic mass maps made from the optical mass estimates are correlated ($>3\sigma$ significance) with the weak lensing mass maps; and the mass function thus derived is consistent with theoretical predictions for the CDM scenario. With the verified sample we investigated correlations between the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) properties and the host cluster properties within a broader range in redshift (0.25 $\le z \le$ 0.8) and mass ($\ge2.4\times 10^{14}M_{\odot}$) than in previous work. We find that the slope of the BCG magnitude-redshift relation throughout this redshift range is consistent with that found at lower redshifts. This result supports an extrapolation to higher redshift of passive evolution of the BCG within the hierarchical scenario.

### Using neural networks to estimate redshift distributions. An application to CFHTLenS

We present a novel way of using neural networks (NN) to estimate the redshift distribution of a galaxy sample. We are able to obtain a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy using a classification neural network. The method is applied to 58714 galaxies in CFHTLenS that have spectroscopic redshifts from DEEP2, VVDS and VIPERS. Using this data we show that the stacked PDF’s give an excellent representation of the true $N(z)$ using information from 5, 4 or 3 photometric bands. We show that the fractional error due to using N(z_(phot)) instead of N(z_(truth)) is <=1 on the lensing power spectrum P_(kappa) in several tomographic bins. Further we investigate how well this method performs when few training samples are available and show that in this regime the neural network slightly overestimates the N(z) at high z. Finally the case where the training sample is not representative of the full data set is investigated. An IPython notebook accompanying this paper is made available here: https://bitbucket.org/christopher_bonnett/nn_notebook

### Properties of star forming galaxies in AKARI Deep Field-South

The main aim of this work is the characterization of physical properties of galaxies detected in the far infrared (FIR) in the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF-S) survey. Starting from a catalog of the 1 000 brightest ADF-S sources in the WIDE-S (90$\mu$m) AKARI band, we constructed a subsample of galaxies with spectral coverage from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. We then analyzed the multiwavelength properties of this 90$\mu$m selected sample of galaxies. For galaxies without known spectroscopic redshifts we computed photometric redshifts using the codes Photometric Analysis for Redshift Estimate (Le PHARE) and Code Investigating GALaxy Emission (CIGALE), tested these photometric redshifts using spectroscopic redshifts, and compared the performances of both codes. To test the reliability of parameters obtained by fitting spectral energy distributions, a mock cataloge was generated. We built a large multiwavelength catalog of more than 500 ADF-S galaxies. We successfully fitted Spectral Energy Distributions of 186 galaxies with $\rm{\chi^2_{min}<4}$, and analyzed the output parameters of the fits. We conclude that our sample consists mostly of nearby actively star-forming galaxies, and all our galaxies have a relatively high metallicity. We estimated photometric redshifts for 113 galaxies from the whole ADF-S sample. Comparing the performance of Le PHARE and CIGALE, we found that CIGALE gives more reliable redshift estimates for our galaxies, which implies that including the IR photometry allows for substantial improvement of photometric redshift estimation.

### Rest-frame ultra-violet spectra of massive galaxies at z=3: evidence for high-velocity outflows [Replacement]

Galaxy formation models invoke the presence of strong feedback mechanisms that regulate the growth of massive galaxies at high redshifts. In this paper we aim to: (1) confirm spectroscopically the redshifts of a sample of massive galaxies selected with photometric redshifts z > 2.5; (2) investigate the properties of their stellar and interstellar media; (3) detect the presence of outflows, and measure their velocities. To achieve this, we analysed deep, high-resolution (R~2000) FORS2 rest-frame UV spectra for 11 targets. We confirmed that 9 out of 11 have spectroscopic redshifts z > 2.5. We also serendipitously found two mask fillers at redshift z > 2.5, which originally were assigned photometric redshifts 2.0 < z < 2.5. In the four highest-quality spectra we derived outflow velocities by fitting the absorption line profiles with models including multiple dynamical components. We found strongly asymmetric, high-ionisation lines, from which we derived outflow velocities ranging between 480 and 1518 km/s. We revised the spectral energy distribution fitting U-band through 8 micron photometry, including the analysis of a power-law component subtraction to identify the possible presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The revised stellar masses of all but one of our targets are >1e10 Msun, with four having stellar masses > 5e10 Msun. Three galaxies have a significant power-law component in their spectral energy distributions, which indicates that they host AGN. We conclude that massive galaxies are characterised by significantly higher velocity outflows than the typical Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3. The incidence of high-velocity outflows (~40% within our sample) is also much higher than among massive galaxies at z < 1, which is consistent with the powerful star formation and nuclear activity that most massive galaxies display at z > 2.

### Rest-frame ultra-violet spectra of massive galaxies at z=3: evidence for high-velocity outflows [Replacement]

Galaxy formation models invoke the presence of strong feedback mechanisms that regulate the growth of massive galaxies at high redshifts. In this paper we aim to: (1) confirm spectroscopically the redshifts of a sample of massive galaxies selected with photometric redshifts z > 2.5; (2) investigate the properties of their stellar and interstellar media; (3) detect the presence of outflows, and measure their velocities. To achieve this, we analysed deep, high-resolution (R~2000) FORS2 rest-frame UV spectra for 11 targets. We confirmed that 9 out of 11 have spectroscopic redshifts z > 2.5. We also serendipitously found two mask fillers at redshift z > 2.5, which originally were assigned photometric redshifts 2.0 < z < 2.5. In the four highest-quality spectra we derived outflow velocities by fitting the absorption line profiles with models including multiple dynamical components. We found strongly asymmetric, high-ionisation lines, from which we derived outflow velocities ranging from 480 to 1518 km/s. The two galaxies with highest velocity show signs of AGN. We revised the spectral energy distribution fitting U-band through 8 micron photometry, including the analysis of a power-law component subtraction to identify the possible presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The revised stellar masses of all but one of our targets are >1e10 Msun, with four having stellar masses > 5e10 Msun. Three galaxies have a significant power-law component in their spectral energy distributions, which indicates that they host AGN. We conclude that massive galaxies are characterised by significantly higher velocity outflows than the typical Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3. The incidence of high-velocity outflows (~40% within our sample) is also much higher than among massive galaxies at z < 1, which is consistent with the powerful star formation and nuclear activity that most massive galaxies display at z > 2.

