Posts Tagged snr

Recent Postings from snr

Supernova Remnants in the Local Group I: A model for the radio luminosity function and visibility times of supernova remnants

Supernova remnants (SNRs) in Local Group galaxies offer unique insights into the origin of different types of supernovae. In order to take full advantage of these insights, one must understand the intrinsic and environmental diversity of SNRs in the context of their host galaxies. We introduce a semi-analytic model that reproduces the statistical properties of a radio continuum-selected SNR population, taking into account the detection limits of radio surveys, the range of SN kinetic energies, the measured ISM and stellar mass distribution in the host galaxy from multi-wavelength images and the current understanding of electron acceleration and field amplification in SNR shocks from first-principle kinetic simulations. Applying our model to the SNR population in M33, we reproduce the SNR radio luminosity function with a median SN rate of $\sim 3.1 \times 10^{-3}$ per year and an electron acceleration efficiency, $\epsilon_{\rm{e}} \sim 4.2 \times 10^{-3}$. We predict that the radio visibility times of $\sim 70\%$ of M33 SNRs will be determined by their Sedov-Taylor lifetimes, and correlated with the measured ISM column density, $N_H$ ($t_{\rm{vis}} \propto N_H^{-a}$, with $a \sim 0.33$) while the remaining will have visibility times determined by the detection limit of the radio survey. These observational constraints on the visibility time of SNRs will allow us to use SNR catalogs as `SN surveys' to calculate SN rates and delay time distributions in the Local Group.

Expanding molecular bubble surrounding Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572) observed with IRAM 30 m telescope: evidence for a single-degenerate progenitor

Whether the progenitors of Type-Ia Supernovae, single degenerate or double-degenerate white dwarf (WD) systems, is a highly debated topic. To address the origin of the Type Ia Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR), SN 1572, we have carried out a 12CO J=1-0 mapping and a 3-mm line survey towards the remnant using the IRAM 30 m telescope. We show that Tycho is surrounded by a clumpy molecular bubble at the local standard of rest velocity $\sim 61$ km s$^{-1}$ which expands at a speed $\sim 4.5$ km s$^{-1}$ and has a mass of $\sim 220$ $M_\odot$ (at the distance of 2.5 kpc). Enhanced 12CO J=2-1 line emission relative to 12CO J=1-0 emission and possible line broadenings (in velocity range -64-- -60 km s$^{-1}$) are found at the northeastern boundary of the SNR where the shell is deformed and decelerated. These features, combined with the morphological correspondence between the expanding molecular bubble and Tycho, suggest that the SNR is associated with the bubble at velocity range -66-- -57 km s$^{-1}$. The most plausible origin for the expanding bubble is the fast outflow (with velocity $> 100$ km s$^{-1}$) driven from the vicinity of a WD as it accreted matter from a non-degenerate companion star. The SNR has been expanding in the low-density wind-blown bubble and the shock wave has just reached the molecular cavity wall. This is the first unambiguous detection of the expanding bubble driven by the progenitor of the Type-Ia SNR, which constitutes evidence for a single degenerate progenitor for this Type-Ia supernova.

A young SNR illuminating nearby Molecular Clouds with cosmic rays

The Supernova Remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 displays strong non-thermal TeV gamma-ray and X-ray emission, thus the object is at present time accelerating particles to very high energies. A distinctive feature of this young SNR is the nearby (~30 pc in projection) extended source HESS J1729-345, which is currently unidentified but is in spatial projection coinciding with known molecular clouds (MC). We model the SNR evolution to explore if the TeV emission from HESS J1729-345 can be explained as emission from runaway hadronic cosmic rays (CRs) that are illuminating these MCs. The observational data of HESS J1729-345 and HESS J1731-347 can be reproduced using core-collapse SN models for HESS J1731-347. Starting with different progenitor stars and their pre-supernova environment, we model potential SNR evolution histories along with the CR acceleration in the SNR and the diffusion of the CRs. A simplified 3-dimensional structure of the MCs is introduced based on 12CO data, adopting a distance of 3.2 kpc to the source. A Monte Carlo-based diffusion model for the escaping CRs is developed to deal with the inhomogeneous environment. The fast SNR forward shock speed as implied from the X-ray data can easily be explained when employing scenarios with progenitor star masses between 20 and 25 solar masses, where the SNR shock is still expanding inside the main sequence (MS)-bubble at present time. The TeV spectrum of HESS J1729-345 is satisfactorily fitted by the emission from the highest-energy CRs that have escaped the SNR, using a standard galactic CR diffusion coefficient in the inter-clump medium. The TeV image of HESS J1729-345 can be explained with a reasonable 3-dimensional structure of MCs. The TeV emission from the SNR itself is dominated by leptonic emission in this model. We also explore scenarios where the shock is starting to encounter the dense MS progenitor wind bubble shell.

Revisiting the Contributions of Supernova and Hypernova Remnants to the Diffuse High-Energy Backgrounds: Constraints on Very-High-Redshift Injections [Replacement]

Star-forming and starburst galaxies are considered as one of the viable candidate sources of the high-energy cosmic neutrino background detected in IceCube. We revisit contributions of supernova remnants (SNRs) and hypernova remnants (HNRs) in such galaxies to the diffuse high-energy neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds, in light of the latest Fermi data above 50GeV. We also take into account possible time dependent effects of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration during the SNR evolution. CRs accelerated by the SNR shocks can produce high-energy neutrinos up to $\sim100$ TeV energies, but CRs from HNRs can extend the spectrum up to PeV energies. We show that, only if HNRs are dominant over SNRs, the diffuse neutrino background above 100 TeV can be explained without contradicting the gamma-ray data. However, the neutrino data around 30 TeV remain unexplained, which might suggest a different population of gamma-ray dark CR sources. Alternatively, we consider possible contributions of Pop-III HNRs up to $z\lesssim10$, and show that they are not constrained by the gamma-ray data, and thus could contribute to the diffuse high-energy backgrounds if their explosion energy reaches ${\mathcal E}_{\rm POP-III}\sim{\rm a~few}\times10^{53}$erg. More conservatively, our results suggest that the explosion energy of POP-III HNRs is ${\mathcal E}_{\rm POP-III}\lesssim7\times{10}^{53}$erg.

Revisiting the Contributions of Supernova and Hypernova Remnants to the Diffuse High-Energy Backgrounds: Constraints on Very-High-Redshift Injections [Replacement]

Star-forming and starburst galaxies are considered as one of the viable candidate sources of the high-energy cosmic neutrino background detected in IceCube. We revisit contributions of supernova remnants (SNRs) and hypernova remnants (HNRs) in such galaxies to the diffuse high-energy neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds, in light of the latest Fermi data above 50GeV. We also take into account possible time dependent effects of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration during the SNR evolution. CRs accelerated by the SNR shocks can produce high-energy neutrinos up to $\sim100$ TeV energies, but CRs from HNRs can extend the spectrum up to PeV energies. We show that, only if HNRs are dominant over SNRs, the diffuse neutrino background above 100 TeV can be explained without contradicting the gamma-ray data. However, the neutrino data around 30 TeV remain unexplained, which might suggest a different population of gamma-ray dark CR sources. Alternatively, we consider possible contributions of Pop-III HNRs up to $z\lesssim10$, and show that they are not constrained by the gamma-ray data, and thus could contribute to the diffuse high-energy backgrounds if their explosion energy reaches ${\mathcal E}_{\rm POP-III}\sim{\rm a~few}\times10^{53}$erg. More conservatively, our results suggest that the explosion energy of POP-III HNRs is ${\mathcal E}_{\rm POP-III}\lesssim7\times{10}^{53}$erg.

