Posts Tagged scenarios

Recent Postings from scenarios

Two Higgs bosons near 125 GeV in the complex NMSSM and the LHC Run-I data

We analyse the impact of explicit CP-violation in the Higgs sector of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) on its consistency with the Higgs boson data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Through detailed scans of the parameter space of the complex (natural) NMSSM for certain fixed values of one of its CP-violating (CPV) phases, we obtain a large number of points corresponding to five phenomenologically relevant scenarios containing $\sim 125$ GeV Higgs boson(s). We focus, in particular, on the scenarios where the visible peaks in the experimental samples can actually be explained by two nearly mass-degenerate neutral Higgs boson states. We find that these scenarios give an overall improved fit to the data for non-zero values of the CPV phase, compared not only to their CP-conserving limit but also to the scenarios containing a single Higgs boson near 125 GeV.

Signs of Tops from Highly Mixed Stops

Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model with highly mixed squark flavours beyond minimal flavour violation provide interesting scenarios of new physics, which have so far received limited attention. We propose a calculable realization of such scenarios in models of gauge mediation augmented with an extra interaction between the messengers and the up type squark. We compute the supersymmetric spectrum and analyze the flavour physics constraints on such models. In a simplified model approach, we show that scenarios with maximal squark flavour mixing result in interesting phenomenological signatures at the LHC. We show that the model can be probed up to masses of $m_{\tilde{u}} \lesssim 950$ GeV in the single-top event topology at LHC14 with as little as 300 fb$^{-1}$. The most distinctive signature of highly mixed scenarios, the same sign positive charge di-top, can be probed to comparable squark masses at high luminosity LHC14.

Phenomenological constraints on light mixed sneutrino dark matter scenarios

In supersymmetric models with Dirac neutrinos, the lightest sneutrino can be an excellent thermal dark matter candidate when the soft sneutrino trilinear parameter is large. We focus on scenarios where the mass of the mixed sneutrino is of the order of GeV and sensitivity of dark matter direct detection is weak. We investigate phenomenological constraints on the model parameter space including the vacuum stability bound. We show that the allowed regions can be explored by measuring Higgs boson properties at future collider experiments.

Isospin violating dark matter in St\"uckelberg portal scenarios [Cross-Listing]

Hidden sector scenarios in which dark matter (DM) interacts with the Standard Model matter fields through the exchange of massive Z’ bosons are well motivated by certain string theory constructions. In this work, we thoroughly study the phenomenological aspects of such scenarios and find that they present a clear and testable consequence for direct DM searches. We show that such string motivated St\"uckelberg portals naturally lead to isospin violating interactions of DM particles with nuclei. We find that the relations between the DM coupling to neutrons and protons for both, spin-independent (fn/fp) and spin-dependent (an/ap) interactions, are very flexible depending on the charges of the quarks under the extra U(1) gauge groups. We show that within this construction these ratios are generically different from plus and minus 1 (i.e. different couplings to protons and neutrons) leading to a potentially measurable distinction from other popular portals. Finally, we incorporate bounds from searches for dijet and dilepton resonances at the LHC as well as LUX bounds on the elastic scattering of DM off nucleons to determine the experimentally allowed values of fn/fp and an/ap.

Isospin violating dark matter in St\"uckelberg portal scenarios

Hidden sector scenarios in which dark matter (DM) interacts with the Standard Model matter fields through the exchange of massive Z’ bosons are well motivated by certain string theory constructions. In this work, we thoroughly study the phenomenological aspects of such scenarios and find that they present a clear and testable consequence for direct DM searches. We show that such string motivated St\"uckelberg portals naturally lead to isospin violating interactions of DM particles with nuclei. We find that the relations between the DM coupling to neutrons and protons for both, spin-independent (fn/fp) and spin-dependent (an/ap) interactions, are very flexible depending on the charges of the quarks under the extra U(1) gauge groups. We show that within this construction these ratios are generically different from plus and minus 1 (i.e. different couplings to protons and neutrons) leading to a potentially measurable distinction from other popular portals. Finally, we incorporate bounds from searches for dijet and dilepton resonances at the LHC as well as LUX bounds on the elastic scattering of DM off nucleons to determine the experimentally allowed values of fn/fp and an/ap.