### Rest-frame ultra-violet spectra of massive galaxies at z=3: evidence for high-velocity outflows

Galaxy formation models invoke the presence of strong feedback mechanisms that regulate the growth of massive galaxies at high redshifts. In this paper we aim to: (1) confirm spectroscopically the redshifts of a sample of massive galaxies selected with photometric redshifts larger than 2.5; (2) investigate the properties of their stellar and interstellar media; (3) detect the presence of outflows, and measure their velocities. To achieve this, we analysed deep, high-resolution (R=2000) FORS2 rest-frame UV spectra for 11 targets. We confirmed that 9 out of 11 have spectroscopic redshifts larger than 2.5. We also serendipitously found two mask fillers at redshift larger than 2.5, which originally were assigned photometric redshifts between 2.0 and 2.5. In the four highest-quality spectra we derived outflow velocities by fitting the absorption line profiles with models including multiple dynamical components. We found strongly asymmetric, high-ionisation lines, from which we derived outflow velocities ranging between 480 and 1528 km/s. We revised the spectral energy distribution fitting U-band through 8 micron photometry, including the analysis of a power-law component subtraction to identify the possible presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The revised stellar masses of all but one of our targets are larger than 1e10 solar masses, with four having stellar masses 5e10 solar masses. Three galaxies have a significant power-law component in their spectral energy distributions, which indicates that they host AGN. We conclude that massive galaxies are characterised by significantly higher velocity outflows than the typical Lyman break galaxies at redshifts around 3. The incidence of high-velocity outflows (approximately 40 per cent within our sample) is also much higher than among massive galaxies at redshifts below 1. (Abridged)

### Dusty Universe viewed by AKARI far infrared detector

We present the results of the analysis of multiwavelength Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of far-infrared galaxies detected in the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF–S) Survey. The analysis uses a carefully selected sample of 186 sources detected at the 90 $\mu$m AKARI band, identified as galaxies with cross-identification in public catalogues. For sources without known spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate photometric redshifts after a test of two independent methods: one based on using mainly the optical — mid infrared range, and one based on the whole range of ultraviolet — far infrared data. We observe a vast improvement in the estimation of photometric redshifts when far infrared data are included, compared with an approach based mainly on the optical — mid infrared range. We discuss the physical properties of our far-infrared-selected sample. We conclude that this sample consists mostly of rich in dust and young stars nearby galaxies, and, furthermore, that almost 25% of these sources are (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies. Average SEDs normalized at 90 $\mu$m for normal galaxies (138 sources), LIRGs (30 sources), and ULIRGs (18 galaxies) a the significant shift in the peak wavelength of the dust emission, and an increasing ratio between their bolometric and dust luminosities which varies from 0.39 to 0.73.

### A large-scale galaxy structure at z = 2.02 associated with the radio galaxy MRC0156-252

We present the spectroscopic confirmation of a structure of galaxies surrounding the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 at z = 2.02. The structure was initially discovered as an overdensity of both near-infrared selected z > 1.6 and mid-infrared selected z > 1.2 galaxy candidates. We use the VLT/FORS2 multi-object spectrograph to target ~80 high-redshift galaxy candidates; we obtain robust spectroscopic redshifts for more than half the targets. The majority of the confirmed sources are star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5. In addition to the radio galaxy, two of its close-by companions (< 6”) also show AGN signatures. Ten sources, including the radio galaxy, lie within |z – 2.020| < 0.015 (i.e., velocity offsets < 1500 km/s) and within 2Mpc comoving of the radio galaxy. Additional evidence suggest not only that the galaxy structure associated with MRC0156-252 is a forming galaxy cluster but also that this structure is most probably embedded in a larger scale structure.

### A large-scale galaxy structure at z = 2.02 associated with the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 [Replacement]

We present the spectroscopic confirmation of a structure of galaxies surrounding the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 at z = 2.02. The structure was initially discovered as an overdensity of both near-infrared selected z > 1.6 and mid-infrared selected z > 1.2 galaxy candidates. We use the VLT/FORS2 multi-object spectrograph to target ~80 high-redshift galaxy candidates; we obtain robust spectroscopic redshifts for more than half the targets. The majority of the confirmed sources are star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5. In addition to the radio galaxy, two of its close-by companions (< 6") also show AGN signatures. Ten sources, including the radio galaxy, lie within |z – 2.020| < 0.015 (i.e., velocity offsets < 1500 km/s) and within projected 2Mpc comoving of the radio galaxy. Additional evidence suggests not only that the galaxy structure associated with MRC0156-252 is a forming galaxy cluster but also that this structure is most probably embedded in a larger scale structure.

### A large-scale galaxy structure at z = 2.02 associated with the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 [Replacement]

We present the spectroscopic confirmation of a structure of galaxies surrounding the radio galaxy MRC0156-252 at z = 2.02. The structure was initially discovered as an overdensity of both near-infrared selected z > 1.6 and mid-infrared selected z > 1.2 galaxy candidates. We used the VLT/FORS2 multi-object spectrograph to target ~80 high-redshift galaxy candidates, and obtain robust spectroscopic redshifts for more than half the targets. The majority of the confirmed sources are star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5. In addition to the radio galaxy, two of its close-by companions (< 6”) also show AGN signatures. Ten sources, including the radio galaxy, lie within |z – 2.020 | < 0.015 (i.e., velocity offsets < 1500 km/s) and within projected 2 Mpc comoving of the radio galaxy. Additional evidence suggests not only that the galaxy structure associated with MRC0156-252 is a forming galaxy cluster but also that this structure is most probably embedded in a larger scale structure.

### Cosmological Parameter Estimation with Large Scale Structure Observations

We estimate the sensitivity of future galaxy surveys to cosmological parameters, using the redshift dependent angular power spectra of galaxy number counts, $C_\ell(z_1,z_2)$, calculated with all relativistic corrections at first order in perturbation theory. We pay special attention to the redshift dependence of the non-linearity scale and present Fisher matrix forecasts for Euclid-like and DES-like galaxy surveys. We show that for surveys with photometric redshifts the analysis with the redshift dependent angular power spectra performs significantly better than the usual analysis based on the three-dimensional matter power spectrum $P(k,z)$. For spectroscopic redshifts, however, the large number of redshift bins needed to fully profit from the redshift information, leads to a significant degradation of the $C_\ell(z_1,z_2)$ analysis due to shot noise. We also identify surveys which can measure the lensing contribution and we study the monopole, $C_0(z_1,z_2)$.

### The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. I - optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of candidate obscured and normal AGN selected in the mid-infrared

We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGN closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L_bol~10^10L_sun, to highly luminous quasars (L_bol~10^14L_sun), and with redshifts from 0-4.3. Samples of candidate AGN were selected through mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 micron flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGN and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type-1 AGN with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type-2 objects with extinctions A_V>~5 towards their AGN, 96 (14%) are AGN with lower extinctions (A_V~1) and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. 50% of the survey objects have L_bol >10^12L_sun, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type-2 quasars and for objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared – emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross-correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) there exist mid-infrared selected AGN candidates which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra, but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGN often differ.