Revisiting the Contributions of Supernova and Hypernova Remnants to the Diffuse High-Energy Backgrounds: Constraints on Very-High-Redshift Injections

Star-forming and starburst galaxies are considered as one of the viable candidate sources of the high-energy cosmic neutrino background detected in IceCube. We revisit contributions of supernova remnants (SNRs) and hypernova remnants (HNRs) in such galaxies to the diffuse high-energy neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds, in light of the latest Fermi data above 50GeV. We also take into account possible time dependent effects of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration during the SNR evolution. CRs accelerated by the SNR shocks can produce high-energy neutrinos up to $\sim100$ TeV energies, but CRs from HNRs can extend the spectrum up to PeV energies. We show that, only if HNRs are dominant over SNRs, the diffuse neutrino background above 100 TeV can be explained without contradicting the gamma-ray data. However, the neutrino data around 30 TeV remain unexplained, which might suggest a different population of gamma-ray dark CR sources. Alternatively, we consider possible contributions of Pop-III HNRs up to $z\lesssim10$, and show that they are not constrained by the gamma-ray data, and thus could contribute to the diffuse high-energy backgrounds if their explosion energy reaches ${\mathcal E}_{\rm POP-III}\sim{\rm a~few}\times10^{53}$erg. More conservatively, our results suggest that the explosion energy of POP-III HNRs is ${\mathcal E}_{\rm POP-III}\lesssim7\times{10}^{53}$erg.

Revisiting the Contributions of Supernova and Hypernova Remnants to the Diffuse High-Energy Backgrounds: Constraints on Very-High-Redshift Injections [Cross-Listing]

Star-forming and starburst galaxies are considered as one of the viable candidate sources of the high-energy cosmic neutrino background detected in IceCube. We revisit contributions of supernova remnants (SNRs) and hypernova remnants (HNRs) in such galaxies to the diffuse high-energy neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds, in light of the latest Fermi data above 50GeV. We also take into account possible time dependent effects of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration during the SNR evolution. CRs accelerated by the SNR shocks can produce high-energy neutrinos up to $\sim100$ TeV energies, but CRs from HNRs can extend the spectrum up to PeV energies. We show that, only if HNRs are dominant over SNRs, the diffuse neutrino background above 100 TeV can be explained without contradicting the gamma-ray data. However, the neutrino data around 30 TeV remain unexplained, which might suggest a different population of gamma-ray dark CR sources. Alternatively, we consider possible contributions of Pop-III HNRs up to $z\lesssim10$, and show that they are not constrained by the gamma-ray data, and thus could contribute to the diffuse high-energy backgrounds if their explosion energy reaches ${\mathcal E}_{\rm POP-III}\sim{\rm a~few}\times10^{53}$erg. More conservatively, our results suggest that the explosion energy of POP-III HNRs is ${\mathcal E}_{\rm POP-III}\lesssim7\times{10}^{53}$erg.

Interacting Large-Scale Magnetic Fields and Ionised Gas in the W50/SS433 System

The W50/SS433 system is an unusual Galactic outflow-driven object of debatable origin. We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to observe a new 198 pointing mosaic, covering $3^\circ \times 2^\circ$, and present the highest-sensitivity full-Stokes data of W50 to date using wide-field, wide-band imaging over a 2 GHz bandwidth centred at 2.1 GHz. We also present a complementary H$\alpha$ mosaic created using the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H$\alpha$ Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS). The magnetic structure of W50 is found to be consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the nebula is a reanimated shell-like supernova remnant (SNR), that has been re-energised by the jets from SS433. We observe strong depolarization effects that correlate with diffuse H$\alpha$ emission, likely due to spatially-varying Faraday rotation measure (RM) fluctuations of $\ge48$ to 61 rad m$^{-2}$ on scales $\le4.5$ to 6 pc. We also report the discovery of numerous, faint, H$\alpha$ filaments that are unambiguously associated with the central region of W50. These thin filaments are suggestive of a SNR's shock emission, and almost all have a radio counterpart. Furthermore, an RM-gradient is detected across the central region of W50, which we interpret as a loop magnetic field with a symmetry axis offset by $\approx90^{\circ}$ to the east-west jet-alignment axis, and implying that the evolutionary processes of both the jets and the SNR must be coupled. A separate RM-gradient is associated with the termination shock in the Eastern ear, which we interpret as a ring-like field located where the shock of the jet interacts with the circumstellar medium. Future optical observations will be able to use the new H$\alpha$ filaments to probe the kinematics of the shell of W50, potentially allowing for a definitive experiment on W50's formation history.

Supernova Remnants In The Magellanic Clouds

We present initial results of an ongoing study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) and candidates in the Magellanic Clouds. Some 108 objects in both Clouds are considered to be either an SNR or a reliable candidate. This represents the most complete sample of known SNRs in any galaxy. therefore, this study allows us to study SNR population properties such as the size and spectral index distribution. Here, we also show 12 known Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs from type Ia SN explosions and briefly comment on their importance.

TRIPPy: Trailed Image Photometry in Python

Photometry of moving sources typically suffers from reduced signal-to-noise (SNR) or flux measurements biased to incorrect low values through the use of circular apertures. To address this issue we present the software package, TRIPPy: TRailed Image Photometry in Python. TRIPPy introduces the pill aperture, which is the natural extension of the circular aperture appropriate for linearly trailed sources. The pill shape is a rectangle with two semicircular end-caps, and is described by three parameters, the trail length and angle, and the radius. The TRIPPy software package also includes a new technique to generate accurate model point-spread functions (PSF) and trailed point-spread functions (TSF) from stationary background sources in sidereally tracked images. The TSF is merely the convolution of the model PSF, which consists of a moffat profile, and super sampled lookup table. From the TSF, accurate pill aperture corrections can be estimated as a function of pill radius with a accuracy of 10 millimags for highly trailed sources. Analogous to the use of small circular apertures and associated aperture corrections, small radius pill apertures can be used to preserve signal-to-noise of low flux sources, with appropriate aperture correction applied to provide an accurate, unbiased flux measurement at all SNR.

Radio SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds as probes of shock microphysics

A large number of radio supernova remnants (SNRs) have been resolved in our Galaxy and nearby ones. These remnants are thought to be produced via synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated by the shock that the supernova ejecta drives into the external medium. Here we consider the sample of radio SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds. Given the size of a radio SNR and its flux, we can constrain $\sim \epsilon_e \epsilon_B \sim 10^{-3}$, which are the fractions of dissipated energy that goes into non-thermal electrons and magnetic field, respectively. These estimates do not depend on the largely uncertain values of the external density and the age of the SNR. We use this theory to develop a Monte Carlo scheme that reproduces the observed distribution of radio fluxes and sizes of the population of radio SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds. This simple model provides a framework that could potentially be applied to other galaxies with complete radio SNRs samples.

