Posts Tagged snr

Recent Postings from snr

Supernova Feedback and the Hot Gas Filling Fraction of the Interstellar Medium

Supernovae are the most energetic among stellar feedback processes, and are crucial for regulating the interstellar medium (ISM) and launching galactic winds. We explore how supernova remnants (SNRs) create a multiphase medium by performing high resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations at various SN rates, $S$, and ISM average densities, $n$. We find that the evolution of a SNR in a self-consistently generated three-phase ISM is qualitatively different from that in a uniform or a two-phase warm/cold medium. By traveling faster and further in the cooling-inefficient hot phase, the spatial-temporal domain of a SNR is enlarged by $>10^{2.5}$ in a hot-dominated multiphase medium (HDMM) compared to the uniform case. We then examine the resultant ISM as we vary $n$ and $S$, finding that a steady state can only be achieved when the hot gas volume fraction \fvh $\lesssim 0.6\pm 0.1$. Above that, overlapping SNRs render connecting topology of the hot gas, and such a HDMM is subjected to thermal runaway with growing pressure and \fvh. Photoelectric heating (PEH) has a surprisingly strong impact on \fvh. For $n \gtrsim 3 cm^{-3}$, a reasonable PEH rate is able to suppress the ISM from undergoing thermal runaway. Overall, we determine that the critical SN rate for the onset of thermal runaway is roughly $S_{crit} = 200 (n/1cm^{-3})^k (E_{SN}/10^{51} erg)^{-1} kpc^{-3} Myr^{-1}$, where k=(1.2,2.7) for $n$ < 1 and >1 cm$^{-3}$, respectively. We present a fitting formula of the ISM pressure $P(n, S)$, which can be used as an effective equation of state in cosmological simulations. The observed velocities of OB stars imply that the core collapse SN are almost randomly located on scales $\lesssim$ 150 pc. Despite the 5 orders of magnitude span of $(n,S)$, the average Mach number shows very small variations: $M \approx 0.5\pm 0.2, 1.2\pm 0.3, 2.3\pm 0.9$ for the hot, warm and cold phases, respectively.

Radio spectral characteristics of the supernova remnant Puppis A and nearby sources

This paper presents a new study of the spectral index distribution of the supernova remnant (SNR) Puppis A. The nature of field compact sources is also investigated according to the measured spectral indices. This work is based on new observations of Puppis A and its surroundings performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in two configurations using the Compact Array Broad-band Backend centered at 1.75 GHz. We find that the global spectral index of Puppis A is -0.563 +/- 0.013. Local variations have been detected, however this global index represents well the bulk of the SNR. At the SE, we found a pattern of parallel strips with a flat spectrum compatible with small-scale filaments, although not correlated in detail. The easternmost filament agrees with the idea that the SN shock front is interacting with an external cloud. There is no evidence of the previously suggested correlation between emissivity and spectral index. A number of compact features are proposed to be evolved clumps of ejecta based on their spectral indices, although dynamic measurements are needed to confirm this hypothesis. We estimate precise spectral indices for the five previously known field sources, two of which are found to be double (one of them, probably triple), and catalogue 40 new sources. In the light of these new determinations, the extragalactic nature previously accepted for some compact sources is now in doubt.

Kepler's Supernova: An Overluminous Type Ia Event Interacting with a Massive Circumstellar Medium at a Very Late Phase

We have analyzed XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Suzaku observations of Kepler’s supernova remnant (SNR) to investigate the properties of both the SN ejecta and the circumstellar medium (CSM). For comparison, we have also analyzed two similarly-aged, ejecta-dominated SNRs: Tycho’s SNR, thought to be the remnant of a typical Type Ia SN, and SNR 0509-67.5 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, thought to be the remnant of an overluminous Type Ia SN. By simply comparing the X-ray spectra, we find that line intensity ratios of iron-group elements (IGE) to intermediate-mass elements (IME) for Kepler’s SNR and SNR 0509-67.5 are much higher than those for Tycho’s SNR. We therefore argue that Kepler is the product of an overluminous Type Ia SN. This inference is supported by our spectral modeling, which reveals the IGE and IME masses respectively to be ~0.95 M_sun and ~0.12 M_sun (Kepler’s SNR), ~0.75 M_sun and ~0.34 M_sun (SNR 0509-67.5), and ~0.35 M_sun and ~0.70 M_sun (Tycho’s SNR). We find that the CSM component in Kepler’s SNR consists of tenuous diffuse gas (~0.3 M_sun) present throughout the entire remnant, plus dense knots (~0.035 M_sun). Both of these components have an elevated N abundance (N/H ~ 4 times the solar value), suggesting that they originate from CNO-processed material from the progenitor system. The mass of the diffuse CSM allows us to infer the pre-SN mass-loss rate to be ~1.5e-5 (V_w/10 km/s) M_sun/yr, in general agreement with results from recent hydrodynamical simulations. Since the dense knots have slow proper motions and relatively small ionization timescales, they were likely located a few pc away from the progenitor system. Therefore, we argue that Kepler’s SN was an overluminous event that started to interact with massive CSM a few hundred years after the explosion. This supports the possible link between overluminous SNe and the so-called "Ia-CSM" SNe.

