Posts Tagged snr

Recent Postings from snr

Correcting systematic polarization effects in Keck LRISp spectropolarimetry to <0.05%

Spectropolarimetric measurements at moderate spectral resolutions are effective tracers of stellar magnetic fields and circumstellar environments when signal to noise ratios (SNRs) above 2000 can be achieved. The LRISp spectropolarimeter is capable of achieving these SNRs on faint targets with the 10m aperture of the Keck telescope, provided several instrumental artifacts can be suppressed. We describe here several methods to overcome instrumental error sources that are required to achieve these high SNRs on LRISp. We explore high SNR techniques such as defocusing and slit-stepping during integration with high spectral and spatial oversampling. We find that the instrument flexure and interference fringes introduced by the achromatic retarders create artificial signals at 0.5\% levels in the red channel which mimic real stellar signals and limit the sensitivity and calibration stability of LRISp. Careful spectral extraction and data filtering algorithms can remove these error sources. For faint targets and long exposures, cosmic ray hits are frequent and present a major limitation to the upgraded deep depletion red-channel CCD. These must be corrected to the same high SNR levels, requiring careful spectral extraction using iterative filtering algorithms. We demonstrate here characterization of these sources of instrumental polarization artifacts and present several methods used to successfully overcome these limitations. We have measured the linear to circular cross-talk and find it to be roughly 5\%, consistent with the known instrument limitations. We show spectropolarimetric signals on brown dwarfs are clearly detectable at 0.2\% amplitudes with sensitivities better than 0.05\% at full spectral sampling in atomic and molecular bands. Future LRISp users can perform high sensitivity observations with high quality calibration when following the described algorithms.

On the integrated continuum radio-spectrum of supernova remnant W44 (G34.7-0.4): new insights from Planck's data

In this paper, the integrated continuum radio-spectrum of supernova remnant (SNR) W44 was analyzed up to 70 GHz, testing the different emission models that can be responsible for its particular shape. {\it Planck’s} observations made possible to analyze the high frequency part of radio-emission from SNRs. Although the quality of radio-continuum spectrum (a high scatter of data points at same frequencies) prevents us to make definite conclusions, we emphasize the possibility of spinning-dust emission detection towards this remnant. In addition, a concave-down feature, due to synchrotron losses, can not be definitely dismissed by the present knowledge of the integrated radio continuum spectrum of this SNR.

Type Ia Supernova Remnants: Shaping by Iron Bullets

Using 2D numerical hydrodynamical simulations of type Ia supernova remnants (SNR Ia) we show that iron clumps few times denser than the rest of the SN ejecta might form protrusions in an otherwise spherical SNR. Such protrusions exist in some SNR Ia, e.g., SNR 1885 and Tycho. Iron clumps are expected to form in the deflagration to detonation explosion model. In SNR Ia where there are two opposite protrusions, termed ears, such as Kepler’s SNR and SNR G1.9+0.3, our scenario implies that the dense clumps, or iron bullets, were formed along an axis. Such a preferred axis can result from a rotating white dwarf progenitor. If our claim holds, this offers an important clue to the SN Ia explosion scenario.

A Spatially Resolved Study of the Synchrotron Emission and Titanium in Tycho's Supernova Remnant with NuSTAR

We report results from deep observations (750 ks) of Tycho’s supernova remnant (SNR) with NuSTAR. Using these data, we produce narrow-band images over several energy bands to identify the regions producing the hardest X-rays and to search for radioactive decay line emission from 44Ti. We find that the hardest (>10 keV) X-rays are concentrated in the southwest of Tycho, where recent Chandra observations have revealed high emissivity "stripes" associated with particles accelerated to the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. We do not find evidence of 44Ti, and we set tight limits on its presence which exclude the reported Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL detections and correspond to an upper-limit 44Ti mass of M44 < 8.4e-5 Msun for a distance of 2.3 kpc. We perform spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of sixty-six regions across Tycho. We map the best-fit rolloff frequency of the hard X-ray spectra, and we compare these results to measurements of the shock expansion and ambient density. We find that the highest energy electrons are accelerated at the lowest densities and in the fastest shocks, with a steep dependence of the roll-off frequency with shock velocity. Such a dependence is predicted by models where the maximum energy of accelerated electrons is limited by the age of the SNR rather than by synchrotron losses, but this scenario requires far lower magnetic field strengths than those derived from observations in Tycho. One way to reconcile these discrepant findings is through shock obliquity effects, and future observational work is necessary to explore the role of obliquity in the particle acceleration process.

Supernova remnant mass cumulated along the star formation history of the z=3.8 radiogalaxies 4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316

In this paper, we show that the supernova remnant (SNR) masses cumulated from core-collapse supernovae along the star formation history of two powerful z=3.8 radio galaxies 4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316 reach up to > 10^9 Msun, comparable with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses measured from the SDSS sample at similar redshifts. The SNR mass is measured from the already exploded supernova mass after subtraction of ejecta at the galaxy age where the mass of still luminous stars fits at best the observed spectral energy distribution (SED), continuously extended to the optical-Spitzer-Herschel-submm domains, with the help of the galaxy evolution model P\’egase.3. For the recent and old stellar populations, SNR masses vary on 10^(9 to 10) Msun and the SNR-to-star mass ratio between 1 and 0.1 percent is comparable to the observed low-z SMBH-to-star mass ratio. For the template radio galaxy 4C41.17, SNR and stellar population masses estimated from large aperture (>4arcsec=30kpc) observations are compatible, within one mass order, with the total mass of multiple optical HST (~700pc) structures, associated with VLA radio emissions, both at 0.1 arcsec. Probing the SNR accretion by central black holes is a simple explanation for SMBH growth, requiring physics on star formation, stellar and galaxy dynamics with consequences on various processes (quenching, mergers, negative feedback) and a key to the relation bulge-SMBH.

Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center

Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early Universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 $M_\odot$ of warm (~100 K) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000 yr-old Sgr A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings signify the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium ($n_e$ ~ 100 $\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

Calibrating and Stabilizing Spectropolarimeters with Charge Shuffling and Daytime Sky Measurements

Well-calibrated spectropolarimetry studies at resolutions of $R>$10,000 with signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) better than 0.01\% across individual line profiles, are becoming common with larger aperture telescopes. Spectropolarimetric studies require high SNR observations and are often limited by instrument systematic errors. As an example, fiber-fed spectropolarimeters combined with advanced line-combination algorithms can reach statistical error limits of 0.001\% in measurements of spectral line profiles referenced to the continuum. Calibration of such observations is often required both for cross-talk and for continuum polarization. This is not straightforward since telescope cross-talk errors are rarely less than $\sim$1\%. In solar instruments like the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), much more stringent calibration is required and the telescope optical design contains substantial intrinsic polarization artifacts. This paper describes some generally useful techniques we have applied to the HiVIS spectropolarimeter at the 3.7m AEOS telescope on Haleakala. HiVIS now yields accurate polarized spectral line profiles that are shot-noise limited to 0.01\% SNR levels at our full spectral resolution of 10,000 at spectral sampling of $\sim$100,000. We show line profiles with absolute spectropolarimetric calibration for cross-talk and continuum polarization in a system with polarization cross-talk levels of essentially 100\%. In these data the continuum polarization can be recovered to one percent accuracy because of synchronized charge-shuffling model now working with our CCD detector. These techniques can be applied to other spectropolarimeters on other telescopes for both night and day-time applications such as DKIST, TMT and ELT which have folded non-axially symmetric foci.

Searching for Overionized Plasma in the Gamma-ray Emitting Supernova Remnant G349.7$+$0.2

G349.7$+$0.2 is a supernova remnant (SNR) expanding in a dense medium of molecular clouds and interacting with clumps of molecular material emitting gamma rays. We analyzed the gamma-ray data of Large Area Telescope on board Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope and detected G349.7$+$0.2 in the energy range of 0.2$-$300 GeV with a significance of $\sim$13$\sigma$ showing no extended morphology. Modeling of the gamma-ray spectrum revealed that the GeV gamma-ray emission dominantly originates from the decay of neutral pions, where the protons follow a broken power-law distribution with a spectral break at $\sim$12 GeV. To search for features of radiative recombination continua in the eastern and western regions of the remnant, we analyzed the Suzaku data of G349.7$+$0.2 and found no evidence for overionized plasma. In this paper we discuss possible scenarios to explain the hadronic gamma-ray emission in G349.7$+$0.2 and the mixed morphology nature of this SNR.

Optical Spectroscopy of Supernova Remnants in M81 and M82

We present spectroscopy of 28 SNR candidates as well as one H II region in M81, and two SNR candidates in M82. Twenty six out of the M81 candidates turn out to be genuine SNRs, and two in M82 may be shocked condensations in the galactic outflow or SNRs. The distribution of [N II]/H{\alpha} ratios of M81 SNRs is bimodal. M81 SNRs are divided into two groups in the spectral line ratio diagrams: an [O III]-strong group and an [O III]-weak group. The latter have larger sizes, and may have faster shock velocity. [N II]/H{\alpha} ratios of the SNRs show a strong correlation with [S II]/H{\alpha} ratios. They show a clear radial gradient in [N II]/H{\alpha} and [S II]/H{\alpha} ratios: dLog ([N II]/H{\alpha})/dLog R = -0.018 {\pm} 0.008 dex/kpc and dLog ([S II]/H{\alpha})/dLog R = -0.016 {\pm} 0.008 dex/kpc where R is a deprojected galactocentric distance. We estimate the nitrogen and oxygen abundance of the SNRs from the comparison with shock-ionization models. We obtain a value for the nitrogen radial gradient, dLog(N/H)/dLogR = -0.023 {\pm} 0.009 dex/kpc, and little evidence for the gradient in oxygen. This nitrogen abundance shows a few times flatter gradient than those of the planetary nebulae and H II regions. We find that five SNRs are matched with X-ray sources. Their X-ray hardness colors are consistent with thermal SNRs.

Analysis of GeV-band gamma-ray emission from SNR RX J1713.7-3946

RX J1713.7-3946 is the brightest shell-type Supernova remnant (SNR) of the TeV gamma-ray sky. Earlier Fermi-LAT results on low-energy gamma-ray emission suggested that, despite large uncertainties in the background determination, the spectrum is inconsistent with a hadronic origin. We update the GeV-band spectra using improved estimates for the diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission and more than doubled data volume. We further investigate the viability of hadronic emission models for RX J1713.7-3946. We produced a high-resolution map of the diffuse Galactic gamma-ray background corrected for HI self-absorption and used it in the analysis of more than 5~years worth of Fermi-LAT data. We used hydrodynamic scaling relations and a kinetic transport equation to calculate the acceleration and propagation of cosmic-rays in SNR. We then determined spectra of hadronic gamma-ray emission from RX J1713.7-3946, separately for the SNR interior and the cosmic-ray precursor region of the forward shock, and computed flux variations that would allow to test the model with observations. We find that RX J1713.7-3946 is now detected by Fermi-LAT with very high statistical significance, and the source morphology is best described by that seen in the TeV band. The measured spectrum of RX J1713.7-3946 is hard with index gamma=1.53 +/- 0.07, and the integral flux above 500 MeV is F = (5.5 +/- 1.1)e-9 photons/cm^2/s. We demonstrate that scenarios based on hadronic emission from the cosmic-ray precursor region are acceptable for RX J1713.7-3946, and we predict a secular flux increase at a few hundred GeV at the level of around 15% over 10 years, which may be detectable with the upcoming CTA observatory.

