Posts Tagged snr

Recent Postings from snr

TeV {\gamma}-ray observations of the young synchrotron-dominated SNRs G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 with H.E.S.S

The non-thermal nature of the X-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 is an indication of intense particle acceleration in the shock fronts of both objects. This suggests that the SNRs are prime candidates for very-high-energy (VHE; E $>$ 0.1 TeV) {\gamma}-ray observations. G1.9+0.3, recently established as the youngest known SNR in the Galaxy, also offers a unique opportunity to study the earliest stages of SNR evolution in the VHE domain. The purpose of this work is to probe the level of VHE {\gamma}-ray emission from both SNRs and use this to constrain their physical properties. Observations were conducted with the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) Cherenkov telescope array over a more than six-year period spanning 2004-2010. The obtained data have effective livetimes of 67 h for G1.9+0.3 and 16 h for G330.2+1.0. The data are analyzed in the context of the multi-wavelength observations currently available and in the framework of both leptonic and hadronic particle acceleration scenarios. No significant {\gamma}-ray signal from G1.9+0.3 or G330.2+1.0 was detected. Upper limits (99% confidence level) to the TeV flux from G1.9+0.3 and G330.2+1.0 for the assumed spectral index {\Gamma} = 2.5 were set at 5.6 $\times$ 10$^{-13}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ above 0.26 TeV and 3.2 $\times$ 10$^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ above 0.38 TeV, respectively. In a one-zone leptonic scenario, these upper limits imply lower limits on the interior magnetic field to B$_{\mathrm{G1.9}}$ $\gtrsim$ 11 {\mu}G for G1.9+0.3 and to B$_{\mathrm{G330}}$ $\gtrsim$ 8 {\mu}G for G330.2+1.0. In a hadronic scenario, the low ambient densities and the large distances to the SNRs result in very low predicted fluxes, for which the H.E.S.S. upper limits are not constraining.

Localized SiO emission triggered by the passage of the W51C SNR shock

The region towards W51C is a convincing example of interaction between a supernova remnant and a surrounding molecular cloud. Large electron abundances have been reported towards the position W51C-E located in this interaction region, and it was proposed that the enhanced ionization fraction was due to cosmic ray particles freshly accelerated by the SNR shock. We present PdB interferometer observations of the H$^{13}$CO$^+$(1-0) and DCO$^+$(2-1) emission lines centered at position W51C-E. These observations confirm the previous scenario of cosmic-ray induced ionization at this location. In addition, SiO(2-1) emission has been successfully mapped in the close vicinity of W51C-E, with a spatial resolution of 7". The morphology and kinematics of the SiO emission are analyzed and strongly suggest that this emission is produced by the passage of the SNR primary shock. Put in conjunction with the enhanced ionization fraction in this region, we give a consistent picture in which the W51C-E position is located downstream of the shock, where a large reservoir of freshly accelerated particles is available.

Detailed Investigation of the Gamma-Ray Emission in the Vicinity of SNR W28 with FERMI-LAT

We present a detailed investigation of the $\gamma$-ray emission in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4$-$0.1) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We detected significant $\gamma$-ray emission spatially coincident with TeV sources HESS J1800$-$240A, B, and C, located outside the radio boundary of the SNR. Their spectra in the 2-100 GeV band are consistent with the extrapolation of the power-law spectra of the TeV sources. We also identified a new source of GeV emission, dubbed Source W, which lies outside the boundary of TeV sources and coincides with radio emission from the western part of W28. All of the GeV $\gamma$-ray sources overlap with molecular clouds in the velocity range from 0 to 20 km s$^{-1}$. Under the assumption that the $\gamma$-ray emission towards HESS J1800-240A, B, and C comes from $\pi^0$ decay due to the interaction between the molecular clouds and cosmic rays (CRs) escaping from W28, they can be naturally explained by a single model in which the CR diffusion coefficient is smaller than the theoretical expectation in the interstellar space. The total energy of the CRs escaping from W28 is constrained through the same modeling to be larger than $\sim$ 2 $\times$ 10$^{49}$ erg. The emission from Source W can also be explained with the same CR escape scenario.

Detection of a faint fast-moving near-Earth asteroid using synthetic tracking technique

We report a detection of a faint near-Earth asteroid (NEA), which was done using our synthetic tracking technique and the CHIMERA instrument on the Palomar 200-inch telescope. This asteroid, with apparent magnitude of 23, was moving at 5.97 degrees per day and was detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15 using 30 sec of data taken at a 16.7 Hz frame rate. The detection was confirmed by a second observation one hour later at the same SNR. The asteroid moved 7 arcseconds in sky over the 30 sec of integration time because of its high proper motion. The synthetic tracking using 16.7 Hz frames avoided the trailing loss suffered by conventional techniques relying on 30-sec exposure, which would degrade the surface brightness of image on CCD to an approximate magnitude of 25. This detection was a result of our 12-hour blind search conducted on the Palomar 200-inch telescope over two nights on September 11 and 12, 2013 scanning twice over six 5.0 deg x 0.043 deg fields. The fact that we detected only one NEA, is consistent with Harris’s estimation of the asteroid population distribution, which was used to predict the detection of 1–2 asteroids of absolute magnitude H=28–31 per night. The design of experiment, data analysis method, and algorithms for estimating astrometry are presented. We also demonstrate a milli-arcsecond astrometry using observations of two bright asteroids with the same system on Apr 3, 2013. Strategies of scheduling observations to detect small and fast-moving NEAs with the synthetic tracking technique are discussed.

A New Optical Survey of Supernova Remnant Candidates in M31

We present a survey of optically emitting supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31 based on H$\alpha$ and [SII] images in the Local Group Survey. Using these images, we select objects that have [SII]:H$\alpha$ $>$ 0.4 and circular shapes. We find 76 new SNR candidates. We also inspect 234 SNR candidates presented in previous studies, finding that only 80 of them are SNR candidates according to our criteria. Combining them with the new candidates, we produce a master catalog of 156 SNR candidates in M31. We classify these SNR candidates according to two criteria: the SNR progenitor type [Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs] and the morphological type. Type Ia and CC SNR candidates make up 23% and 77%, respectively, of the total sample. Most of the CC SNR candidates are concentrated in the spiral arms, while the Type Ia SNR candidates are rather distributed over the entire galaxy, including the inner region. The CC SNR candidates are brighter in H$\alpha$ and [SII] than the Type Ia SNR candidates. We derive a cumulative size distribution of the SNR candidates, finding that the distribution of the candidates with 17 $< D <$ 50 pc is fitted well by a power law with the power law index $\alpha = 2.53\pm0.04$. This indicates that most of the SNR candidates identified in this study appear to be in the Sedov-Taylor phase. The [SII]:H$\alpha$ distribution of the SNR candidates is bimodal, with peaks at [SII]:H$\alpha$ $\sim$ 0.4 and $\sim$ 0.9. The properties of these SNR candidates vary little with the galactocentric distance. The H$\alpha$ and [SII] surface brightnesses show a good correlation with the X-ray luminosity of the SNR candidates that are center-bright. The SNR candidates with X-ray counterparts have higher surface brightnesses in H$\alpha$ and [SII] and smaller sizes than those without such counterparts.

The Supernova Remnant W44: confirmations and challenges for cosmic-ray acceleration

The middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) W44 has recently attracted attention because of its relevance regarding the origin of Galactic cosmic-rays. The gamma-ray missions AGILE and Fermi have established, for the first time for a SNR, the spectral continuum below 200 MeV which can be attributed to neutral pion emission. Confirming the hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission near 100 MeV is then of the greatest importance. Our paper is focused on a global re-assessment of all available data and models of particle acceleration in W44, with the goal of determining on a firm ground the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the overall spectrum. We also present new gamma-ray and CO NANTEN2 data on W44, and compare them with recently published AGILE and Fermi data. Our analysis strengthens previous studies and observations of the W44 complex environment and provides new information for a more detailed modeling. In particular, we determine that the average gas density of the regions emitting 100 MeV – 10 GeV gamma-rays is relatively high (n= 250 – 300 cm^-3). The hadronic interpretation of the gamma-ray spectrum of W44 is viable, and supported by strong evidence. It implies a relatively large value for the average magnetic field (B > 10^2 microG) in the SNR surroundings, sign of field amplification by shock-driven turbulence. Our new analysis establishes that the spectral index of the proton energy distribution function is p1 = 2.2 +/- 0.1 at low energies and p2 = 3.2 +/- 0.1 at high energies. We critically discuss hadronic versus leptonic-only models of emission taking into account simultaneously radio and gamma-ray data. We find that the leptonic models are disfavored by the combination of radio and gamma-ray data. Having determined the hadronic nature of the gamma-ray emission on firm ground, a number of theoretical challenges remains to be addressed.