Radio Weak Lensing Shear Measurement in the Visibility Domain - I. Methodology

The high sensitivity of the new generation of radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will allow cosmological weak lensing measurements at radio wavelengths that are competitive with optical surveys. We present an adaptation to radio data of "lensfit", a method for galaxy shape measurement originally developed and used for optical weak lensing surveys. This likelihood method uses an analytical galaxy model and makes a Bayesian marginalisation of the likelihood over uninteresting parameters. It has the feature of working directly in the visibility domain, which is the natural approach to adopt with radio interferometer data, avoiding systematics introduced by the imaging process. As a proof of concept, we provide results for visibility simulations of individual galaxies with flux density S >= 10muJy at the phase centre of the proposed SKA1-MID baseline configuration, adopting 12 frequency channels in the band 950-1190 MHz. Weak lensing shear measurements from a population of galaxies with realistic flux and scalelength distributions are obtained after uniform gridding of the raw visibilities. Shear measurements are expected to be affected by 'noise bias': we estimate the bias in the method as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We obtain additive and multiplicative bias values that are comparable to SKA1 requirements for SNR > 18 and SNR > 30, respectively. The multiplicative bias for SNR > 10 is comparable to that found in ground-based optical surveys such as CFHTLenS, and we anticipate that similar shear measurement calibration strategies to those used for optical surveys may be used to good effect in the analysis of SKA radio interferometer data.

The Likely Fermi detection of the supernova remnant SN 1006

We report the likely detection of gamma-ray emission from the northeast shell region of the historical supernova remnant (SNR) SN 1006. Having analyzed 7 years of Fermi LAT Pass 8 data for the region of SN 1006, we found a GeV gamma-ray source detected with 4 sigma significance. Both the position and spectrum of the source match those of HESS J1504-418 respectively, which is TeV emission from SN 1006. Considering the source as the GeV gamma-ray counterpart to SN~1006, the broadband spectral energy distribution is found to be approximately consistent with the leptonic scenario that has been proposed for the TeV emission from the SNR. Our result has likely confirmed the previous study of the SNRs with TeV shell-like morphology: SN 1006 is one of them sharing very similar peak luminosity and spectral shape.

Deep morphological and spectral study of the SNR RCW 86 with Fermi-LAT

RCW 86 is a young supernova remnant (SNR) showing a shell-type structure at several wavelengths and is thought to be an efficient cosmic-ray (CR) accelerator. Earlier \textit{Fermi} Large Area Telescope results reported the detection of $\gamma$-ray emission coincident with the position of RCW 86 but its origin (leptonic or hadronic) remained unclear due to the poor statistics. Thanks to 6.5 years of data acquired by the \textit{Fermi}-LAT and the new event reconstruction Pass 8, we report the significant detection of spatially extended emission coming from RCW 86. The spectrum is described by a power-law function with a very hard photon index ($\Gamma = 1.42 \pm 0.1_{\rm stat} \pm 0.06_{\rm syst}$) in the 0.1--500 GeV range and an energy flux above 100 MeV of ($2.91$ $\pm$ $0.8_{\rm stat}$ $\pm$ $0.12_{\rm syst}$) $\times$ $10^{-11}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Gathering all the available multiwavelength (MWL) data, we perform a broadband modeling of the nonthermal emission of RCW 86 to constrain parameters of the nearby medium and bring new hints about the origin of the $\gamma$-ray emission. For the whole SNR, the modeling favors a leptonic scenario in the framework of a two-zone model with an average magnetic field of 10.2 $\pm$ 0.7 $\mu$G and a limit on the maximum energy injected into protons of 2 $\times$ 10$^{49}$ erg for a density of 1 cm$^{-3}$. In addition, parameter values are derived for the North-East (NE) and South-West (SW) regions of RCW 86, providing the first indication of a higher magnetic field in the SW region.

Temporal Variability of Interstellar Na I Absorption Toward The Monoceros Loop

We report the first evidence of temporal variability in the interstellar Na I absorption toward HD 47240, which lies behind the Monoceros Loop supernova remnant (SNR). Analysis of multi-epoch Kitt Peak coud\'{e} feed spectra from this sightline taken over an eight-year period reveals significant variation in both the observed column density and the central velocities of the high-velocity gas components in these spectra. Given the $\sim$1.3 mas yr$^{-1}$ proper motion of HD 47240 and a SNR distance of 1.6 kpc, this variation would imply $\sim$10 AU fluctuations within the SNR shell. Similar variations have been previously reported in the Vela supernova remnant, suggesting a connection between the expanding supernova remnant gas and the observed variations. We speculate on the potential nature of the observed variations toward HD 47240 in the context of the expanding remnant gas interacting with the ambient ISM.

Temporal Variability of Interstellar Na I Absorption Toward The Monoceros Loop [Replacement]

We report the first evidence of temporal variability in the interstellar Na I absorption toward HD 47240, which lies behind the Monoceros Loop supernova remnant (SNR). Analysis of multi-epoch Kitt Peak coud\'{e} feed spectra from this sightline taken over an eight-year period reveals significant variation in both the observed column density and the central velocities of the high-velocity gas components in these spectra. Given the $\sim$1.3 mas yr$^{-1}$ proper motion of HD 47240 and a SNR distance of 1.6 kpc, this variation would imply $\sim$10 AU fluctuations within the SNR shell. Similar variations have been previously reported in the Vela supernova remnant, suggesting a connection between the expanding supernova remnant gas and the observed variations. We speculate on the potential nature of the observed variations toward HD 47240 in the context of the expanding remnant gas interacting with the ambient ISM.

Discovery of X-ray Emission from the Galactic Supernova Remnant G32.8-0.1 with Suzaku

We present the first dedicated X-ray study of the supernova remnant (SNR) G32.8-0.1 (Kes 78) with Suzaku. X-ray emission from the whole SNR shell has been detected for the first time. The X-ray morphology is well correlated with the emission from the radio shell, while anti-correlated with the molecular cloud found in the SNR field. The X-ray spectrum shows not only conventional low-temperature (kT ~ 0.6 keV) thermal emission in a non-equilibrium ionization state, but also a very high temperature (kT ~ 3.4 keV) component with a very low ionization timescale (~ 2.7e9 cm^{-3}s), or a hard non-thermal component with a photon index Gamma~2.3. The average density of the low-temperature plasma is rather low, of the order of 10^{-3}--10^{-2} cm^{-3}, implying that this SNR is expanding into a low-density cavity. We discuss the X-ray emission of the SNR, also detected in TeV with H.E.S.S., together with multi-wavelength studies of the remnant and other gamma-ray emitting SNRs, such as W28 and RCW 86. Analysis of a time-variable source, 2XMM J185114.3-000004, found in the northern part of the SNR, is also reported for the first time. Rapid time variability and a heavily absorbed hard X-ray spectrum suggest that this source could be a new supergiant fast X-ray transient.

Fermi LAT Discovery of Extended Gamma-Ray Emissions in the Vicinity of the HB3 Supernova Remnant

We report the discovery of extended gamma-ray emission measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) HB3 (G132.7+1.3) and the W3 HII complex adjacent to the southeast of the remnant. W3 is spatially associated with bright 12CO (J=1-0) emission. The gamma-ray emission is spatially correlated with this gas and the SNR. We discuss the possibility that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The emission from W3 is consistent with irradiation of the CO clouds by the cosmic rays accelerated in HB3.

Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\alpha$ filters. II - Detection of 16 Optically-Identified Supernova Remnant Candidates

We present the detection of 16 optical supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in the nearby spiral galaxy IC342. The candidates were detected by applying [SII]/H$\alpha$ ratio criterion on observations made with the 2 m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper, we report the coordinates, diameters, H$\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 16 SNRs detected in two fields of view in the IC342 galaxy. Also, we estimate that the contamination of total H$\alpha$ flux from SNRs in the observed portion of IC342 is 1.4%. This would represent the fractional error when the star formation rate (SFR) for this galaxy is derived from the total galaxy's H$\alpha$ emission.