Fermi/LAT Study of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant: Discovery of a Point-like Source and of Spectral Differences in its gamma-ray emission [Replacement]

The Cygnus Loop is a nearby supernova remnant (SNR) observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. With the analysis of 6 years of Fermi/LAT data we find that, what previous studies had considered a single source, consists of an extended source plus a point-like source south-east of the SNR. The extended gamma-ray emission is well correlated with the thermal X-ray emission of the SNR, and the energy spectrum displays a pronounced maximum at $\sim0.6$\,GeV. However, in a region where the radio emission is strongly and distinctly polarized, the gamma-ray spectrum shows no sign of a break. Therefore, the spatially resolved gamma-ray emission permits the study of different interaction conditions of the SNR and the surrounding medium.

Fermi/LAT Study of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant: Discovery of a Point-like Source and of Spectral Differences in its gamma-ray emission

The Cygnus Loop is a nearby supernova remnant (SNR) observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. With the analysis of 6 years of Fermi/LAT data we find that, what previous studies had considered a single source, consists of an extended source plus a point-like source south-east of the SNR. The extended gamma-ray emission is well correlated with the thermal X-ray emission of the SNR, and the energy spectrum displays a pronounced maximum at $\sim0.6$\,GeV. However, in a region where the radio emission is strongly and distinctly polarized, the gamma-ray spectrum shows no sign of a break. Therefore, the spatially resolved gamma-ray emission permits the study of different interaction conditions of the SNR and the surrounding medium.

GeV Gamma-ray Emission Detected by Fermi-LAT Likely Associated with the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 41 in a Molecular Environment

Hadronic emission from supernova remnant (SNR)–molecular cloud (MC) association systems has been widely regarded as a probe of the shock accelerated cosmic protons. We here report on the detection of a $\gamma$-ray emission source, with a significance of $24\sigma$ in 0.2–300 GeV, projectively on the northwest of SNR Kesteven 41, using 5.6 yr Fermi-LAT observation data. The $3\sigma$ error circle, 0.09 degree in radius, covers the 1720MHz OH maser and is essentially consistent with the location of the $V_{LSR}~-50 km/s $ MC with which the SNR interacts. The source emission has a power-law spectrum with a photon index $2.38\pm0.03$ and a 0.2–300 GeV luminosity $~1.6*10^{36} erg /s$ at a distance 12 kpc. There is no radio pulsar in the $3\sigma$ circle responsible for the high luminosity. While the inverse Compton scattering scenario would lead to a difficulty in the electron energy budget, the source emission can be naturally explained with the hadronic interaction between the relativistic protons accelerated by the shock of SNR~Kesteven~41 and the adjacent northwestern MC.

GeV Gamma-ray Emission Detected by Fermi-LAT Likely Associated with the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 41 in a Molecular Environment [Replacement]

Hadronic emission from supernova remnant (SNR)–molecular cloud (MC) association systems has been widely regarded as a probe of the shock accelerated cosmic ray protons. We here report on the detection of a $\gamma$-ray emission source, with a significance of $24\sigma$ in 0.2–300 GeV, projectively on the northwest of SNR Kesteven 41, using 5.6 yr Fermi-LAT observation data. The $3\sigma$ error circle, 0.09 degree in radius, covers the 1720MHz OH maser and is essentially consistent with the location of the $V_{LSR}~-50 km/s $ MC with which the SNR interacts. The source emission has a power-law spectrum with a photon index $2.38\pm0.03$ and a 0.2–300 GeV luminosity $~1.6*10^{36} erg /s$ at a distance 12 kpc. There is no radio pulsar in the $3\sigma$ circle responsible for the high luminosity. While the inverse Compton scattering scenario would lead to a difficulty in the electron energy budget, the source emission can be naturally explained with the hadronic interaction between the relativistic protons accelerated by the shock of SNR~Kesteven~41 and the adjacent northwestern MC.

The Metal-enriched Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant Kesteven 41 (G337.8-0.1) in a Molecular Environment

The physical nature of thermal composite supernova remnants (SNRs) remains controversial. We have revisited the archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data of the thermal composite SNR Kesteven 41 (Kes 41 or G337.8-0.1) and performed a millimeter observation toward this source in the $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O lines. The X-ray emission, mainly concentrated toward the southwestern part of the SNR, is characterized by distinct S and Ar He-like lines in the spectra. The X-ray spectra can be fitted with an absorbed nonequilibrium ionization collisional plasma model at a temperature of 1.3-2.6 keV and an ionization timescale of 0.1-1.2$\times$10$^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$ s. The metal species S and Ar are overabundant, with 1.2-2.7 and 1.3-3.8 solar abundances, respectively, which strongly indicate the presence of a substantial ejecta component in the X-ray-emitting plasma of this SNR. Kes 41 is found to be associated with a giant molecular cloud (MC) at a systemic local standard of rest velocity of -50 km s$^{-1}$ and confined in a cavity delineated by a northern molecular shell, a western concave MC that features a discernible shell, and an HI cloud seen toward the southeast of the SNR. The birth of the SNR in a preexisting molecular cavity implies a mass of $\gtrsim$18 M$_{\odot}$ for the progenitor if it was not in a binary system. Thermal conduction and cloudlet evaporation seem to be feasible mechanisms to interpret the X-ray thermal composite morphology, and the scenario of gas reheating by the shock reflected from the cavity wall is quantitatively consistent with the observations. An updated list of thermal composite SNRs is also presented in this paper.