Late-time Evolution of Composite Supernova Remnants: Deep Chandra Observations and Hydrodynamical Modeling of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in SNR G327.1-1.1

In an effort to better understand the evolution of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the eventual fate of relativistic particles injected by their pulsars, we present a multifaceted investigation of the interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host SNR G327.1-1.1. Our 350 ks Chandra X-ray observations of SNR G327.1-1.1 reveal a highly complex morphology; a cometary structure resembling a bow shock, prong-like features extending into large arcs in the SNR interior, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. Spectral analysis of the non-thermal emission offers clues about the origin of the PWN structures, while enhanced abundances in the PWN region provide evidence for mixing of supernova ejecta with PWN material. The overall morphology and spectral properties of the SNR suggest that the PWN has undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SNR reverse shock (RS) that can occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and/or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center of the remnant. We present hydrodynamical simulations of G327.1-1.1 that show that its morphology and evolution can be described by a ~ 17,000 yr old composite SNR that expanded into a density gradient with an orientation perpendicular to the pulsar’s motion. We also show that the RS/PWN interaction scenario can reproduce the broadband spectrum of the PWN from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The analysis and modeling presented in this work have important implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

Study of TeV shell supernova remnants at gamma-ray energies

The breakthrough developments of Cherenkov telescopes in the last decade have led to angular resolution of 0.1{\deg} and an unprecedented sensitivity. This has allowed the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes to discover a population of supernova remnants (SNRs) radiating in very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-rays. A number of those VHE SNRs exhibit a shell-type morphology spatially coincident with the shock front of the SNR. The members of this VHE shell SNR club are RX J1713.7-3946, Vela Jr, RCW 86, SN 1006, and HESS J1731-347. The latter two objects have been poorly studied in high-energy (HE, 0.1<E<100 GeV) gamma-rays and need to be investigated in order to draw the global picture of this class of SNRs and constrain the characteristics of the underlying population of accelerated particles. Using 6 years of Fermi P7 reprocessed data, we studied the HE counterpart of the SNRs HESS J1731-347 and SN 1006. The two SNRs are not detected in the data and given that there is no hint of detection, we do not expect any detection in the coming years from the SNRs. However in both cases, we derived upper limits that significantly constrain the gamma-ray emission mechanism and can rule out a standard hadronic scenario with a confidence level > 5 sigma. With this Fermi analysis, we now have a complete view of the HE to VHE gamma-ray emission of TeV shell SNRs. All five sources have a hard HE photon index (<1.8) suggesting a common scenario where the bulk of the emission is produced by accelerated electrons radiating from radio to VHE gamma-rays through synchrotron and inverse Compton processes. In addition when correcting for the distance, all SNRs show a surprisingly similar gamma-ray luminosity supporting the idea of a common emission mechanism. While the gamma-ray emission is likely to be leptonic dominated, this does not rule out efficient hadron acceleration in those SNRs.

Possible golden events for ringdown gravitational waves

There is a forbidden region in the parameter space of quasinormal modes of black holes in general relativity. Using both inspiral and ringdown phases of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we propose two methods to test general relativity. We also evaluate how our methods will work when we apply them to Pop III black-hole binaries with typical masses. Adopting simple mean of the estimated range of the event rate, we have the expected rate of 500 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$. Then, the rates of events with SNR $>20$ and SNR $>50$ are 32 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$ and 2 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$, respectively. Therefore, there is a good chance to confirm (or refute) the Einstein theory in the strong gravity region by observing the expected quasinormal modes.

Possible golden events for ringdown gravitational waves [Cross-Listing]

There is a forbidden region in the parameter space of quasinormal modes of black holes in general relativity. Using both inspiral and ringdown phases of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we propose two methods to test general relativity. We also evaluate how our methods will work when we apply them to Pop III black-hole binaries with typical masses. Adopting simple mean of the estimated range of the event rate, we have the expected rate of 500 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$. Then, the rates of events with SNR $>20$ and SNR $>50$ are 32 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$ and 2 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$, respectively. Therefore, there is a good chance to confirm (or refute) the Einstein theory in the strong gravity region by observing the expected quasinormal modes.

Possible golden events for ringdown gravitational waves [Replacement]

There is a forbidden region in the parameter space of quasinormal modes of black holes in general relativity. Using both inspiral and ringdown phases of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we propose two methods to test general relativity. We also evaluate how our methods will work when we apply them to Pop III black-hole binaries with typical masses. Adopting simple mean of the estimated range of the event rate, we have the expected rate of 500 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$. Then, the rates of events with SNR $>20$ and SNR $>50$ are 32 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$ and 2 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$, respectively. Therefore, there is a good chance to confirm (or refute) the Einstein theory in the strong gravity region by observing the expected quasinormal modes.

Possible golden events for ringdown gravitational waves [Replacement]

There is a forbidden region in the parameter space of quasinormal modes of black holes in general relativity. Using both inspiral and ringdown phases of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we propose two methods to test general relativity. We also evaluate how our methods will work when we apply them to Pop III black-hole binaries with typical masses. Adopting simple mean of the estimated range of the event rate, we have the expected rate of 500 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$. Then, the rates of events with SNR $>20$ and SNR $>50$ are 32 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$ and 2 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$, respectively. Therefore, there is a good chance to confirm (or refute) the Einstein theory in the strong gravity region by observing the expected quasinormal modes.

N49: the first robust discovery of a recombining plasma in an extra galactic supernova remnant

Recent discoveries of recombining plasmas (RPs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) have dramatically changed our understanding of SNR evolution. To date, a dozen of RP SNRs have been identified in the Galaxy. Here we present Suzaku deep observations of four SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), N49, N49B, N23, and DEM L71, for accurate determination of their plasma state. Our uniform analysis reveals that only N49 is in the recombining state among them, which is the first robust discovery of a RP from an extra-galactic SNR. Given that RPs have been identified only in core-collapse SNRs, our result strongly suggests a massive star origin of this SNR. On the other hand, no clear evidence for a RP is confirmed in N23, from which detection of recombination lines and continua was previously claimed. Comparing the physical properties of the RP SNRs identified so far, we find that all of them are categorized into the "mixed-morphology" class and interacting with surrounding molecular clouds. This might be a key to solve formation mechanisms of the RPs.

