Posts Tagged snr

Recent Postings from snr

The origin of Cosmic-Rays from SNRs: confirmations and challenges after the first direct proof

Until now, providing an experimental unambiguous proof of Cosmic Ray (CR) origin has been elusive. The SuperNova Remnant (SNR) study showed an increasingly complex scenario with a continuous elaboration of theoretical models. The middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) W44 has recently attracted attention because of its relevance regarding the origin of Galactic cosmic-rays. The gamma-ray missions AGILE and Fermi have established, for the first time for a SNR, the spectral continuum below 200 MeV which can be attributed to neutral pion emission. Our work is focused on a global re-assessment of all available data and models of particle acceleration in W44 and our analysis strengthens previous studies and observations of the W44 complex environment, providing new information for a more detailed modeling. However, having determined the hadronic nature of the gamma-ray emission on firm ground, a number of theoretical challenges remains to be addressed in the context of CR acceleration in SNRs.

Momentum Injection by Supernovae in the Interstellar Medium

Supernova (SN) explosions deposit prodigious energy and momentum in their environments, with the former regulating multiphase thermal structure and the latter regulating turbulence and star formation rates in the interstellar medium (ISM). In contrast to the extensive efforts developing spherical models for SN remnant (SNR) evolution, systematic studies quantifying the impact of SNe in more realistic inhomogeneous ISM conditions have been lacking. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with optically-thin radiative cooling, we investigate the dependence of radial momentum injection on both physical conditions (considering a range of mean density n=0.1-100) and numerical parameters. Our inhomogeneous simulations adopt two-phase background states that result from thermal instability in atomic gas. Although the SNR morphology becomes highly complex for inhomogeneous backgrounds, the radial momentum injection is remarkably insensitive to environmental details. For our two-phase simulations, the final momentum produced by a single SN is given by 2.8*10^5 M_sun*km/s n^{-0.17}. This is only 5% less than the momentum injection for a homogeneous environment with the same mean density, and only 30% greater than the momentum at the time of shell formation. The maximum mass in hot gas is quite insensitive to environmental inhomogeneity. Initial experiments with multiple spatially-correlated SNe show a similar momentum per event to single-SN cases. We also present a full numerical parameter study to assess convergence requirements. For convergence in the momentum and other quantities, we find that the numerical resolution dx and the initial size of the SNR r_init must satisfy dx, r_init<r_sf/3, where the shell formation radius is given by r_sf = 30 pc n^{-0.46} for two-phase models (or 30% smaller for a homogeneous medium).

The response of a helium white dwarf to an exploding type Ia supernova

We conduct numerical simulations of the interacting ejecta from an exploding CO white dwarf (WD) with the He~WD donor in the double-detonation scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and find that the descendant supernova remnant (SNR) is highly asymmetrical, in contradiction with observations. When the donor He~WD has low mass, M_WD =0.2 Msun, it is at a distance of ~0.08 Rsun from the explosion, and helium is not ignited. The low mass He~WD casts an `ejecta shadow’ behind it, that has imprint in the SN remnant (SNR) hundreds of years later. The outer parts of the shadowed side are fainter and its boundary with the ambient gas is somewhat flat. These features are not found in known SNRs. More massive He~WD donors, M_WD ~ 0.4 Msun, must be closer to the CO~WD to transfer mass. At a distance a < 0.045 Rsun helium is ignited and the He~WD explodes. This explosion leads to a highly asymmetrical SNR and to ejection of ~0.15 Msun of helium, both of which contradict observations of SNe Ia.

Discovery of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant 3C 391

Recent X-ray study of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) reveals strong radiative recombination continua (RRCs) associated with overionized plasmas, of which the origin still remains uncertain. We report our discovery of an RRC in the middle-aged SNR 3C 391. If the X-ray spectrum is fitted with a two-temperature plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), residuals of Si XIV Ly alpha line at 2.006 keV, S XVI Ly alpha line at 2.623 keV and the edge of RRC of Si XIII at 2.666 keV are found. The X-ray spectrum is better described by a composite model consisting of a CIE plasma and a recombining plasma (RP). The abundance pattern suggests that the RP is associated to the ejecta from a core-collapse supernova with a progenitor star of 15 solar mass. There is no significant difference of the recombining plasma parameters between the southeast region and the northwest region surrounded by dense molecular clouds. We also find a hint of Fe I K alpha line at 6.4 keV (~2.4 sigma detection) from the southeast region of the SNR.

Using optical lines to study particle acceleration at supernova remnants

The shocks of several young supernova remnants (SNR) are often associated with very thin optical filaments dominated by Balmer emission resulting from charge-exchange and collisional excitation between neutral Hydrogen from the interstellar medium and shocked protons and electrons. Optical lines are a direct probe of the conditions at the shock, in particular the width of the narrow and broad components reflect the temperature upstream and downstream of the shock, respectively. When the shock accelerate efficiently non-thermal particles, the shock structure changes producing anomalous Balmer lines and it is possible to use their line shape and their spatial profile to check the efficiency of SNR shocks in accelerating cosmic rays. Here we illustrate the kinetic theory of shock acceleration in presence of neutrals with some applications to young SNRs. We show that in three cases (RCW 86, SNR 0509-67.5 and Tycho) anomalous Balmer lines can be explained assuming that a fraction of $\sim 10\%$ of the total shock kinetic energy is converted into not thermal particles, while in one single case, the northwestern part of SN 1006, there is no evidence of efficient acceleration.

20 cm VLA Radio-Continuum Study of M31 - Images and Point Source Catalogues DR2: Extraction of a supernova remnant sample

We present Data Release 2 of the Point Source Catalogue created from a series of previously constructed radio-continuum images of M31 at lambda=20 cm (nu=1.4 GHz) from archived VLA observations. In total, we identify a collection of 916 unique discrete radio sources across the field of M31. Comparing these detected sources to those listed by Gelfand et al. (2004) at lambda=92 cm, the spectral index of 98 sources has been derived. The majority (73%) of these sources exhibit a spectral index of alpha <-0.6, indicating that their emission is predominantly non-thermal in nature, which is typical for background objects and Supernova Remnants (SNRs). Additionally, we investigate the presence of radio counterparts for some 156 SNRs and SNR candidates, finding a total of only 13 of these object in our images within a 5 arcsec search area. Auxiliary optical, radio and X-ray catalogs were cross referenced highlighting a small population of SNR and SNR candidates common to multi-frequency domains.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events [Cross-Listing]

We derive the universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables such as the binary masses and spins (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We also derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that in 50% of cases the loudest event out of the first four should have an SNR louder than 22 (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events

We derive the universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables such as the binary masses and spins (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We also derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that in 50% of cases the loudest event out of the first four should have an SNR louder than 22 (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events [Replacement]

As first emphasized by Bernard Schutz, there exists a universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, we show explicitly that the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that the median SNR of the loudest out of the first four events should have an $\mbox{SNR}=22$ (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a median value for the loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events [Replacement]