### The first analytical expression to estimate photometric redshifts suggested by a machine

We report the first analytical expression purely constructed by a machine to determine photometric redshifts ($z_{\rm phot}$) of galaxies. A simple and reliable functional form is derived using $41,214$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS-DR10) spectroscopic sample. The method automatically dropped the $u$ and $z$ bands, relying only on $g$, $r$ and $i$ for the final solution. Applying this expression to other $1,417,181$ SDSS-DR10 galaxies, with measured spectroscopic redshifts ($z_{\rm spec}$), we achieved a mean $\langle (z_{\rm phot} – z_{\rm spec})/(1+z_{\rm spec})\rangle\lesssim 0.0086$ and a scatter $\sigma_{(z_{\rm phot} – z_{\rm spec})/(1+z_{\rm spec})}\lesssim 0.045$ when averaged up to $z \lesssim 1.0$. This work is the first use of symbolic regression in cosmology, representing a leap forward in astronomy-data-mining connection.

### The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey final data release: a spectroscopic sample of 35016 galaxies and AGN out to z~6.7 selected with 17.5<=i_{AB}<=24.7 [Replacement]

We describe the completed VIMOS VLT Deep Survey, and the final data release of 35016 galaxies and type-I AGN with measured spectroscopic redshifts up to redshift z~6.7, in areas 0.142 to 8.7 square degrees, and volumes from 0.5×10^6 to 2×10^7h^-3Mpc^3. We have selected samples of galaxies based solely on their i-band magnitude reaching i_{AB}=24.75. Spectra have been obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT, integrating 0.75h, 4.5h and 18h for the Wide, Deep, and Ultra-Deep nested surveys. A total of 1263 galaxies have been re-observed independently within the VVDS, and from the VIPERS and MASSIV surveys. They are used to establish the redshift measurements reliability, to assess completeness, and to provide a weighting scheme taking into account the survey selection function. We describe the main properties of the VVDS samples, and the VVDS is compared to other spectroscopic surveys. In total we have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for 34594 galaxies, 422 type-I AGN, and 12430 Galactic stars. The survey has enabled to identify galaxies up to very high redshifts with 4669 redshifts in 1<=z_{spec}<=2, 561 in 2<=z_{spec}<=3 and 468 with z_{spec}>3, and specific populations like LAE have been identified out to z=6.62. We show that the VVDS occupies a unique place in the parameter space defined by area, depth, redshift coverage, and number of spectra. The VVDS provides a comprehensive survey of the distant universe, covering all epochs since z, or more than 12 Gyr of cosmic time, with a uniform selection, the largest such sample to date. A wealth of science results derived from the VVDS have shed new light on the evolution of galaxies and AGN, and their distribution in space, over this large cosmic time. A final public release of the complete VVDS spectroscopic redshift sample is available at http://cesam.lam.fr/vvds.

### Brighter galaxy bias: underestimating the velocity dispersions of galaxy clusters

We study the systematic bias introduced when selecting the spectroscopic redshifts of brighter cluster galaxies to estimate the velocity dispersion of galaxy clusters from both simulated and observational galaxy catalogues. We select clusters with Ngal > 50 at five low redshift snapshots from a semi-analytic model galaxy catalogue, and from a catalogue of SDSS DR8 groups and clusters across the redshift range 0.021<z<0.098. We employ various selection techniques to explore whether the velocity dispersion bias is simply due to a lack of dynamical information or is the result of an underlying physical process occurring in the cluster, for example, dynamical friction. The velocity dispersions and stacked particle velocity distributions of the parent dark matter (DM) halos are compared to the corresponding cluster dispersions and galaxy velocity distribution. We find a clear bias between the halo and the semi-analytic galaxy cluster velocity dispersion on the order of sigma gal / sigma DM = 0.87-0.95 and a distinct difference in the stacked galaxy and DM particle velocity distribution. We identify a systematic underestimation of the velocity dispersions when imposing increasing absolute I-band magnitude limits. This underestimation is enhanced when using only the brighter cluster members for dynamical analysis on the order of 5-35%, indicating that dynamical friction is a serious source of bias when using galaxy velocities as tracers of the underlying gravitational potential. In contrast to the literature we find that the resulting bias is not only halo mass-dependent but that the nature of the dependence changes according to the galaxy selection strategy. We make a recommendation that, in the realistic case of limited availability of spectral observations, a strictly magnitude-limited sample should be avoided to ensure an unbiased estimate of the velocity dispersion.

### Cluster Lensing Profiles Derived from a Redshift Enhancement of Magnified BOSS-Survey Galaxies

We report the first detection of a redshift-depth enhancement of background galaxies magnified by foreground clusters. Using 300,000 BOSS-Survey galaxies with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, we measure their mean redshift depth behind four large samples of optically selected clusters from the SDSS surveys, totalling 5,000-15,000 clusters. A clear trend of increasing mean redshift towards the cluster centers is found, averaged over each of the four cluster samples. In addition we find similar but noisier behaviour for an independent X-ray sample of 158 clusters lying in the foreground of the current BOSS sky area. By adopting the mass-richness relationships appropriate for each survey we compare our results with theoretical predictions for each of the four SDSS cluster catalogs. The radial form of this redshift enhancement is well fitted by a richness-to-mass weighted composite Navarro-Frenk-White profile with an effective mass ranging between M_200 ~ 1.4-1.8 10^14 M_sun for the optically detected cluster samples, and M_200 ~ 5.0 10^14 M_sun for the X-ray sample. This lensing detection helps to establish the credibility of these SDSS cluster surveys, and provides a normalization for their respective mass-richness relations. In the context of the upcoming bigBOSS, Subaru-PFS, and EUCLID-NISP spectroscopic surveys, this method represents an independent means of deriving the masses of cluster samples for examining the cosmological evolution, and provides a relatively clean consistency check of weak-lensing measurements, free from the systematic limitations of shear calibration.

### A Pilot for a VLA HI Deep Field

High-resolution 21-cm HI deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved neutral gas maps at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0<z<0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hours, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of view of 34′ x 34′ and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of HI and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA’s B-array is the ideal configuration for HI deep fields since its long spacings mitigate RFI. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future HI deep fields planned with other SKA pathfinders.