The Supernova Remnant W44: confirmations and challenges for cosmic-ray acceleration [Replacement]

The middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) W44 has recently attracted attention because of its relevance regarding the origin of Galactic cosmic-rays. The gamma-ray missions AGILE and Fermi have established, for the first time for a SNR, the spectral continuum below 200 MeV which can be attributed to neutral pion emission. Confirming the hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission near 100 MeV is then of the greatest importance. Our paper is focused on a global re-assessment of all available data and models of particle acceleration in W44, with the goal of determining on a firm ground the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the overall spectrum. We also present new gamma-ray and CO NANTEN2 data on W44, and compare them with recently published AGILE and Fermi data. Our analysis strengthens previous studies and observations of the W44 complex environment and provides new information for a more detailed modeling. In particular, we determine that the average gas density of the regions emitting 100 MeV – 10 GeV gamma-rays is relatively high (n= 250 – 300 cm^-3). The hadronic interpretation of the gamma-ray spectrum of W44 is viable, and supported by strong evidence. It implies a relatively large value for the average magnetic field (B > 10^2 microG) in the SNR surroundings, sign of field amplification by shock-driven turbulence. Our new analysis establishes that the spectral index of the proton energy distribution function is p1 = 2.2 +/- 0.1 at low energies and p2 = 3.2 +/- 0.1 at high energies. We critically discuss hadronic versus leptonic-only models of emission taking into account simultaneously radio and gamma-ray data. We find that the leptonic models are disfavored by the combination of radio and gamma-ray data. Having determined the hadronic nature of the gamma-ray emission on firm ground, a number of theoretical challenges remains to be addressed.

XMM-Newton observation of the Galactic supernova remnant W51C (G49.1-0.1)

The supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is a Galactic object located in a strongly inhomogeneous interstellar medium with signs of an interaction of the SNR blast wave with dense molecular gas. Diffuse X-ray emission from the interior of the SNR can reveal element abundances in the different emission regions and shed light on the type of supernova (SN) explosion and its progenitor. The hard X-ray emission helps to identify possible candidates for a pulsar formed in the SN explosion and for its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). We have analysed X-ray data obtained with XMM-Newton. Spectral analyses in selected regions were performed. Ejecta emission in the bright western part of the SNR, located next to a complex of dense molecular gas, was confirmed. The Ne and Mg abundances suggest a massive progenitor with a mass of > 20 M_sun. Two extended regions emitting hard X-rays were identified (corresponding to the known sources [KLS2002] HX3 west and CXO J192318.5+140305 discovered with ASCA and Chandra, respectively), each of which has an additional point source inside and shows a power-law spectrum with Gamma ~ 1.8. Based on their X-ray emission, both sources can be classified as PWN candidates.

XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Ejecta-Dominated Mixed-Morphology Galactic Supernova Remnant G352.7-0.1

(Abridged) We present a spatial and spectral X-ray analysis of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G352.7-0.1 using archival data from observations made with XMM-Newton and Chandra. Prior X-ray observations of this SNR revealed a thermal center-filled morphology which contrasts with a shell-like radio morphology, thus establishing G352.7$-$0.1 as a mixed-morphology SNR (MMSNRs). Our study confirms that the X-ray emission comes from the SNR interior and must be ejecta-dominated. Spectra obtained with XMM-Newton may be fit satisfactorily with a single thermal component (namely a non-equilibrium ionization component with enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur). In contrast, spectra extracted by Chandra from certain regions of the SNR cannot always be fit by a single thermal component. For those regions, a second thermal component with solar abundances or two thermal components with different temperatures and thawed silicon and sulfur abundances (respectively) can generate a statistically-acceptable fit. We argue that the former scenario is more physically-plausible: based on parameters of our spectral fits, we calculate physical parameters including X-ray-emitting mass (about 45 solar masses, for solar abundances). We find no evidence for overionization in the X-ray emitting plasma associated with the SNR: this phenomenon has been seen in other MMSNRs. We have conducted a search for a neutron star within the SNR using a hard (2-10 keV) Chandra image but could not identify a firm candidate. We also present (for the first time) the detection of infrared emission from this SNR as detected at 24 micron by MIPS aboard Spitzer. Finally, we discuss the properties of G352.7-0.1 in the context of other ejecta-dominated MMSNRs.

HESS J1640-465 - an exceptionally luminous TeV gamma-ray SNR

The results of follow-up observations of the TeV gamma-ray source HESSJ 1640-465 from 2004 to 2011 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) are reported in this work. The spectrum is well described by an exponential cut-off power law with photon index Gamma=2.11 +/- 0.09_stat +/- 0.10_sys, and a cut-off energy of E_c = (6.0 +2.0 -1.2) TeV. The TeV emission is significantly extended and overlaps with the north-western part of the shell of the SNR G338.3-0.0. The new H.E.S.S. results, a re-analysis of archival XMM-Newton data, and multi-wavelength observations suggest that a significant part of the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1640-465 originates in the SNR shell. In a hadronic scenario, as suggested by the smooth connection of the GeV and TeV spectra, the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as W_p n_H ~ 4 x 10^52 (d/10kpc)^2 erg cm^-3.

SNR G349.7+0.2: A gamma-ray source in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center

We analyze the HI absorption profile for TeV Supernova Remnant (SNR) G349.7+0.2 based on updated knowledge of the inner Galaxy’s structure. We significantly revise its kinematic distance from the previous ~ 22 kpc to ~11.5 kpc, indicating it is in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center. We give a revised age of ~ 1800 year for G349.7+0.2 which has a low explosion energy of ~ 2.5 x 10^50 ergs. This removes G349.7+0.2 from the set of brightest SNRs in radio, X-ray to gamma-ray wavebands and helps understand gamma-ray emission originating from this remnant better. In addition, we warn that one needs to use caution for old kinematic distances of Galactic objects (e.g. SNRs, Pulsars and HII regions) in the range of -12 degree =< l =< 12 degree and having distance estimates of >= 5.5 kpc.

SNR G349.7+0.2: A gamma-ray source in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center [Replacement]

We analyze the HI absorption profile for TeV Supernova Remnant (SNR) G349.7+0.2 based on updated knowledge of the inner Galaxy’s structure. We significantly revise its kinematic distance from the previous ~ 22 kpc to ~11.5 kpc, indicating it is in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center. We give a revised age of ~ 1800 year for G349.7+0.2 which has a low explosion energy of ~ 2.5 x 10^50 ergs. This removes G349.7+0.2 from the set of brightest SNRs in radio, X-ray to gamma-ray wavebands and helps understand gamma-ray emission originating from this remnant better. In addition, we warn that one needs to use caution for old kinematic distances of Galactic objects (e.g. SNRs, Pulsars and HII regions) in the range of -12 degree =< l =< 12 degree and having distance estimates of >= 5.5 kpc.