As first emphasized by Bernard Schutz, there exists a universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, we show explicitly that the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that the median SNR of the loudest out of the first four events should have an $\mbox{SNR}=22$ (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a median value for the loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

Multi-frequency study of DEM L299 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

We have studied the HII region DEM L299 in the Large Magellanic Cloud to understand its physical characteristics and morphology in different wavelengths. We performed a spectral analysis of archived XMM-Newton EPIC data and studied the morphology of DEM L299 in X-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths. We used H alpha, [SII], and [OIII] data from the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey and radio 21 cm line data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Parkes telescope, and radio continuum data from ATCA and the Molonglo Synthesis Telescope. Our morphological studies imply that, in addition to the supernova remnant SNR B0543-68.9 reported in previous studies, a superbubble also overlaps the SNR in projection. The position of the SNR is clearly defined through the [SII]/H alpha flux ratio image. Moreover, the optical images show a shell-like structure that is located farther to the north and is filled with diffuse X-ray emission, which again indicates the superbubble. Radio 21 cm line data show a shell around both objects. Radio continuum data show diffuse emission at the position of DEM L299, which appears clearly distinguished from the HII region N 164 that lies south-west of it. We determined the spectral index of SNR B0543-68.9 to be alpha=-0.34, which indicates the dominance of thermal emission and therefore a rather mature SNR. We determined the basic properties of the diffuse X-ray emission for the SNR, the superbubble, and a possible blowout region of the bubble, as suggested by the optical and X-ray data. We obtained an age of 8.9 (3.5-18.1) kyr for the SNR and a temperature of 0.64 (0.44-1.37) keV for the hot gas inside the SNR, and a temperature of the hot gas inside the superbubble of 0.74 (0.44-1.1) keV. We conclude that DEM L299 consists of a superposition of SNR B0543-68.9 and a superbubble, which we identified based on optical data.

Hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction of supernova shock waves with a clumpy environment: the case of the RX J0852.0-4622 (Vela Jr) supernova remnant

Observations in all electromagnetic bands show that many supernova remnants (SNRs) have a very aspherical shape. This can be the result of asymmetries in the supernova explosion or a clumpy circumstellar medium. We study the generation of inhomogeneities and the mixing of elements arising from these two sources in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the propagation of a supernova blast wave into a cloudy environment. We model a specific SNR, Vela Jr (RX J0852.0-4622). By comparing our results with recent observations, we can constrain the properties of the explosion. We find that a very energetic explosion of several 10^{51} erg occurring roughly about 800 years ago is consistent with the shape and emission of the SNR, as well as a supernova with an energy closer to the canonical value of 10^{51} erg a few thousand years ago.

XMM-Newton and Canadian Galactic Plane Survey Observations of the Supernova Remnant G107.5-1.5

We present an XMM-Newton observation of the highly polarized low-surface brightness supernova remnant G107.5-1.5, discovered with the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS). We do not detect diffuse X-ray emission from the SNR and set an upper limit on the surface brightness of ~2 x 10^30 erg arcmin^-2 s^-1, at an assumed distance of 1.1 kpc. We found eight bright point sources in the field, including the ROSAT source 1RXS J225203.8+574249 near the centre of the radio shell. Spectroscopic analysis of some of the embedded point sources, including the ROSAT source, has been performed, and all eight sources are most likely ruled out as the associated neutron star, primarily due to counterpart bright stars in optical and infrared bands. Timing analysis of the bright point sources yielded no significant evidence for pulsations, but, due to the timing resolution, only a small part of the frequency space could be searched. An additional ten fainter point sources were identified in the vicinity of the SNR. Further X-ray observation of these and the region in the vicinity of the radio shell may be warranted.

Discovery of a pre-existing molecular filament associated with supernova remnant G127.1+0.5

We performed millimeter observations in CO lines toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G127.1+0.5. We found a molecular filament at 4–13 km s$^{-1}$ consisting of two distinct parts: a straight part coming out of the remnant region and a curved part in the remnant region. The curved part is coincides well with the bright SNR shell detected in 1420 MHz radio continuum and mid-infrared observations in the northeastern region. In addition, redshifted line wing broadening is found only in the curved part of the molecular filament, which indicates a physical interaction. These provide strong evidences, for the first time, to confirm the association between an SNR and a pre-existing long molecular filament. Multi-band observations in the northeastern remnant shell could be explained by the interaction between the remnant shock and the dense molecular filament. RADEX radiative transfer modeling of the quiet and shocked components yield physical conditions consistent with the passage of a non-dissociative J-type shock. We argue that the curved part of the filament is fully engulfed by the remnant’s forward shock. A spatial correlation between aggregated young stellar objects (YSOs) and the adjacent molecular filament close to the SNR is also found, which could be related to the progenitor’s activity.

Physical Nature of the [S II]-Bright Shell Nebulae N70 and N185 [Replacement]

N70 and N185 are two large ($\ge$100 pc in diameter) shell nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Their high [\ion{S}{2}]/H$\alpha$ ratios rival those of supernova remnants (SNRs), but they are not confirmed as SNRs. To study their physical nature, we have obtained \emph{XMM-Newton} X-ray observations and high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectroscopic observations of these two nebulae. The X-ray spectra of both nebulae can be well interpreted with an optically thin thermal ($\sim$0.2 keV) plasma with the average LMC abundance in a collisional ionization equilibrium. N70 encompasses the OB association LH114. Although N70 has a modest expansion velocity and essentially thermal radio emission, its diffuse X-ray luminosity ($\sim6.1\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$) is higher than that from a quiescent superbubble with N70′s density, size, and expansion velocity; thus, N70 is most likely a superbubble that is recently energized by an interior SNR. N185 does not contain any known OB association, and its X-ray luminosity is an order of magnitude lower than expected if it is a quiescent superbubble. N185 has nonthermal radio emission and has high-velocity material expanding at nearly 200 km s$^{-1}$, similar to many known SNRs in the LMC. Its X-ray luminosity ($\sim1.9\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$) is also consistent with that of an evolved SNR. We therefore suggest that N185 is energized by a recent supernova.

Physical Nature of the [S II]-bright Shell Nebulae N70 and N185

N70 and N185 are two large, $\ge$100 pc in diameter, shell nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Their high [S II]/H$\alpha$ ratios rival those of supernova remnants (SNRs), but they are not confirmed as SNRs. To study their physical nature, we have obtained XMM-Newton X-ray observations and high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectroscopic observations of these two nebulae. The X-ray spectra of both nebulae can be well interpreted with an optically thin thermal ($\sim$0.2 keV) plasma with the average LMC abundance in a collisional ionization equilibrium. N70 encompasses the OB association LH114. Although N70 has a modest expansion velocity and essentially thermal radio emission, its diffuse X-ray luminosity, $\sim6.1\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$, is higher than that from a quiescent superbubble with N70′s density, size, and expansion velocity; thus, N70 is most likely a superbubble that is recently energized by an interior SNR. N185 does not contain any known OB association, and its X-ray luminosity is an order of magnitude lower than expected if it is a quiescent superbubble. N185 has nonthermal radio emission and has high-velocity material expanding at nearly 200 km s$^{-1}$, similar to many known SNRs in the LMC. Its X-ray luminosity, $\sim1.9\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$, is also consistent with that of an evolved SNR. We therefore suggest that N185 is energized by a recent supernova.