### A Pilot for a VLA HI Deep Field [Replacement]

High-resolution 21-cm HI deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved neutral gas maps at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0<z<0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hours, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of view of 34′ x 34′ and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of HI and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA’s B-array is the ideal configuration for HI deep fields since its long spacings mitigate RFI. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future HI deep fields planned with other SKA pathfinders.

### A Generalized Power-Law Diagnostic for Infrared Galaxies at z>1: Active Galactic Nuclei and Hot Interstellar Dust

I present a generalized power-law diagnostic that allows to identify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in infrared (IR) galaxies at z>1, down to flux densities at which the extragalactic IR background is mostly resolved. I derive this diagnostic from the analysis of 174 galaxies with Snu(24)>80 microJy and spectroscopic redshifts zspec>1 in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), for which I study the rest-frame UV/optical/near-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), after subtracting a hot-dust, power-law component with three possible spectral indices alpha=1.3, 2.0 and 3.0. I obtain that 35% of these 24micron sources are power-law composite galaxies (PLCGs), which I define as those galaxies for which the SED fitting with stellar templates, without any previous power-law subtraction, can be rejected with >2sigma confidence. Subtracting the power-law component from the PLCG SEDs produces stellar-mass correction factors <1.5 in >80% of cases. The PLCG incidence is especially high (47%) at z=1.0-1.5. To unveil which PLCGs host AGN, I conduct a combined analysis of 4Ms X-ray data, galaxy morphologies, and a greybody modelling of the hot dust. I find that: 1) 77% of all the X-ray AGN in my 24micron sample at z=1.0-1.5 are recognised by the PLCG criterion; 2) PLCGs with alpha=1.3 or 2.0 have regular morphologies and T_dust >~1000 K, indicating nuclear activity. Instead, PLCGs with alpha=3.0 are characterised by disturbed galaxy dynamics, and a hot interstellar medium can explain their dust temperatures T_dust ~700-800 K. Overall, my results indicate that the fraction of AGN among 24 micron sources is between ~30% and 52% at z=1.0-1.5.

### A Generalized Power-Law Diagnostic for Infrared Galaxies at z>1: Active Galactic Nuclei and Hot Interstellar Dust [Replacement]

I present a generalized power-law diagnostic that allows to identify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in infrared (IR) galaxies at z>1, down to flux densities at which the extragalactic IR background is mostly resolved. I derive this diagnostic from the analysis of 174 galaxies with Snu(24)>80 microJy and spectroscopic redshifts zspec>1 in the Chandra Deep Field South, for which I study the rest-frame UV/optical/near-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), after subtracting a hot-dust, power-law component with three possible spectral indices alpha=1.3, 2.0 and 3.0. I obtain that 35% of these 24micron sources are power-law composite galaxies (PLCGs), which I define as those galaxies for which the SED fitting with stellar templates, without any previous power-law subtraction, can be rejected with >2sigma confidence. Subtracting the power-law component from the PLCG SEDs produces stellar-mass correction factors <1.5 in >80% of cases. The PLCG incidence is especially high (47%) at z=1.0-1.5. To unveil which PLCGs host AGN, I conduct a combined analysis of 4Ms X-ray data, galaxy morphologies, and a greybody modelling of the hot dust. I find that: 1) 77% of all the X-ray AGN in my 24micron sample at z=1.0-1.5 are recognised by the PLCG criterion; 2) PLCGs with alpha=1.3 or 2.0 have regular morphologies and T_dust >~1000 K, indicating nuclear activity. Instead, PLCGs with alpha=3.0 are characterised by disturbed galaxy dynamics, and a hot interstellar medium can explain their dust temperatures T_dust ~700-800 K. Overall, my results indicate that the fraction of AGN among 24 micron sources is between ~30% and 52% at z=1.0-1.5.

### X-ray selected galaxy clusters in the Pan-STARRS Medium-Deep Survey [Replacement]

[abridged] We present the results of a pilot study for the extended MACS survey (eMACS), a comprehensive search for distant, X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.5. Our pilot study applies the eMACS concept to the 71 deg^2 area extended by the ten fields of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey (MDS). Candidate clusters are identified by visual inspection of PS1 images in the g,r, i, and z bands in a 5×5 arcmin^2 region around X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). To test and optimize the eMACS X-ray selection criteria, our pilot study uses the largest possible RASS database, i.e., all RASS sources listed in the Bright and Faint Source Catalogs (BSC and FSC) that fall within the MDS footprint. Scrutiny of PS1/MDS images for 41 BSC and 200 FSC sources combined with dedicated spectroscopic follow-up observations results in a sample of 11 clusters with estimated or spectroscopic redshifts of z>0.3. X-ray follow-up observations will be crucial in order to establish robust cluster luminosities for eMACS clusters. Although the small number of distant X-ray luminous clusters in the MDS does not allow us to make firm predictions for the over 20,000 deg^2 of extragalactic sky covered by eMACS, the identification of two extremely promising eMACS cluster candidates at z>0.6 (both yet to be observed with Chandra) in such a small solid angle is encouraging. Representing a tremendous gain over the presently known two dozen such systems from X-ray, optical, and SZ cluster surveys combined, the sample of over 100 extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 expected from eMACS would be invaluable for the identification of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe, as well as for in-depth and statistical studies of the physical properties of the most massive galaxy clusters out to z~1.

### X-ray selected galaxy clusters in the Pan-STARRS Medium-Deep Survey

[abridged] We present the results of a pilot study for the extended MACS survey (eMACS), a comprehensive search for distant, X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z>0.5. Our pilot study applies the eMACS concept to the 71 deg^2 area extended by the ten fields of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey (MDS). Candidate clusters are identified by visual inspection of PS1 images in the g,r, i, and z bands in a 5×5 arcmin^2 region around X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). To test and optimize the eMACS X-ray selection criteria, our pilot study uses the largest possible RASS database, i.e., all RASS sources listed in the Bright and Faint Source Catalogs (BSC and FSC) that fall within the MDS footprint. Scrutiny of PS1/MDS images for 41 BSC and 200 FSC sources combined with dedicated spectroscopic follow-up observations results in a sample of 11 clusters with estimated or spectroscopic redshifts of z>0.3. X-ray follow-up observations will be crucial in order to establish robust cluster luminosities for eMACS clusters. Although the small number of distant X-ray luminous clusters in the MDS does not allow us to make firm predictions for the over 20,000 deg^2 of extragalactic sky covered by eMACS, the identification of two extremely promising eMACS cluster candidates at z>0.6 (both yet to be observed with Chandra) in such a small solid angle is encouraging. Representing a tremendous gain over the presently known two dozen such systems from X-ray, optical, and SZ cluster surveys combined, the sample of over 100 extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 expected from eMACS would be invaluable for the identification of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe, as well as for in-depth and statistical studies of the physical properties of the most massive galaxy clusters out to z~1.