Dynamical evolution of supernova remnants breaking through molecular clouds

We carry out three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova remnants (SNRs) produced inside molecular clouds (MCs) near their surface using the HLL code (Harten et al. 1983). We explore the dynamical evolution and the X-ray morphology of SNRs after breaking through the MC surface for ranges of the explosion depths below the surface and the density ratios of the clouds to the intercloud media (ICM). We find that if an SNR breaks out through an MC surface in its Sedov stage, the outermost dense shell of the remnant is divided into several layers. The divided layers are subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and fragmented. On the other hand, if an SNR breaks through an MC after the remnant enters the snowplow phase, the radiative shell is not divided to layers. We also compare the predictions of previous analytic solutions for the expansion of SNRs in stratified media with our onedimensional simulations. Moreover, we produce synthetic X-ray surface brightness in order to research the center-bright X-ray morphology shown in thermal composite SNRs. In the late stages, a breakout SNR shows the center-bright X-ray morphology inside an MC in our results. We apply our model to the observational results of the X-ray morphology of the thermal composite SNR 3C 391.

XMM-Newton observation of SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

Aims. We present an X-ray study of the supernova remnant SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine its physical characteristics based on its X-ray emission. Methods. We observed SNR J0533-7202 with XMM-Newton (flare-filtered exposure times of 18 ks EPIC-pn and 31 ks EPIC-MOS1/MOS2). We produced X-ray images of the SNR, performed an X-ray spectral analysis, and compared the results to multi-wavelength studies. Results. The distribution of X-ray emission is highly non-uniform, with the south-west region brighter than the north-east. The X-ray emission is correlated with the radio emission from the remnant. We determine that this morphology is likely due to the SNR expanding into a non-uniform ambient medium and not an absorption effect. We estimate the size to be 53.9 (\pm 3.4) x 43.6 (\pm 3.4) pc, with the major axis rotated ~64 degrees east of north. We find no spectral signatures of ejecta and infer that the X-ray plasma is dominated by swept-up interstellar medium. Using the spectral fit results and the Sedov self-similar solution, we estimate an age of ~17-27 kyr, with an initial explosion energy of (0.09-0.83) x 10^51 erg. We detected an X-ray source located near the centre of the remnant, namely XMMU J053348.2-720233. The source type could not be conclusively determined due to the lack of a multi-wavelength counterpart and low X-ray counts. We find that it is likely either a background active galactic nucleus or a low-mass X-ray binary in the LMC. Conclusions. We detected bright thermal X-ray emission from SNR J0533-7202 and determined that the remnant is in the Sedov phase of its evolution. The lack of ejecta emission prohibits us from typing the remnant with the X-ray data. Therefore, the likely Type Ia classification based on the local stellar population and star formation history reported in the literature cannot be improved upon.

Correcting systematic polarization effects in Keck LRISp spectropolarimetry to <0.05%

Spectropolarimetric measurements at moderate spectral resolutions are effective tracers of stellar magnetic fields and circumstellar environments when signal to noise ratios (SNRs) above 2000 can be achieved. The LRISp spectropolarimeter is capable of achieving these SNRs on faint targets with the 10m aperture of the Keck telescope, provided several instrumental artifacts can be suppressed. We describe here several methods to overcome instrumental error sources that are required to achieve these high SNRs on LRISp. We explore high SNR techniques such as defocusing and slit-stepping during integration with high spectral and spatial oversampling. We find that the instrument flexure and interference fringes introduced by the achromatic retarders create artificial signals at 0.5\% levels in the red channel which mimic real stellar signals and limit the sensitivity and calibration stability of LRISp. Careful spectral extraction and data filtering algorithms can remove these error sources. For faint targets and long exposures, cosmic ray hits are frequent and present a major limitation to the upgraded deep depletion red-channel CCD. These must be corrected to the same high SNR levels, requiring careful spectral extraction using iterative filtering algorithms. We demonstrate here characterization of these sources of instrumental polarization artifacts and present several methods used to successfully overcome these limitations. We have measured the linear to circular cross-talk and find it to be roughly 5\%, consistent with the known instrument limitations. We show spectropolarimetric signals on brown dwarfs are clearly detectable at 0.2\% amplitudes with sensitivities better than 0.05\% at full spectral sampling in atomic and molecular bands. Future LRISp users can perform high sensitivity observations with high quality calibration when following the described algorithms.

On the integrated continuum radio-spectrum of supernova remnant W44 (G34.7-0.4): new insights from Planck's data

In this paper, the integrated continuum radio-spectrum of supernova remnant (SNR) W44 was analyzed up to 70 GHz, testing the different emission models that can be responsible for its particular shape. {\it Planck’s} observations made possible to analyze the high frequency part of radio-emission from SNRs. Although the quality of radio-continuum spectrum (a high scatter of data points at same frequencies) prevents us to make definite conclusions, we emphasize the possibility of spinning-dust emission detection towards this remnant. In addition, a concave-down feature, due to synchrotron losses, can not be definitely dismissed by the present knowledge of the integrated radio continuum spectrum of this SNR.

Type Ia Supernova Remnants: Shaping by Iron Bullets

Using 2D numerical hydrodynamical simulations of type Ia supernova remnants (SNR Ia) we show that iron clumps few times denser than the rest of the SN ejecta might form protrusions in an otherwise spherical SNR. Such protrusions exist in some SNR Ia, e.g., SNR 1885 and Tycho. Iron clumps are expected to form in the deflagration to detonation explosion model. In SNR Ia where there are two opposite protrusions, termed ears, such as Kepler’s SNR and SNR G1.9+0.3, our scenario implies that the dense clumps, or iron bullets, were formed along an axis. Such a preferred axis can result from a rotating white dwarf progenitor. If our claim holds, this offers an important clue to the SN Ia explosion scenario.