An XMM-Newton study of the mixed-morphology supernova remnant W28 (G6.4-0.1)

We have performed an XMM-Newton imaging and spectroscopic study of supernova remnant (SNR) W28, a prototype mixed-morphology or thermal composite SNR, believed to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The observed hot X-ray emitting plasma is characterized by low metal abundances, showing no evidence of ejecta. The X-rays arising from the deformed northeast shell consist of a thermal component with a temperature of $\sim0.3$ keV plus a hard component of either thermal (temperature $\sim 0.6$ keV) or non-thermal (photon index $=0.9$-2.4) origin. The X-ray emission in the SNR interior is blobby and the corresponding spectra are best described as the emission from a cold ($kT\sim0.4$ keV) plasma in non-equilibrium ionization with an ionization timescale of $\sim4.3\times 10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$ s plus a hot ($kT \sim 0.8$ keV) gas in collisional ionization equilibrium. Applying the two-temperature model to the smaller central regions, we find non-uniform interstellar absorption, temperature and density distribution, which indicates that the remnant is evolving in a non-uniform environment with denser material in the east and north. The cloudlet evaporation mechanism can essentially explain the properties of the X-ray emission in the center and thermal conduction may also play a role for length scales comparable to the remnant radius. A recombining plasma model with an electron temperature of $\sim 0.6$ keV is also feasible for describing the hot central gas with the recombination age of the gas estimated at $\sim2.9\times 10^4$ yr.

Modeling SNR G1.9+0.3 as a Supernova Inside a Planetary Nebula

Using 3D numerical hydrodynamical simulations we show that a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion inside a planetary nebula (PN) can explain the observed shape of the G1.9+0.3 supernova remnant (SNR), and its X-ray morphology. The SNR G1.9+0.3 morphology can be generally described as a sphere with two small and incomplete lobes protruding on opposite sides of the SNR, termed "ears", a structure resembling many elliptical PNe. Observations show the synchrotron X-ray emission to be much stronger inside the two ears than in the rest of the SNR. We numerically show that a spherical SN Ia explosion into a circumstellar matter (CSM) with the structure of an elliptical PN with ears can explain the X-ray properties of SNR G1.9+0.3. While the ejecta has already collided with the PN shell in most of the SNR and its forward shock has been slowed down, the ejecta is still advancing inside the ears. The fast forward shock inside the ears explains the stronger X-ray emission there. SN Ia inside PNe (SNIPs) seem to comprise a non-negligible fraction of resolved SN Ia remnants.

Properties of Optically Selected Supernova Remnant Candidates in M33

We present a sample of supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in M33 based on optical narrow band images in the Local Group Survey. We identify emission line objects that have enhanced [SII]:H{\alpha} (> 0.4) and circular shapes using continuum-subtracted H{\alpha}and [SII] images and produce a list of 199 SNR candidates, of which 79 are previously unknown. We classify them considering two types of criteria: their progenitor type (Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs) and their morphological type. Of the total sample, 170 are likely remnants of CC SNe and 29 are likely remnants of Type Ia SNe. We obtain a cumulative size distribution of the SNR candidates, showing that it follows a power law with an index,{\alpha}= 2.38{\pm}0.05 (17 < D < 50 pc). This indicates that most of the M33 SNR candidates found in this study are in the Sedov-Taylor phase, consistent with previous findings. The [SII]:H{\alpha} distribution of the SNR candidates shows two peaks at [SII]:H{\alpha} ~0.55 and ~0.8. Interestingly X-ray and radio luminosities of the compact center-bright SNR candidates show good correlations with their optical luminosity. The SNR candidates with X-ray counterparts have higher surface brightness at optical wavelengths and smaller sizes than those without such counterparts.

Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834-087 using H.E.S.S. and Fermi LAT observations

Previous observations with HESS have revealed the existence of an extended very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray source, HESS J1834-087, coincident with the SNR W41. The origin of the gamma-ray emission has been further investigated with HESS and the Fermi-LAT. The gamma-ray data provided by 61h (HESS) and 4 yrs (Fermi LAT) of observations cover over 5 decades in energy (1.8GeV – 30TeV). The morphology and spectrum of the TeV and GeV sources have been studied and multi-wavelength data have been used to investigate the origin of the observed emission. The TeV source can be modeled with a sum of two components: one point-like and one significantly extended (sig_TeV = 0.17{\deg}), both centered on SNR W41 and exhibiting spectra described by a power law of index 2.6. The GeV source detected with Fermi is extended (sig_GeV =0.15{\deg}) and morphologically matches the VHE emission. Its spectrum can be described by a power-law with index 2.15 and joins smoothly the one of the whole TeV source. A break appears in the spectra around 100 GeV. Two main scenarios are proposed to explain the emission: a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or the interaction of SNR W41 with a molecular cloud. X-ray observations suggest the presence of a point-like source (pulsar candidate) near the center of the SNR and non-thermal X-ray diffuse emission which could arise from a potential PWN. The PWN scenario is supported by the match of of the TeV and GeV positions with the putative pulsar. However, the overall spectrum is reproduced by a 1-zone leptonic model only if an excess of low-energy electrons is injected by a high spin-down power pulsar. This low-energy component is not needed if the point-like TeV source is unrelated to the extended GeV and TeV sources. The interacting SNR scenario is supported by the spatial coincidence between the gamma-ray sources, the detection of OH maser lines and the hadronic modeling.

Comparison of fringe-tracking algorithms for single-mode near-infrared long-baseline interferometers [Replacement]

To enable optical long baseline interferometry toward faint objects, long integrations are necessary despite atmospheric turbulence. Fringe trackers are needed to stabilize the fringes and thus increase the fringe visibility and phase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), with efficient controllers robust to instrumental vibrations, and to subsequent path fluctuations and flux drop-outs. We report on simulations, analysis and comparison of the performances of a classical integrator controller and of a Kalman controller, both optimized to track fringes under realistic observing conditions for different source magnitudes, disturbance conditions, and sampling frequencies. The key parameters of our simulations (instrument photometric performance, detection noise, turbulence and vibrations statistics) are based on typical observing conditions at the Very Large Telescope observatory and on the design of the GRAVITY instrument, a 4-telescope single-mode long baseline interferometer in the near-infrared, next in line to be installed at VLT Interferometer. We find that both controller performances follow a two-regime law with the star magnitude, a constant disturbance limited regime, and a diverging detector and photon noise limited regime. Moreover, we find that the Kalman controller is optimal in the high and medium SNR regime due to its predictive commands based on an accurate disturbance model. In the low SNR regime, the model is not accurate enough to be more robust than an integrator controller. Identifying the disturbances from high SNR measurements improves the Kalman performances in case of strong optical path difference disturbances.