A Systematic Survey for Broadened CO Emission Toward Galactic Supernova Remnants

We present molecular spectroscopy toward 50 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) taken at millimeter wavelengths in 12CO and 13CO J=2-1 with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope as part of a systematic survey for broad molecular line (BML) regions indicative of interactions with molecular clouds (MCs). These observations reveal BML regions toward nineteen SNRs, including nine newly identified BML regions associated with SNRs (G08.3-0.0, G09.9-0.8, G11.2-0.3, G12.2+0.3, G18.6-0.2, G23.6+0.3, 4C-04.71, G29.6+0.1, G32.4+0.1). The remaining ten SNRs with BML regions confirm previous evidence for MC interaction in most cases (G16.7+0.1, Kes 75, 3C 391, Kes 79, 3C 396, 3C 397, W49B, Cas A, IC 443), although we confirm that the BML region toward HB 3 is associated with the W3(OH) HII region, not the SNR. Based on the systemic velocity of each MC, molecular line diagnostics, and cloud morphology, we test whether these detections represent SNR-MC interactions. One of the targets (G54.1+0.3) had previous indications of a BML region, but we did not detect broadened emission toward it. Although broadened 12CO J=2-1 line emission should be detectable toward virtually all SNR-MC interactions we find relatively few examples; therefore, the number of interactions is low. This result favors mechanisms other than SN feedback as the basic trigger for star formation. In addition, we find no significant association between TeV gamma-ray sources and MC interactions, contrary to predictions that SNR-MC interfaces are the primary venues for cosmic ray acceleration.

The role of the diffusive protons in the gamma-ray emission of supernova remnant RX J1713.7$-$3946 --- a two-zone model [Replacement]

RX~J1713.7$-$3946 is a prototype in the $\gamma$-ray-bright supernova remnants (SNRs) and is in continuing debates on its hadronic versus leptonic origin of the $\gamma$-ray emission. We explore the role played by the diffusive relativistic protons that escape from the SNR shock wave in the $\gamma$-ray emission, apart from the high-energy particles' emission from the inside of the SNR. In the scenario that the SNR shock propagates in a clumpy molecular cavity, we consider that the$\gamma$-ray emission from the inside of the SNR may arise either from the inverse Compton scattering or from the interaction between the trapped energetic protons and the shocked clumps. The dominant origin between them depends on the electron-to-proton number ratio. The diffusive protons that escaped from the shock wave during the expansion history can provide an outer hadronic $\gamma$-ray component by bombarding the surrounding dense matter. The broadband spectrum can be well explained by this two-zone model, in which the $\gamma$-ray emission from the inside governs the TeV band, while the outer emission component substantially contributes to the GeV $\gamma$-rays. The two-zone model can also explain the TeV $\gamma$-ray radial brightness profile that significantly stretches beyond the nonthermal X-ray-emitting region. In the calculation, we present a simplified algorithm for Li & Chen's (2010) "accumulative diffusion" model for escaping protons and apply the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the physical parameters.

New Identification of the Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnant G298.6-0.0 with Possible Gamma-ray Association

We present an X-ray analysis on the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G298.6-0.0 with Suzaku. The X-ray image shows a center-filled structure inside the radio shell, implying this SNR is categorized as a mixed-morphology (MM) SNR. The spectrum is well reproduced by a single temperature plasma model in ionization equilibrium, with a temperature of 0.78 (0.70-0.87) keV. The total plasma mass of 30 solar mass indicates that the plasma has interstellar medium origin. The association with a GeV gamma-ray source 3FGL J1214.0-6236 on the shell of the SNR is discussed, in comparison with other MM SNRs with GeV gamma-ray associations. It is found that the flux ratio between absorption-corrected thermal X-rays and GeV gamma-rays decreases as the MM SNRs evolve to larger physical sizes. The absorption-corrected X-ray flux of G298.6-0.0 and the GeV gamma-ray flux of 3FGL J1214.0-6236 closely follow this trend, implying that 3FGL J1214.0-6236 is likely to be the GeV counterpart of G298.6-0.0.

Radio emission from Supernova Remnants

The explosion of a supernova releases almost instantaneously about 10^51 ergs of mechanic energy, changing irreversibly the physical and chemical properties of large regions in the galaxies. The stellar ejecta, the nebula resulting from the powerful shock waves, and sometimes a compact stellar remnant, constitute a supernova remnant (SNR). They can radiate their energy across the whole electromagnetic spectrum, but the great majority are radio sources. Almost 70 years after the first detection of radio emission coming from a SNR, great progress has been achieved in the comprehension of their physical characteristics and evolution. We review the present knowledge of different aspects of radio remnants, focusing on sources of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds, where the SNRs can be spatially resolved. We present a brief overview of theoretical background, analyze morphology and polarization properties, and review and critical discuss different methods applied to determine the radio spectrum and distances. The consequences of the interaction between the SNR shocks and the surrounding medium are examined, including the question of whether SNRs can trigger the formation of new stars. Cases of multispectral comparison are presented. A section is devoted to reviewing recent results of radio SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, with particular emphasis on the radio properties of SN 1987A, an ideal laboratory to investigate dynamical evolution of an SNR in near real time. The review concludes with a summary of issues on radio SNRs that deserve further study, and analyzing the prospects for future research with the latest generation radio telescopes.

Optical discovery and multiwavelength investigation of supernova remnant MCSNR J0512-6707 in the Large Magellanic Cloud [Replacement]

We present optical, radio and X-ray data that confirm a new supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) discovered using our deep H-alpha imagery. Optically, the new SNR has a somewhat filamentary morphology and a diameter of 56 x 64 arcsec (13.5 x 15.5 pc at the 49.9 kpc distance of the LMC). Spectroscopic follow-up of multiple regions show high [SII]/H-alpha emission-line ratios ranging from 0.66+/-0.02 to 0.93+/-0.01, all of which are typical of an SNR. We found radio counterparts for this object using our new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) 6cm pointed observations as well as a number of available radio surveys at 8 640 MHz, 4 850 MHz, 1 377 MHz and 843 MHz. With these combined data we provide a spectral index (alpha) = -0.5 between 843 and 8640 MHz. Both spectral line analysis and the magnetic field strength, ranging from 124 - 184 mG, suggest a dynamical age between 2,200 and 4,700 yrs. The SNR has a previously catalogued X-ray counterpart listed as HP 483 in the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) catalogue.

Optical discovery and multiwavelength investigation of supernova remnant MCSNR J0512-6707 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

We present optical, radio and X-ray data that confirm a new supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) discovered using our deep H-alpha imagery. Optically, the new SNR has a somewhat filamentary morphology and a diameter of 56 x 64 arcsec (13.5 x 15.5 pc at the 49.9 kpc distance of the LMC). Spectroscopic follow-up of multiple regions show high [SII]/H-alpha emission-line ratios ranging from 0.66+/-0.02 to 0.93+/-0.01, all of which are typical of an SNR. We found radio counterparts for this object using our new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) 6cm pointed observations as well as a number of available radio surveys at 8 640 MHz, 4 850 MHz, 1 377 MHz and 843 MHz. With these combined data we provide a spectral index (alpha) = -0.5 between 843 and 8640 MHz. Both spectral line analysis and the magnetic field strength, ranging from 124 - 184 mG, suggest a dynamical age between 2,200 and 4,700 yrs. The SNR has a previously catalogued X-ray counterpart listed as HP 483 in the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) catalogue.