A Spatially Resolved Study of the Synchrotron Emission and Titanium in Tycho's Supernova Remnant with NuSTAR

We report results from deep observations (750 ks) of Tycho’s supernova remnant (SNR) with NuSTAR. Using these data, we produce narrow-band images over several energy bands to identify the regions producing the hardest X-rays and to search for radioactive decay line emission from 44Ti. We find that the hardest (>10 keV) X-rays are concentrated in the southwest of Tycho, where recent Chandra observations have revealed high emissivity "stripes" associated with particles accelerated to the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. We do not find evidence of 44Ti, and we set tight limits on its presence which exclude the reported Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL detections and correspond to an upper-limit 44Ti mass of M44 < 8.4e-5 Msun for a distance of 2.3 kpc. We perform spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of sixty-six regions across Tycho. We map the best-fit rolloff frequency of the hard X-ray spectra, and we compare these results to measurements of the shock expansion and ambient density. We find that the highest energy electrons are accelerated at the lowest densities and in the fastest shocks, with a steep dependence of the roll-off frequency with shock velocity. Such a dependence is predicted by models where the maximum energy of accelerated electrons is limited by the age of the SNR rather than by synchrotron losses, but this scenario requires far lower magnetic field strengths than those derived from observations in Tycho. One way to reconcile these discrepant findings is through shock obliquity effects, and future observational work is necessary to explore the role of obliquity in the particle acceleration process.

Supernova remnant mass cumulated along the star formation history of the z=3.8 radiogalaxies 4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316

In this paper, we show that the supernova remnant (SNR) masses cumulated from core-collapse supernovae along the star formation history of two powerful z=3.8 radio galaxies 4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316 reach up to > 10^9 Msun, comparable with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses measured from the SDSS sample at similar redshifts. The SNR mass is measured from the already exploded supernova mass after subtraction of ejecta at the galaxy age where the mass of still luminous stars fits at best the observed spectral energy distribution (SED), continuously extended to the optical-Spitzer-Herschel-submm domains, with the help of the galaxy evolution model P\’egase.3. For the recent and old stellar populations, SNR masses vary on 10^(9 to 10) Msun and the SNR-to-star mass ratio between 1 and 0.1 percent is comparable to the observed low-z SMBH-to-star mass ratio. For the template radio galaxy 4C41.17, SNR and stellar population masses estimated from large aperture (>4arcsec=30kpc) observations are compatible, within one mass order, with the total mass of multiple optical HST (~700pc) structures, associated with VLA radio emissions, both at 0.1 arcsec. Probing the SNR accretion by central black holes is a simple explanation for SMBH growth, requiring physics on star formation, stellar and galaxy dynamics with consequences on various processes (quenching, mergers, negative feedback) and a key to the relation bulge-SMBH.

Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center

Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early Universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 $M_\odot$ of warm (~100 K) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000 yr-old Sgr A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings signify the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium ($n_e$ ~ 100 $\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

Calibrating and Stabilizing Spectropolarimeters with Charge Shuffling and Daytime Sky Measurements

Well-calibrated spectropolarimetry studies at resolutions of $R>$10,000 with signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) better than 0.01\% across individual line profiles, are becoming common with larger aperture telescopes. Spectropolarimetric studies require high SNR observations and are often limited by instrument systematic errors. As an example, fiber-fed spectropolarimeters combined with advanced line-combination algorithms can reach statistical error limits of 0.001\% in measurements of spectral line profiles referenced to the continuum. Calibration of such observations is often required both for cross-talk and for continuum polarization. This is not straightforward since telescope cross-talk errors are rarely less than $\sim$1\%. In solar instruments like the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), much more stringent calibration is required and the telescope optical design contains substantial intrinsic polarization artifacts. This paper describes some generally useful techniques we have applied to the HiVIS spectropolarimeter at the 3.7m AEOS telescope on Haleakala. HiVIS now yields accurate polarized spectral line profiles that are shot-noise limited to 0.01\% SNR levels at our full spectral resolution of 10,000 at spectral sampling of $\sim$100,000. We show line profiles with absolute spectropolarimetric calibration for cross-talk and continuum polarization in a system with polarization cross-talk levels of essentially 100\%. In these data the continuum polarization can be recovered to one percent accuracy because of synchronized charge-shuffling model now working with our CCD detector. These techniques can be applied to other spectropolarimeters on other telescopes for both night and day-time applications such as DKIST, TMT and ELT which have folded non-axially symmetric foci.

Searching for Overionized Plasma in the Gamma-ray Emitting Supernova Remnant G349.7$+$0.2

G349.7$+$0.2 is a supernova remnant (SNR) expanding in a dense medium of molecular clouds and interacting with clumps of molecular material emitting gamma rays. We analyzed the gamma-ray data of Large Area Telescope on board Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope and detected G349.7$+$0.2 in the energy range of 0.2$-$300 GeV with a significance of $\sim$13$\sigma$ showing no extended morphology. Modeling of the gamma-ray spectrum revealed that the GeV gamma-ray emission dominantly originates from the decay of neutral pions, where the protons follow a broken power-law distribution with a spectral break at $\sim$12 GeV. To search for features of radiative recombination continua in the eastern and western regions of the remnant, we analyzed the Suzaku data of G349.7$+$0.2 and found no evidence for overionized plasma. In this paper we discuss possible scenarios to explain the hadronic gamma-ray emission in G349.7$+$0.2 and the mixed morphology nature of this SNR.