Discovery of an OB Runaway Star Inside SNR S147

We present first results of a long term study: Searching for OB–type runaway stars inside supernova remnants (SNRs). We identified spectral types and measured radial velocities (RV) by optical spectroscopic observations and we found an early type runaway star inside SNR S147. HD 37424 is a B0.5V type star with a peculiar velocity of 74$\pm$8 km s$^{-1}$. Tracing back the past trajectories via Monte Carlo simulations, we found that HD 37424 was located at the same position as the central compact object, PSR J0538+2817, $30\!\pm\!4$ kyr ago. This position is only $\sim$4 arcmin away from the geometrical center of the SNR. So, we suggest that HD 37424 was the pre–supernova binary companion to the progenitor of the pulsar and the SNR. We found a distance of 1333$^{+103}_{-112}$ pc to the SNR. The zero age main sequence progenitor mass should be greater than 13 $M_\odot$. The age is $30\pm4$ kyr and the total visual absorption towards the center is 1.28$\pm$0.06 mag. For different progenitor masses, we calculated the pre–supernova binary parameters. The Roche Lobe radii suggest that it was an interacting binary in the late stages of the progenitor.

Cosmic Ray Origins in Supernova Blast Waves

We extend the self-similar solution derived by Chevalier for a Sedov blast wave accelerating cosmic rays (CR) to show that the Galactic CR population can be divided into: (A) CR with energies above ~200GeV released upstream during CR acceleration by supernova remnants (SNR), (B) CR advected into the interior of the SNR during expansion and then released from the SNR at the end of its life to provide the Galactic CR component below ~200GeV. The intersection between the two populations may correspond to a measured change in the Galactic CR spectral index at this energy.

H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud

G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE) Gamma-rays. Radio and infrared observations indicate that the remnant is interacting with a molecular cloud. In this paper, the detection of very high energy (VHE) Gamma-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. An integral flux F(E>400GeV)=(6.5 +-1.1stat +-1.3syst) x 10^{-13} ph/cm/s corresponding to 0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of 10^34 erg/s above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index Gamma_VHE = 2.8 +-0.27stat +-0.20syst are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index Gamma_HE = 2.2 +-0.04stat +0.13-0.31syst. The combined Gamma-ray spectrum of G349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power-law (BPL) or a power-law with exponential (or sub-exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at E_br,gamma = 55 +70-30 GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE Gamma-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case, the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at E_cut,gamma = 1.4 +1.6-0.55 (respectively 0.35 +0.75-0.21) TeV. A pion-decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the Gamma-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nH Wp ~ 5 x 10^51 erg/cm3.

H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud [Replacement]

G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE) Gamma-rays. Radio and infrared observations indicate that the remnant is interacting with a molecular cloud. In this paper, the detection of very high energy (VHE) Gamma-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. An integral flux F(E>400GeV)=(6.5 +-1.1stat +-1.3syst) x 10^{-13} ph/cm/s corresponding to 0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of 10^34 erg/s above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index Gamma_VHE = 2.8 +-0.27stat +-0.20syst are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index Gamma_HE = 2.2 +-0.04stat +0.13-0.31syst. The combined Gamma-ray spectrum of G349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power-law (BPL) or a power-law with exponential (or sub-exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at E_br,gamma = 55 +70-30 GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE Gamma-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case, the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at E_cut,gamma = 1.4 +1.6-0.55 (respectively 0.35 +0.75-0.21) TeV. A pion-decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the Gamma-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nH Wp ~ 5 x 10^51 erg/cm3.

Discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1832-093 in the vicinity of SNR G22.7-0.2

The region around the supernova remnant (SNR) W41 contains several TeV sources and has prompted the H.E.S.S. Collaboration to perform deep observations of this field of view. This resulted in the discovery of the new very high energy (VHE) source HESS J1832-093, at the position $\rm RA=18^h 32^m 50^s \pm 3^s_{stat} \pm 2^s_{syst}, \rm Dec=-9^\circ 22′ 36” \pm 32”_{stat} \pm 20”_{syst} (J2000)$, spatially coincident with a part of the radio shell of the neighboring remnant G22.7-0.2. The photon spectrum is well described by a power-law of index $\Gamma = 2.6 \pm 0.3_{\rm stat} \pm 0.1_{\rm syst}$ and a normalization at 1 TeV of $\Phi_0=(4.8 \pm 0.8_{\rm stat}\pm 1.0_{\rm syst})\,\times\,10^{-13}\,\rm{cm} ^{-2}\,s^{-1}\,TeV^{-1}$. The location of the gamma-ray emission on the edge of the SNR rim first suggested a signature of escaping cosmic-rays illuminating a nearby molecular cloud. Then a dedicated XMM-Newton observation led to the discovery of a new X-ray point source spatially coincident with the TeV excess. Two other scenarios were hence proposed to identify the nature of HESS J1832-093. Gamma-rays from inverse Compton radiation in the framework of a pulsar wind nebula scenario or the possibility of gamma-ray production within a binary system are therefore also considered. Deeper multi-wavelength observations will help to shed new light on this intriguing VHE source.

Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers [Cross-Listing]

The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\alpha_t<0.02093$ (i.e, at a detection rate $95\%$ and a false alarm rate $5\%$) at the default $(n_t=0,r=0.2)$. This is consistent with the constraint on the energy density obtained by LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. Extending to the four correlated detectors currently running, the calculated SNR improves slightly. When extending to the six correlated detectors of the second-generation in design, the calculated SNR is $\sim 10^3$ times over the previous two cases, due to the high sensitivities. RGW can be directly detected by the six 2nd-generation detectors for models with $\alpha_t>0.01364$.

Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers [Replacement]

The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\alpha_t<0.02093$ (i.e, at a detection rate $95\%$ and a false alarm rate $5\%$) at the default $(n_t=0,r=0.2)$. This is consistent with the constraint on the energy density obtained by LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. Extending to the four correlated detectors currently running, the calculated SNR improves slightly. When extending to the six correlated detectors of the second-generation in design, the calculated SNR is $\sim 10^3$ times over the previous two cases, due to the high sensitivities. RGW can be directly detected by the six 2nd-generation detectors for models with $\alpha_t>0.01364$.

Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers [Replacement]

The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\alpha_t<0.02093$ (i.e, at a detection rate $95\%$ and a false alarm rate $5\%$) at the default $(n_t=0,r=0.2)$. This is consistent with the constraint on the energy density obtained by LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. Extending to the four correlated detectors currently running, the calculated SNR improves slightly. When extending to the six correlated detectors of the second-generation in design, the calculated SNR is $\sim 10^3$ times over the previous two cases, due to the high sensitivities. RGW can be directly detected by the six 2nd-generation detectors for models with $\alpha_t>0.01364$.

Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers

The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\alpha_t<0.02093$ (i.e, at a detection rate $95\%$ and a false alarm rate $5\%$) at the default $(n_t=0,r=0.2)$. This is consistent with the constraint on the energy density obtained by LIGO-Virgo Collaboration. Extending to the four correlated detectors currently running, the calculated SNR improves slightly. When extending to the six correlated detectors of the second-generation in design, the calculated SNR is $\sim 10^3$ times over the previous two cases, due to the high sensitivities. RGW can be directly detected by the six 2nd-generation detectors for models with $\alpha_t>0.01364$.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The influence of supernova remnants on the interstellar medium in the Large Magellanic Cloud seen at 20--600 $\mu$m wavelengths [Replacement]

We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the {\it Herschel} Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the {\it Spitzer} Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths, however their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified black-body to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7$^{+7.5}_{-2.5}$ M$_{\odot}$ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of $0.037^{+0.075}_{-0.025}$ M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of $2^{+4.0}_{-1.3}\times10^7$ yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

The origin of Cosmic-Rays from SNRs: confirmations and challenges after the first direct proof

Until now, providing an experimental unambiguous proof of Cosmic Ray (CR) origin has been elusive. The SuperNova Remnant (SNR) study showed an increasingly complex scenario with a continuous elaboration of theoretical models. The middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) W44 has recently attracted attention because of its relevance regarding the origin of Galactic cosmic-rays. The gamma-ray missions AGILE and Fermi have established, for the first time for a SNR, the spectral continuum below 200 MeV which can be attributed to neutral pion emission. Our work is focused on a global re-assessment of all available data and models of particle acceleration in W44 and our analysis strengthens previous studies and observations of the W44 complex environment, providing new information for a more detailed modeling. However, having determined the hadronic nature of the gamma-ray emission on firm ground, a number of theoretical challenges remains to be addressed in the context of CR acceleration in SNRs.

Momentum Injection by Supernovae in the Interstellar Medium

Supernova (SN) explosions deposit prodigious energy and momentum in their environments, with the former regulating multiphase thermal structure and the latter regulating turbulence and star formation rates in the interstellar medium (ISM). In contrast to the extensive efforts developing spherical models for SN remnant (SNR) evolution, systematic studies quantifying the impact of SNe in more realistic inhomogeneous ISM conditions have been lacking. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with optically-thin radiative cooling, we investigate the dependence of radial momentum injection on both physical conditions (considering a range of mean density n=0.1-100) and numerical parameters. Our inhomogeneous simulations adopt two-phase background states that result from thermal instability in atomic gas. Although the SNR morphology becomes highly complex for inhomogeneous backgrounds, the radial momentum injection is remarkably insensitive to environmental details. For our two-phase simulations, the final momentum produced by a single SN is given by 2.8*10^5 M_sun*km/s n^{-0.17}. This is only 5% less than the momentum injection for a homogeneous environment with the same mean density, and only 30% greater than the momentum at the time of shell formation. The maximum mass in hot gas is quite insensitive to environmental inhomogeneity. Initial experiments with multiple spatially-correlated SNe show a similar momentum per event to single-SN cases. We also present a full numerical parameter study to assess convergence requirements. For convergence in the momentum and other quantities, we find that the numerical resolution dx and the initial size of the SNR r_init must satisfy dx, r_init<r_sf/3, where the shell formation radius is given by r_sf = 30 pc n^{-0.46} for two-phase models (or 30% smaller for a homogeneous medium).

The response of a helium white dwarf to an exploding type Ia supernova

We conduct numerical simulations of the interacting ejecta from an exploding CO white dwarf (WD) with the He~WD donor in the double-detonation scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and find that the descendant supernova remnant (SNR) is highly asymmetrical, in contradiction with observations. When the donor He~WD has low mass, M_WD =0.2 Msun, it is at a distance of ~0.08 Rsun from the explosion, and helium is not ignited. The low mass He~WD casts an `ejecta shadow’ behind it, that has imprint in the SN remnant (SNR) hundreds of years later. The outer parts of the shadowed side are fainter and its boundary with the ambient gas is somewhat flat. These features are not found in known SNRs. More massive He~WD donors, M_WD ~ 0.4 Msun, must be closer to the CO~WD to transfer mass. At a distance a < 0.045 Rsun helium is ignited and the He~WD explodes. This explosion leads to a highly asymmetrical SNR and to ejection of ~0.15 Msun of helium, both of which contradict observations of SNe Ia.