Comparison of fringe tracking algorithms for single-mode near-infrared long baseline interferometers

To enable optical long baseline interferometry toward faint objects, long integrations are necessary despite atmospheric turbulence. Fringe trackers are needed to stabilize the fringes and thus increase the fringe visibility and phase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), with efficient controllers robust to instrumental vibrations, and to subsequent path fluctuations and flux drop-outs. We report on simulations, analysis and comparison of the performances of a classical integrator controller and of a Kalman controller, both optimized to track fringes under realistic observing conditions for different source magnitudes, disturbance conditions, and sampling frequencies. The key parameters of our simulations (instrument photometric performance, detection noise, turbulence and vibrations statistics) are based on typical observing conditions at the Very Large Telescope observatory and on the design of the GRAVITY instrument, a 4-telescope single-mode long baseline interferometer in the near-infrared, next in line to be installed at VLT Interferometer. We find that both controller performances follow a two-regime law with the star magnitude, a constant disturbance limited regime, and a diverging detector and photon noise limited regime. Moreover, we find that the Kalman controller is optimal in the high and medium SNR regime due to its predictive commands based on an accurate disturbance model. In the low SNR regime, the model is not accurate enough to be more robust than an integrator controller. Identifying the disturbances from high SNR measurements improves the Kalman performances in case of strong optical path difference disturbances.

Discovery of a new supernova remnant G150.3+4.5

Large-scale radio continuum surveys have good potential for discovering new Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Surveys of the Galactic plane are often limited in the Galactic latitude of |b| ~ 5 degree. SNRs at high latitudes, such as the Cygnus Loop or CTA~1, cannot be detected by surveys in such limited latitudes. Using the available Urumqi 6 cm Galactic plane survey data, together with the maps from the extended ongoing 6 cm medium latitude survey, we wish to discover new SNRs in a large sky area. We searched for shell-like structures and calculated radio spectra using the Urumqi 6 cm, Effelsberg 11 cm, and 21 cm survey data. Radio polarized emission and evidence in other wavelengths are also examined for the characteristics of SNRs. We discover an enclosed oval-shaped object G150.3+4.5 in the 6 cm survey map. It is about 2.5 degree wide and 3 degree high. Parts of the shell structures can be identified well in the 11 cm, 21 cm, and 73.5 cm observations. The Effelsberg 21 cm total intensity image resembles most of the structures of G150.3+4.5 seen at 6 cm, but the loop is not closed in the northwest. High resolution images at 21 cm and 73.5 cm from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey confirm the extended emission from the eastern and western shells of G150.3+4.5. We calculated the radio continuum spectral indices of the eastern and western shells, which are $\beta \sim -2.4$ and $\beta \sim -2.7$ between 6 cm and 21 cm, respectively. The shell-like structures and their non-thermal nature strongly suggest that G150.3+4.5 is a shell-type SNR. For other objects in the field of view, G151.4+3.0 and G151.2+2.6, we confirm that the shell-like structure G151.4+3.0 very likely has a SNR origin, while the circular-shaped G151.2+2.6 is an HII region with a flat radio spectrum, associated with optical filamentary structure, H$\alpha$, and infrared emission.

HFPK 334: An unusual Supernova Remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud

We present new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio-continuum and XMM-Newton/Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observations of the unusual supernova remnant HFPK 334 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The remnant follows a shell type morphology in the radio-continuum and has a size of $\sim$20~pc at the SMC distance. The X-ray morphology is similar, however, we detect a prominent point source close to the center of the SNR exhibiting a spectrum with a best fit powerlaw with a photon index of $\Gamma = 2.7 \pm 0.5$. This central point source is most likely a background object and cannot be directly associated with the remnant. The high temperature, nonequilibrium conditions in the diffuse region suggest that this gas has been recently shocked and point toward a younger SNR with an age of $\lesssim 1800$ years. With an average radio spectral index of $\alpha=-0.59\pm0.09$ we find that an equipartition magnetic field for the remnant is $\sim$90~$\mu$G, a value typical of younger SNRs in low-density environments. Also, we report detection of scattered radio polarisation across the remnant at 20~cm, with a peak fractional polarisation level of 25$\pm$5\%.

Molecular Environment of the Supernova Remnant IC 443: Discovery of the Molecular Shells Surrounding the Remnant

We have carried out 12CO, 13CO, and C18O observations toward the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443. The observations cover a 1.5*1.5 deg^2 area and allow us to investigate the overall molecular environment of the remnant. Some northern and northeastern partial shell structure of CO gas is around the remnant. One of the partial shells, about 5′ extending beyond the northeastern border of the remnant’s bright radio shell, seems to just confine the faint radio halo. On the other hand, some faint CO clumps can be discerned along the eastern boundary of the faint remnant’s radio halo. Connecting the eastern CO clumps, the northeastern partial shell structures, and the northern CO partial shell, we can see that a half molecular ring structure appears to surround the remnant. The LSR velocity of the half-ring structure is in the range of -5 km/s to -2 km/s, which is consistent with that of the -4 km/s molecular clouds. We suggest that the half-ring structure of the CO emission at V_LSR -4 km/s is associated with the SNR. The structures are possibly swept up by the stellar winds of SNR IC 443′s massive progenitor. Based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR database, 62 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are selected within the radio halo of the remnant. These YSO candidates concentrated along the boundary of the remnant’s bright radio shell are likely to be triggered by the stellar winds from the massive progenitor of SNR IC 443.

The evolution of a slow electrostatic shock into a plasma shock mediated by electrostatic turbulence

The collision of two plasma clouds at a speed that exceeds the ion acoustic speed can result in the formation of shocks. This phenomenon is observed not only in astrophysical scenarios such as the propagation of supernova remnant (SNR) blast shells into the interstellar medium, but also in laboratory-based laser-plasma experiments. These experiments and supporting simulations are thus seen as an attractive platform for the small-scale reproduction and study of astrophysical shocks in the laboratory. We model two plasma clouds, which consist of electrons and ions, with a 2D PIC simulation. The ion temperatures of both clouds differ by a factor of 10. Both clouds collide at a speed, which is realistic for laboratory studies and for SNR shocks in their late evolution phase like that of RCW86. A magnetic field, which is orthogonal to the simulation plane, has a strength that is comparable to that at SNR shocks. A forward shock forms between the overlap layer of both plasma clouds and the cloud with the cooler ions. A large-amplitude ion acoustic wave is observed between the overlap layer and the cloud with the hotter ions. It does not steepen into a reverse shock, because its speed is below the ion acoustic speed. A gradient of the magnetic field amplitude builds up close to the forward shock as it compresses the magnetic field. This gradient gives rise to an electron drift that is fast enough to trigger an instability. Electrostatic ion acoustic wave turbulence develops ahead of the shock. It widens its transition layer and thermalizes the ions, but the forward shock remains intact.