Optical Spectroscopy of Supernova Remnants in M81 and M82

We present spectroscopy of 28 SNR candidates as well as one H II region in M81, and two SNR candidates in M82. Twenty six out of the M81 candidates turn out to be genuine SNRs, and two in M82 may be shocked condensations in the galactic outflow or SNRs. The distribution of [N II]/H{\alpha} ratios of M81 SNRs is bimodal. M81 SNRs are divided into two groups in the spectral line ratio diagrams: an [O III]-strong group and an [O III]-weak group. The latter have larger sizes, and may have faster shock velocity. [N II]/H{\alpha} ratios of the SNRs show a strong correlation with [S II]/H{\alpha} ratios. They show a clear radial gradient in [N II]/H{\alpha} and [S II]/H{\alpha} ratios: dLog ([N II]/H{\alpha})/dLog R = -0.018 {\pm} 0.008 dex/kpc and dLog ([S II]/H{\alpha})/dLog R = -0.016 {\pm} 0.008 dex/kpc where R is a deprojected galactocentric distance. We estimate the nitrogen and oxygen abundance of the SNRs from the comparison with shock-ionization models. We obtain a value for the nitrogen radial gradient, dLog(N/H)/dLogR = -0.023 {\pm} 0.009 dex/kpc, and little evidence for the gradient in oxygen. This nitrogen abundance shows a few times flatter gradient than those of the planetary nebulae and H II regions. We find that five SNRs are matched with X-ray sources. Their X-ray hardness colors are consistent with thermal SNRs.

Analysis of GeV-band gamma-ray emission from SNR RX J1713.7-3946

RX J1713.7-3946 is the brightest shell-type Supernova remnant (SNR) of the TeV gamma-ray sky. Earlier Fermi-LAT results on low-energy gamma-ray emission suggested that, despite large uncertainties in the background determination, the spectrum is inconsistent with a hadronic origin. We update the GeV-band spectra using improved estimates for the diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission and more than doubled data volume. We further investigate the viability of hadronic emission models for RX J1713.7-3946. We produced a high-resolution map of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray background corrected for HI self-absorption and used it in the analysis of more than 5~years worth of Fermi-LAT data. We used hydrodynamic scaling relations and a kinetic transport equation to calculate the acceleration and propagation of cosmic-rays in SNR. We then determined spectra of hadronic gamma-ray emission from RX J1713.7-3946, separately for the SNR interior and the cosmic-ray precursor region of the forward shock, and computed flux variations that would allow to test the model with observations. We find that RX J1713.7-3946 is now detected by Fermi-LAT with very high statistical significance, and the source morphology is best described by that seen in the TeV band. The measured spectrum of RX J1713.7-3946 is hard with index gamma=1.53 +/- 0.07, and the integral flux above 500 MeV is F = (5.5 +/- 1.1)e-9 photons/cm^2/s. We demonstrate that scenarios based on hadronic emission from the cosmic-ray precursor region are acceptable for RX J1713.7-3946, and we predict a secular flux increase at a few hundred GeV at the level of around 15% over 10 years, which may be detectable with the upcoming CTA observatory.

Fermi/LAT Study of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant: Discovery of a Point-like Source and of Spectral Differences in its gamma-ray emission [Replacement]

The Cygnus Loop is a nearby supernova remnant (SNR) observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. With the analysis of 6 years of Fermi/LAT data we find that, what previous studies had considered a single source, consists of an extended source plus a point-like source south-east of the SNR. The extended gamma-ray emission is well correlated with the thermal X-ray emission of the SNR, and the energy spectrum displays a pronounced maximum at $\sim0.6$\,GeV. However, in a region where the radio emission is strongly and distinctly polarized, the gamma-ray spectrum shows no sign of a break. Therefore, the spatially resolved gamma-ray emission permits the study of different interaction conditions of the SNR and the surrounding medium.

Fermi/LAT Study of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant: Discovery of a Point-like Source and of Spectral Differences in its gamma-ray emission

The Cygnus Loop is a nearby supernova remnant (SNR) observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. With the analysis of 6 years of Fermi/LAT data we find that, what previous studies had considered a single source, consists of an extended source plus a point-like source south-east of the SNR. The extended gamma-ray emission is well correlated with the thermal X-ray emission of the SNR, and the energy spectrum displays a pronounced maximum at $\sim0.6$\,GeV. However, in a region where the radio emission is strongly and distinctly polarized, the gamma-ray spectrum shows no sign of a break. Therefore, the spatially resolved gamma-ray emission permits the study of different interaction conditions of the SNR and the surrounding medium.

GeV Gamma-ray Emission Detected by Fermi-LAT Likely Associated with the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 41 in a Molecular Environment

Hadronic emission from supernova remnant (SNR)–molecular cloud (MC) association systems has been widely regarded as a probe of the shock accelerated cosmic protons. We here report on the detection of a $\gamma$-ray emission source, with a significance of $24\sigma$ in 0.2–300 GeV, projectively on the northwest of SNR Kesteven 41, using 5.6 yr Fermi-LAT observation data. The $3\sigma$ error circle, 0.09 degree in radius, covers the 1720MHz OH maser and is essentially consistent with the location of the $V_{LSR}~-50 km/s $ MC with which the SNR interacts. The source emission has a power-law spectrum with a photon index $2.38\pm0.03$ and a 0.2–300 GeV luminosity $~1.6*10^{36} erg /s$ at a distance 12 kpc. There is no radio pulsar in the $3\sigma$ circle responsible for the high luminosity. While the inverse Compton scattering scenario would lead to a difficulty in the electron energy budget, the source emission can be naturally explained with the hadronic interaction between the relativistic protons accelerated by the shock of SNR~Kesteven~41 and the adjacent northwestern MC.