SNR G349.7+0.2: A gamma-ray source in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center [Replacement]

We analyze the HI absorption profile for TeV Supernova Remnant (SNR) G349.7+0.2 based on updated knowledge of the inner Galaxy’s structure. We significantly revise its kinematic distance from the previous ~ 22 kpc to ~11.5 kpc, indicating it is in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center. We give a revised age of ~ 1800 year for G349.7+0.2 which has a low explosion energy of ~ 2.5 x 10^50 ergs. This removes G349.7+0.2 from the set of brightest SNRs in radio, X-ray to gamma-ray wavebands and helps understand gamma-ray emission originating from this remnant better. However, one needs to use caution for old kinematic distances of Galactic objects (e.g. SNRs, Pulsars and HII regions) in the range of -12 degree =< l =< 12 degree and having distance estimates of >= 5.5 kpc.

Fermi-LAT Observations of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 79

In this paper we report on the detection of $\gamma$-ray emission coincident with the Galactic supernova remnant Kesteven 79 (Kes 79). We analysed approximately 52 months of data obtained with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Kes 79 is thought to be interacting with adjacent molecular clouds based on the presence of strong $^{12}$CO J = 1 $\rightarrow$ 0 and HCO$^{+}$ J = 1 $\rightarrow$ 0 emission and the detection of 1720 MHz line emission towards the east of the remnant. Acceleration of cosmic rays is expected to occur at SNR shocks, and SNRs interacting with dense molecular clouds provide a good testing ground for detecting and analysing the production of $\gamma$-rays from the decay of $\pi^0$ into two $\gamma$-ray photons. This analysis investigates $\gamma$-ray emission coincident with Kes 79, which has a detection significance of $\sim 7 \sigma$. Additionally we present an investigation of the spatial and spectral characteristics of Kes 79 using multiple archival XMM-Newton observations of this remnant. We determine the global X-ray properties of Kes 79 and estimate the ambient density across the remnant. We also performed a similar analysis for Galactic SNR Kesteven 78 (Kes 78), but due to large uncertainties in the $\gamma$-ray background model, no conclusion can be made about an excess of GeV $\gamma$-ray associated with the remnant.

A CR-hydro-NEI Model of the Structure and Broadband Emission from Tycho's SNR

Tycho’s supernova remnant (SNR) is well-established as a source of particle acceleration to very high energies. Constraints from numerous studies indicate that the observed gamma-ray emission results primarily from hadronic processes, providing direct evidence of highly relativistic ions that have been accelerated by the SNR. Here we present an investigation of the dynamical and spectral evolution of Tycho’s SNR by carrying out hydrodynamical simulations that include diffusive shock acceleration of particles in the amplified magnetic field at the forward shock of the SNR. Our simulations provide a consistent view of the shock positions, the nonthermal emission, the thermal X-ray emission from the forward shock, and the brightness profiles of the radio and X-ray emission. We compare these with the observed properties of Tycho to determine the density of the ambient material, the particle acceleration efficiency and maximum energy, the accelerated electron to-proton ratio, and the properties of the shocked gas downstream of the expanding SNR shell. We find that evolution of a typical Type Ia supernova in a low ambient density (n_0 ~ 0.3 cm^{-3}), with an upstream magnetic field of ~5\ microGauss, and with ~16% of the SNR kinetic energy being converted into relativistic electrons and ions through diffusive shock acceleration, reproduces the observed properties of Tycho. Under such a scenario, the bulk of observed gamma-ray emission at high energies is produced by pi^0-decay resulting from the collisions of energetic hadrons, while inverse-Compton emission is significant at lower energies, comprising roughly half of the flux between 1 and 10 GeV.

Multi-frequency study of a new Fe-rich supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, MCSNR J0508-6902

We present a detailed radio, X-ray and optical study of a newly discovered Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) supernova remnant (SNR) which we denote MCSNR J0508-6902. Observations from the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the $\textit{XMM-Newton}$ X-ray observatory are complemented by deep H$\alpha$ images and Anglo Australian Telescope AAOmega spectroscopic data to study the SNR shell and its shock-ionisation. Archival data at other wavelengths are also examined. The remnant follows a filled-in shell type morphology in the radio-continuum and has a size of $\sim$74 pc $\times$ 57 pc at the LMC distance. The X-ray emission exhibits a faint soft shell morphology with Fe-rich gas in its interior $-$ indicative of a Type Ia origin. The remnant appears to be mostly dissipated at higher radio-continuum frequencies leaving only the south-eastern limb fully detectable while in the optical it is the western side of the SNR shell that is clearly detected. The best-fit temperature to the shell X-ray emission ($kT = 0.41^{+0.05}_{-0.06}$ keV) is consistent with other large LMC SNRs. We determined an O/Fe ratio of $<21$ and an Fe mass of 0.5-1.8$~M_{\odot}$ in the interior of the remnant, both of which are consistent with the Type Ia scenario. We find an equipartition magnetic field for the remnant of $\sim$28 $\mu$G, a value typical of older SNRs and consistent with other analyses which also infer an older remnant.

Detection of Class I Methanol (CH3OH) Maser Candidates in Supernova Remnants

We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to search for 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol (CH3OH) lines in a sample of 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Mainly the regions of the SNRs with 1720 MHz OH masers were observed. Despite the limited spatial extent covered in our search, methanol masers were detected in both G1.4-0.1 and W28. Additional masers were found in SgrAEast. More than 40 masers were found in G1.4-0.1 which we deduce are due to interactions between the SNR and at least two separate molecular clouds. The six masers in W28 are associated with the molecular cloud that is also associated with the OH maser excitation. We discuss the possibility that the methanol maser may be more numerous in SNRs than the OH maser, but harder to detect due to observational constraints.

Triggered star formation in a molecular shell created by a SNR?

We present a study of a new molecular shell, G126.1-0.8-14, using available multiwavelegth Galactic plane surveys and optical Gemini observations. A well defined shell-like structure is observed in the CO(1–0) line emission at (l,b) = (126.1, -0.8), in the velocity range –10.5 to –15.5 km/s. The HI, emission shows a region of low emissivity inside G126.1-0.8-14, while radio continuum observations reveal faint non-thermal emission possibly related to this shell. Optical spectra obtained with Gemini South show the existence of B-type stars likely to be associated with G126.1-0.8-14. An estimate of the stellar wind energy injected by these stars show that they alone can not be able to create such a structure. On the other hand, one supernova explosion would provide enough energy to generate the shell. Using the MSX, IRAS, and WISE Point Source Catalogues we have found about 30 young stellar objects candidates, whose birth could have been triggered by the expansion of G126.1-0.8-14. In this context, Sh2-187 could be a consequence of the action on its surroundings of the most massive (and thus most evolve) of the stars formed by the expanding molecular shell.

Radio-continuum study of Large Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnant J0509-6731 [Replacement]

We present a detailed study of Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations ($\lambda$ = 20, 13, 6 & 3~cm) of supernova remnant (SNR) J0509–6731 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The remnant has a ring morphology with brightened regions towards the south-western limb. We also find a second brightened inner ring which is only seen in the radio-continuum. The SNR is almost circular, with a diameter ranging from 7 to 8~pc, and a steep radio spectral index between 36 and 3~cm of $\alpha=-0.73\pm0.02$, which is characteristic of younger SNRs. We also report detection of radially orientated polarisation across the remnant at 6~cm, with a mean fractional polarisation level of $P\cong$~(26~$\pm$~13)%. We find the magnetic field ($\sim$168~$\mu$G) and $\Sigma – D$ ($\Sigma = $ $1.1\times 10^{-19}$~W m$^{-2}$~Hz$^{-1}$~sr$^{-1}$ , $D=$ 7.35~pc) to be consistent with other young remnants.

Vortical field amplification and particle acceleration at rippled shocks

Supernova Remnants (SNRs) shocks are believed to accelerate charged particles and to generate strong turbulence in the post-shock flow. From high-energy observations in the past decade, a magnetic field at SNR shocks largely exceeding the shock-compressed interstellar field has been inferred. We outline how such a field amplification results from a small-scale dynamo process downstream of the shock, providing an explicit expression for the turbulence back-reaction to the fluid whirling. The spatial scale of the $X-$ray rims and the short time-variability can be obtained by using reasonable parameters for the interstellar turbulence. We show that such a vortical field saturation is faster than the acceleration time of the synchrotron emitting energetic electrons.