### The evolution of the AGN content in groups up to z~1

Determining the AGN content in structures of different mass/velocity dispersion and comparing them to higher mass/lower redshift analogs is important to understand how the AGN formation process is related to environmental properties. We use our well-tested cluster finding algorithm to identify structures in the GOODS North and South fields, exploiting the available spectroscopic redshifts and accurate photometric redshifts. We identify 9 structures in GOODS-south (presented in a previous paper) and 8 new structures in GOODS-north. We only consider structures where at least 2/3 of the members brighter than M_R=-20 have a spectroscopic redshift. For those group members that coincide with X-ray sources in the 4 and 2 Msec Chandra source catalogs respectively, we determine if the X-ray emission originates from AGN activity or it is related to the galaxies’ star-formation activity. We find that the fraction of AGN with Log L_H > 42 erg/s in galaxies with M_R < -20 is on average 6.3+-1.3%, much higher than in lower redshift groups of similar mass and more than double the fraction found in massive clusters at a similarly high redshift. We then explore the spatial distribution of AGN in the structures and find that they preferentially populate the outer regions. The colors of AGN host galaxies in structures tend to be confined to the green valley, thus avoiding the blue cloud and, partially, also the red-sequence, contrary to what happens in the field. We finally compare our results to the predictions of two sets of semi analytic models to investigate the evolution of AGN and evaluate potential triggering and fueling mechanisms. The outcome of this comparison attests the importance of galaxy encounters, not necessarily leading to mergers, as an efficient AGN triggering mechanism. (abridged)

### Mass assembly in quiescent and star-forming galaxies since z=4 from UltraVISTA [Replacement]

We estimate the galaxy stellar mass function and stellar mass density for star-forming and quiescent galaxies with 0.2<z<4. We construct a deep K<24 sample of 220000 galaxies selected using the UltraVISTA DR1 data release. Our analysis is based on precise 30-band photometric redshifts. By comparing these photometric redshifts with 10800 spectroscopic redshifts from the zCOSMOS bright and faint surveys, we find a precision of sigma(dz/(1+z))=0.008 at i<22.5 and sigma(dz/(1+zs))=0.03 at 1.5<z<4. We derive the stellar mass function and correct for the Eddington bias. We find a mass-dependent evolution of the global and star-forming populations. This mass-dependent evolution is a direct consequence of the star formation being quenched in galaxies more massive than M>10^10.7Msun. For the mass function of the quiescent galaxies, we do not find any significant evolution of the high-mass end at z<1; however we observe a clear flattening of the faint-end slope. From z~3 to z~1, the density of quiescent galaxies increases over the entire mass range. Their comoving stellar mass density increases by 1.6 dex between z~3 and z~1 and by less than 0.2dex at z<1. We infer the star formation history from the mass density evolution and we find an excellent agreement with instantaneous star formation rate measurements at z<1.5, while we find differences of 0.2dex at z>1.5 consistent with the expected uncertainties. We also develop a new method to infer the specific star formation rate from the mass function of star-forming galaxies. We find that the specific star formation rate of 10^10Msun galaxies increases continuously in the redshift range 1<z<4. Finally, we compare our results with a semi-analytical model and find that these models overestimate the density of low mass quiescent galaxies by an order of magnitude, while the density of low-mass star-forming galaxies is successfully reproduced.

### Updated catalog of 132,684 galaxy clusters and evolution of brightest cluster galaxies

We identified 132,684 clusters in the redshift range of 0.05<z<0.8 from SDSS DR8. The spectroscopic redshifts of 52,683 clusters have been included in the catalog using SDSS DR9 data. We found that BCGs are more luminous in richer clusters and at higher redshifts.

### A Redshift Survey of Herschel Far-Infrared Selected Starbursts and Implications for Obscured Star Formation

We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500um, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS). The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) peaks at z=0.85, with 731 sources at z<2 and a tail of sources out to z~5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (<delta_z>/(1+z)>=0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. We estimate that the vast majority (72-83%) of z<2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1mm. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star-formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z<1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24um extrapolations of the LIRG, ULIRG and total infrared contributions. This work significantly increased the number of spectroscopically confirmed infrared-luminous galaxies at z>>0 and demonstrates the growing importance of dusty starbursts for galaxy evolution studies and the build-up of stellar mass throughout cosmic time. [abridged]

### A Redshift Survey of Herschel Far-Infrared Selected Starbursts and Implications for Obscured Star Formation [Replacement]

We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500um, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS). The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) peaks at z=0.85, with 731 sources at z<2 and a tail of sources out to z~5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (<delta_z>/(1+z)>=0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. We estimate that the vast majority (72-83%) of z<2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1mm. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star-formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z<1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24um extrapolations of the LIRG, ULIRG and total infrared contributions. This work significantly increased the number of spectroscopically confirmed infrared-luminous galaxies at z>>0 and demonstrates the growing importance of dusty starbursts for galaxy evolution studies and the build-up of stellar mass throughout cosmic time. [abridged]

### Proto-groups at 1.8<z<3 in the zCOSMOS-deep sample [Replacement]

We identify 42 candidate groups lying between 1.8<z<3.0 from a sample of 3502 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the zCOSMOS-deep redshift survey within the same redshift interval. These systems contain three to five spectroscopic galaxies that lie within 500kpc in projected distance (in physical space) and within 700km/s in velocity. Based on extensive analysis of mock catalogues that have been generated from the Millennium simulation, we examine the likely nature of these systems at the time of observation, and what they will evolve into down to the present epoch. Although few of the "member" galaxies are likely to reside in the same halo at the epoch we observe them, 50% of the systems will eventually bring them all into the same halo, and almost all (93%) will have at least part of the member galaxies in the same halo by the present epoch. Most of the candidate groups can therefore be described as "proto-groups". An estimate of the overdensities is also consistent with the idea that these systems are being seen at the start of the assembly process. We also examine present-day haloes and ask whether their progenitors would have been seen amongst our candidate groups. For present-day haloes between 10^14-10^15Msun/h, 35% should have appeared amongst our candidate groups, and this would have risen to 70% if our survey had been fully-sampled, so we can conclude that our sample can be taken as representative of a large fraction of such systems. There is a clear excess of massive galaxies above 10^10Msun around the locations of the candidate groups in a large independent COSMOS photo-z sample, but we see no evidence in this latter data for any colour differentiation with respect to the field. This is however consistent with the idea that such differentiation arises in satellite galaxies, as indicated at z<1, if the candidate groups are indeed only starting to be assembled.