Isospin violating dark matter in St\"uckelberg portal scenarios [Cross-Listing]

Hidden sector scenarios in which dark matter (DM) interacts with the Standard Model matter fields through the exchange of massive Z’ bosons are well motivated by certain string theory constructions. In this work, we thoroughly study the phenomenological aspects of such scenarios and find that they present a clear and testable consequence for direct DM searches. We show that such string motivated St\"uckelberg portals naturally lead to isospin violating interactions of DM particles with nuclei. We find that the relations between the DM coupling to neutrons and protons for both, spin-independent (fn/fp) and spin-dependent (an/ap) interactions, are very flexible depending on the charges of the quarks under the extra U(1) gauge groups. We show that within this construction these ratios are generically different from plus and minus 1 (i.e. different couplings to protons and neutrons) leading to a potentially measurable distinction from other popular portals. Finally, we incorporate bounds from searches for dijet and dilepton resonances at the LHC as well as LUX bounds on the elastic scattering of DM off nucleons to determine the experimentally allowed values of fn/fp and an/ap.

Stellar Motion around Spiral Arms: Gaia Mock Data

We compare the stellar motion around a spiral arm created in two different scenarios, transient/co-rotating spiral arms and density-wave-like spiral arms. We generate Gaia mock data from snapshots of the simulations following these two scenarios using our stellar population code, SNAPDRAGONS, which takes into account dust extinction and the expected Gaia errors. We compare the observed rotation velocity around a spiral arm similar in position to the Perseus arm, and find that there is a clear difference in the velocity features around the spiral arm between the co-rotating spiral arm and the density-wave-like spiral arm. Our result demonstrates that the volume and accuracy of the Gaia data are sufficient to clearly distinguish these two scenarios of the spiral arms.

Large pseudoscalar Yukawa couplings in the complex 2HDM [Replacement]

We start by presenting the current status of a complex flavour conserving two-Higgs doublet model. We will focus on some very interesting scenarios where unexpectedly the light Higgs couplings to leptons and to b-quarks can have a large pseudoscalar component with a vanishing scalar component. Predictions for the allowed parameter space at end of the next run with a total collected luminosity of $300 \, fb^{-1}$ and $3000 \, fb^{-1}$ are also discussed. These scenarios are not excluded by present data and most probably will survive the next LHC run. However, a measurement of the mixing angle $\phi_\tau$, between the scalar and pseudoscalar component of the 125 GeV Higgs, in the decay $h \to \tau^+ \tau^-$ will be able to probe many of these scenarios, even with low luminosity. Similarly, a measurement of $\phi_t$ in the vertex $\bar t t h$ could help to constrain the low $\tan \beta$ region in the Type I model.

Large pseudoscalar Yukawa couplings in the complex 2HDM

We start by presenting the current status of a complex flavour conserving two-Higgs doublet model. We will focus on some very interesting scenarios where unexpectedly the light Higgs couplings to leptons and to b-quarks can have a large pseudoscalar component with a vanishing scalar component. Predictions for the allowed parameter space at end of the next run with a total collected luminosity of $300 \, fb^{-1}$ and $3000 \, fb^{-1}$ are also discussed. These scenarios are not excluded by present data and most probably will survive the next LHC run. However, a measurement of the mixing angle $\phi_\tau$, between the scalar and pseudoscalar component of the 125 GeV Higgs, in the decay $h \to \tau^+ \tau^-$ will be able to probe many of these scenarios, even with low luminosity. Similarly, a measurement of $\phi_t$ in the vertex $\bar t t h$ could help to constrain the low $\tan \beta$ region in the Type I model.

Heavy neutralino relic abundance with Sommerfeld enhancements - a study of pMSSM scenarios [Cross-Listing]

We present a detailed discussion of Sommerfeld enhancements in neutralino dark matter relic abundance calculations for several popular benchmark scenarios in the general MSSM. Our analysis is focused on models with heavy wino- and higgsino-like neutralino LSP and models interpolating between these two scenarios. This work is the first phenomenological application of effective field theory methods that we have developed in earlier work and that allow for the consistent study of Sommerfeld enhancements in non-relativistic neutralino and chargino co-annihilation reactions within the general MSSM, away from the pure-wino and pure-higgsino limits.