3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant CTB 109

Using detailed 3D hydrodynamic simulations we study the nature of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) CTB 109 (G109.1-1.0), which is well-known for its semicircular shape and a bright diffuse X-ray emission feature inside the SNR. Our model has been designed to explain the observed morphology, with a special emphasis on the bright emission feature inside the SNR. Moreover, we determine the age of the remnant and compare our findings with X-ray observations. With CTB 109 we test a new method of detailed numerical simulations of diffuse young objects, using realistic initial conditions derived directly from observations. We performed numerical 3D simulations with the RAMSES code. The initial density structure has been directly taken from $^{12}$CO emission data, adding an additional dense cloud, which, when it is shocked, causes the bright emission feature. From parameter studies we obtained the position $(\ell , b)=(109.1545^\circ , -1.0078^\circ)$ for an elliptical cloud with $n_\text{cloud}=25~\text{cm}^{-3}$ based on the preshock density from Chandra data and a maximum diameter of 4.54 pc, whose encounter with the supernova (SN) shock wave generates the bright X-ray emission inside the SNR. The calculated age of the remnant is about 11,000 yr according to our simulations. In addition, we can also determine the most probable site of the SN explosion. Hydrodynamic simulations can reproduce the morphology and the observed size of the SNR CTB 109 remarkably well. Moreover, the simulations show that it is very plausible that the bright X-ray emission inside the SNR is the result of an elliptical dense cloud shocked by the SN explosion wave. We show that numerical simulations using observational data for an initial model can produce meaningful results.

3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant CTB 109 [Replacement]

Using detailed 3D hydrodynamic simulations we study the nature of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) CTB 109 (G109.1-1.0), which is well-known for its semicircular shape and a bright diffuse X-ray emission feature inside the SNR. Our model has been designed to explain the observed morphology, with a special emphasis on the bright emission feature inside the SNR. Moreover, we determine the age of the remnant and compare our findings with X-ray observations. With CTB 109 we test a new method of detailed numerical simulations of diffuse young objects, using realistic initial conditions derived directly from observations. We performed numerical 3D simulations with the RAMSES code. The initial density structure has been directly taken from $^{12}$CO emission data, adding an additional dense cloud, which, when it is shocked, causes the bright emission feature. From parameter studies we obtained the position $(\ell , b)=(109.1545^\circ , -1.0078^\circ)$ for an elliptical cloud with $n_\text{cloud}=25~\text{cm}^{-3}$ based on the preshock density from Chandra data and a maximum diameter of 4.54 pc, whose encounter with the supernova (SN) shock wave generates the bright X-ray emission inside the SNR. The calculated age of the remnant is about 11,000 yr according to our simulations. In addition, we can also determine the most probable site of the SN explosion. Hydrodynamic simulations can reproduce the morphology and the observed size of the SNR CTB 109 remarkably well. Moreover, the simulations show that it is very plausible that the bright X-ray emission inside the SNR is the result of an elliptical dense cloud shocked by the SN explosion wave. We show that numerical simulations using observational data for an initial model can produce meaningful results.

FERMI-LAT Observations of Supernova Remnant G5.7-0.1, Believed to be Interacting with Molecular Clouds [Replacement]

This work reports on the detection of $\gamma$-ray emission coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) SNR G5.7-0.1 using data collected by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The SNR is believed to be interacting with molecular clouds, based on 1720 MHz hydroxyl (OH) maser emission observations in its direction. This interaction is expected to provide targets for the production of $\gamma$-ray emission from $\pi^0$-decay. A $\gamma$-ray source was observed in the direction of SNR G5.7-0.1, positioned nearby the bright $\gamma$-ray source SNR W28. We model the emission from radio to $\gamma$-ray energies using a one-zone model. Following consideration of both $\pi^0$-decay and leptonically dominated emission scenarios for the MeV-TeV source, we conclude that a considerable component of the $\gamma$-ray emission must originate from the $\pi^0$-decay channel. Finally, constraints were placed on the reported ambiguity of the SNR distance through X-ray column density measurements made using XMM-Newton observations. We conclude SNR G5.7-0.1 is a significant $\gamma$-ray source positioned at a distance of $\sim 3$ kpc with luminosity in the 0.1--100 GeV range of $L_{\gamma} \approx 7.4 \times 10^{34}$ erg/s.

FERMI-LAT Observations of Supernova Remnant G5.7-0.1, Believed to be Interacting with Molecular Clouds

We report the detection of $\gamma$-ray emission coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) G5.7-0.1 using data from the Large Area Telescope on board the {\it Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope}. SNR shocks are expected to be sites of cosmic ray acceleration, and clouds of dense material can provide effective targets for production of $\gamma$-rays from $\pi^0$-decay. The SNR is known to be interacting with molecular clouds, as evidenced by observations of hydroxyl (OH) maser emission at 1720 MHz in its direction. The observations reveal a $\gamma$-ray source in the direction of SNR G5.7-0.1, positioned nearby the bright $\gamma$-ray source SNR W28. We model the broadband emission (radio to $\gamma$-ray) using a one-zone model, and after considering scenarios in which the MeV-TeV sources originate from either $\pi^0$-decay or leptonic emission, conclude that a considerable component of the $\gamma$-ray emission comes from the $\pi^0$-decay channel. Finally, constraints were placed on the reported ambiguity of the SNR distance through X-ray column densities measurements made using XMM-Newton observations. We conclude G5.7-0.1 is a significant $\gamma$-ray source positioned at a distance of $\sim 3$ kpc with luminosity in the 0.2-200 GeV range of $L_{\gamma} \approx 7.4 \times 10^{34}$

XMM-Newton Large Program on SN1006 - I: Methods and Initial Results of Spatially-Resolved Spectroscopy

Based on our newly developed methods and the XMM-Newton large program of SN1006, we extract and analyze the spectra from 3596 tessellated regions of this SNR each with 0.3-8 keV counts $>10^4$. For the first time, we map out multiple physical parameters, such as the temperature ($kT$), electron density ($n_e$), ionization parameter ($n_et$), ionization age ($t_{ion}$), metal abundances, as well as the radio-to-X-ray slope ($\alpha$) and cutoff frequency ($\nu_{cutoff}$) of the synchrotron emission. We construct probability distribution functions of $kT$ and $n_et$, and model them with several Gaussians, in order to characterize the average thermal and ionization states of such an extended source. We construct equivalent width (EW) maps based on continuum interpolation with the spectral model of each regions. We then compare the EW maps of OVII, OVIII, OVII K$\delta-\zeta$, Ne, Mg, SiXIII, SiXIV, and S lines constructed with this method to those constructed with linear interpolation. We further extract spectra from larger regions to confirm the features revealed by parameter and EW maps, which are often not directly detectable on X-ray intensity images. For example, O abundance is consistent with solar across the SNR, except for a low-abundance hole in the center. This "O Hole" has enhanced OVII K$\delta-\zeta$ and Fe emissions, indicating recently reverse shocked ejecta, but also has the highest $n_et$, indicating forward shocked ISM. Therefore, a multi-temperature model is needed to decompose these components. The asymmetric metal distributions suggest there is either an asymmetric explosion of the SN or an asymmetric distribution of the ISM.