GeV Gamma-ray Emission Detected by Fermi-LAT Likely Associated with the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 41 in a Molecular Environment [Replacement]

Hadronic emission from supernova remnant (SNR)–molecular cloud (MC) association systems has been widely regarded as a probe of the shock accelerated cosmic ray protons. We here report on the detection of a $\gamma$-ray emission source, with a significance of $24\sigma$ in 0.2–300 GeV, projectively on the northwest of SNR Kesteven 41, using 5.6 yr Fermi-LAT observation data. The $3\sigma$ error circle, 0.09 degree in radius, covers the 1720MHz OH maser and is essentially consistent with the location of the $V_{LSR}~-50 km/s $ MC with which the SNR interacts. The source emission has a power-law spectrum with a photon index $2.38\pm0.03$ and a 0.2–300 GeV luminosity $~1.6*10^{36} erg /s$ at a distance 12 kpc. There is no radio pulsar in the $3\sigma$ circle responsible for the high luminosity. While the inverse Compton scattering scenario would lead to a difficulty in the electron energy budget, the source emission can be naturally explained with the hadronic interaction between the relativistic protons accelerated by the shock of SNR~Kesteven~41 and the adjacent northwestern MC.

The Metal-enriched Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant Kesteven 41 (G337.8-0.1) in a Molecular Environment

The physical nature of thermal composite supernova remnants (SNRs) remains controversial. We have revisited the archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data of the thermal composite SNR Kesteven 41 (Kes 41 or G337.8-0.1) and performed a millimeter observation toward this source in the $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O lines. The X-ray emission, mainly concentrated toward the southwestern part of the SNR, is characterized by distinct S and Ar He-like lines in the spectra. The X-ray spectra can be fitted with an absorbed nonequilibrium ionization collisional plasma model at a temperature of 1.3-2.6 keV and an ionization timescale of 0.1-1.2$\times$10$^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$ s. The metal species S and Ar are overabundant, with 1.2-2.7 and 1.3-3.8 solar abundances, respectively, which strongly indicate the presence of a substantial ejecta component in the X-ray-emitting plasma of this SNR. Kes 41 is found to be associated with a giant molecular cloud (MC) at a systemic local standard of rest velocity of -50 km s$^{-1}$ and confined in a cavity delineated by a northern molecular shell, a western concave MC that features a discernible shell, and an HI cloud seen toward the southeast of the SNR. The birth of the SNR in a preexisting molecular cavity implies a mass of $\gtrsim$18 M$_{\odot}$ for the progenitor if it was not in a binary system. Thermal conduction and cloudlet evaporation seem to be feasible mechanisms to interpret the X-ray thermal composite morphology, and the scenario of gas reheating by the shock reflected from the cavity wall is quantitatively consistent with the observations. An updated list of thermal composite SNRs is also presented in this paper.

Discovery of an OB Runaway Star Inside SNR S147

We present first results of a long term study: Searching for OB–type runaway stars inside supernova remnants (SNRs). We identified spectral types and measured radial velocities (RV) by optical spectroscopic observations and we found an early type runaway star inside SNR S147. HD 37424 is a B0.5V type star with a peculiar velocity of 74$\pm$8 km s$^{-1}$. Tracing back the past trajectories via Monte Carlo simulations, we found that HD 37424 was located at the same position as the central compact object, PSR J0538+2817, $30\!\pm\!4$ kyr ago. This position is only $\sim$4 arcmin away from the geometrical center of the SNR. So, we suggest that HD 37424 was the pre–supernova binary companion to the progenitor of the pulsar and the SNR. We found a distance of 1333$^{+103}_{-112}$ pc to the SNR. The zero age main sequence progenitor mass should be greater than 13 $M_\odot$. The age is $30\pm4$ kyr and the total visual absorption towards the center is 1.28$\pm$0.06 mag. For different progenitor masses, we calculated the pre–supernova binary parameters. The Roche Lobe radii suggest that it was an interacting binary in the late stages of the progenitor.

Cosmic Ray Origins in Supernova Blast Waves

We extend the self-similar solution derived by Chevalier for a Sedov blast wave accelerating cosmic rays (CR) to show that the Galactic CR population can be divided into: (A) CR with energies above ~200GeV released upstream during CR acceleration by supernova remnants (SNR), (B) CR advected into the interior of the SNR during expansion and then released from the SNR at the end of its life to provide the Galactic CR component below ~200GeV. The intersection between the two populations may correspond to a measured change in the Galactic CR spectral index at this energy.

H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud

G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE) Gamma-rays. Radio and infrared observations indicate that the remnant is interacting with a molecular cloud. In this paper, the detection of very high energy (VHE) Gamma-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. An integral flux F(E>400GeV)=(6.5 +-1.1stat +-1.3syst) x 10^{-13} ph/cm/s corresponding to 0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of 10^34 erg/s above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index Gamma_VHE = 2.8 +-0.27stat +-0.20syst are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index Gamma_HE = 2.2 +-0.04stat +0.13-0.31syst. The combined Gamma-ray spectrum of G349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power-law (BPL) or a power-law with exponential (or sub-exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at E_br,gamma = 55 +70-30 GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE Gamma-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case, the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at E_cut,gamma = 1.4 +1.6-0.55 (respectively 0.35 +0.75-0.21) TeV. A pion-decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the Gamma-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nH Wp ~ 5 x 10^51 erg/cm3.