Weak lensing mass map and peak statistics in CFHT/Stripe82 survey

We present the weak lensing mass map of the 173 tiles Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe82 Survey (CS82) with the effective area ~124 square degrees and study the peak statistics, including peak abundance, correlation functions and tangential-shear profile of peaks with the mass map. We find that (1) peak abundance detected in CS82 are consistent with predictions from a Lambda-CDM cosmological model, once noise effects are properly included; (2) correlation function of peaks with different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be well fitted with power laws. Combining with the SDSS-III/Constant Mass (CMASS) galaxies, the cross-correlation between CMASS galaxies and high SNR peaks can be well-fitted with a power law; (3) the tangential shear profiles of the peaks increase with SNR. We concentrate on fitting spherical models to the tangential profiles with both singular isothermal sphere (SIS) and Navarro Frenk & White (NFW) models. For the high SNR peaks, the SIS model is rejected at ~3-sigma. Comparing the Dark and matched clumps to the optically selected redMaPPer clusters, a difference in lensing signal of a factor of 2 can be found, reflecting the fact that likely about half of the dark clumps are false detection.

Impact of Higher Harmonics in Searching for Gravitational Waves from Non-Spinning Binary Black Holes

Current searches for gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes (BBH) use templates that only include the dominant harmonic. In this study we use effective-one-body multipolar waveforms calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations to quantify the effect of neglecting sub-dominant harmonics on the sensitivity of searches. We consider both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-based vetoes that are used to re-weight SNR. We find that neglecting sub-dominant modes when searching for non-spinning BBHs with component masses $3\,M_{\odot} \leq m_1, m_2 \leq 200\,M_{\odot}$ and total mass $M < 360\,M_{\odot}$ in advanced LIGO results in a negligible reduction of the re-weighted SNR at detection thresholds. Sub-dominant modes therefore have no effect on the detection rates predicted for advanced LIGO. Furthermore, we find that if sub-dominant modes are included in templates the sensitivity of the search becomes worse if we use current search priors, due to an increase in false alarm probability. Templates would need to be weighted differently than what is currently done to compensate for the increase in false alarms. If we split the template bank such that sub-dominant modes are only used when $M \gtrsim 100\,M_{\odot}$ and mass ratio $q \gtrsim 4$, we find that the sensitivity does improve for these intermediate mass-ratio BBHs, but the sensitive volume associated with these systems is still small compared to equal-mass systems. Using sub-dominant modes is therefore unlikely to substantially increase the probability of detecting gravitational waves from non-spinning BBH signals unless there is a relatively large population of intermediate mass-ratio BBHs in the universe.

Impact of Higher Harmonics in Searching for Gravitational Waves from Non-Spinning Binary Black Holes [Cross-Listing]

Current searches for gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes (BBH) use templates that only include the dominant harmonic. In this study we use effective-one-body multipolar waveforms calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations to quantify the effect of neglecting sub-dominant harmonics on the sensitivity of searches. We consider both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-based vetoes that are used to re-weight SNR. We find that neglecting sub-dominant modes when searching for non-spinning BBHs with component masses $3\,M_{\odot} \leq m_1, m_2 \leq 200\,M_{\odot}$ and total mass $M < 360\,M_{\odot}$ in advanced LIGO results in a negligible reduction of the re-weighted SNR at detection thresholds. Sub-dominant modes therefore have no effect on the detection rates predicted for advanced LIGO. Furthermore, we find that if sub-dominant modes are included in templates the sensitivity of the search becomes worse if we use current search priors, due to an increase in false alarm probability. Templates would need to be weighted differently than what is currently done to compensate for the increase in false alarms. If we split the template bank such that sub-dominant modes are only used when $M \gtrsim 100\,M_{\odot}$ and mass ratio $q \gtrsim 4$, we find that the sensitivity does improve for these intermediate mass-ratio BBHs, but the sensitive volume associated with these systems is still small compared to equal-mass systems. Using sub-dominant modes is therefore unlikely to substantially increase the probability of detecting gravitational waves from non-spinning BBH signals unless there is a relatively large population of intermediate mass-ratio BBHs in the universe.

Impact of Higher Harmonics in Searching for Gravitational Waves from Non-Spinning Binary Black Holes [Replacement]

Current searches for gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes (BBH) use templates that only include the dominant harmonic. In this study we use effective-one-body multipolar waveforms calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations to quantify the effect of neglecting sub-dominant harmonics on the sensitivity of searches. We consider both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-based vetoes that are used to re-weight SNR. We find that neglecting sub-dominant modes when searching for non-spinning BBHs with component masses $3\,M_{\odot} \leq m_1, m_2 \leq 200\,M_{\odot}$ and total mass $M < 360\,M_{\odot}$ in advanced LIGO results in a negligible reduction of the re-weighted SNR at detection thresholds. Sub-dominant modes therefore have no effect on the detection rates predicted for advanced LIGO. Furthermore, we find that if sub-dominant modes are included in templates the sensitivity of the search becomes worse if we use current search priors, due to an increase in false alarm probability. Templates would need to be weighted differently than what is currently done to compensate for the increase in false alarms. If we split the template bank such that sub-dominant modes are only used when $M \gtrsim 100\,M_{\odot}$ and mass ratio $q \gtrsim 4$, we find that the sensitivity does improve for these intermediate mass-ratio BBHs, but the sensitive volume associated with these systems is still small compared to equal-mass systems. Using sub-dominant modes is therefore unlikely to substantially increase the probability of detecting gravitational waves from non-spinning BBH signals unless there is a relatively large population of intermediate mass-ratio BBHs in the universe.

Impact of Higher Harmonics in Searching for Gravitational Waves from Non-Spinning Binary Black Holes [Replacement]

Current searches for gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes (BBH) use templates that only include the dominant harmonic. In this study we use effective-one-body multipolar waveforms calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations to quantify the effect of neglecting sub-dominant harmonics on the sensitivity of searches. We consider both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the signal-based vetoes that are used to re-weight SNR. We find that neglecting sub-dominant modes when searching for non-spinning BBHs with component masses $3\,M_{\odot} \leq m_1, m_2 \leq 200\,M_{\odot}$ and total mass $M < 360\,M_{\odot}$ in advanced LIGO results in a negligible reduction of the re-weighted SNR at detection thresholds. Sub-dominant modes therefore have no effect on the detection rates predicted for advanced LIGO. Furthermore, we find that if sub-dominant modes are included in templates the sensitivity of the search becomes worse if we use current search priors, due to an increase in false alarm probability. Templates would need to be weighted differently than what is currently done to compensate for the increase in false alarms. If we split the template bank such that sub-dominant modes are only used when $M \gtrsim 100\,M_{\odot}$ and mass ratio $q \gtrsim 4$, we find that the sensitivity does improve for these intermediate mass-ratio BBHs, but the sensitive volume associated with these systems is still small compared to equal-mass systems. Using sub-dominant modes is therefore unlikely to substantially increase the probability of detecting gravitational waves from non-spinning BBH signals unless there is a relatively large population of intermediate mass-ratio BBHs in the universe.

New Evidence for Efficient Collisionless Heating of Electrons at the Reverse Shock of a Young Supernova Remnant

Although collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysics, certain key aspects of them are not well understood. In particular, the process known as collisionless electron heating, whereby electrons are rapidly energized at the shock front, is one of the main open issues in shock physics. Here we present the first clear evidence for efficient collisionless electron heating at the reverse shock of Tycho’s supernova remnant (SNR), revealed by Fe-K diagnostics using high-quality X-ray data obtained by the Suzaku satellite. We detect K-beta (3p->1s) fluorescence emission from low-ionization Fe ejecta excited by energetic thermal electrons at the reverse shock front, which peaks at a smaller radius than Fe K-alpha (2p->1s) emission dominated by a relatively highly-ionized component. Comparison with our hydrodynamical simulations implies instantaneous electron heating to a temperature 1000 times higher than expected from Coulomb collisions alone. The unique environment of the reverse shock, which is propagating with a high Mach number into rarefied ejecta with a low magnetic field strength, puts strong constraints on the physical mechanism responsible for this heating, and favors a cross-shock potential created by charge deflection at the shock front. Our sensitive observation also reveals that the reverse shock radius of this SNR is about 10% smaller than the previous measurement using the Fe K-alpha morphology from the Chandra observations. Since strong Fe K-beta fluorescence is expected only from low-ionization plasma where Fe ions still have many 3p electrons, this feature is key to diagnosing the plasma state and distribution of the immediate postshock ejecta in a young SNR.