IKT 16: the first X-ray confirmed composite SNR in the SMC

Aims: IKT 16 is an X-ray and radio-faint supernova remnant (SNR) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). A detailed X-ray study of this SNR with XMM-Newton confirmed the presence of a hard X-ray source near its centre, indicating the detection of the first composite SNR in the SMC. With a dedicated Chandra observation we aim to resolve the point source and confirm its nature. We also acquire new ATCA observations of the source at 2.1 GHz with improved flux density estimates and resolution. Methods: We perform detailed spatial and spectral analysis of the source. With the highest resolution X-ray and radio image of the centre of the SNR available today, we resolve the source and confirm its pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Further, we constrain the geometrical parameters of the PWN and perform spectral analysis for the point source and the PWN separately. We also test for the radial variations of the PWN spectrum and its possible east west asymmetry. Results: The X-ray source at the centre of IKT 16 can be resolved into a symmetrical elongated feature centering a point source, the putative pulsar. Spatial modeling indicates an extent of 5.2 arcsec of the feature with its axis inclined at 82 degree east from north, aligned with a larger radio feature consisting of two lobes almost symmetrical about the X-ray source. The picture is consistent with a PWN which has not yet collided with the reverse shock. The point source is about three times brighter than the PWN and has a hard spectrum of spectral index 1.1 compared to a value 2.2 for the PWN. This points to the presence of a pulsar dominated by non-thermal emission. The expected E_{dot} is ~ 10^37 erg s^-1 and spin period < 100 ms. However, the presence of a compact nebula unresolved by Chandra at the distance of the SMC cannot completely be ruled out.

The Properties of the Progenitor Supernova, Pulsar Wind, and Neutron Star inside PWN G54.1+0.3

The evolution of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) inside a supernova remnant (SNR) is sensitive to properties of the central neutron star, pulsar wind, progenitor supernova, and interstellar medium. These properties are both difficult to measure directly and critical for understanding the formation of neutron stars and their interaction with the surrounding medium. In this paper, we determine these properties for PWN G54.1+0.3 by fitting its observed properties with a model for the dynamical and radiative evolution of a PWN inside an SNR. Our modeling suggests that the progenitor of G54.1+0.3 was an isolated ~15-20 Solar Mass star which exploded inside a massive star cluster, creating a neutron star initially spinning with period ~30-80ms. We also find that >99.9% of the pulsar's rotational energy is injected into the PWN as relativistic electrons and positrons whose energy spectrum is well characterized by a broken power-law. Lastly, we propose future observations which can both test the validity of this model and better determine the properties of this source -- in particular, its distance and the initial spin period of the central pulsar.

Multi-wavelength analysis of the Galactic supernova remnant MSH 11-61A

Due to its centrally bright X-ray morphology and limb brightened radio profile, MSH 11-61A (G290.1-0.8) is classified as a mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR). H$\textsc{i}$ and CO observations determined that the SNR is interacting with molecular clouds found toward the north and southwest regions of the remnant. In this paper we report on the detection of $\gamma$-ray emission coincident with MSH 11-61A, using 70 months of data from the Large Area Telescope on board the \textit{Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope}. To investigate the origin of this emission, we perform broadband modelling of its non-thermal emission considering both leptonic and hadronic cases and concluding that the $\gamma$-ray emission is most likely hadronic in nature. Additionally we present our analysis of a 111 ks archival \textit{Suzaku} observation of this remnant. Our investigation shows that the X-ray emission from MSH 11-61A arises from shock-heated ejecta with the bulk of the X-ray emission arising from a recombining plasma, while the emission towards the east arises from an ionising plasma.

The southern molecular environment of SNR G18.8+0.3

In a previous paper we have investigated the molecular environment towards the eastern border of the SNR G18.8+0.3. Continuing with the study of the surroundings of this SNR, in this work we focus on its southern border, which in the radio continuum emission shows a very peculiar morphology with a corrugated corner and a very flattened southern flank. We observed two regions towards the south of SNR G18.8+0.3 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) in the 12CO J=3-2. One of these regions was also surveyed in 13CO and C18O J=3-2. The angular and spectral resolution of these observations were 22", and 0.11 km/s. We compared the CO emission to 20 cm radio continuum maps obtain as part of the Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey (MAGPIS) and 870 um dust emission extracted from the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy. We discovered a molecular feature with a good morphological correspondence with the SNR's southernmost corner. In particular, there are indentations in the radio continuum map that are complemented by protrusions in the molecular CO image, strongly suggesting that the SNR shock is interacting with a molecular cloud. Towards this region we found that the 12CO peak is not correlated with the observed 13CO peaks, which are likely related to a nearby \hii~region. Regarding the most flattened border of SNR G18.8+0.3, where an interaction of the SNR with dense material was previously suggested, our 12CO J=3-2 map show no obvious indication that this is occurring.

Supernova Feedback and the Hot Gas Filling Fraction of the Interstellar Medium

Supernovae are the most energetic among stellar feedback processes, and are crucial for regulating the interstellar medium (ISM) and launching galactic winds. We explore how supernova remnants (SNRs) create a multiphase medium by performing high resolution, 3D hydrodynamical simulations at various SN rates, $S$, and ISM average densities, $n$. We find that the evolution of a SNR in a self-consistently generated three-phase ISM is qualitatively different from that in a uniform or a two-phase warm/cold medium. By traveling faster and further in the cooling-inefficient hot phase, the spatial-temporal domain of a SNR is enlarged by $>10^{2.5}$ in a hot-dominated multiphase medium (HDMM) compared to the uniform case. We then examine the resultant ISM as we vary $n$ and $S$, finding that a steady state can only be achieved when the hot gas volume fraction \fvh $\lesssim 0.6\pm 0.1$. Above that, overlapping SNRs render connecting topology of the hot gas, and such a HDMM is subjected to thermal runaway with growing pressure and \fvh. Photoelectric heating (PEH) has a surprisingly strong impact on \fvh. For $n \gtrsim 3 cm^{-3}$, a reasonable PEH rate is able to suppress the ISM from undergoing thermal runaway. Overall, we determine that the critical SN rate for the onset of thermal runaway is roughly $S_{crit} = 200 (n/1cm^{-3})^k (E_{SN}/10^{51} erg)^{-1} kpc^{-3} Myr^{-1}$, where k=(1.2,2.7) for $n$ < 1 and >1 cm$^{-3}$, respectively. We present a fitting formula of the ISM pressure $P(n, S)$, which can be used as an effective equation of state in cosmological simulations. The observed velocities of OB stars imply that the core collapse SN are almost randomly located on scales $\lesssim$ 150 pc. Despite the 5 orders of magnitude span of $(n,S)$, the average Mach number shows very small variations: $M \approx 0.5\pm 0.2, 1.2\pm 0.3, 2.3\pm 0.9$ for the hot, warm and cold phases, respectively.

Radio spectral characteristics of the supernova remnant Puppis A and nearby sources

This paper presents a new study of the spectral index distribution of the supernova remnant (SNR) Puppis A. The nature of field compact sources is also investigated according to the measured spectral indices. This work is based on new observations of Puppis A and its surroundings performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in two configurations using the Compact Array Broad-band Backend centered at 1.75 GHz. We find that the global spectral index of Puppis A is -0.563 +/- 0.013. Local variations have been detected, however this global index represents well the bulk of the SNR. At the SE, we found a pattern of parallel strips with a flat spectrum compatible with small-scale filaments, although not correlated in detail. The easternmost filament agrees with the idea that the SN shock front is interacting with an external cloud. There is no evidence of the previously suggested correlation between emissivity and spectral index. A number of compact features are proposed to be evolved clumps of ejecta based on their spectral indices, although dynamic measurements are needed to confirm this hypothesis. We estimate precise spectral indices for the five previously known field sources, two of which are found to be double (one of them, probably triple), and catalogue 40 new sources. In the light of these new determinations, the extragalactic nature previously accepted for some compact sources is now in doubt.