### The Low Mass End of the Fundamental Relation for Gravitationally Lensed Star Forming Galaxies at 1<z<6

We present VLT/X-shooter spectra of 13 galaxies in the redshift range 1< z < 6, which are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters. Spectroscopic redshifts are measured for nine galaxies, while three sources have redshifts determined from continuum breaks in their spectra. The stellar masses of the galaxies span four orders of magnitude between 10^7 and 10^11 M_sun and have luminosities at 1500 A rest-frame between 0.004 and 9 L^* after correcting for the magnification. This allows us to probe a variety of galaxy types from young, low-mass starburst galaxies to massive evolved galaxies. The lensed galaxies with stellar masses less than 10^10 M_sun have a large scatter compared to the fundamental relation between stellar mass, star formation rates and oxygen abundances. We provide a modified fit to the fundamental relation for low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies with a weaker dependence of the metallicity on either the star formation rate or stellar mass compared to low-redshift, high-mass and high-metallicity SDSS galaxies.

### Automated measurement of redshift from mid-infrared low resolution spectroscopy

We present a new SED-fitting based routine for redshift determination that is optimised for mid-infrared (MIR) low-resolution spectroscopy. Its flexible template scaling increases the sensitivity to slope changes and small scale features in the spectrum, while a new selection algorithm called Maximum Combined Pseudo-Likelihood (MCPL) provides increased accuracy and a lower number of outliers compared to the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. Unlike ML, MCPL searches for local (instead of absolute) maxima of a ‘pseudo-likelihood’ (PL) function, and combines results obtained for all the templates in the library to weed out spurious redshift solutions. The capabilities of MCPL are demonstrated by comparing its results to those of regular ML and to the optical spectroscopic redshifts of a sample of 491 Spitzer/IRS spectra from sources at 0<z<3.7. MCPL achieves a redshift accuracy dz/(1+z)<0.005 for 78% of the galaxies in the sample compared to 68% for ML. The rate of outliers (dz/(1+z)>0.02) is 14% for MCPL and 22% for ML. chi^2 values for ML solutions are found to correlate with the SNR of the spectra, but not with redshift accuracy. By contrast, the peak value of the normalised combined PL (gamma) is found to provide a good indication on the reliability of the MCPL solution for individual sources. The accuracy and reliability of the redshifts depends strongly on the MIR SED. Sources with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission obtain much better results compared to sources dominated by AGN continuum. Nevertheless, for a given gamma the frequency of accurate solutions and outliers is largely independent on their SED type. This reliability indicator for MCPL solutions allows to select subsamples with highly reliable redshifts. In particular, a gamma>0.15 threshold retains 79% of the sources with dz/(1+z)<0.005 while reducing the outlier rate to 3.8% (abridged).

### "Invisible AGN" I: Sample Selection and Optical/Near-IR Spectral Energy Distributions

In order to find more examples of the elusive high-redshift molecular absorbers, we have embarked on a systematic discovery program for highly obscured, radio-loud "invisible AGN" using the VLA Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) radio survey in conjunction with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify 82 strong (> 300 mJy) radio sources positionally coincident with late-type, presumably gas-rich galaxies. In this first paper, the basic properties of this sample are described including the selection process and the analysis of the spectral-energydistributions (SEDs) derived from the optical (SDSS) + near-IR (NIR) photometry obtained by us at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m. The NIR images confirm the late-type galaxy morphologies found by SDSS for these sources in all but a few (6 of 70) cases (12 previously well-studied or misclassified sources were culled). Among 70 sources in the final sample, 33 show galaxy type SEDs, 17 have galaxy components to their SEDs, and 20 have quasar power-law continua. At least 9 sources with galaxy SEDs have K-band flux densities too faint to be giant ellipticals if placed at their photometric redshifts. Photometric redshifts for this sample are analyzed and found to be too inaccurate for an efficient radio-frequency absorption line search; spectroscopic redshifts are required. A few new spectroscopic redshifts for these sources are presented here but more will be needed to make significant progress in this field. Subsequent papers will describe the radio continuum properties of the sample and the search for redshifted H I 21 cm absorption.

### The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey: Spectroscopic Catalogue and Radio Luminosity Functions

The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) has surveyed seven square degrees of sky around the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the European Large Area ISO Survey – South 1 (ELAIS-S1) fields at 1.4 GHz. ATLAS aims to reach a uniform sensitivity of $10 \mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ rms over the entire region with data release 1 currently reaching $\sim30 \mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ rms. Here we present 466 new spectroscopic redshifts for radio sources in ATLAS as part of our optical follow-up program. Of the 466 radio sources with new spectroscopic redshifts, 142 have star-forming optical spectra, 282 show evidence for AGN in their optical spectra, 10 have stellar spectra and 32 have spectra revealing redshifts, but with insufficient features to classify. We compare our spectroscopic classifications with two mid-infrared diagnostics and find them to be in broad agreement. We also construct the radio luminosity function for star-forming galaxies to z $= 0.5$ and for AGN to z $= 0.8$. The radio luminosity function for star-forming galaxies appears to be in good agreement with previous studies. The radio luminosity function for AGN appears higher than previous studies of the local AGN radio luminosity function. We explore the possibility of evolution, cosmic variance and classification techniques affecting the AGN radio luminosity function. ATLAS is a pathfinder for the forthcoming EMU survey and the data presented in this paper will be used to guide EMU’s survey design and early science papers.

### IDCS J1433.2+3306: An IR-Selected Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.89

We report the discovery of an IR-selected galaxy cluster in the IRAC Distant Cluster Survey (IDCS). New data from the Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopically confirm IDCS J1433.2+3306 at z = 1.89 with robust spectroscopic redshifts for seven members, two of which are based on the 4000 Angstrom break. Detected emission lines such as [OII] and Hbeta indicate star formation rates of >20 solar masses per year for three galaxies within a 500 kpc projected radius of the cluster center. The cluster exhibits a red sequence with a scatter and color indicative of a formation redshift z > 3.5. The stellar age of the early-type galaxy population is approximately consistent with those of clusters at lower redshift (1 < z < 1.5) suggesting that clusters at these redshifts are experiencing ongoing or increasing star formation.