HESS J1818-154, a new composite supernova remnant discovered in TeV gamma rays and X-rays

Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) constitute a small subclass of remnants of massive stellar explosions where non-thermal radiation is observed from both the expanding shell-like shock front and from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located inside of the SNR. These systems represent a unique evolutionary phase of SNRs where observations in the radio, X-ray and gamma-ray regimes allow the study of the co-evolution of both of these energetic phenomena. In this article, we report results from observations of the shell-type SNR G15.4+0.1 performed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) and XMM-Newton. A compact TeV gamma-ray source, HESSJ1818-154, located in the center and contained within the shell of G15.4+0.1 is detected by H.E.S.S. featuring a spectrum best represented by a power-law model with a spectral index of $-2.3 \pm 0.3_{stat} \pm 0.2_{sys}$ and an integral flux of F$(>0.42\,\mathrm{TeV}$)=($0.9 \pm 0.3_{\mathrm{stat}} \pm 0.2_{\mathrm{sys}}) \times 10^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Furthermore, a recent observation with XMM-Newton reveals extended X-ray emission strongly peaked in the center of G15.4+0.1. The X-ray source shows indications for an energy-dependent morphology featuring a compact core at energies above 4 keV and more extended emission that fills the entire region within the SNR at lower energies. Together, the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray emission provide strong evidence for the existence of a PWN located inside the shell of G15.4+0.1 and this SNR can therefore be classified as a composite based on these observations. The radio, X-ray and gamma-ray emission from the PWN is compatible with a one-zone leptonic model which requires a low average magnetic field inside the emission region. An unambiguous counterpart to the putative pulsar, thought to power the PWN, has not been detected neither in radio nor in X-ray observations of G15.4+0.1.

HESS J1818-154, a new composite supernova remnant discovered in TeV gamma rays and X-rays [Replacement]

Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) constitute a small subclass of the remnants of massive stellar explosions where non-thermal radiation is observed from both the expanding shell-like shock front and from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located inside of the SNR. These systems represent a unique evolutionary phase of SNRs where observations in the radio, X-ray, and $\gamma$-ray regimes allow the study of the co-evolution of both these energetic phenomena. In this article, we report results from observations of the shell-type SNR G15.4+0.1 performed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) and XMM-Newton. A compact TeV $\gamma$-ray source, HESSJ1818-154, located in the center and contained within the shell of G15.4+0.1 is detected by H.E.S.S. and featurs a spectrum best represented by a power-law model with a spectral index of $-2.3 \pm 0.3_{stat} \pm 0.2_{sys}$ and an integral flux of F$(>$0.42$\,\mathrm{TeV}$)=($0.9 \pm 0.3_{\mathrm{stat}} \pm 0.2_{\mathrm{sys}}) \times 10^{-12}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. Furthermore, a recent observation with XMM-Newton reveals extended X-ray emission strongly peaked in the center of G15.4+0.1. The X-ray source shows indications of an energy-dependent morphology featuring a compact core at energies above 4 keV and more extended emission that fills the entire region within the SNR at lower energies. Together, the X-ray and VHE $\gamma$-ray emission provide strong evidence of a PWN located inside the shell of G15.4+0.1, and this SNR can therefore be classified as a \emph{composite} based on these observations. The radio, X-ray, and $\gamma$-ray emission from the PWN is compatible with a one-zone leptonic model that requires a low average magnetic field inside the emission region. An unambiguous counterpart to the putative pulsar, which is thought to power the PWN, has been detected neither in radio nor in X-ray observations of G15.4+0.1.

The radio remnant of Supernova 1987A at high frequencies and high resolution

As the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A has been getting brighter over time, new observations at high frequencies have allowed imaging of the radio emission at unprecedented detail. We present a new radio image at 44 GHz of the supernova remnant (SNR), derived from observations performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in 2011. The diffraction-limited image has a resolution of $349\times225$ mas, which is the highest achieved to date in high-dynamic range images of the SNR. We also present a new image at 18 GHz, also derived from ATCA observations performed in 2011, which is super-resolved to $0./!/!^{\prime\prime}25$. The new 44 and 18 GHz images yield the first high-resolution spectral index map of the remnant. The comparison of the 44 GHz image with contemporaneous X-ray and H$\alpha$ observations allows further investigations of the nature of the remnant asymmetry and sheds more light into the progenitor hypotheses and SN explosion. In light of simple free-free absorption models, we discuss the likelihood of detecting at 44 GHz the possible emission originating from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or a compact source in the centre of the remnant.

Identification of a Jet-Driven Supernova Remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Possible Evidence for the Enhancement of Bipolar Explosions at Low Metallicity [Replacement]

Recent evidence has suggested that the supernova remnant (SNR) 0104-72.3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) may be the result of a prompt Type Ia SN based on enhanced iron abundances and its association with a star-forming region. In this paper, we present evidence that SNR 0104-72.3 arose from a jet-driven bipolar core-collapse SN. Specifically, we use serendipitous Chandra X-ray Observatory data of SNR 0104-72.3 taken due to its proximity to the calibration source SNR E0102-72.3. We analyze 56 Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of SNR 0104-72.3 to produce imaging and spectra with an effective exposure of 528.6 ks. We demonstrate that SNR 0104-72.3 is highly elliptical relative to other nearby young SNRs, suggesting a core-collapse SN origin. Furthermore, we compare ejecta abundances derived from spectral fits to nucleosynthetic yields of Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNe, and we find that the iron, neon, and silicon abundances are consistent with either a spherical CC SN of a 18-20 solar mass progenitor or an aspherical CC SN of a 25 solar mass progenitor. We show that the star-formation history at the site of SNR 0104-72.3 is also consistent with a CC origin. Given the bipolar morphology of the SNR, we favor the aspherical CC SN scenario. This result may suggest jet-driven SNe occur frequently in the low-metallicity environment of the SMC, consistent with the observational and theoretical work on broad-line Type Ic SNe and long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

Identification of a Jet-Driven Supernova Remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Evidence for the Enhancement of Bipolar Explosions at Low Metallicity

Recent evidence has suggested that the supernova remnant SNR 0104-72.3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) may be the result of a "prompt" Type Ia SN based on enhanced iron abundances and its association with a star-forming region. In this paper, we present evidence that SNR 0104-72.3 arose from a jet-driven bipolar core-collapse (CC) SN. Specifically, we use serendipitous Chandra X-ray Observatory data of SNR 0104-72.3 taken due to its proximity to the calibration source SNR E0102-72.3. We analyze 56 Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) observations of SNR 0104-72.3 to produce imaging and spectra with an effective exposure of 528.6 ks. We demonstrate that SNR 0104-72.3 is highly elliptical relative to other nearby young SNRs, suggesting a CC SN origin. Furthermore, we compare ejecta abundances derived from spectral fits to nucleosynthetic yields of Type Ia and CC SNe, and we find that the iron, neon, and silicon abundances are consistent with either a spherical CC SN of a 18-20 solar mass progenitor or an aspherical CC SN of a 25 solar mass progenitor. Given the bipolar morphology of the SNR, we favor the latter scenario. This result suggests jet-driven SNe occur frequently in the low-metallicity environment of the SMC, consistent with the observational and theoretical work on broad-line Type Ic SNe and long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

Progenitor Type Identification for Supernova Remnant N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud by Suzaku and Chandra Observations