Heavy neutralino relic abundance with Sommerfeld enhancements - a study of pMSSM scenarios

We present a detailed discussion of Sommerfeld enhancements in neutralino dark matter relic abundance calculations for several popular benchmark scenarios in the general MSSM. Our analysis is focused on models with heavy wino- and higgsino-like neutralino LSP and models interpolating between these two scenarios. This work is the first phenomenological application of effective field theory methods that we have developed in earlier work and that allow for the consistent study of Sommerfeld enhancements in non-relativistic neutralino and chargino co-annihilation reactions within the general MSSM, away from the pure-wino and pure-higgsino limits.

CMS kinematic edge from s-bottoms

We present two scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) that can lead to an explanation of the excess in the invariant mass distribution of two opposite charged, same flavor leptons, and the corresponding edge at an energy of about 78 GeV, recently reported by the CMS collaboration. In both scenarios, s-bottoms are pair produced, and decay to neutralinos and a b-jet. The heavier neutralinos further decay to a pair of leptons and the lightest neutralino through on-shell s-leptons or off-shell neutral gauge bosons. These scenarios are consistent with the current limits on the s-bottoms, neutralinos, and s-leptons. Assuming that the lightest neutralino is stable we discuss the predicted relic density as well as the implications for Dark Matter direct detection. We show that consistency between the predicted and the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment may be obtained in both scenarios. Finally, we define the signatures of these models that may be tested at the 13 TeV run of the LHC.

CMS kinematic edge from s-bottoms [Replacement]

We present two scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) that can lead to an explanation of the excess in the invariant mass distribution of two opposite charged, same flavor leptons, and the corresponding edge at an energy of about 78 GeV, recently reported by the CMS collaboration. In both scenarios, s-bottoms are pair produced, and decay to neutralinos and a b-jet. The heavier neutralinos further decay to a pair of leptons and the lightest neutralino through on-shell s-leptons or off-shell neutral gauge bosons. These scenarios are consistent with the current limits on the s-bottoms, neutralinos, and s-leptons. Assuming that the lightest neutralino is stable we discuss the predicted relic density as well as the implications for Dark Matter direct detection. We show that consistency between the predicted and the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment may be obtained in both scenarios. Finally, we define the signatures of these models that may be tested at the 13 TeV run of the LHC.

CMS kinematic edge from s-bottoms [Replacement]

We present two scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) that can lead to an explanation of the excess in the invariant mass distribution of two opposite charged, same flavor leptons, and the corresponding edge at an energy of about 78 GeV, recently reported by the CMS collaboration. In both scenarios, s-bottoms are pair produced, and decay to neutralinos and a b-jet. The heavier neutralinos further decay to a pair of leptons and the lightest neutralino through on-shell s-leptons or off-shell neutral gauge bosons. These scenarios are consistent with the current limits on the s-bottoms, neutralinos, and s-leptons. Assuming that the lightest neutralino is stable we discuss the predicted relic density as well as the implications for Dark Matter direct detection. We show that consistency between the predicted and the measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment may be obtained in both scenarios. Finally, we define the signatures of these models that may be tested at the 13 TeV run of the LHC.

Sequestered de Sitter String Scenarios: Soft-terms [Cross-Listing]

We analyse soft supersymmetry breaking in type IIB de Sitter string vacua after moduli stabilisation, focussing on models in which the Standard Model is sequestered from the supersymmetry breaking sources and the spectrum of soft-terms is hierarchically smaller than the gravitino mass $m_{3/2}$. Due to this feature, these models are compatible with gauge coupling unification and TeV scale supersymmetry with no cosmological moduli problem. We determine the influence on soft-terms of concrete realisations of de Sitter vacua constructed from supersymmetric effective actions. One of these scenarios provides the first study of soft-terms for consistent string models embedded in a compact Calabi-Yau manifold with all moduli stabilised. Depending on the moduli dependence of the Kaehler metric for matter fields and on the mechanism responsible to obtain a de Sitter vacuum, we find two scenarios for phenomenology: (i) a split-supersymmetry scenario where gaugino masses are suppressed with respect to scalar masses: $M_{1/2} \sim m_{3/2} \epsilon \ll m_0 \sim m_{3/2} \sqrt{\epsilon} \ll m_{3/2}$ for $\epsilon \sim m_{3/2}/M_P \ll 1$; (ii) a typical MSSM scenario where all soft-terms are of the same order: $M_{1/2} \sim m_0 \sim m_{3/2} \epsilon \ll m_{3/2}$. Background fluxes determine the numerical coefficients of the soft-terms allowing for small variations of parameters as is necessary to confront data and to interpolate between different scenarios. We comment on different stringy origins of the mu-term and potential sources of desequestering.