### Deep observations of CO line emission from star-forming galaxies in a cluster candidate at z=1.5

We report results from a deep Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) search for CO 1-0 line emission from galaxies in a candidate galaxy cluster at z~1.55 in the COSMOS field. We target 4 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the range z=1.47-1.59. Two of these 4 galaxies, ID51613 and ID51813, are nominally detected in CO line emission at the 3-4 sigma level. We find CO luminosities of 2.4×10^10 K km/s pc^2 and 1.3×10^10 K km/s pc^2, respectively. Taking advantage from the clustering and 2-GHz bandwidth of the JVLA, we perform a search for emission lines in the proximity of optical sources within the field of view of our observations. We limit our search to galaxies with K<23.5 (AB) and z_phot=1.2-1.8. We find 2 bright optical galaxies to be associated with significant emission line peaks (>4 sigma) in the data cube, which we identify with the CO line emission. To test the reliability of the line peaks found, we performed a parallel search for line peaks using a Bayesian inference method. Monte Carlo simulations show that such associations are statistically significant, with probabilities of chance association of 3.5% and 10.7% for ID 51207 and ID 51380, respectively. Modeling of their optical/IR SEDs indicates that the CO detected galaxies and candidates have stellar masses and SFRs in the range (0.3-1.1)x10^11 M_sun and 60-160 M_sun/yr, with SFEs comparable to that found in other star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. By comparing the space density of CO emitters derived from our observations with the space density derived from previous CO detections at z~1.5, and with semi-analytic predictions for the CO luminosity function, we suggest that the latter tend to underestimate the number of CO galaxies detected at high-redshift. Finally, we argue about the benefits of future blind CO searches in clustered fields with upcoming submm/radio facilities.

### A Fully-Identified Sample of AEGIS20 Microjansky Radio Sources

Infrared 3.6 to 8 micron images of the Extended Groth Strip yield plausible counterpart identifications for all but one of 510 radio sources in the AEGIS20 S(1.4 GHz) > 50 micro-Jy sample. This is the first such deep sample that has been effectively 100% identified. Achieving the same identification rate at R-band would require observations reaching R_AB > 27. Spectroscopic redshifts are available for 46% of the sample and photometric redshifts for an additional 47%. Almost all of the sources with 3.6 micron AB magnitudes brighter than 19 have spectroscopic redshifts z < 1.1, while fainter objects predominantly have photometric redshifts with 1 \lapprox z \lapprox 3. Unlike more powerful radio sources that are hosted by galaxies having large stellar masses within a relatively narrow range, the AEGIS20 counterparts have stellar masses spanning more than a factor of 10 at z \sim 1. The sources are roughly 10–15% starbursts at z \lapprox 0.5 and 20–25% AGNs mostly at z > 1 with the remainder of uncertain nature.

### Initial Results from the Nobeyama Molecular Gas Observations of Distant Bright Galaxies

We present initial results from the CO survey toward high redshift galaxies using the Nobeyama 45m telescope. Using the new wide bandwidth spectrometer equipped with a two-beam SIS receiver, we have robust new detections of three high redshift (z=1.6-3.4) submillimeter galaxies (SXDF 1100.001, SDP9, and SDP17), one tentative detection (SDSS J160705+533558), and one non-detection (COSMOS-AzTEC1). The galaxies observed during the commissioning phase are sources with known spectroscopic redshifts from previous optical or from wide-band submm spectroscopy. The derived molecular gas mass and line widths from Gaussian fits are ~10^11 Msun and 430-530 km/s, which are consistent with previous CO observations of distant submm galaxies and quasars. The spectrometer that allows a maximum of 32 GHz instantaneous bandwidth will provide new science capabilities at the Nobeyama 45m telescope, allowing us to determine redshifts of bright submm selected galaxies without any prior redshift information.

### Photometric redshifts with Quasi Newton Algorithm (MLPQNA). Results in the PHAT1 contest [Replacement]

Context. Since the advent of modern multiband digital sky surveys, photometric redshifts (photo-z’s) have become relevant if not crucial to many fields of observational cosmology, from the characterization of cosmic structures, to weak and strong lensing. Aims. We describe an application to an astrophysical context, namely the evaluation of photometric redshifts, of MLPQNA, a machine learning method based on Quasi Newton Algorithm. Methods. Theoretical methods for photo-z’s evaluation are based on the interpolation of a priori knowledge (spectroscopic redshifts or SED templates) and represent an ideal comparison ground for neural networks based methods. The MultiLayer Perceptron with Quasi Newton learning rule (MLPQNA) described here is a computing effective implementation of Neural Networks for the first time exploited to solve regression problems in the astrophysical context and is offered to the community through the DAMEWARE (DAta Mining & ExplorationWeb Application REsource) infrastructure. Results. The PHAT contest (Hildebrandt et al. 2010) provides a standard dataset to test old and new methods for photometric redshift evaluation and with a set of statistical indicators which allow a straightforward comparison among different methods. The MLPQNA model has been applied on the whole PHAT1 dataset of 1984 objects after an optimization of the model performed by using as training set the 515 available spectroscopic redshifts. When applied to the PHAT1 dataset, MLPQNA obtains the best bias accuracy (0.0006) and very competitive accuracies in terms of scatter (0.056) and outlier percentage (16.3%), scoring as the second most effective empirical method among those which have so far participated to the contest. MLPQNA shows better generalization capabilities than most other empirical methods especially in presence of underpopulated regions of the Knowledge Base.

### Multicolor Photometry of the Nearby Galaxy Cluster A119

This paper presents multicolor optical photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 119 (z = 0:0442) with the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system of 15 intermediate bands. Within the BATC viewing field of 58′* 58′, there are 368 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, including 238 member galaxies (called sample I). Based on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 1376 galaxies brighter than iBATC = 19:5, photometric redshift technique and the color-magnitude relation of earlytype galaxies are applied to select faint member galaxies. As a result, 117 faint galaxies were selected as new member galaxies. Combined with sample I, an enlarged sample (called sample II) of 355 member galaxies is obtained. Spatial distribution and localized velocity structure for two samples demonstrate that A119 is a dynamically complex cluster with at least three prominent substructures in the central region within 1 Mpc. A large velocity dispersion for the central clump indicates a merging along the line of sight. No significant evidences for morphology and luminosity segregations are found in both samples. With the evolutionary synthesis model PEGASE, environmental effect on the star formation properties is confirmed. Faint galaxies in low-density region tend to have longer time scales of star formation, smaller mean stellar ages, and lower metallicities of interstellar medium, which is in agreement with the context of hierarchical cosmological scenario.

