Posts Tagged seven stars

Recent Postings from seven stars

Germanium, Arsenic, and Selenium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

The elements germanium (Ge, Z=32), arsenic (As, Z=33), and selenium (Se, Z=34) span the transition from charged-particle or explosive synthesis of the iron-group elements to neutron-capture synthesis of heavier elements. Among these three elements, only the chemical evolution of germanium has been studied previously. Here we use archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from several ground-based facilities to study the chemical enrichment histories of seven stars with metallicities -2.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4. We perform a standard abundance analysis of germanium, arsenic, selenium, and several other elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. When combined with previous derivations of germanium abundances in metal-poor stars, our sample reveals an increase in the [Ge/Fe] ratios at higher metallicities. This could mark the onset of the weak s-process contribution to germanium. In contrast, the [As/Fe] and [Se/Fe] ratios remain roughly constant. These data do not directly indicate the origin of germanium, arsenic, and selenium at low metallicity, but they suggest that the weak and main components of the s-process are not likely sources.

Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars

Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity, effective temperature, projected rotational velocity and surface nitrogen abundance. This method relies on stellar evolution models for different metallicities, masses and rotation rates. We use the population synthesis code STARMAKER to show the range of applicability of our method. We apply this method to 79 early B-type main sequence stars near the LMC clusters NGC 2004 and N 11 and the SMC clusters NGC 330 and NGC 346. From all stars within the sample, 17 were found to be suitable for an age analysis. For ten of them, which are rapidly rotating stars without a strong nitrogen enhancement, it has been previously concluded that they did not evolve as rotationally mixed single stars. This is confirmed by our analysis, which flags the age of these objects as highly discrepant with their isochrone ages. For the other seven stars, their nitrogen and isochrone ages are found to agree within error bars, what validates our method. Constraints on the inclination angle have been derived for the other 62 stars,with the implication that the nitrogen abundances of the SMC stars, for which mostly only upper limits are known, fall on average significantly below those limits. Nitrogen chronology is found to be a new useful tool for testing stellar evolution and to constrain fundamental properties of massive main sequence stars. A web version of this tool is provided.

Spectrum Analysis of Bright Kepler Gamma Doradus Candidate Stars [Replacement]

Ground-based spectroscopic follow-up observations of the pulsating stars observed by the Kepler satellite mission are needed for their asteroseismic modelling. We aim to derive the fundamental parameters for a sample of 26 Gamma Doradus candidate stars observed by the Kepler satellite mission to accomplish one of the required preconditions for their asteroseismic modelling and to compare our results with the types of pulsators expected from the existing light curve analysis. We use the spectrum synthesis method to derive the fundamental parameters like Teff, logg, [M/H], and vsini from newly obtained spectra and compute the spectral energy distribution from literature photometry to get an independent measure of Teff. We find that most of the derived Teff values agree with the values given in the Kepler Input Catalogue. According to their positions in the HR-diagram three stars are expected Gamma Dor stars, ten stars are expected Delta Sct stars, and seven stars are possibly Delta Sct stars at the hot border of the instability strip. Four stars in our sample are found to be spectroscopic binary candidates and four stars have very low metallicity where two show about solar C abundance. Six of the 10 stars located in the Delta Sct instability region of the HR-diagram show both Delta Sct and Gamma Dor-type oscillations in their light curves implying that Gamma Dor-like oscillations are much more common among the Delta Sct stars than predicted by theory. Moreover, seven stars showing periods in the Delta Sct and the Delta Sct-Gamma Dor range in their light curves are located in the HR-diagram left of the blue edge of the theoretical Delta Sct instability strip. The consistency of these findings with recent investigations based on high-quality Kepler data implies the need for a revision of the theoretical Gamma Dor and Delta Sct instability strips.