Sequestered de Sitter String Scenarios: Soft-terms

We analyse soft supersymmetry breaking in type IIB de Sitter string vacua after moduli stabilisation, focussing on models in which the Standard Model is sequestered from the supersymmetry breaking sources and the spectrum of soft-terms is hierarchically smaller than the gravitino mass $m_{3/2}$. Due to this feature, these models are compatible with gauge coupling unification and TeV scale supersymmetry with no cosmological moduli problem. We determine the influence on soft-terms of concrete realisations of de Sitter vacua constructed from supersymmetric effective actions. One of these scenarios provides the first study of soft-terms for consistent string models embedded in a compact Calabi-Yau manifold with all moduli stabilised. Depending on the moduli dependence of the Kaehler metric for matter fields and on the mechanism responsible to obtain a de Sitter vacuum, we find two scenarios for phenomenology: (i) a split-supersymmetry scenario where gaugino masses are suppressed with respect to scalar masses: $M_{1/2} \sim m_{3/2} \epsilon \ll m_0 \sim m_{3/2} \sqrt{\epsilon} \ll m_{3/2}$ for $\epsilon \sim m_{3/2}/M_P \ll 1$; (ii) a typical MSSM scenario where all soft-terms are of the same order: $M_{1/2} \sim m_0 \sim m_{3/2} \epsilon \ll m_{3/2}$. Background fluxes determine the numerical coefficients of the soft-terms allowing for small variations of parameters as is necessary to confront data and to interpolate between different scenarios. We comment on different stringy origins of the mu-term and potential sources of desequestering.

Sequestered de Sitter String Scenarios: Soft-terms

We analyse soft supersymmetry breaking in type IIB de Sitter string vacua after moduli stabilisation, focussing on models in which the Standard Model is sequestered from the supersymmetry breaking sources and the spectrum of soft-terms is hierarchically smaller than the gravitino mass $m_{3/2}$. Due to this feature, these models are compatible with gauge coupling unification and TeV scale supersymmetry with no cosmological moduli problem. We determine the influence on soft-terms of concrete realisations of de Sitter vacua constructed from supersymmetric effective actions. One of these scenarios provides the first study of soft-terms for consistent string models embedded in a compact Calabi-Yau manifold with all moduli stabilised. Depending on the moduli dependence of the Kaehler metric for matter fields and on the mechanism responsible to obtain a de Sitter vacuum, we find two scenarios for phenomenology: (i) a split-supersymmetry scenario where gaugino masses are suppressed with respect to scalar masses: $M_{1/2} \sim m_{3/2} \epsilon \ll m_0 \sim m_{3/2} \sqrt{\epsilon} \ll m_{3/2}$ for $\epsilon \sim m_{3/2}/M_P \ll 1$; (ii) a typical MSSM scenario where all soft-terms are of the same order: $M_{1/2} \sim m_0 \sim m_{3/2} \epsilon \ll m_{3/2}$. Background fluxes determine the numerical coefficients of the soft-terms allowing for small variations of parameters as is necessary to confront data and to interpolate between different scenarios. We comment on different stringy origins of the mu-term and potential sources of desequestering.

Revisiting the Emission from Relativistic Blast Waves in a Density-Jump Medium

Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. (1999). This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps can not be produced under common conditions, only short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at early time ($< 10^4$ s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be due to other scenarios.

Revisiting the Emission from Relativistic Blast Waves in a Density-Jump Medium [Replacement]

Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. (1999). This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps can not be produced under common conditions, only short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at early time ($< 10^4$ s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be due to other scenarios.