This paper presents a detailed analysis of supernova remnant (SNR) N103B located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), based on Suzaku and Chandra observations. The spectrum of the entire SNR was reproduced using 3 ISM components with the kT of 0.32, 0.56, and 0.92keV and one ejecta component of 3.96keV, based on spectral analysis of the Suzaku/XIS data. The ejecta was overabundant in heavy elements, such as Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, and Ni. The unprecedentedly high quality of data obtained by XIS, allowed us to correctly distinguish between the emissions from the ISM and the ejecta for the first time. Combining XIS spectral analysis with Chandra/ACIS image analysis, we verified that the ejecta distributions for elements from Si to Fe-K were similar to one another, although Fe-K emission was located slightly inward compared with that of lighter elements such as Si, S, Ar, and Ca. The onion-like structure of the ejecta was maintained after the SN. In addition, the ISM emission represented by O and Fe-L was located inside the ejecta emission. We compared hydrogen-rich ejecta plasma, which is indicative of Type II SNRs, with plasma rich in heavy elements and poor in hydrogen, which is mainly observed in Type Ia. In the case of N103B, we could not determine whether the origin of the continuum emission in the 4.0-6.0keV band was from ejecta or high-temperature ISM only based on the spectral modeling of XIS data. High-energy continuum images in the 5.2-6.0keV band obtained by ACIS were extremely similar to those of ejecta, implying that the origin of the high-energy continuum might indeed be the ejecta. By combining spectral analysis with high-energy continuum images, we found some indications for H-dominated plasma, and as a result, that the progenitor of N103B might have been a Type II. The progenitor mass was estimated to be 13 Msun based on the abundance patterns of Mg, Fe, and Ni relative to Si.

Four new X-ray-selected supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

Aims: We present a detailed multi-wavelength study of four new supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The objects were identified as SNR candidates in X-ray observations performed during the survey of the LMC with XMM-Newton. Methods: Data obained with XMM-Newton are used to investigate the morphological and spectral features of the remnants in X-rays. We measure the plasma conditions, look for supernova (SN) ejecta emission, and constrain some of the SNR properties (e.g. age and ambient density). We supplement the X-ray data with optical, infrared, and radio-continuum archival observations, which allow us to understand the conditions resulting in the current appearance of the remnants. Based on the spatially-resolved star formation history (SFH) of the LMC together with the X-ray spectra, we attempt to type the supernovae that created the remnants. Results: We confirm all four objects as SNRs, to which we assign the names MCSNR J0508-6830, MCSNR J0511-6759, MCSNR J0514-6840, and MCSNR J0517-6759. In the first two remnants, an X-ray bright plasma is surrounded by very faint [S II] emission. The emission from the central plasma is dominated by Fe L-shell lines, and the derived iron abundance is greatly in excess of solar. This establishes their type Ia (i.e. thermonuclear) SN origin. They appear to be more evolved versions of other Magellanic Cloud iron-rich SNRs which are centrally-peaked in X-rays. From the two other remnants (MCSNR J0514-6840 and MCSNR J0517-6759), we do not see ejecta emission. At all wavelengths at which they are detected, the local environment plays a key role in their observational appearance. We present evidence that MCSNR J0517-6759 is close to and interacting with a molecular cloud, suggesting a massive progenitor.

The long helical jet of the Lighthouse nebula, IGR J11014-6103 [Replacement]

Jets from rotation-powered pulsars have so far only been observed in systems moving subsonically trough their ambient medium and/or embedded in their progenitor supernova remnant (SNR). Supersonic runaway pulsars are also expected to produce jets, but they have not been confirmed so far. We investigated the nature of the jet-like structure associated to the INTEGRAL source IGR J11014-6103 (the "Lighthouse nebula"). The source is a neutron star escaping its parent SNR MSH 11-61A supersonically at a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. We observed the Lighthouse nebula and its jet-like X-ray structure through dedicated high spatial resolution observations in X-rays (Chandra) and radio band (ATCA). Our results show that the feature is a true pulsar’s jet. It extends highly collimated over >11pc, displays a clear precession-like modulation, and propagates nearly perpendicular to the system direction of motion, implying that the neutron star’s spin axis in IGR J11014-6103 is almost perpendicular to the direction of the kick received during the supernova explosion. Our findings suggest that jets are common to rotation-powered pulsars, and demonstrate that supernovae can impart high kick velocities to misaligned spinning neutron stars, possibly through distinct, exotic, core-collapse mechanisms.

The resolved structure of the extragalactic supernova remnant SNR 4449-1 [Replacement]

We present very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the milliarcsecond-scale radio structure of the supernova remnant SNR 4449$-$1 in the galaxy NGC 4449. This young and superluminous remnant was observed at 1.6 GHz ($\lambda = 18$\,cm) with the European VLBI Network. The observations confirm earlier identifications of this object with a supernova remnant (SNR) while revealing a somewhat different morphology compared with the structure reported by Bietenholz et al. from VLBI observations at 1.4 GHz. This difference is discussed here in the context of structural sensitivity of both observations. The 1.6 GHz image yields accurate estimates of the size (0.0422 arcsec $\times$ 0.0285 arcsec and 0.8 $\times$ 0.5 pc) and age ($\sim$55 yr) of SNR 4449$-$1. With a total flux of 6.1 $\pm$ 0.6 mJy measured in the VLBI image, the historical lightcurve of the source can be well represented by a power-law decay with a power index of $-$1.19 $\pm$ 0.07. The SNR exhibits a decline rate of the radio emission of 2.2$%$ $\pm$ 0.1$%$ yr$^{-1}$ and a radio luminosity of 1.74 $\times$ 10$^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$.

Effect of sine-Gaussian glitches on searches for binary coalescence [Replacement]

We investigate the effect of an important class of glitches occurring in the detector data on matched filter searches of gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries in the advanced detector era. The glitches, which can be modeled as sine-Gaussians, can produce triggers with significant time delays and thus have important bearing on veto procedures as will be described in the paper. We provide approximated analytical estimates of the trigger SNR and time as a function of the parameters describing the sine-Gaussian (center time, center frequency and Q-factor) and the inspiral waveform (chirp mass). We validate our analytical predictions through simple numerical simulations, performed by filtering noiseless sine-Gaussians with the inspiral matched filter and recovering the time and value of the maximum of the resulting SNR time series. Although we identify regions of the parameter space in which each approximation no longer reproduces the numerical results, the approximations complement each other and together effectively cover the whole parameter space.

Studies of waveform requirements for intermediate mass-ratio coalescence searches with advanced detectors [Replacement]

The coalescence of a stellar-mass compact object into an intermediate-mass black hole (intermediate mass-ratio coalescence; IMRAC) is an important astrophysical source for ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers in the so-called advanced configuration. However, the ability to carry out effective matched-filter based searches for these systems is limited by the lack of reliable waveforms. Here we consider binaries in which the intermediate-mass black hole has mass in the range 24 – 200 solar masses with a stellar-mass companion having masses in the range 1.4 – 18.5 solar masses. In addition, we constrain the mass ratios, q, of the binaries to be in the range 1/140 < q < 1/10 and we restrict our study to the case of circular binaries with non-spinning components. We investigate the relative contribution to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the three different phases of the coalescence: inspiral, merger and ringdown. We show that merger and ringdown contribute to a substantial fraction of the total SNR over a large portion of the mass parameter space, although in a limited portion the SNR is dominated by the inspiral phase. We further identify three regions in the IMRAC mass-space in which: (i) inspiral-only searches could be performed with losses in detection rates L in the range 10% < L < 27%, (ii) searches based on inspiral-only templates lead to a loss in detection rates in the range 27% < L < 50%$, and (iii) templates that include merger and ringdown are essential to prevent losses in detection rates greater than 50%. We investigate the effectiveness with which the inspiral-only portion of the IMRAC waveform space is covered by comparing several existing waveform families in this regime. Our results reinforce the importance of extensive numerical relativity simulations of IMRACs and the need for further studies of suitable approximation schemes in this mass range.