Prospects for Detecting Oxygen, Water, and Chlorophyll in an Exo-Earth

The goal of finding and characterizing nearby Earth-like planets is driving many NASA high-contrast flagship mission concepts, the latest of which is known as the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST). In this article, we calculate the optimal spectral resolution $R=\lambda/\delta\lambda$ and minimum signal-to-noise ratio per spectral bin (SNR), two central design requirements for a high-contrast space mission, in order to detect signatures of water, oxygen, and chlorophyll on an Earth twin. We first develop a minimally parametric model and demonstrate its ability to fit model Earth spectra; this allows us to measure the statistical evidence for each component’s presence. We find that water is the most straightforward to detect, requiring a resolving power R>~20, while the optimal resolving power for oxygen is likely to be closer to R=150, somewhat higher than the canonical value in the literature. At these resolutions, detecting oxygen will require ~3 times the SNR as water. Chlorophyll, should it also be used by alien plants in photosynthesis, requires ~6 times the SNR as oxygen for an Earth twin, only falling to oxygen-like levels of detectability for a very low cloud cover and/or a very large vegetation covering fraction. This suggests designing a mission for sensitivity to oxygen and adopting a multi-tiered observing strategy, first targeting water, then oxygen on the more favorable planets, and finally chlorophyll on only the most promising worlds.

Prospects for Detecting Oxygen, Water, and Chlorophyll on an Exo-Earth [Replacement]

The goal of finding and characterizing nearby Earth-like planets is driving many NASA high-contrast flagship mission concepts, the latest of which is known as the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST). In this article, we calculate the optimal spectral resolution $R=\lambda/\delta\lambda$ and minimum signal-to-noise ratio per spectral bin (SNR), two central design requirements for a high-contrast space mission, in order to detect signatures of water, oxygen, and chlorophyll on an Earth twin. We first develop a minimally parametric model and demonstrate its ability to fit synthetic and observed Earth spectra; this allows us to measure the statistical evidence for each component’s presence. We find that water is the easiest to detect, requiring a resolution $R \gtrsim 20$, while the optimal resolution for oxygen is likely to be closer to $R = 150$, somewhat higher than the canonical value in the literature. At these resolutions, detecting oxygen will require $\sim$2 times the SNR as water. Chlorophyll requires $\sim$6 times the SNR as oxygen for an Earth twin, only falling to oxygen-like levels of detectability for a low cloud cover and/or a large vegetation covering fraction. This suggests designing a mission for sensitivity to oxygen and adopting a multi-tiered observing strategy, first targeting water, then oxygen on the more favorable planets, and finally chlorophyll on only the most promising worlds.

TeV {\gamma}-ray observations of the young synchrotron-dominated SNRs G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 with H.E.S.S

The non-thermal nature of the X-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 is an indication of intense particle acceleration in the shock fronts of both objects. This suggests that the SNRs are prime candidates for very-high-energy (VHE; E $>$ 0.1 TeV) {\gamma}-ray observations. G1.9+0.3, recently established as the youngest known SNR in the Galaxy, also offers a unique opportunity to study the earliest stages of SNR evolution in the VHE domain. The purpose of this work is to probe the level of VHE {\gamma}-ray emission from both SNRs and use this to constrain their physical properties. Observations were conducted with the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) Cherenkov telescope array over a more than six-year period spanning 2004-2010. The obtained data have effective livetimes of 67 h for G1.9+0.3 and 16 h for G330.2+1.0. The data are analyzed in the context of the multi-wavelength observations currently available and in the framework of both leptonic and hadronic particle acceleration scenarios. No significant {\gamma}-ray signal from G1.9+0.3 or G330.2+1.0 was detected. Upper limits (99% confidence level) to the TeV flux from G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 for the assumed spectral index {\Gamma} = 2.5 were set at 5.6 $\times$ 10$^{-13}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ above 0.26 TeV and 3.2 $\times$ 10$^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ above 0.38 TeV, respectively. In a one-zone leptonic scenario, these upper limits imply lower limits on the interior magnetic field to B$_{\mathrm{G1.9}}$ $\gtrsim$ 11 {\mu}G for G1.9+0.3 and to B$_{\mathrm{G330}}$ $\gtrsim$ 8 {\mu}G for G330.2+1.0. In a hadronic scenario, the low ambient densities and the large distances to the SNRs result in very low predicted fluxes, for which the H.E.S.S. upper limits are not constraining.

Localized SiO emission triggered by the passage of the W51C SNR shock

The region towards W51C is a convincing example of interaction between a supernova remnant and a surrounding molecular cloud. Large electron abundances have been reported towards the position W51C-E located in this interaction region, and it was proposed that the enhanced ionization fraction was due to cosmic ray particles freshly accelerated by the SNR shock. We present PdB interferometer observations of the H$^{13}$CO$^+$(1-0) and DCO$^+$(2-1) emission lines centered at position W51C-E. These observations confirm the previous scenario of cosmic-ray induced ionization at this location. In addition, SiO(2-1) emission has been successfully mapped in the close vicinity of W51C-E, with a spatial resolution of 7". The morphology and kinematics of the SiO emission are analyzed and strongly suggest that this emission is produced by the passage of the SNR primary shock. Put in conjunction with the enhanced ionization fraction in this region, we give a consistent picture in which the W51C-E position is located downstream of the shock, where a large reservoir of freshly accelerated particles is available.

Detailed Investigation of the Gamma-Ray Emission in the Vicinity of SNR W28 with FERMI-LAT

We present a detailed investigation of the $\gamma$-ray emission in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4$-$0.1) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We detected significant $\gamma$-ray emission spatially coincident with TeV sources HESS J1800$-$240A, B, and C, located outside the radio boundary of the SNR. Their spectra in the 2-100 GeV band are consistent with the extrapolation of the power-law spectra of the TeV sources. We also identified a new source of GeV emission, dubbed Source W, which lies outside the boundary of TeV sources and coincides with radio emission from the western part of W28. All of the GeV $\gamma$-ray sources overlap with molecular clouds in the velocity range from 0 to 20 km s$^{-1}$. Under the assumption that the $\gamma$-ray emission towards HESS J1800-240A, B, and C comes from $\pi^0$ decay due to the interaction between the molecular clouds and cosmic rays (CRs) escaping from W28, they can be naturally explained by a single model in which the CR diffusion coefficient is smaller than the theoretical expectation in the interstellar space. The total energy of the CRs escaping from W28 is constrained through the same modeling to be larger than $\sim$ 2 $\times$ 10$^{49}$ erg. The emission from Source W can also be explained with the same CR escape scenario.

Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using synthetic tracking technique

We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA), which was done using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200-inch telescope. This asteroid, with apparent magnitude of 23, was moving at 5.97 degrees per day and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15 using 30 sec of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation one hour later at the same SNR. The asteroid moved 7 arcseconds in sky over the 30 sec of integration time because of its high proper motion. The synthetic tracking using 16.7 Hz frames avoided the trailing loss suffered by conventional techniques relying on 30-sec exposure, which would degrade the surface brightness of image on CCD to an approximate magnitude of 25. This detection was a result of our 12-hour blind search conducted on the Palomar 200-inch telescope over two nights on September 11 and 12, 2013 scanning twice over six 5.0 deg x 0.043 deg fields. The fact that we detected only one NEA, is consistent with Harris’s estimation of the asteroid population distribution, which was used to predict the detection of 1–2 asteroids of absolute magnitude H=28–31 per night. The design of experiment, data analysis method, and algorithms for estimating astrometry are presented. We also demonstrate a milli-arcsecond astrometry using observations of two bright asteroids with the same system on Apr 3, 2013. Strategies of scheduling observations to detect small and fast-moving NEAs with the synthetic tracking technique are discussed.