Renormalization Group Evolution of Neutrino Parameters in Presence of Seesaw Threshold Effects and Majorana Phases

We examine the renormalization group evolution (RGE) for different mixing scenarios in the presence of seesaw threshold effects from high energy scale (GUT) to the low electroweak (EW) scale in the Standard Model (SM) and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We consider four mixing scenarios namely Tri-Bimaximal Mixing, Bimaximal Mixing, Hexagonal Mixing and Golden Ratio Mixing which come from different flavor symmetries at the GUT scale. All these mixing scenarios give vanishing reactor angle ($\theta_{13}$) and maximal atmospheric mixing angle. The solar mixing angle has different value for all four cases. In the light of non zero value of $\theta_{13}$ it becomes interesting to study the present status of these symmetries, i.e. whether they can generate the current neutrino oscillation data at low energy scale or not. We find that the Majorana phases play an important role in the RGE running of these mixing patterns along with the seesaw threshold corrections. We present a comparative study of the RGE of all these mixing scenarios both with and without Majorana CP phases when seesaw threshold corrections are taken into consideration. We find that in the absence of these Majorana phases both the RGE running and seesaw effects may lead to $\theta_{13}< $5$^\circ$ at low energies both in the SM and the MSSM. However, if the Majorana phases are incorporated to the mixing matrix the running can be enhanced both in the SM and the MSSM. Even by incorporating non zero Majorana CP phases in the SM, we do not get $\theta_{13}$ in its present 3$\sigma$ range. The current values of the two mass squared differences and mixing angles including $\theta_{13}$ can be produced in the MSSM case with tan$\beta$ = 10 and non zero Majorana CP phases at low energy.

Renormalization Group Evolution of Neutrino Parameters in Presence of Seesaw Threshold Effects and Majorana Phases [Replacement]

We examine the renormalization group evolution (RGE) for different mixing scenarios in the presence of seesaw threshold effects from high energy scale (GUT) to the low electroweak (EW) scale in the Standard Model (SM) and Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We consider four mixing scenarios namely Tri-Bimaximal Mixing, Bimaximal Mixing, Hexagonal Mixing and Golden Ratio Mixing which come from different flavor symmetries at the GUT scale. We find that the Majorana phases play an important role in the RGE running of these mixing patterns along with the seesaw threshold corrections. We present a comparative study of the RGE of all these mixing scenarios both with and without Majorana CP phases when seesaw threshold corrections are taken into consideration. We find that in the absence of these Majorana phases both the RGE running and seesaw effects may lead to $\theta_{13}<$ 5$^\circ$ at low energies both in the SM and MSSM. However, if the Majorana phases are incorporated to the mixing matrix the running can be enhanced both in the SM and MSSM. Even by incorporating non zero Majorana CP phases in the SM, we do not get $\theta_{13}$ in its present 3$\sigma$ range. The current values of the two mass squared differences and mixing angles including $\theta_{13}$ can be produced in the MSSM case with tan$\beta$ = 10 and non zero Majorana CP phases at low energy. We also calculate the order of effective Majorana mass and Jarlskog Invariant for each scenario under consideration.

Cosmological scenarios in modified gravity with non-dynamical fields

In this paper we address the issue of exploring some cosmological scenarios in modified Einstein gravity through non-dynamical (auxiliary) fields. We found that all scenarios are controlled by a specific parameter associated with an auxiliary field. We explore the emergence of inflationary, radiation, matter and dark energy dominated regimes. Furthermore, an interesting possibility such as the emergence of a self-tuning mechanism to the cosmological constant problem in the radiation dominated era is also discussed.

Cosmological scenarios in modified gravity with non-dynamical fields [Replacement]

In this paper we address the issue of exploring some cosmological scenarios in modified Einstein gravity through non-dynamical (auxiliary) fields. We found that all scenarios are controlled by a specific parameter associated with an auxiliary field. We explore the emergence of inflationary, radiation, matter and dark energy dominated regimes. Furthermore, an interesting possibility such as the emergence of a self-tuning mechanism to the cosmological constant problem in the radiation dominated era is also discussed.