H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud [Replacement]

G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE) Gamma-rays. Radio and infrared observations indicate that the remnant is interacting with a molecular cloud. In this paper, the detection of very high energy (VHE) Gamma-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. An integral flux F(E>400GeV)=(6.5 +-1.1stat +-1.3syst) x 10^{-13} ph/cm/s corresponding to 0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of 10^34 erg/s above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index Gamma_VHE = 2.8 +-0.27stat +-0.20syst are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index Gamma_HE = 2.2 +-0.04stat +0.13-0.31syst. The combined Gamma-ray spectrum of G349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power-law (BPL) or a power-law with exponential (or sub-exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at E_br,gamma = 55 +70-30 GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE Gamma-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case, the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at E_cut,gamma = 1.4 +1.6-0.55 (respectively 0.35 +0.75-0.21) TeV. A pion-decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the Gamma-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nH Wp ~ 5 x 10^51 erg/cm3.

Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1832-093 in the vicinity of SNR G22.7-0.2

The region around the supernova remnant (SNR) W41 contains several TeV sources and has prompted the H.E.S.S. Collaboration to perform deep observations of this field of view. This resulted in the discovery of the new very high energy (VHE) source HESS J1832-093, at the position $\rm RA=18^h 32^m 50^s \pm 3^s_{stat} \pm 2^s_{syst}, \rm Dec=-9^\circ 22′ 36” \pm 32”_{stat} \pm 20”_{syst} (J2000)$, spatially coincident with a part of the radio shell of the neighboring remnant G22.7-0.2. The photon spectrum is well described by a power-law of index $\Gamma = 2.6 \pm 0.3_{\rm stat} \pm 0.1_{\rm syst}$ and a normalization at 1 TeV of $\Phi_0=(4.8 \pm 0.8_{\rm stat}\pm 1.0_{\rm syst})\,\times\,10^{-13}\,\rm{cm} ^{-2}\,s^{-1}\,TeV^{-1}$. The location of the gamma-ray emission on the edge of the SNR rim first suggested a signature of escaping cosmic-rays illuminating a nearby molecular cloud. Then a dedicated XMM-Newton observation led to the discovery of a new X-ray point source spatially coincident with the TeV excess. Two other scenarios were hence proposed to identify the nature of HESS J1832-093. Gamma-rays from inverse Compton radiation in the framework of a pulsar wind nebula scenario or the possibility of gamma-ray production within a binary system are therefore also considered. Deeper multi-wavelength observations will help to shed new light on this intriguing VHE source.

Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers

The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\alpha_t<0.02093$ (i.e, at a detection rate $95\%$ and a false alarm rate $5\%$) at the default $(n_t=0,r=0.2)$. This is consistent with the constraint on the energy density obtained by LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. Extending to the four correlated detectors currently running, the calculated SNR improves slightly. When extending to the six correlated detectors of the second-generation in design, the calculated SNR is $\sim 10^3$ times over the previous two cases, due to the high sensitivities. RGW can be directly detected by the six 2nd-generation detectors for models with $\alpha_t>0.01364$.

Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers [Cross-Listing]

The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\alpha_t<0.02093$ (i.e, at a detection rate $95\%$ and a false alarm rate $5\%$) at the default $(n_t=0,r=0.2)$. This is consistent with the constraint on the energy density obtained by LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. Extending to the four correlated detectors currently running, the calculated SNR improves slightly. When extending to the six correlated detectors of the second-generation in design, the calculated SNR is $\sim 10^3$ times over the previous two cases, due to the high sensitivities. RGW can be directly detected by the six 2nd-generation detectors for models with $\alpha_t>0.01364$.

Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers [Replacement]

The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\alpha_t<0.02093$ (i.e, at a detection rate $95\%$ and a false alarm rate $5\%$) at the default $(n_t=0,r=0.2)$. This is consistent with the constraint on the energy density obtained by LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. Extending to the four correlated detectors currently running, the calculated SNR improves slightly. When extending to the six correlated detectors of the second-generation in design, the calculated SNR is $\sim 10^3$ times over the previous two cases, due to the high sensitivities. RGW can be directly detected by the six 2nd-generation detectors for models with $\alpha_t>0.01364$.

Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers [Replacement]

The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\alpha_t<0.02093$ (i.e, at a detection rate $95\%$ and a false alarm rate $5\%$) at the default $(n_t=0,r=0.2)$. This is consistent with the constraint on the energy density obtained by LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. Extending to the four correlated detectors currently running, the calculated SNR improves slightly. When extending to the six correlated detectors of the second-generation in design, the calculated SNR is $\sim 10^3$ times over the previous two cases, due to the high sensitivities. RGW can be directly detected by the six 2nd-generation detectors for models with $\alpha_t>0.01364$.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The origin of Cosmic-Rays from SNRs: confirmations and challenges after the first direct proof

Until now, providing an experimental unambiguous proof of Cosmic Ray (CR) origin has been elusive. The SuperNova Remnant (SNR) study showed an increasingly complex scenario with a continuous elaboration of theoretical models. The middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) W44 has recently attracted attention because of its relevance regarding the origin of Galactic cosmic-rays. The gamma-ray missions AGILE and Fermi have established, for the first time for a SNR, the spectral continuum below 200 MeV which can be attributed to neutral pion emission. Our work is focused on a global re-assessment of all available data and models of particle acceleration in W44 and our analysis strengthens previous studies and observations of the W44 complex environment, providing new information for a more detailed modeling. However, having determined the hadronic nature of the gamma-ray emission on firm ground, a number of theoretical challenges remains to be addressed in the context of CR acceleration in SNRs.