Spectrum Analysis of Bright Kepler Gamma Doradus Candidate Stars

Ground-based spectroscopic follow-up observations of the pulsating stars observed by the Kepler satellite mission are needed for their asteroseismic modelling. We aim to derive the fundamental parameters for a sample of 26 Gamma Doradus candidate stars observed by the Kepler satellite mission to accomplish one of the required preconditions for their asteroseismic modelling and to compare our results with the types of pulsators expected from the existing light curve analysis. We use the spectrum synthesis method to derive the fundamental parameters like Teff, logg, [M/H], and vsini from newly obtained spectra and compute the spectral energy distribution from literature photometry to get an independent measure of Teff. We find that most of the derived Teff values agree with the values given in the Kepler Input Catalogue. According to their positions in the HR-diagram three stars are expected Gamma Dor stars, ten stars are expected Delta Sct stars, and seven stars are possibly Delta Sct stars at the hot border of the instability strip. Four stars in our sample are found to be spectroscopic binary candidates and four stars have very low metallicity where two show about solar C abundance. Six of the 10 stars located in the Delta Sct instability region of the HR-diagram show both Delta Sct and Gamma Dor-type oscillations in their light curves implying that Gamma Dor-like oscillations are much more common among the Delta Sct stars than predicted by theory. Moreover, seven stars showing periods in the Delta Sct and the Delta Sct-Gamma Dor range in their light curves are located in the HR-diagram left of the blue edge of the theoretical Delta Sct instability strip. The consistency of these findings with recent investigations based on high-quality Kepler data implies the need for a revision of the theoretical Gamma Dor and Delta Sct instability strips.

Radio Continuum Emission from FS CMa Stars

The FS CMa stars exhibit bright optical emission-line spectra and strong IR excesses. Very little is known of their radio characteristics. We analyzed archive Very Large Array data to search for radio continuum emission in a sample of them. There are good quality data for seven of the $\sim$40 known FS CMa stars. Of these seven stars, five turn out to have associated radio emission. Two of these stars, CI Cam and MWC 300, have been previously reported in the literature as radio emitters. We present and briefly discuss the radio detection of the other three sources: FS CMa (the prototype of the class), AS 381, and MWC 922. The radio emission is most probably of a free-free nature but additional observations are required to better characterize it.

Chemical Abundances for Evolved Stars in M5: Lithium through Thorium

We present analysis of high-resolution spectra of a sample of stars in the globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904). The sample includes stars from the red giant branch (seven stars), the red horizontal branch (two stars), and the asymptotic giant branch (eight stars), with effective temperatures ranging from 4000 K to 6100 K. Spectra were obtained with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope, with a wavelength coverage from 3700 to 7950 angstroms for the HB and AGB sample, and 5300 to 7600 angstroms for the majority of the RGB sample. We find offsets of some abundance ratios between the AGB and the RGB branches. However, these discrepancies appear to be due to analysis effects, and indicate that caution must be exerted when directly comparing abundance ratios between different evolutionary branches. We find the expected signatures of pollution from material enriched in the products of the hot hydrogen burning cycles such as the CNO, Ne-Na, and Mg-Al cycles, but no significant differences within these signatures among the three stellar evolutionary branches especially when considering the analysis offsets. We are also able to measure an assortment of neutron-capture element abundances, from Sr to Th, in the cluster. We find that the neutron-capture signature for all stars is the same, and shows a predominately r-process origin. However, we also see evidence of a small but consistent extra s-process signature that is not tied to the light-element variations, pointing to a pre-enrichment of this material in the protocluster gas.

The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars. VIII. Type II Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud

The eighth part of the OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars (OIII-CVS) contains type II Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The sample consists of 43 objects, including 17 BL Her, 17 W Vir and 9 RV Tau stars (first examples ever found in the SMC). Seven stars have been classified as peculiar W Vir stars – a recently identified subclass of type II Cepheids. These stars have distinctive light curves, are brighter and bluer than the ordinary W Vir variables. We confirm that a large fraction of the peculiar W Vir stars are members of binary systems. Three type II Cepheids exhibit eclipsing variations superimposed on the pulsation light curves, and three other objects show long-period ellipsoidal variability. All stars with the indication of binarity display secondary periods which may be interpreted as amplitude and/or phase modulations of the pulsation light curves with periods equal to the orbital periods or half the orbital periods. We do not have any model for these modulations, however this phenomenon rules out a possibility of the optical blends of a pulsating star and a binary system. For each object the multi-epoch V and I-band photometry collected over 8 or 13 years of observations and finding charts are available to the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.