Cosmological scenarios in modified gravity with non-dynamical fields [Replacement]

In this paper we address the issue of exploring some cosmological scenarios in modified Einstein gravity through non-dynamical (auxiliary) fields. We found that all scenarios are controlled by a specific parameter associated with an auxiliary field. We explore the emergence of inflationary, radiation, matter and dark energy dominated regimes. Furthermore, an interesting possibility such as the emergence of a self-tuning mechanism to the cosmological constant problem in the radiation dominated era is also discussed.

Cosmological scenarios in modified gravity with non-dynamical fields [Replacement]

In this paper we address the issue of exploring some cosmological scenarios in modified Einstein gravity through non-dynamical (auxiliary) fields. We found that all scenarios are controlled by a specific parameter associated with an auxiliary field. We explore the emergence of inflationary, radiation, matter and dark energy dominated regimes. Furthermore, an interesting possibility such as the emergence of a self-tuning mechanism to the cosmological constant problem in the radiation dominated era is also discussed.

Cosmological scenarios in modified gravity with non-dynamical fields [Replacement]

In this paper we address the issue of exploring some cosmological scenarios in modified Einstein gravity through non-dynamical (auxiliary) fields. We found that all scenarios are controlled by a specific parameter associated with an auxiliary field. We explore the emergence of inflationary, radiation, matter and dark energy dominated regimes. Furthermore, an interesting possibility such as the emergence of a self-tuning mechanism to the cosmological constant problem in the radiation dominated era is also discussed.

Collisional modelling of the debris disc around HIP 17439

We present an analysis of the debris disc around the nearby K2 V star HIP 17439. In the context of the Herschel DUNES key programme the disc was observed and spatially resolved in the far-IR with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. In a first model, Ertel et al. (2014) assumed the size and radial distribution of the circumstellar dust to be independent power laws. There, by exploring a very broad range of possible model parameters several scenarios capable of explaining the observations were suggested. In this paper, we perform a follow-up in-depth collisional modelling of these scenarios trying to further distinguish between them. In our models we consider collisions, direct radiation pressure, and drag forces, i.e. the actual physical processes operating in debris discs. We find that all scenarios discussed in Ertel et al. are physically sensible and can reproduce the observed SED along with the PACS surface brightness profiles reasonably well. In one model, the dust is produced beyond 120au in a narrow planetesimal belt and is transported inwards by Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag. A good agreement with the observed radial profiles would require stellar winds by about an order of magnitude stronger than the solar value, which is not supported, although not ruled out, by observations. Another model consists of two spatially separated planetesimal belts, a warm inner and a cold outer one. This scenario would probably imply the presence of planets clearing the gap between the two components. Finally, we show qualitatively that the observations can be explained by assuming the dust is produced in a single, but broad planetesimal disc with a surface density of solids rising outwards, as expected for an extended disc that experiences a natural inside-out collisional depletion. Prospects of discriminating between the competing scenarios by future observations are discussed.

Phenomenology of $E_6$-Inspired Leptophobic $Z'$ Boson at the LHC [Replacement]

We study collider phenomenology of a leptophobic $Z’$ boson existing in eight scenarios of the $E_6$ grand unified theory, differing in particle embeddings. We first review the current bound on the $Z’$ mass $m_{Z’}$ based upon the LHC data of $pp\to t\bar{t}$ process at 8 TeV collisions with an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb$^{-1}$. Most scenarios have a lower bound of about 1 TeV. However, this constraint does not apply to the case where $m_{Z’} < 2 m_t$, and other methods need to be employed for this lower mass regime. Using existing UA2 constraints and dijet data at the LHC, we find that only one of the eight scenarios is excluded at 95\% confidence level. No bound can be obtained from $Wjj$ and $Zjj$ measurements. We propose to use the photon associated production of the $Z’$ boson that subsequently decays into a pair of bottom quarks, $pp\to Z’\gamma \to b\bar{b}\gamma$, at the LHC to explore the constraints in the lower mass regime. We compute the expected signal significance as a function of $m_{Z’}$ using detailed simulations of signal and irreducible background events. We find constraints for two more scenarios using the 8-TeV data and taking appropriate kinematical cuts. We also show the discovery reach for each scenario at the 14-TeV LHC machine.