Momentum Injection by Supernovae in the Interstellar Medium

Supernova (SN) explosions deposit prodigious energy and momentum in their environments, with the former regulating multiphase thermal structure and the latter regulating turbulence and star formation rates in the interstellar medium (ISM). In contrast to the extensive efforts developing spherical models for SN remnant (SNR) evolution, systematic studies quantifying the impact of SNe in more realistic inhomogeneous ISM conditions have been lacking. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with optically-thin radiative cooling, we investigate the dependence of radial momentum injection on both physical conditions (considering a range of mean density n=0.1-100) and numerical parameters. Our inhomogeneous simulations adopt two-phase background states that result from thermal instability in atomic gas. Although the SNR morphology becomes highly complex for inhomogeneous backgrounds, the radial momentum injection is remarkably insensitive to environmental details. For our two-phase simulations, the final momentum produced by a single SN is given by 2.8*10^5 M_sun*km/s n^{-0.17}. This is only 5% less than the momentum injection for a homogeneous environment with the same mean density, and only 30% greater than the momentum at the time of shell formation. The maximum mass in hot gas is quite insensitive to environmental inhomogeneity. Initial experiments with multiple spatially-correlated SNe show a similar momentum per event to single-SN cases. We also present a full numerical parameter study to assess convergence requirements. For convergence in the momentum and other quantities, we find that the numerical resolution dx and the initial size of the SNR r_init must satisfy dx, r_init<r_sf/3, where the shell formation radius is given by r_sf = 30 pc n^{-0.46} for two-phase models (or 30% smaller for a homogeneous medium).

The response of a helium white dwarf to an exploding type Ia supernova

We conduct numerical simulations of the interacting ejecta from an exploding CO white dwarf (WD) with the He~WD donor in the double-detonation scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and find that the descendant supernova remnant (SNR) is highly asymmetrical, in contradiction with observations. When the donor He~WD has low mass, M_WD =0.2 Msun, it is at a distance of ~0.08 Rsun from the explosion, and helium is not ignited. The low mass He~WD casts an `ejecta shadow’ behind it, that has imprint in the SN remnant (SNR) hundreds of years later. The outer parts of the shadowed side are fainter and its boundary with the ambient gas is somewhat flat. These features are not found in known SNRs. More massive He~WD donors, M_WD ~ 0.4 Msun, must be closer to the CO~WD to transfer mass. At a distance a < 0.045 Rsun helium is ignited and the He~WD explodes. This explosion leads to a highly asymmetrical SNR and to ejection of ~0.15 Msun of helium, both of which contradict observations of SNe Ia.

Discovery of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant 3C 391

Recent X-ray study of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) reveals strong radiative recombination continua (RRCs) associated with overionized plasmas, of which the origin still remains uncertain. We report our discovery of an RRC in the middle-aged SNR 3C 391. If the X-ray spectrum is fitted with a two-temperature plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), residuals of Si XIV Ly alpha line at 2.006 keV, S XVI Ly alpha line at 2.623 keV and the edge of RRC of Si XIII at 2.666 keV are found. The X-ray spectrum is better described by a composite model consisting of a CIE plasma and a recombining plasma (RP). The abundance pattern suggests that the RP is associated to the ejecta from a core-collapse supernova with a progenitor star of 15 solar mass. There is no significant difference of the recombining plasma parameters between the southeast region and the northwest region surrounded by dense molecular clouds. We also find a hint of Fe I K alpha line at 6.4 keV (~2.4 sigma detection) from the southeast region of the SNR.

Using optical lines to study particle acceleration at supernova remnants

The shocks of several young supernova remnants (SNR) are often associated with very thin optical filaments dominated by Balmer emission resulting from charge-exchange and collisional excitation between neutral Hydrogen from the interstellar medium and shocked protons and electrons. Optical lines are a direct probe of the conditions at the shock, in particular the width of the narrow and broad components reflect the temperature upstream and downstream of the shock, respectively. When the shock accelerate efficiently non-thermal particles, the shock structure changes producing anomalous Balmer lines and it is possible to use their line shape and their spatial profile to check the efficiency of SNR shocks in accelerating cosmic rays. Here we illustrate the kinetic theory of shock acceleration in presence of neutrals with some applications to young SNRs. We show that in three cases (RCW 86, SNR 0509-67.5 and Tycho) anomalous Balmer lines can be explained assuming that a fraction of $\sim 10\%$ of the total shock kinetic energy is converted into not thermal particles, while in one single case, the northwestern part of SN 1006, there is no evidence of efficient acceleration.

20 cm VLA Radio-Continuum Study of M31 - Images and Point Source Catalogues DR2: Extraction of a supernova remnant sample

We present Data Release 2 of the Point Source Catalogue created from a series of previously constructed radio-continuum images of M31 at lambda=20 cm (nu=1.4 GHz) from archived VLA observations. In total, we identify a collection of 916 unique discrete radio sources across the field of M31. Comparing these detected sources to those listed by Gelfand et al. (2004) at lambda=92 cm, the spectral index of 98 sources has been derived. The majority (73%) of these sources exhibit a spectral index of alpha <-0.6, indicating that their emission is predominantly non-thermal in nature, which is typical for background objects and Supernova Remnants (SNRs). Additionally, we investigate the presence of radio counterparts for some 156 SNRs and SNR candidates, finding a total of only 13 of these object in our images within a 5 arcsec search area. Auxiliary optical, radio and X-ray catalogs were cross referenced highlighting a small population of SNR and SNR candidates common to multi-frequency domains.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events [Replacement]

As first emphasized by Bernard Schutz, there exists a universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, we show explicitly that the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that the median SNR of the loudest out of the first four events should have an $\mbox{SNR}=22$ (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a median value for the loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events [Replacement]

As first emphasized by Bernard Schutz, there exists a universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, we show explicitly that the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that the median SNR of the loudest out of the first four events should have an $\mbox{SNR}=22$ (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a median value for the loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

 

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