A New Optical Survey of Supernova Remnant Candidates in M31

We present a survey of optically emitting supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31 based on H$\alpha$ and [SII] images in the Local Group Survey. Using these images, we select objects that have [SII]:H$\alpha$ $>$ 0.4 and circular shapes. We find 76 new SNR candidates. We also inspect 234 SNR candidates presented in previous studies, finding that only 80 of them are SNR candidates according to our criteria. Combining them with the new candidates, we produce a master catalog of 156 SNR candidates in M31. We classify these SNR candidates according to two criteria: the SNR progenitor type [Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs] and the morphological type. Type Ia and CC SNR candidates make up 23% and 77%, respectively, of the total sample. Most of the CC SNR candidates are concentrated in the spiral arms, while the Type Ia SNR candidates are rather distributed over the entire galaxy, including the inner region. The CC SNR candidates are brighter in H$\alpha$ and [SII] than the Type Ia SNR candidates. We derive a cumulative size distribution of the SNR candidates, finding that the distribution of the candidates with 17 $< D <$ 50 pc is fitted well by a power law with the power law index $\alpha = 2.53\pm0.04$. This indicates that most of the SNR candidates identified in this study appear to be in the Sedov-Taylor phase. The [SII]:H$\alpha$ distribution of the SNR candidates is bimodal, with peaks at [SII]:H$\alpha$ $\sim$ 0.4 and $\sim$ 0.9. The properties of these SNR candidates vary little with the galactocentric distance. The H$\alpha$ and [SII] surface brightnesses show a good correlation with the X-ray luminosity of the SNR candidates that are center-bright. The SNR candidates with X-ray counterparts have higher surface brightnesses in H$\alpha$ and [SII] and smaller sizes than those without such counterparts.

The Supernova Remnant W44: confirmations and challenges for cosmic-ray acceleration

The middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) W44 has recently attracted attention because of its relevance regarding the origin of Galactic cosmic-rays. The gamma-ray missions AGILE and Fermi have established, for the first time for a SNR, the spectral continuum below 200 MeV which can be attributed to neutral pion emission. Confirming the hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission near 100 MeV is then of the greatest importance. Our paper is focused on a global re-assessment of all available data and models of particle acceleration in W44, with the goal of determining on a firm ground the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the overall spectrum. We also present new gamma-ray and CO NANTEN2 data on W44, and compare them with recently published AGILE and Fermi data. Our analysis strengthens previous studies and observations of the W44 complex environment and provides new information for a more detailed modeling. In particular, we determine that the average gas density of the regions emitting 100 MeV – 10 GeV gamma-rays is relatively high (n= 250 – 300 cm^-3). The hadronic interpretation of the gamma-ray spectrum of W44 is viable, and supported by strong evidence. It implies a relatively large value for the average magnetic field (B > 10^2 microG) in the SNR surroundings, sign of field amplification by shock-driven turbulence. Our new analysis establishes that the spectral index of the proton energy distribution function is p1 = 2.2 +/- 0.1 at low energies and p2 = 3.2 +/- 0.1 at high energies. We critically discuss hadronic versus leptonic-only models of emission taking into account simultaneously radio and gamma-ray data. We find that the leptonic models are disfavored by the combination of radio and gamma-ray data. Having determined the hadronic nature of the gamma-ray emission on firm ground, a number of theoretical challenges remains to be addressed.

The Supernova Remnant W44: confirmations and challenges for cosmic-ray acceleration [Replacement]

The middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) W44 has recently attracted attention because of its relevance regarding the origin of Galactic cosmic-rays. The gamma-ray missions AGILE and Fermi have established, for the first time for a SNR, the spectral continuum below 200 MeV which can be attributed to neutral pion emission. Confirming the hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission near 100 MeV is then of the greatest importance. Our paper is focused on a global re-assessment of all available data and models of particle acceleration in W44, with the goal of determining on a firm ground the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the overall spectrum. We also present new gamma-ray and CO NANTEN2 data on W44, and compare them with recently published AGILE and Fermi data. Our analysis strengthens previous studies and observations of the W44 complex environment and provides new information for a more detailed modeling. In particular, we determine that the average gas density of the regions emitting 100 MeV – 10 GeV gamma-rays is relatively high (n= 250 – 300 cm^-3). The hadronic interpretation of the gamma-ray spectrum of W44 is viable, and supported by strong evidence. It implies a relatively large value for the average magnetic field (B > 10^2 microG) in the SNR surroundings, sign of field amplification by shock-driven turbulence. Our new analysis establishes that the spectral index of the proton energy distribution function is p1 = 2.2 +/- 0.1 at low energies and p2 = 3.2 +/- 0.1 at high energies. We critically discuss hadronic versus leptonic-only models of emission taking into account simultaneously radio and gamma-ray data. We find that the leptonic models are disfavored by the combination of radio and gamma-ray data. Having determined the hadronic nature of the gamma-ray emission on firm ground, a number of theoretical challenges remains to be addressed.

XMM-Newton observation of the Galactic supernova remnant W51C (G49.1-0.1)

The supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is a Galactic object located in a strongly inhomogeneous interstellar medium with signs of an interaction of the SNR blast wave with dense molecular gas. Diffuse X-ray emission from the interior of the SNR can reveal element abundances in the different emission regions and shed light on the type of supernova (SN) explosion and its progenitor. The hard X-ray emission helps to identify possible candidates for a pulsar formed in the SN explosion and for its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). We have analysed X-ray data obtained with XMM-Newton. Spectral analyses in selected regions were performed. Ejecta emission in the bright western part of the SNR, located next to a complex of dense molecular gas, was confirmed. The Ne and Mg abundances suggest a massive progenitor with a mass of > 20 M_sun. Two extended regions emitting hard X-rays were identified (corresponding to the known sources [KLS2002] HX3 west and CXO J192318.5+140305 discovered with ASCA and Chandra, respectively), each of which has an additional point source inside and shows a power-law spectrum with Gamma ~ 1.8. Based on their X-ray emission, both sources can be classified as PWN candidates.

XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Ejecta-Dominated Mixed-Morphology Galactic Supernova Remnant G352.7-0.1

(Abridged) We present a spatial and spectral X-ray analysis of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G352.7-0.1 using archival data from observations made with XMM-Newton and Chandra. Prior X-ray observations of this SNR revealed a thermal center-filled morphology which contrasts with a shell-like radio morphology, thus establishing G352.7$-$0.1 as a mixed-morphology SNR (MMSNRs). Our study confirms that the X-ray emission comes from the SNR interior and must be ejecta-dominated. Spectra obtained with XMM-Newton may be fit satisfactorily with a single thermal component (namely a non-equilibrium ionization component with enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur). In contrast, spectra extracted by Chandra from certain regions of the SNR cannot always be fit by a single thermal component. For those regions, a second thermal component with solar abundances or two thermal components with different temperatures and thawed silicon and sulfur abundances (respectively) can generate a statistically-acceptable fit. We argue that the former scenario is more physically-plausible: based on parameters of our spectral fits, we calculate physical parameters including X-ray-emitting mass (about 45 solar masses, for solar abundances). We find no evidence for overionization in the X-ray emitting plasma associated with the SNR: this phenomenon has been seen in other MMSNRs. We have conducted a search for a neutron star within the SNR using a hard (2-10 keV) Chandra image but could not identify a firm candidate. We also present (for the first time) the detection of infrared emission from this SNR as detected at 24 micron by MIPS aboard Spitzer. Finally, we discuss the properties of G352.7-0.1 in the context of other ejecta-dominated MMSNRs.

HESS J1640-465 - an exceptionally luminous TeV gamma-ray SNR

The results of follow-up observations of the TeV gamma-ray source HESSJ 1640-465 from 2004 to 2011 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) are reported in this work. The spectrum is well described by an exponential cut-off power law with photon index Gamma=2.11 +/- 0.09_stat +/- 0.10_sys, and a cut-off energy of E_c = (6.0 +2.0 -1.2) TeV. The TeV emission is significantly extended and overlaps with the north-western part of the shell of the SNR G338.3-0.0. The new H.E.S.S. results, a re-analysis of archival XMM-Newton data, and multi-wavelength observations suggest that a significant part of the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1640-465 originates in the SNR shell. In a hadronic scenario, as suggested by the smooth connection of the GeV and TeV spectra, the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as W_p n_H ~ 4 x 10^52 (d/10kpc)^2 erg cm^-3.

SNR G349.7+0.2: A gamma-ray source in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center [Replacement]

We analyze the HI absorption profile for TeV Supernova Remnant (SNR) G349.7+0.2 based on updated knowledge of the inner Galaxy’s structure. We significantly revise its kinematic distance from the previous ~ 22 kpc to ~11.5 kpc, indicating it is in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center. We give a revised age of ~ 1800 year for G349.7+0.2 which has a low explosion energy of ~ 2.5 x 10^50 ergs. This removes G349.7+0.2 from the set of brightest SNRs in radio, X-ray to gamma-ray wavebands and helps understand gamma-ray emission originating from this remnant better. However, one needs to use caution for old kinematic distances of Galactic objects (e.g. SNRs, Pulsars and HII regions) in the range of -12 degree =< l =< 12 degree and having distance estimates of >= 5.5 kpc.

SNR G349.7+0.2: A gamma-ray source in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center

We analyze the HI absorption profile for TeV Supernova Remnant (SNR) G349.7+0.2 based on updated knowledge of the inner Galaxy’s structure. We significantly revise its kinematic distance from the previous ~ 22 kpc to ~11.5 kpc, indicating it is in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center. We give a revised age of ~ 1800 year for G349.7+0.2 which has a low explosion energy of ~ 2.5 x 10^50 ergs. This removes G349.7+0.2 from the set of brightest SNRs in radio, X-ray to gamma-ray wavebands and helps understand gamma-ray emission originating from this remnant better. In addition, we warn that one needs to use caution for old kinematic distances of Galactic objects (e.g. SNRs, Pulsars and HII regions) in the range of -12 degree =< l =< 12 degree and having distance estimates of >= 5.5 kpc.

SNR G349.7+0.2: A gamma-ray source in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center [Replacement]

We analyze the HI absorption profile for TeV Supernova Remnant (SNR) G349.7+0.2 based on updated knowledge of the inner Galaxy’s structure. We significantly revise its kinematic distance from the previous ~ 22 kpc to ~11.5 kpc, indicating it is in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center. We give a revised age of ~ 1800 year for G349.7+0.2 which has a low explosion energy of ~ 2.5 x 10^50 ergs. This removes G349.7+0.2 from the set of brightest SNRs in radio, X-ray to gamma-ray wavebands and helps understand gamma-ray emission originating from this remnant better. In addition, we warn that one needs to use caution for old kinematic distances of Galactic objects (e.g. SNRs, Pulsars and HII regions) in the range of -12 degree =< l =< 12 degree and having distance estimates of >= 5.5 kpc.

Fermi-LAT Observations of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 79

In this paper we report on the detection of $\gamma$-ray emission coincident with the Galactic supernova remnant Kesteven 79 (Kes 79). We analysed approximately 52 months of data obtained with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Kes 79 is thought to be interacting with adjacent molecular clouds based on the presence of strong $^{12}$CO J = 1 $\rightarrow$ 0 and HCO$^{+}$ J = 1 $\rightarrow$ 0 emission and the detection of 1720 MHz line emission towards the east of the remnant. Acceleration of cosmic rays is expected to occur at SNR shocks, and SNRs interacting with dense molecular clouds provide a good testing ground for detecting and analysing the production of $\gamma$-rays from the decay of $\pi^0$ into two $\gamma$-ray photons. This analysis investigates $\gamma$-ray emission coincident with Kes 79, which has a detection significance of $\sim 7 \sigma$. Additionally we present an investigation of the spatial and spectral characteristics of Kes 79 using multiple archival XMM-Newton observations of this remnant. We determine the global X-ray properties of Kes 79 and estimate the ambient density across the remnant. We also performed a similar analysis for Galactic SNR Kesteven 78 (Kes 78), but due to large uncertainties in the $\gamma$-ray background model, no conclusion can be made about an excess of GeV $\gamma$-ray associated with the remnant.

A CR-hydro-NEI Model of the Structure and Broadband Emission from Tycho's SNR

Tycho’s supernova remnant (SNR) is well-established as a source of particle acceleration to very high energies. Constraints from numerous studies indicate that the observed gamma-ray emission results primarily from hadronic processes, providing direct evidence of highly relativistic ions that have been accelerated by the SNR. Here we present an investigation of the dynamical and spectral evolution of Tycho’s SNR by carrying out hydrodynamical simulations that include diffusive shock acceleration of particles in the amplified magnetic field at the forward shock of the SNR. Our simulations provide a consistent view of the shock positions, the nonthermal emission, the thermal X-ray emission from the forward shock, and the brightness profiles of the radio and X-ray emission. We compare these with the observed properties of Tycho to determine the density of the ambient material, the particle acceleration efficiency and maximum energy, the accelerated electron to-proton ratio, and the properties of the shocked gas downstream of the expanding SNR shell. We find that evolution of a typical Type Ia supernova in a low ambient density (n_0 ~ 0.3 cm^{-3}), with an upstream magnetic field of ~5\ microGauss, and with ~16% of the SNR kinetic energy being converted into relativistic electrons and ions through diffusive shock acceleration, reproduces the observed properties of Tycho. Under such a scenario, the bulk of observed gamma-ray emission at high energies is produced by pi^0-decay resulting from the collisions of energetic hadrons, while inverse-Compton emission is significant at lower energies, comprising roughly half of the flux between 1 and 10 GeV.