Studies of waveform requirements for intermediate mass-ratio coalescence searches with advanced detectors [Replacement]

The coalescence of a stellar-mass compact object into an intermediate-mass black hole (intermediate mass-ratio coalescence; IMRAC) is an important astrophysical source for ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers in the so-called advanced configuration. However, the ability to carry out effective matched-filter based searches for these systems is limited by the lack of reliable waveforms. Here we consider binaries in which the intermediate-mass black hole has mass in the range 24 – 200 solar masses with a stellar-mass companion having masses in the range 1.4 – 18.5 solar masses. In addition, we constrain the mass ratios, q, of the binaries to be in the range 1/140 < q < 1/10 and we restrict our study to the case of circular binaries with non-spinning components. We investigate the relative contribution to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the three different phases of the coalescence: inspiral, merger and ringdown. We show that merger and ringdown contribute to a substantial fraction of the total SNR over a large portion of the mass parameter space, although in a limited portion the SNR is dominated by the inspiral phase. We further identify three regions in the IMRAC mass-space in which: (i) inspiral-only searches could be performed with losses in detection rates L in the range 10% < L < 27%, (ii) searches based on inspiral-only templates lead to a loss in detection rates in the range 27% < L < 50%$, and (iii) templates that include merger and ringdown are essential to prevent losses in detection rates greater than 50%. We investigate the effectiveness with which the inspiral-only portion of the IMRAC waveform space is covered by comparing several existing waveform families in this regime. Our results reinforce the importance of extensive numerical relativity simulations of IMRACs and the need for further studies of suitable approximation schemes in this mass range.

Synchrotron X-ray diagnostics of cutoff shape of nonthermal electron spectrum at young supernova remnants [Replacement]

Synchrotron X-rays can be a useful tool to investigate electron acceleration at young supernova remnants (SNRs). At present, since the magnetic field configuration around the shocks of SNRs is uncertain, it is not clear whether electron acceleration is limited by SNR age, synchrotron cooling, or even escape from the acceleration region. We study whether the acceleration mechanism can be constrained by the cutoff shape of the electron spectrum around the maximum energy. We derive analytical formulae of the cutoff shape in each case where the maximum electron energy is determined by SNR age, synchrotron cooling and escape from the shock. They are related to the energy dependence of the electron diffusion coefficient. Next, we discuss whether information on the cutoff shape can be provided by observations in the near future which will simply give the photon indices and the flux ratios in the soft and hard X-ray bands. We find that if the power-law index of the electron spectrum is independently determined by other observations, then we can constrain the cutoff shape by comparing theoretical predictions of the photon indices and/or the flux ratios with observed data which will be measured by NuSTAR and/or ASTRO-H. Such study is helpful in understanding the acceleration mechanism. In particular, it will supply another independent constraint on the magnetic field strength around the shocks of SNRs.

Synchrotron X-ray diagnostics of cutoff shape of nonthermal electron spectrum at young supernova remnants [Replacement]

The synchrotron X-rays can be a useful tool to investigate the electron acceleration at young supernova remnants (SNRs). At present, since the magnetic field configuration around the shocks of SNRs is uncertain, it is not clear whether the electron acceleration is limited by SNR age, synchrotron cooling, or even escape from the acceleration region. In this paper, we study if the acceleration mechanism can be constrained by the cutoff shape of the electron spectrum around the maximum energy. We derive analytical formulae of the cutoff shape in each case where the maximum electron energy is determined by SNR age, synchrotron cooling and escape from the shock. They are related to the energy dependence of the electron diffusion coefficient. Next, we discuss whether information on the cutoff shape is provided by near future observations which gives simply the photon indices and the flux ratios in the soft and hard X-ray bands. We find that if the power-law index of the electron spectrum is independently determined by other observations, then we can constrain the cutoff shape by comparing theoretical predictions of the photon indices and/or the flux ratios with observed data which will be measured by NuSTAR and/or ASTRO-H. Such study is helpful in understanding the acceleration mechanism. In particular, it will bring us another independent constraint on the magnetic field strength around the shocks of SNRs.

The First Reported Infrared Emission from the SN 1006 Remnant

We report results of infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the SN 1006 remnant, carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 24 micron image from MIPS clearly shows faint filamentary emission along the northwest rim of the remnant shell, nearly coincident with the Balmer filaments that delineate the present position of the expanding shock. The 24 micron emission traces the Balmer filaments almost perfectly, but lies a few arcsec within, indicating an origin in interstellar dust heated by the shock. Subsequent decline in the IR behind the shock is presumably due largely to grain destruction through sputtering. The emission drops far more rapidly than current models predict, however, even for a higher proportion of small grains than would be found closer to the Galactic plane. The rapid drop may result in part from a grain density that has always been lower — a relic effect from an earlier epoch when the shock was encountering a lower density — but higher grain destruction rates still seem to be required. Spectra from three positions along the NW filament from the IRS instrument all show only a featureless continuum, consistent with thermal emission from warm dust. The dust-to-gas mass ratio in the pre-shock interstellar medium is lower than that expected for the Galactic ISM — as has also been observed in the analysis of IR emission from other SNRs but whose cause remains unclear. As with other SN Ia remnants, SN 1006 shows no evidence for dust grain formation in the supernova ejecta.

A multi-wavelength study of Supernova Remnants in six nearby galaxies. II. New optically selected Supernova Remnants

We present results from a study of optically emitting Supernova Remnants (SNRs) in six nearby galaxies (NGC 2403, NGC 3077, NGC 4214, NGC 4395, NGC 4449 and NGC 5204) based on deep narrow band H{\alpha} and [SII] images as well as spectroscopic observations. The SNR classification was based on the detected sources that fulfill the well-established emission line flux criterion of [SII]/H{\alpha} > 0.4. This study revealed ~400 photometric SNRs down to a limiting H{\alpha} flux of 10^(-15) erg sec^(-1) cm^(-2). Spectroscopic observations confirmed the shock-excited nature of 56 out of the 96 sources with ([SII]/H{\alpha})$_{phot}$> 0.3 (our limit for an SNR classification) for which we obtained spectra. 11 more sources were spectroscopically identified as SNRs although their photometric [SII]/H{\alpha} ratio was below 0.3. We discuss the properties of the optically-detected SNRs in our sample for different types of galaxies and hence different environments, in order to address their connection with the surrounding interstellar medium. We find that there is a difference in [NII]/H{\alpha} line ratios of the SNR populations between different types of galaxies which indicates that this happens due to metallicity. We cross-correlate parameters of the optically detected SNRs ([SII]/H{\alpha} ratio, luminosity) with parameters of coincident X- ray emitting SNRs, resulted from our previous studies in the same sample of galaxies, in order to understand their evolution and investigate possible selection effects. We do not find a correlation between their H{\alpha} and X-ray luminosities, which we attribute to the presence of material in a wide range of temperatures. We also find evidence for a linear relation between the number of luminous optical SNRs (10^(37) erg sec^(-1)) and SFR in our sample of galaxies.

Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays

The origin of the bulk of cosmic rays (CRs) observed at Earth is the topic of a century long investigation, paved with successes and failures. From the energetic point of view, supernova remnants (SNRs) remain the most plausible sources of CRs up to rigidity ? 10^6-10^7 GV. This confidence somehow resulted in the construction of a paradigm, the so-called SNR paradigm: CRs are accelerated through di?usive shock acceleration in SNRs and propagate di?ffusively in the Galaxy in an energy dependent way. Qualitative confirmation of the SNR acceleration scenario has recently been provided by gamma ray and X-ray observations. Diff?usive propagation in the Galaxy is probed observationally through measurement of the secondary to primary nuclei flux ratios (such as B/C). There are however some weak points in the paradigm, which suggest that we are probably missing some physical ingredients in our models. The theory of diff?usive shock acceleration at SNR shocks predicts spectra of accelerated particles which are systematically too hard compared with the ones inferred from gamma ray observations. Moreover, hard injection spectra indirectly imply a steep energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient in the Galaxy, which in turn leads to anisotropy larger than the observed one. Moreover recent measurements of the flux of nuclei suggest that the spectra have a break at rigidity ? 200 GV, which does not sit well with the common wisdom in acceleration and propagation. In this paper I will review these new developments and suggest some possible implications.