Kepler's Supernova: An Overluminous Type Ia Event Interacting with a Massive Circumstellar Medium at a Very Late Phase

We have analyzed XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Suzaku observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (SNR) to investigate the properties of both the SN ejecta and the circumstellar medium (CSM). For comparison, we have also analyzed two similarly-aged, ejecta-dominated SNRs: Tycho's SNR, thought to be the remnant of a typical Type Ia SN, and SNR 0509-67.5 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, thought to be the remnant of an overluminous Type Ia SN. By simply comparing the X-ray spectra, we find that line intensity ratios of iron-group elements (IGE) to intermediate-mass elements (IME) for Kepler's SNR and SNR 0509-67.5 are much higher than those for Tycho's SNR. We therefore argue that Kepler is the product of an overluminous Type Ia SN. This inference is supported by our spectral modeling, which reveals the IGE and IME masses respectively to be ~0.95 M_sun and ~0.12 M_sun (Kepler's SNR), ~0.75 M_sun and ~0.34 M_sun (SNR 0509-67.5), and ~0.35 M_sun and ~0.70 M_sun (Tycho's SNR). We find that the CSM component in Kepler's SNR consists of tenuous diffuse gas (~0.3 M_sun) present throughout the entire remnant, plus dense knots (~0.035 M_sun). Both of these components have an elevated N abundance (N/H ~ 4 times the solar value), suggesting that they originate from CNO-processed material from the progenitor system. The mass of the diffuse CSM allows us to infer the pre-SN mass-loss rate to be ~1.5e-5 (V_w/10 km/s) M_sun/yr, in general agreement with results from recent hydrodynamical simulations. Since the dense knots have slow proper motions and relatively small ionization timescales, they were likely located a few pc away from the progenitor system. Therefore, we argue that Kepler's SN was an overluminous event that started to interact with massive CSM a few hundred years after the explosion. This supports the possible link between overluminous SNe and the so-called "Ia-CSM" SNe.

Late-time Evolution of Composite Supernova Remnants: Deep Chandra Observations and Hydrodynamical Modeling of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in SNR G327.1-1.1

In an effort to better understand the evolution of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the eventual fate of relativistic particles injected by their pulsars, we present a multifaceted investigation of the interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host SNR G327.1-1.1. Our 350 ks Chandra X-ray observations of SNR G327.1-1.1 reveal a highly complex morphology; a cometary structure resembling a bow shock, prong-like features extending into large arcs in the SNR interior, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. Spectral analysis of the non-thermal emission offers clues about the origin of the PWN structures, while enhanced abundances in the PWN region provide evidence for mixing of supernova ejecta with PWN material. The overall morphology and spectral properties of the SNR suggest that the PWN has undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SNR reverse shock (RS) that can occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and/or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center of the remnant. We present hydrodynamical simulations of G327.1-1.1 that show that its morphology and evolution can be described by a ~ 17,000 yr old composite SNR that expanded into a density gradient with an orientation perpendicular to the pulsar's motion. We also show that the RS/PWN interaction scenario can reproduce the broadband spectrum of the PWN from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The analysis and modeling presented in this work have important implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

Study of TeV shell supernova remnants at gamma-ray energies

The breakthrough developments of Cherenkov telescopes in the last decade have led to angular resolution of 0.1{\deg} and an unprecedented sensitivity. This has allowed the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes to discover a population of supernova remnants (SNRs) radiating in very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-rays. A number of those VHE SNRs exhibit a shell-type morphology spatially coincident with the shock front of the SNR. The members of this VHE shell SNR club are RX J1713.7-3946, Vela Jr, RCW 86, SN 1006, and HESS J1731-347. The latter two objects have been poorly studied in high-energy (HE, 0.1<E<100 GeV) gamma-rays and need to be investigated in order to draw the global picture of this class of SNRs and constrain the characteristics of the underlying population of accelerated particles. Using 6 years of Fermi P7 reprocessed data, we studied the HE counterpart of the SNRs HESS J1731-347 and SN 1006. The two SNRs are not detected in the data and given that there is no hint of detection, we do not expect any detection in the coming years from the SNRs. However in both cases, we derived upper limits that significantly constrain the gamma-ray emission mechanism and can rule out a standard hadronic scenario with a confidence level > 5 sigma. With this Fermi analysis, we now have a complete view of the HE to VHE gamma-ray emission of TeV shell SNRs. All five sources have a hard HE photon index (<1.8) suggesting a common scenario where the bulk of the emission is produced by accelerated electrons radiating from radio to VHE gamma-rays through synchrotron and inverse Compton processes. In addition when correcting for the distance, all SNRs show a surprisingly similar gamma-ray luminosity supporting the idea of a common emission mechanism. While the gamma-ray emission is likely to be leptonic dominated, this does not rule out efficient hadron acceleration in those SNRs.

Possible golden events for ringdown gravitational waves

There is a forbidden region in the parameter space of quasinormal modes of black holes in general relativity. Using both inspiral and ringdown phases of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we propose two methods to test general relativity. We also evaluate how our methods will work when we apply them to Pop III black-hole binaries with typical masses. Adopting simple mean of the estimated range of the event rate, we have the expected rate of 500 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$. Then, the rates of events with SNR $>20$ and SNR $>50$ are 32 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$ and 2 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$, respectively. Therefore, there is a good chance to confirm (or refute) the Einstein theory in the strong gravity region by observing the expected quasinormal modes.

Possible golden events for ringdown gravitational waves [Cross-Listing]

There is a forbidden region in the parameter space of quasinormal modes of black holes in general relativity. Using both inspiral and ringdown phases of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we propose two methods to test general relativity. We also evaluate how our methods will work when we apply them to Pop III black-hole binaries with typical masses. Adopting simple mean of the estimated range of the event rate, we have the expected rate of 500 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$. Then, the rates of events with SNR $>20$ and SNR $>50$ are 32 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$ and 2 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$, respectively. Therefore, there is a good chance to confirm (or refute) the Einstein theory in the strong gravity region by observing the expected quasinormal modes.

Possible golden events for ringdown gravitational waves [Replacement]

There is a forbidden region in the parameter space of quasinormal modes of black holes in general relativity. Using both inspiral and ringdown phases of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we propose two methods to test general relativity. We also evaluate how our methods will work when we apply them to Pop III black-hole binaries with typical masses. Adopting simple mean of the estimated range of the event rate, we have the expected rate of 500 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$. Then, the rates of events with SNR $>20$ and SNR $>50$ are 32 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$ and 2 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$, respectively. Therefore, there is a good chance to confirm (or refute) the Einstein theory in the strong gravity region by observing the expected quasinormal modes.

Possible golden events for ringdown gravitational waves [Replacement]

There is a forbidden region in the parameter space of quasinormal modes of black holes in general relativity. Using both inspiral and ringdown phases of gravitational waves from binary black holes, we propose two methods to test general relativity. We also evaluate how our methods will work when we apply them to Pop III black-hole binaries with typical masses. Adopting simple mean of the estimated range of the event rate, we have the expected rate of 500 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$. Then, the rates of events with SNR $>20$ and SNR $>50$ are 32 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$ and 2 ${\rm yr^{-1}}$, respectively. Therefore, there is a good chance to confirm (or refute) the Einstein theory in the strong gravity region by observing the expected quasinormal modes.