Multi-frequency study of a new Fe-rich supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, MCSNR J0508-6902

We present a detailed radio, X-ray and optical study of a newly discovered Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) supernova remnant (SNR) which we denote MCSNR J0508-6902. Observations from the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the $\textit{XMM-Newton}$ X-ray observatory are complemented by deep H$\alpha$ images and Anglo Australian Telescope AAOmega spectroscopic data to study the SNR shell and its shock-ionisation. Archival data at other wavelengths are also examined. The remnant follows a filled-in shell type morphology in the radio-continuum and has a size of $\sim$74 pc $\times$ 57 pc at the LMC distance. The X-ray emission exhibits a faint soft shell morphology with Fe-rich gas in its interior $-$ indicative of a Type Ia origin. The remnant appears to be mostly dissipated at higher radio-continuum frequencies leaving only the south-eastern limb fully detectable while in the optical it is the western side of the SNR shell that is clearly detected. The best-fit temperature to the shell X-ray emission ($kT = 0.41^{+0.05}_{-0.06}$ keV) is consistent with other large LMC SNRs. We determined an O/Fe ratio of $<21$ and an Fe mass of 0.5-1.8$~M_{\odot}$ in the interior of the remnant, both of which are consistent with the Type Ia scenario. We find an equipartition magnetic field for the remnant of $\sim$28 $\mu$G, a value typical of older SNRs and consistent with other analyses which also infer an older remnant.

Detection of Class I Methanol (CH3OH) Maser Candidates in Supernova Remnants

We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to search for 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol (CH3OH) lines in a sample of 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Mainly the regions of the SNRs with 1720 MHz OH masers were observed. Despite the limited spatial extent covered in our search, methanol masers were detected in both G1.4-0.1 and W28. Additional masers were found in SgrAEast. More than 40 masers were found in G1.4-0.1 which we deduce are due to interactions between the SNR and at least two separate molecular clouds. The six masers in W28 are associated with the molecular cloud that is also associated with the OH maser excitation. We discuss the possibility that the methanol maser may be more numerous in SNRs than the OH maser, but harder to detect due to observational constraints.

Triggered star formation in a molecular shell created by a SNR?

We present a study of a new molecular shell, G126.1-0.8-14, using available multiwavelegth Galactic plane surveys and optical Gemini observations. A well defined shell-like structure is observed in the CO(1–0) line emission at (l,b) = (126.1, -0.8), in the velocity range –10.5 to –15.5 km/s. The HI, emission shows a region of low emissivity inside G126.1-0.8-14, while radio continuum observations reveal faint non-thermal emission possibly related to this shell. Optical spectra obtained with Gemini South show the existence of B-type stars likely to be associated with G126.1-0.8-14. An estimate of the stellar wind energy injected by these stars show that they alone can not be able to create such a structure. On the other hand, one supernova explosion would provide enough energy to generate the shell. Using the MSX, IRAS, and WISE Point Source Catalogues we have found about 30 young stellar objects candidates, whose birth could have been triggered by the expansion of G126.1-0.8-14. In this context, Sh2-187 could be a consequence of the action on its surroundings of the most massive (and thus most evolve) of the stars formed by the expanding molecular shell.

Radio-continuum study of Large Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnant J0509-6731 [Replacement]

We present a detailed study of Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations ($\lambda$ = 20, 13, 6 & 3~cm) of supernova remnant (SNR) J0509–6731 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The remnant has a ring morphology with brightened regions towards the south-western limb. We also find a second brightened inner ring which is only seen in the radio-continuum. The SNR is almost circular, with a diameter ranging from 7 to 8~pc, and a steep radio spectral index between 36 and 3~cm of $\alpha=-0.73\pm0.02$, which is characteristic of younger SNRs. We also report detection of radially orientated polarisation across the remnant at 6~cm, with a mean fractional polarisation level of $P\cong$~(26~$\pm$~13)%. We find the magnetic field ($\sim$168~$\mu$G) and $\Sigma – D$ ($\Sigma = $ $1.1\times 10^{-19}$~W m$^{-2}$~Hz$^{-1}$~sr$^{-1}$ , $D=$ 7.35~pc) to be consistent with other young remnants.

Vortical field amplification and particle acceleration at rippled shocks

Supernova Remnants (SNRs) shocks are believed to accelerate charged particles and to generate strong turbulence in the post-shock flow. From high-energy observations in the past decade, a magnetic field at SNR shocks largely exceeding the shock-compressed interstellar field has been inferred. We outline how such a field amplification results from a small-scale dynamo process downstream of the shock, providing an explicit expression for the turbulence back-reaction to the fluid whirling. The spatial scale of the $X-$ray rims and the short time-variability can be obtained by using reasonable parameters for the interstellar turbulence. We show that such a vortical field saturation is faster than the acceleration time of the synchrotron emitting energetic electrons.

Weak lensing mass map and peak statistics in Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 survey [Replacement]

We present a weak lensing mass map covering ~124 square degrees of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey (CS82). We study the statistics of rare peaks in the map, including peak abundance, the peak-peak correlation functions and the tangential-shear profiles around peaks. We find that the abundance of peaks detected in CS82 is consistent with predictions from a Lambda-CDM cosmological model, once noise effects are properly included. The correlation functions of peaks with different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are well described by power laws, and there is a clear cross-correlation between the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III/Constant Mass galaxies and high SNR peaks. The tangential-shear profiles around peaks increase with peak SNR. We fit analytical models to the tangential-shear profiles, including a projected singular isothermal sphere (SIS) model and a projected Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) model, plus a two-halo term. For the high SNR peaks, the SIS model is rejected at ~3-sigma. The NFW model plus a two-halo term gives more acceptable fits to the data. Some peaks match the positions of optically detected clusters, while others are relatively dark. Comparing dark and matched peaks, we find a difference in lensing signal of a factor of 2, suggesting that about half of the dark peaks are false detections.

Weak lensing mass map and peak statistics in CFHT/Stripe82 survey

We present the weak lensing mass map of the 173 tiles Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe82 Survey (CS82) with the effective area ~124 square degrees and study the peak statistics, including peak abundance, correlation functions and tangential-shear profile of peaks with the mass map. We find that (1) peak abundance detected in CS82 are consistent with predictions from a Lambda-CDM cosmological model, once noise effects are properly included; (2) correlation function of peaks with different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be well fitted with power laws. Combining with the SDSS-III/Constant Mass (CMASS) galaxies, the cross-correlation between CMASS galaxies and high SNR peaks can be well-fitted with a power law; (3) the tangential shear profiles of the peaks increase with SNR. We concentrate on fitting spherical models to the tangential profiles with both singular isothermal sphere (SIS) and Navarro Frenk & White (NFW) models. For the high SNR peaks, the SIS model is rejected at ~3-sigma. Comparing the Dark and matched clumps to the optically selected redMaPPer clusters, a difference in lensing signal of a factor of 2 can be found, reflecting the fact that likely about half of the dark clumps are false detection.

 

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