### A z~3 radio galaxy and its protocluster: evidence for a superstructure?

We present spectroscopic follow-up observations of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) selected in the field surrounding the radio galaxy MRC0316-257 at z~3.13 (0316). Robust spectroscopic redshifts are determined for 20 out of 24 objects. Three of the spectroscopically confirmed galaxies have 3.12<z<3.13 indicating that these objects reside in a protocluster structure previously found around the radio galaxy. An additional 5 objects are found 1600 km/s blue-shifted with respect to the main protocluster structure. This is in addition to three [OIII] emitters found at this redshift in a previous study. This is further evidence that a structure exists directly in front of the 0316 protocluster. We estimate that the foreground structure is responsible for half of the surface overdensity of LBGs found in the field as a whole. The foreground structure is associated with a strong surface density peak 1.4 Mpc to the North-West of the radio galaxy and a 2D Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicates that the spatial distributions of the 0316 and foreground galaxies differ at the 3 sigma level. In addition, we compare the properties of protocluster, foreground structure and field galaxies, but we find no significant differences. In terms of the nature of the two structures, a merger scenario is a possible option. Simple merger dynamics indicates that the observed relative velocity of 1600 km/s can be reproduced if the two structures have masses of ~5×10^14 Msun and have starting separations of around 2.5 to 3 Mpc. It is also possible that the foreground structure is unrelated to the 0316 protocluster in which case the two structures will not interact before z=0.

### Comparison of the properties of two fossil groups of galaxies with the normal group NGC 6034 based on multiband imaging and optical spectroscopy

We collected multiband imaging and spectroscopy for two fossil groups (RX J1119.7+2126 and 1RXS J235814.4+150524) and one normal group (NGC 6034). We computed photometric redshifts in the central zones of each group, combining previous data with the SDSS five-band data. For each group we investigated the red sequence (RS) of the color-magnitude relation and computed the luminosity functions, stellar population ages and distributions of the group members. Spectroscopy allowed us to investigate the large-scale surroundings of these groups and the substructure levels in 1RXS J235814.4+150524 and NGC 6034. The large-scale environment of 1RXS J235814.4+150524 is poor, though its galaxy density map shows a clear signature of the surrounding cosmic web. RX J1119.7+2126 appears to be very isolated, while the cosmic environment of NGC 6034 is very rich. At the group scale, 1RXS J235814.4+150524 shows no substructure. Galaxies with recent stellar populations seem preferentially located in the group outskirts. A RS is discernable for all three groups in a color-magnitude diagram. The luminosity functions based on photometric redshift selection and on statistical background subtraction have comparable shapes, and agree with the few points obtained from spectroscopic redshifts. These luminosity functions show the expected dip between first and second brightest galaxies for the fossil groups only. Their shape is also regular and relatively flat at faint magnitudes down to the completeness level for RX J1119.7+2126 and NGC 6034, while there is a clear lack of faint galaxies for 1RXS J235814.4+150524. RX J1119.7+2126 is definitely classified as a fossil group; 1RXS J235814.4+150524 also has properties very close to those of a fossil group, while we confirm that NGC 6034 is a normal group.

### A Significant Problem With Using the Amati Relation for Cosmological Purposes

We consider the distribution of many samples of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) when plotted in a diagram with their bolometric fluence (Sbolo) versus the observed photon energy of peak spectral flux (Epeak,obs). In this diagram, bursts that obey the Amati relation must lie above some limiting line, although observational scatter is expected to be substantial. We confirm that early bursts with spectroscopic redshifts are consistent with this limit. But, we find that the bursts from BATSE, Swift, Suzaku, and Konus are all greatly in violation of the limit. In the Sbolo-Epeak,obs diagram, we find that every satellite has a greatly different distribution. This requires that selection effects are dominating these distributions, which we identify. For detector selections, the trigger threshold and the threshold to measure Epeak,obs combine to make a diagonal cutoff with the position of this cutoff varying greatly detector to detector. For selection effects due to the intrinsic properties of the burst population, the distribution of Epeak,obs makes for bursts with low and high values to be rare, while the fluence distribution makes bright bursts uncommon. For a poor threshold, the combination of selection effects serves to allow only bursts within a region along the limit to be measured; these bursts will then appear to follow an Amati relation. Therefore, the Amati relation is an artifact of selection effects within the burst population and the detector. Therefore, the Amati relation should not be used for cosmological tasks. This failure is in no way prejudicial against the other luminosity relations.

### The SDSS Coadd: A Galaxy Photometric Redshift Catalog

We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z’s) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Coadd Data. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to calculate photo-z’s and the Nearest Neighbor Error (NNE) method to estimate photo-z errors for $\sim$ 13 million objects classified as galaxies in the coadd with $r < 24.5$. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of $\sim 89,000$ galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey (CNOC2), the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3(DEEP2 DR3), the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), the VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph – Very Large Telescope Deep Survey (VVDS) and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than $\sigma_{68} =0.036$. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

### The SDSS Coadd: A Galaxy Photometric Redshift Catalog [Replacement]

We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z’s) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Coadd Data. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to calculate photo-z’s and the Nearest Neighbor Error (NNE) method to estimate photo-z errors for $\sim$ 13 million objects classified as galaxies in the coadd with $r < 24.5$. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of $\sim 83,000$ galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey (CNOC2), the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3(DEEP2 DR3), the VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph – Very Large Telescope Deep Survey (VVDS) and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than $\sigma_{68} =0.031$. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

### Photometry and Photometric Redshift catalogs for the Lockman Hole Deep Field

We present broad band photometry and photometric redshifts for 187611 sources located in ~0.5deg^2 in the Lockman Hole area. The catalog includes 389 X-ray detected sources identified with the very deep XMM-Newton observations available for an area of 0.2 deg^2. The source detection was performed on the Rc, z’ and B band images and the available photometry is spanning from the far ultraviolet to the mid infrared, reaching in the best case scenario 21 bands. Astrometry corrections and photometric cross-calibrations over the entire dataset allowed the computation of accurate photometric redshifts. Special treatment is undertaken for the X-ray sources, the majority of which is active galactic nuclei. Comparing the photometric redshifts to the available spectroscopic redshifts we achieve for normal galaxies an accuracy of \sigma_{\Delta z/(1+z)}=0.036, with 12.7% outliers, while for the X-ray detected sources the accuracy is \sigma_{\Delta z/(1+z)}=0.069, with 18.3% outliers, where the outliers are defined as sources with |z_{phot}-z_{spec}|>0.15 (1+z_{spec})}. These results are a significant improvement over the previously available photometric redshifts for normal galaxies in the Lockman Hole, while it is the first time that photometric redshifts are computed and made public for AGN for this field.

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