Discovery of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant 3C 391

Recent X-ray study of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) reveals strong radiative recombination continua (RRCs) associated with overionized plasmas, of which the origin still remains uncertain. We report our discovery of an RRC in the middle-aged SNR 3C 391. If the X-ray spectrum is fitted with a two-temperature plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), residuals of Si XIV Ly alpha line at 2.006 keV, S XVI Ly alpha line at 2.623 keV and the edge of RRC of Si XIII at 2.666 keV are found. The X-ray spectrum is better described by a composite model consisting of a CIE plasma and a recombining plasma (RP). The abundance pattern suggests that the RP is associated to the ejecta from a core-collapse supernova with a progenitor star of 15 solar mass. There is no significant difference of the recombining plasma parameters between the southeast region and the northwest region surrounded by dense molecular clouds. We also find a hint of Fe I K alpha line at 6.4 keV (~2.4 sigma detection) from the southeast region of the SNR.

Using optical lines to study particle acceleration at supernova remnants

The shocks of several young supernova remnants (SNR) are often associated with very thin optical filaments dominated by Balmer emission resulting from charge-exchange and collisional excitation between neutral Hydrogen from the interstellar medium and shocked protons and electrons. Optical lines are a direct probe of the conditions at the shock, in particular the width of the narrow and broad components reflect the temperature upstream and downstream of the shock, respectively. When the shock accelerate efficiently non-thermal particles, the shock structure changes producing anomalous Balmer lines and it is possible to use their line shape and their spatial profile to check the efficiency of SNR shocks in accelerating cosmic rays. Here we illustrate the kinetic theory of shock acceleration in presence of neutrals with some applications to young SNRs. We show that in three cases (RCW 86, SNR 0509-67.5 and Tycho) anomalous Balmer lines can be explained assuming that a fraction of $\sim 10\%$ of the total shock kinetic energy is converted into not thermal particles, while in one single case, the northwestern part of SN 1006, there is no evidence of efficient acceleration.

20 cm VLA Radio-Continuum Study of M31 - Images and Point Source Catalogues DR2: Extraction of a supernova remnant sample

We present Data Release 2 of the Point Source Catalogue created from a series of previously constructed radio-continuum images of M31 at lambda=20 cm (nu=1.4 GHz) from archived VLA observations. In total, we identify a collection of 916 unique discrete radio sources across the field of M31. Comparing these detected sources to those listed by Gelfand et al. (2004) at lambda=92 cm, the spectral index of 98 sources has been derived. The majority (73%) of these sources exhibit a spectral index of alpha <-0.6, indicating that their emission is predominantly non-thermal in nature, which is typical for background objects and Supernova Remnants (SNRs). Additionally, we investigate the presence of radio counterparts for some 156 SNRs and SNR candidates, finding a total of only 13 of these object in our images within a 5 arcsec search area. Auxiliary optical, radio and X-ray catalogs were cross referenced highlighting a small population of SNR and SNR candidates common to multi-frequency domains.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events [Replacement]

As first emphasized by Bernard Schutz, there exists a universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, we show explicitly that the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that the median SNR of the loudest out of the first four events should have an $\mbox{SNR}=22$ (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a median value for the loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events [Replacement]

As first emphasized by Bernard Schutz, there exists a universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, we show explicitly that the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that the median SNR of the loudest out of the first four events should have an $\mbox{SNR}=22$ (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a median value for the loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events [Cross-Listing]

We derive the universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables such as the binary masses and spins (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We also derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that in 50% of cases the loudest event out of the first four should have an SNR louder than 22 (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

The Loudest Gravitational Wave Events

We derive the universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios for gravitational wave detection. Because gravitational waves (GWs) are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, the strength of the detected signal is dictated solely by the emission strength and the distance to the source. Assuming that the space density of an arbitrary population of GW sources does not evolve, the distribution of detected signal-to-noise (SNR) values depends solely on the detection threshold; it is independent of the detector network (interferometer or pulsar timing array), the individual detector noise curves (initial or Advanced LIGO), the nature of the GW sources (compact binary coalescence, supernova, or some other discrete source), and the distributions of source variables such as the binary masses and spins (only non-spinning neutron stars of mass exactly $1.4\,M_\odot$ or a complicated distribution of masses and spins). We also derive the SNR distribution for each individual detector within a network as a function of the relative detector orientations and sensitivities. While most detections will have SNR near the detection threshold, there will be a tail of events to higher SNR. We derive the SNR distribution of the loudest (highest SNR) events in any given sample of detections. We find that in 50% of cases the loudest event out of the first four should have an SNR louder than 22 (for a threshold of 12, appropriate for the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network), increasing to a loudest SNR of 47 for 40 detections. We expect these loudest events to provide particularly powerful constraints on their source parameters, and they will play an important role in extracting astrophysics from gravitational wave sources. These distributions also offer an important internal calibration of the response of the GW detector networks.

Multi-frequency study of DEM L299 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

We have studied the HII region DEM L299 in the Large Magellanic Cloud to understand its physical characteristics and morphology in different wavelengths. We performed a spectral analysis of archived XMM-Newton EPIC data and studied the morphology of DEM L299 in X-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths. We used H alpha, [SII], and [OIII] data from the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey and radio 21 cm line data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Parkes telescope, and radio continuum data from ATCA and the Molonglo Synthesis Telescope. Our morphological studies imply that, in addition to the supernova remnant SNR B0543-68.9 reported in previous studies, a superbubble also overlaps the SNR in projection. The position of the SNR is clearly defined through the [SII]/H alpha flux ratio image. Moreover, the optical images show a shell-like structure that is located farther to the north and is filled with diffuse X-ray emission, which again indicates the superbubble. Radio 21 cm line data show a shell around both objects. Radio continuum data show diffuse emission at the position of DEM L299, which appears clearly distinguished from the HII region N 164 that lies south-west of it. We determined the spectral index of SNR B0543-68.9 to be alpha=-0.34, which indicates the dominance of thermal emission and therefore a rather mature SNR. We determined the basic properties of the diffuse X-ray emission for the SNR, the superbubble, and a possible blowout region of the bubble, as suggested by the optical and X-ray data. We obtained an age of 8.9 (3.5-18.1) kyr for the SNR and a temperature of 0.64 (0.44-1.37) keV for the hot gas inside the SNR, and a temperature of the hot gas inside the superbubble of 0.74 (0.44-1.1) keV. We conclude that DEM L299 consists of a superposition of SNR B0543-68.9 and a superbubble, which we identified based on optical data.

Hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction of supernova shock waves with a clumpy environment: the case of the RX J0852.0-4622 (Vela Jr) supernova remnant

Observations in all electromagnetic bands show that many supernova remnants (SNRs) have a very aspherical shape. This can be the result of asymmetries in the supernova explosion or a clumpy circumstellar medium. We study the generation of inhomogeneities and the mixing of elements arising from these two sources in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the propagation of a supernova blast wave into a cloudy environment. We model a specific SNR, Vela Jr (RX J0852.0-4622). By comparing our results with recent observations, we can constrain the properties of the explosion. We find that a very energetic explosion of several 10^{51} erg occurring roughly about 800 years ago is consistent with the shape and emission of the SNR, as well as a supernova with an energy closer to the canonical value of 10^{51} erg a few thousand years ago.

XMM-Newton and Canadian Galactic Plane Survey Observations of the Supernova Remnant G107.5-1.5

We present an XMM-Newton observation of the highly polarized low-surface brightness supernova remnant G107.5-1.5, discovered with the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS). We do not detect diffuse X-ray emission from the SNR and set an upper limit on the surface brightness of ~2 x 10^30 erg arcmin^-2 s^-1, at an assumed distance of 1.1 kpc. We found eight bright point sources in the field, including the ROSAT source 1RXS J225203.8+574249 near the centre of the radio shell. Spectroscopic analysis of some of the embedded point sources, including the ROSAT source, has been performed, and all eight sources are most likely ruled out as the associated neutron star, primarily due to counterpart bright stars in optical and infrared bands. Timing analysis of the bright point sources yielded no significant evidence for pulsations, but, due to the timing resolution, only a small part of the frequency space could be searched. An additional ten fainter point sources were identified in the vicinity of the SNR. Further X-ray observation of these and the region in the vicinity of the radio shell may be warranted.

Discovery of a pre-existing molecular filament associated with supernova remnant G127.1+0.5

We performed millimeter observations in CO lines toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G127.1+0.5. We found a molecular filament at 4–13 km s$^{-1}$ consisting of two distinct parts: a straight part coming out of the remnant region and a curved part in the remnant region. The curved part is coincides well with the bright SNR shell detected in 1420 MHz radio continuum and mid-infrared observations in the northeastern region. In addition, redshifted line wing broadening is found only in the curved part of the molecular filament, which indicates a physical interaction. These provide strong evidences, for the first time, to confirm the association between an SNR and a pre-existing long molecular filament. Multi-band observations in the northeastern remnant shell could be explained by the interaction between the remnant shock and the dense molecular filament. RADEX radiative transfer modeling of the quiet and shocked components yield physical conditions consistent with the passage of a non-dissociative J-type shock. We argue that the curved part of the filament is fully engulfed by the remnant’s forward shock. A spatial correlation between aggregated young stellar objects (YSOs) and the adjacent molecular filament close to the SNR is also found, which could be related to the progenitor’s activity.

Physical Nature of the [S II]-bright Shell Nebulae N70 and N185

N70 and N185 are two large, $\ge$100 pc in diameter, shell nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Their high [S II]/H$\alpha$ ratios rival those of supernova remnants (SNRs), but they are not confirmed as SNRs. To study their physical nature, we have obtained XMM-Newton X-ray observations and high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectroscopic observations of these two nebulae. The X-ray spectra of both nebulae can be well interpreted with an optically thin thermal ($\sim$0.2 keV) plasma with the average LMC abundance in a collisional ionization equilibrium. N70 encompasses the OB association LH114. Although N70 has a modest expansion velocity and essentially thermal radio emission, its diffuse X-ray luminosity, $\sim6.1\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$, is higher than that from a quiescent superbubble with N70′s density, size, and expansion velocity; thus, N70 is most likely a superbubble that is recently energized by an interior SNR. N185 does not contain any known OB association, and its X-ray luminosity is an order of magnitude lower than expected if it is a quiescent superbubble. N185 has nonthermal radio emission and has high-velocity material expanding at nearly 200 km s$^{-1}$, similar to many known SNRs in the LMC. Its X-ray luminosity, $\sim1.9\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$, is also consistent with that of an evolved SNR. We therefore suggest that N185 is energized by a recent supernova.