N49: the first robust discovery of a recombining plasma in an extra galactic supernova remnant

Recent discoveries of recombining plasmas (RPs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) have dramatically changed our understanding of SNR evolution. To date, a dozen of RP SNRs have been identified in the Galaxy. Here we present Suzaku deep observations of four SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), N49, N49B, N23, and DEM L71, for accurate determination of their plasma state. Our uniform analysis reveals that only N49 is in the recombining state among them, which is the first robust discovery of a RP from an extra-galactic SNR. Given that RPs have been identified only in core-collapse SNRs, our result strongly suggests a massive star origin of this SNR. On the other hand, no clear evidence for a RP is confirmed in N23, from which detection of recombination lines and continua was previously claimed. Comparing the physical properties of the RP SNRs identified so far, we find that all of them are categorized into the "mixed-morphology" class and interacting with surrounding molecular clouds. This might be a key to solve formation mechanisms of the RPs.

Dynamical evolution of supernova remnants breaking through molecular clouds

We carry out three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova remnants (SNRs) produced inside molecular clouds (MCs) near their surface using the HLL code (Harten et al. 1983). We explore the dynamical evolution and the X-ray morphology of SNRs after breaking through the MC surface for ranges of the explosion depths below the surface and the density ratios of the clouds to the intercloud media (ICM). We find that if an SNR breaks out through an MC surface in its Sedov stage, the outermost dense shell of the remnant is divided into several layers. The divided layers are subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and fragmented. On the other hand, if an SNR breaks through an MC after the remnant enters the snowplow phase, the radiative shell is not divided to layers. We also compare the predictions of previous analytic solutions for the expansion of SNRs in stratified media with our onedimensional simulations. Moreover, we produce synthetic X-ray surface brightness in order to research the center-bright X-ray morphology shown in thermal composite SNRs. In the late stages, a breakout SNR shows the center-bright X-ray morphology inside an MC in our results. We apply our model to the observational results of the X-ray morphology of the thermal composite SNR 3C 391.

XMM-Newton observation of SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

Aims. We present an X-ray study of the supernova remnant SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine its physical characteristics based on its X-ray emission. Methods. We observed SNR J0533-7202 with XMM-Newton (flare-filtered exposure times of 18 ks EPIC-pn and 31 ks EPIC-MOS1/MOS2). We produced X-ray images of the SNR, performed an X-ray spectral analysis, and compared the results to multi-wavelength studies. Results. The distribution of X-ray emission is highly non-uniform, with the south-west region brighter than the north-east. The X-ray emission is correlated with the radio emission from the remnant. We determine that this morphology is likely due to the SNR expanding into a non-uniform ambient medium and not an absorption effect. We estimate the size to be 53.9 (\pm 3.4) x 43.6 (\pm 3.4) pc, with the major axis rotated ~64 degrees east of north. We find no spectral signatures of ejecta and infer that the X-ray plasma is dominated by swept-up interstellar medium. Using the spectral fit results and the Sedov self-similar solution, we estimate an age of ~17-27 kyr, with an initial explosion energy of (0.09-0.83) x 10^51 erg. We detected an X-ray source located near the centre of the remnant, namely XMMU J053348.2-720233. The source type could not be conclusively determined due to the lack of a multi-wavelength counterpart and low X-ray counts. We find that it is likely either a background active galactic nucleus or a low-mass X-ray binary in the LMC. Conclusions. We detected bright thermal X-ray emission from SNR J0533-7202 and determined that the remnant is in the Sedov phase of its evolution. The lack of ejecta emission prohibits us from typing the remnant with the X-ray data. Therefore, the likely Type Ia classification based on the local stellar population and star formation history reported in the literature cannot be improved upon.

Correcting systematic polarization effects in Keck LRISp spectropolarimetry to <0.05%

Spectropolarimetric measurements at moderate spectral resolutions are effective tracers of stellar magnetic fields and circumstellar environments when signal to noise ratios (SNRs) above 2000 can be achieved. The LRISp spectropolarimeter is capable of achieving these SNRs on faint targets with the 10m aperture of the Keck telescope, provided several instrumental artifacts can be suppressed. We describe here several methods to overcome instrumental error sources that are required to achieve these high SNRs on LRISp. We explore high SNR techniques such as defocusing and slit-stepping during integration with high spectral and spatial oversampling. We find that the instrument flexure and interference fringes introduced by the achromatic retarders create artificial signals at 0.5\% levels in the red channel which mimic real stellar signals and limit the sensitivity and calibration stability of LRISp. Careful spectral extraction and data filtering algorithms can remove these error sources. For faint targets and long exposures, cosmic ray hits are frequent and present a major limitation to the upgraded deep depletion red-channel CCD. These must be corrected to the same high SNR levels, requiring careful spectral extraction using iterative filtering algorithms. We demonstrate here characterization of these sources of instrumental polarization artifacts and present several methods used to successfully overcome these limitations. We have measured the linear to circular cross-talk and find it to be roughly 5\%, consistent with the known instrument limitations. We show spectropolarimetric signals on brown dwarfs are clearly detectable at 0.2\% amplitudes with sensitivities better than 0.05\% at full spectral sampling in atomic and molecular bands. Future LRISp users can perform high sensitivity observations with high quality calibration when following the described algorithms.

On the integrated continuum radio spectrum of supernova remnant W44 (G34.7-0.4): new insights from Planck [Replacement]

In this paper, the integrated continuum radio spectrum of supernova remnant (SNR) W44 was analyzed up to 70 GHz, testing the different emission models that can be responsible for its particular shape. The observations by the Planck space telescope made possible to analyze the high frequency part of radio emission from SNRs. Although the quality of radio continuum spectrum (a high scatter of data points at same frequencies) prevents us to make definite conclusions, the possibility of spinning dust emission detection towards this remnant is emphasized. In addition, a concave-down feature, due to synchrotron losses, can not be definitely dismissed by the present knowledge of the integrated radio continuum spectrum of this SNR.

On the integrated continuum radio-spectrum of supernova remnant W44 (G34.7-0.4): new insights from Planck's data

In this paper, the integrated continuum radio-spectrum of supernova remnant (SNR) W44 was analyzed up to 70 GHz, testing the different emission models that can be responsible for its particular shape. {\it Planck's} observations made possible to analyze the high frequency part of radio-emission from SNRs. Although the quality of radio-continuum spectrum (a high scatter of data points at same frequencies) prevents us to make definite conclusions, we emphasize the possibility of spinning-dust emission detection towards this remnant. In addition, a concave-down feature, due to synchrotron losses, can not be definitely dismissed by the present knowledge of the integrated radio continuum spectrum of this SNR.

Type Ia Supernova Remnants: Shaping by Iron Bullets

Using 2D numerical hydrodynamical simulations of type Ia supernova remnants (SNR Ia) we show that iron clumps few times denser than the rest of the SN ejecta might form protrusions in an otherwise spherical SNR. Such protrusions exist in some SNR Ia, e.g., SNR 1885 and Tycho. Iron clumps are expected to form in the deflagration to detonation explosion model. In SNR Ia where there are two opposite protrusions, termed ears, such as Kepler's SNR and SNR G1.9+0.3, our scenario implies that the dense clumps, or iron bullets, were formed along an axis. Such a preferred axis can result from a rotating white dwarf progenitor. If our claim holds, this offers an important clue to the SN Ia explosion scenario.

 

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