Multiwavelength study of the newly confirmed supernova remnant MCSNR J0527-7104 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts a rich and varied population of supernova remnants (SNRs). Optical, X-ray, and radio observations are required to identify these SNRs, as well as to ascertain the various processes responsible for the large array of physical characteristics observed. In this paper we attempted to confirm the candidate SNR [HP99] 1234, identified in X-rays with ROSAT, as a true SNR by supplementing these X-ray data with optical and radio observations. Optical data from the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey (MCELS) and new radio data from the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST), in addition to the ROSAT X-ray data, were used to perform a morphological analysis of this candidate SNR. An approximately ellipsoidal shell of enhanced [SII], typical of an SNR ([SII]/Halpha > 0.4), was detected in the optical. This enhancement is coincident with faint radio emission at 36 cm. Using the available data we estimated the size of the remnant to be ~5.1′ x 4.0′ (~75 pc x 59 pc). However, the measurement along the major-axis was somewhat uncertain due to a lack of optical and radio emission at its extremities and the poor resolution of the X-ray data. Assuming this SNR is in the Sedov phase and adopting the ambient mass density of 1.2×10^-25 g cm^-3 measured in a nearby HII region, an age estimate of ~25 kyr was calculated for a canonical initial explosion energy of 10^51 erg. However, this age estimate should be treated cautiously due to uncertainties on the adopted parameters. Analysis of the local stellar population suggested a type Ia event as a precursor to this SNR, however, a core-collapse mechanism could not be ruled out due to the possibility of the progenitor being a runaway massive star. With the detection of X-ray, radio and optical line emission with enhanced [SII], this object was confirmed as an SNR and we assign the identifier MCSNR J0527-7104.

Acceleration of cosmic rays by young core-collapse supernova remnants

Context. Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the primary candidates for the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. According to Diffusive Shock Acceleration theory, SNR shocks produce a power-law spectrum with index s = 2, perhaps non-linearly modified to harder spectra at high energy. Observations of SNRs often indicate particle spectra that are softer than that and show features not expected from classical theory. Known drawbacks of the standard approach are the assumption that SNRs evolve in a uniform environment, and that the reverse shock does not accelerate particles. Relaxing those assumptions increases the complexity of the problem, because one needs reliable hydrodynamical data for the plasma flow as well as good estimates for the magnetic field at the reverse shock. Aims. We show that these two factors are especially important when modeling young core-collapse SNRs that evolve in a complicated circumstellar medium shaped by the winds of progenitor stars. Methods. We use high-resolution numerical simulations for the hydrodynamical evolution of the SNR. Instead of parametrizations of the magnetic-field profiles inside the SNR, we follow the advection of frozen-in magnetic field inside the SNR, and thus obtain the B-field value at all locations, in particular at the reverse shock. To model cosmic-ray acceleration we solve the cosmic-ray transport equation in test-particle approximation. Results. We find that the complex plasma-flow profiles of core-collapse SNRs significantly modify the particle spectra. Additionally, the reverse shock strongly affects the emission spectra and the surface brightness.

Pulsar Wind Nebulae: On their growing diversity and association with highly magnetized neutron stars

The 1968 discovery of the Crab and Vela pulsars in their respective supernova remnants (SNRs) confirmed Baade and Zwicky’s 1934 prediction that supernovae form neutron stars. Observations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), particularly with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, have in the past decade opened a new window to focus on the neutron stars’ relativistic winds, study their interaction with their hosting SNRs, and find previously missed pulsars. While the Crab has been thought for decades to represent the prototype of PWNe, we now know of different classes of neutron stars and PWNe whose properties differ from the Crab. In this talk, I review the current status of neutron stars/PWNe-SNRs associations, and highlight the growing diversity of PWNe with an X-ray eye on their association with highly magnetized neutron stars. I conclude with an outlook to future high-energy studies.

Gamma Rays from Cosmic Rays in Supernova Remnants

Context: Cosmic rays are thought to be accelerated at supernova remnant (SNR) shocks, but conclusive evidence is lacking. Aims: New data from ground-based gamma-ray telescopes and the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope are used to test this hypothesis. A simple model for gamma-ray production efficiency is compared with measured gamma-ray luminosities of SNRs, and the GeV to TeV fluxes ratios of SNRs are examined for correlations with SNR ages. Methods: The supernova explosion is modeled as an expanding spherical shell of material that sweeps up matter from the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The accumulated kinetic energy of the shell, which provides the energy available for nonthermal particle acceleration, changes when matter is swept up from the ISM and the SNR shell decelerates. A fraction of this energy is assumed to be converted into the energy of cosmic-ray electrons or protons. Three different particle radiation processes—nuclear pion-production interactions, nonthermal electron bremsstrahlung, and Compton scattering—are considered. Results: The efficiencies for gamma-ray production from SNRs for these three processes were compared with gamma-ray luminosities from Tycho, RX J1713.7-3946, and other SNRs. SNRs may suddenly lose gamma-ray power at >~ 10^4 yr. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that supernova remnants accelerate cosmic rays with an efficiency of ~10% for the dissipation of kinetic energy into nonthermal cosmic rays. Weak evidence for an increasing GeV to TeV flux ratio with SNR age is found.

Supernova Remnant Progenitor Masses in M31

Using HST photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main sequence masses (MZAMS) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and use CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history (SFH) of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star and assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the MZAMS from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNR. We identify significant young SF around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of 2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining 6 SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. The distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power law distribution, dN/dM proportional to M^alpha, we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter IMF (alpha=-2.35). In particular, we find values of alpha outside the range -2.7 to -4.4 inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, we find that values of M_max greater than 26 Msun are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 Msun.

Plerionic Supernova Remnants

Plerions represent ideal laboratories for the search for neutron stars, the study of their relativistic winds, and their interaction with their surrounding supernova ejecta and/or the interstellar medium. As well, they are widely believed to represent efficient engines for particle acceleration up to the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum (at about 1E15 eV). Multi-wavelength observations from the radio to the highest TeV energies, combined with modelling, have opened a new window to study these objects, and particularly shed light on their intrinsic properties, diversity, and evolution. High-resolution X-ray observations are further revealing the structure and sites for shock acceleration. The missing shells in the majority of these objects remain puzzling, and the presence of plerions around highly magnetized neutron stars is still questionable. I review the current status and statistics of observations of plerionic supernova remnants (SNRs), highlighting combined radio and X-ray observations of a growing class of atypical, non Crab-like, plerionic SNRs in our Galaxy. I will also briefly describe the latest developments to our high-energy SNRs catalogue recently released to the community, and finally highlight the key questions to be addressed in this field with future high-energy missions, including Astro-H in the very near future.

On the environments and progenitors of supernova remnants associated with highly magnetized neutron stars

The distinction between the high-magnetic field pulsars (HBPs, thought to be mainly rotation-powered) and magnetars (commonly believed to be powered by their super-strong magnetic fields) has been recently blurred with the discovery of magnetar-like activity from the HBP J1846-0258 in the Supernova Remnant (SNR) Kes 75. What determines the spin properties of a neutron star at birth and its manifestation as a magnetar-like or more classical pulsar is still not clear. Furthermore, although a few studies have suggested very massive progenitors for magnetars, there is currently no consensus on the progenitors of these objects. To address these questions, we examine their environments by studying or revisiting their securely associated SNRs. Our approach is by: 1) inferring the mass of their progenitor stars through X-ray spectroscopic studies of the thermally emitting supernova ejecta, and 2) investigating the physical properties of their hosting SNRs and ambient conditions. We here highlight our detailed studies of two SNRs: G292.2-0.5 associated with the HBP J1119-6127 and Kes 73 associated with the AXP 1E 1841-045, and summarize the current view of the other (handful) HBP/magnetar-SNR associations.

 

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