Physical Nature of the [S II]-Bright Shell Nebulae N70 and N185 [Replacement]

N70 and N185 are two large ($\ge$100 pc in diameter) shell nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Their high [\ion{S}{2}]/H$\alpha$ ratios rival those of supernova remnants (SNRs), but they are not confirmed as SNRs. To study their physical nature, we have obtained \emph{XMM-Newton} X-ray observations and high-dispersion long-slit echelle spectroscopic observations of these two nebulae. The X-ray spectra of both nebulae can be well interpreted with an optically thin thermal ($\sim$0.2 keV) plasma with the average LMC abundance in a collisional ionization equilibrium. N70 encompasses the OB association LH114. Although N70 has a modest expansion velocity and essentially thermal radio emission, its diffuse X-ray luminosity ($\sim6.1\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$) is higher than that from a quiescent superbubble with N70′s density, size, and expansion velocity; thus, N70 is most likely a superbubble that is recently energized by an interior SNR. N185 does not contain any known OB association, and its X-ray luminosity is an order of magnitude lower than expected if it is a quiescent superbubble. N185 has nonthermal radio emission and has high-velocity material expanding at nearly 200 km s$^{-1}$, similar to many known SNRs in the LMC. Its X-ray luminosity ($\sim1.9\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$) is also consistent with that of an evolved SNR. We therefore suggest that N185 is energized by a recent supernova.

An XMM-Newton study of the mixed-morphology supernova remnant W28 (G6.4-0.1)

We have performed an XMM-Newton imaging and spectroscopic study of supernova remnant (SNR) W28, a prototype mixed-morphology or thermal composite SNR, believed to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The observed hot X-ray emitting plasma is characterized by low metal abundances, showing no evidence of ejecta. The X-rays arising from the deformed northeast shell consist of a thermal component with a temperature of $\sim0.3$ keV plus a hard component of either thermal (temperature $\sim 0.6$ keV) or non-thermal (photon index $=0.9$-2.4) origin. The X-ray emission in the SNR interior is blobby and the corresponding spectra are best described as the emission from a cold ($kT\sim0.4$ keV) plasma in non-equilibrium ionization with an ionization timescale of $\sim4.3\times 10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$ s plus a hot ($kT \sim 0.8$ keV) gas in collisional ionization equilibrium. Applying the two-temperature model to the smaller central regions, we find non-uniform interstellar absorption, temperature and density distribution, which indicates that the remnant is evolving in a non-uniform environment with denser material in the east and north. The cloudlet evaporation mechanism can essentially explain the properties of the X-ray emission in the center and thermal conduction may also play a role for length scales comparable to the remnant radius. A recombining plasma model with an electron temperature of $\sim 0.6$ keV is also feasible for describing the hot central gas with the recombination age of the gas estimated at $\sim2.9\times 10^4$ yr.

Modeling SNR G1.9+0.3 as a Supernova Inside a Planetary Nebula [Replacement]

Using 3D numerical hydrodynamical simulations we show that a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion inside a planetary nebula (PN) can explain the observed shape of the G1.9+0.3 supernova remnant (SNR) and its X-ray morphology. The SNR G1.9+0.3 morphology can be generally described as a sphere with two small and incomplete lobes protruding on opposite sides of the SNR, termed "ears", a structure resembling many elliptical PNe. Observations show the synchrotron X-ray emission to be much stronger inside the two ears than in the rest of the SNR. We numerically show that a spherical SN Ia explosion into a circumstellar matter (CSM) with the structure of an elliptical PN with ears and clumps embedded in the ears can explain the X-ray properties of SNR G1.9+0.3. While the ejecta has already collided with the PN shell in most of the SNR and its forward shock has been slowed down, the ejecta is still advancing inside the ears. The fast forward shock inside the ears explains the stronger X-ray emission there. SN Ia inside PNe (SNIPs) seem to comprise a non-negligible fraction of resolved SN Ia remnants.

Modeling SNR G1.9+0.3 as a Supernova Inside a Planetary Nebula

Using 3D numerical hydrodynamical simulations we show that a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion inside a planetary nebula (PN) can explain the observed shape of the G1.9+0.3 supernova remnant (SNR), and its X-ray morphology. The SNR G1.9+0.3 morphology can be generally described as a sphere with two small and incomplete lobes protruding on opposite sides of the SNR, termed "ears", a structure resembling many elliptical PNe. Observations show the synchrotron X-ray emission to be much stronger inside the two ears than in the rest of the SNR. We numerically show that a spherical SN Ia explosion into a circumstellar matter (CSM) with the structure of an elliptical PN with ears can explain the X-ray properties of SNR G1.9+0.3. While the ejecta has already collided with the PN shell in most of the SNR and its forward shock has been slowed down, the ejecta is still advancing inside the ears. The fast forward shock inside the ears explains the stronger X-ray emission there. SN Ia inside PNe (SNIPs) seem to comprise a non-negligible fraction of resolved SN Ia remnants.

Properties of Optically Selected Supernova Remnant Candidates in M33

We present a sample of supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in M33 based on optical narrow band images in the Local Group Survey. We identify emission line objects that have enhanced [SII]:H{\alpha} (> 0.4) and circular shapes using continuum-subtracted H{\alpha}and [SII] images and produce a list of 199 SNR candidates, of which 79 are previously unknown. We classify them considering two types of criteria: their progenitor type (Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs) and their morphological type. Of the total sample, 170 are likely remnants of CC SNe and 29 are likely remnants of Type Ia SNe. We obtain a cumulative size distribution of the SNR candidates, showing that it follows a power law with an index,{\alpha}= 2.38{\pm}0.05 (17 < D < 50 pc). This indicates that most of the M33 SNR candidates found in this study are in the Sedov-Taylor phase, consistent with previous findings. The [SII]:H{\alpha} distribution of the SNR candidates shows two peaks at [SII]:H{\alpha} ~0.55 and ~0.8. Interestingly X-ray and radio luminosities of the compact center-bright SNR candidates show good correlations with their optical luminosity. The SNR candidates with X-ray counterparts have higher surface brightness at optical wavelengths and smaller sizes than those without such counterparts.

 

You need to log in to vote

The blog owner requires users to be logged in to be able to vote for this post.

Alternatively, if you do not have an account yet you can create one here.

Powered by Vote It Up

^ Return to the top of page ^