The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars. VIII. Type II Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud [Replacement]

The eighth part of the OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars (OIII-CVS) contains type II Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The sample consists of 43 objects, including 17 BL Her, 17 W Vir and 9 RV Tau stars (first examples ever found in the SMC). Seven stars have been classified as peculiar W Vir stars – a recently identified subclass of type II Cepheids. These stars have distinctive light curves, are brighter and bluer than the ordinary W Vir variables. We confirm that a large fraction of the peculiar W Vir stars are members of binary systems. Three type II Cepheids exhibit eclipsing variations superimposed on the pulsation light curves, and three other objects show long-period ellipsoidal variability. All stars with the indication of binarity display secondary periods which may be interpreted as amplitude and/or phase modulations of the pulsation light curves with periods equal to the orbital periods or half the orbital periods. We do not have any model for these modulations, however this phenomenon rules out a possibility of the optical blends of a pulsating star and a binary system. For each object the multi-epoch V- and I-band photometry collected over 8 or 13 years of observations and finding charts are available to the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.

The population of variable stars in M54 (NGC6715)

We present new B, V and I CCD time-series photometry for 177 variable stars in a 13′X 13′ field centered on the globular cluster M54 (lying at the center of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy), 94 of which are newly identified variables. The total sample is composed of 2 anomalous Cepheids, 144 RR Lyrae stars (108 RR0 and 36 RR1), 3 SX Phoenicis, 7 eclipsing binaries (5 W UMA and 2 Algol binaries), 3 variables of uncertain classification and 18 long-period variables. The large majority of the RR Lyrae variables likely belong to M54. Ephemerides are provided for all the observed short-period variables. The pulsational properties of the M54 RR Lyrae variables are close to those of Oosterhoff I clusters, but a significant number of long-period ab type RR Lyrae are present. We use the observed properties of the RR Lyrae to estimate the reddening and the distance modulus of M54, E(B-V)=0.16 +/- 0.02 and (m-M)_0=17.13 +/- 0.11, respectively, in excellent agreement with the most recent estimates. The metallicity has been estimated for a subset of 47 RR Lyrae stars, with especially good quality light curves, from the Fourier parameters of the V light curve. The derived metallicity distribution has a symmetric bell shape, with a mean of <[Fe/H]>=-1.65 and a standard deviation sigma=0.16 dex. Seven stars have been identified as likely belonging to the Sagittarius galaxy, based on their too high or too low metallicity. This evidence, if confirmed, might suggest that old stars in this galaxy span a wide range of metallicities.

Photometric Study of Variable Stars in the Open Cluster NGC6866

We report the discovery of 19 variable stars and two blue-stragglers in the field of the open cluster NGC6866. Three of the variable stars we classify as delta Sct, two, as gamma Dor, four, as WUMa, two, as ellipsoidal variables, and one, as an eclipsing binary. Seven stars show irregular variability. Two of the pulsators, a delta Sct star NGC 6866-29 and a gamma Dor star NGC6866-21, are multiperiodic. From an analysis of proper motions, we conclude that the delta Sct stars, one of the gamma Dor stars and both blue-stragglers are very probable members of the cluster. The position on the color-magnitude diagram of seven other variables suggests that they also belong to the cluster. The eclipsing binary, which we discover to be a new high-velocity star, and the seven irregular variables are non-members. Then, we discuss in detail the age and metallicity of open clusters that host gamma Dor stars and we show that none of these parameters is correlated with the number of gamma Dor stars in cluster.

 

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