Radiative neutrino mass generation linked to neutrino mixing and neutrinoless double beta decay predictions

We discuss the connection between the origin of neutrino masses and their mixings which arises in a class of scenarios with radiatively induced neutrino masses. In these scenarios, the neutrino mass matrix acquires textures with two entries close to zero in the basis where the charged-lepton mass matrix is diagonal. This results in specific constraints on the neutrino mixing parameters,which leads to the prediction of (i) a normal ordering of neutrino masses with the lightest neutrino mass in the $\sim$meV range, and (ii) testable correlations among the various mixing angles, including a non-zero $\theta_{13}$ angle with its exact value correlated with the values of the atmospheric angle $\theta_{23}$ and the CP phase $\delta$. We quantify the impact of deviations from exact zeroes in the mass matrix texture, and connect it to the amount of hierarchy among Yukawa couplings. These scenarios of radiative neutrino mass generation also give rise to new short-range contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay, which dominate over the usual light-neutrino exchange contribution. As a result, this class of models can have a sizable neutrinoless double beta decay rate, in the range of upcoming experiments despite the normal mass ordering of neutrinos.

Radiative neutrino mass generation linked to neutrino mixing and $0\nu\beta\beta$-decay predictions [Replacement]

We discuss the connection between the origin of neutrino masses and their mixings which arises in a class of scenarios with radiatively induced neutrino masses. In these scenarios, the neutrino mass matrix acquires textures with two entries close to zero in the basis where the charged-lepton mass matrix is diagonal. This results in specific constraints on the neutrino mixing parameters, which leads to the prediction of (i) a normal ordering of neutrino masses with the lightest neutrino mass in the $\sim$ meV range and (ii) testable correlations among the various mixing angles, including a nonzero $\theta_{13}$ angle with its exact value correlated with the values of the atmospheric angle $\theta_{23}$ and the $CP$ phase $\delta$. We quantify the impact of deviations from exact zeroes in the mass matrix texture and connect it to the amount of hierarchy among Yukawa couplings. These scenarios of radiative neutrino mass generation also give rise to new short-range contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay, which dominate over the usual light-neutrino exchange contribution. As a result, this class of models can have a sizable neutrinoless double beta decay rate, in the range of upcoming experiments despite the normal mass ordering of neutrinos.

High-energy collisions inside black holes and their counterpart in the flat space-time

Two particles can collide inside a black hole in such a way that the energy E_{c.m.} in their centre of mass frame becomes as large as one likes. We show that this effect can be understood with the help of simple analogy with particle collision in the flat space-time. We also expand our previous results and demonstrate new scenarios with unbound E_{c.m.}. In contrast to the previous scenarios which required proximity of collision to the bifurcation point, now this is not necessary. Full classification of scenarios with unbound E_{c.m.} is suggested.

High-energy collisions inside black holes and their counterpart in the flat space-time [Cross-Listing]

Two particles can collide inside a black hole in such a way that the energy E_{c.m.} in their centre of mass frame becomes as large as one likes. We show that this effect can be understood with the help of simple analogy with particle collision in the flat space-time. We also expand our previous results and demonstrate new scenarios with unbound E_{c.m.}. In contrast to the previous scenarios which required proximity of collision to the bifurcation point, now this is not necessary. Full classification of scenarios with unbound E_{c.m.} is suggested.

The prompt-early afterglow connection in GRBs

We study the observed correlations between the duration and luminosity of the early afterglow plateau and the isotropic gamma-ray energy release during the prompt phase. We discuss these correlations in the context of two scenarios for the origin of the plateaus. In the first one the afterglow is made by the forward shock and the plateau results from variations of the microphysics parameters while in the second one the early afterglow is made by a long-lived reverse shock propagating in a low Lorentz factor tail of the ejecta.

A search for long-lived gravitational-wave transients coincident with long gamma-ray bursts [Replacement]

Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been linked to extreme core-collapse supernovae from massive stars. Gravitational waves (GW) offer a probe of the physics behind long GRBs. We investigate models of long-lived (~10-1000s) GW emission associated with the accretion disk of a collapsed star or with its protoneutron star remnant. Using data from LIGO’s fifth science run, and GRB triggers from the swift experiment, we perform a search for unmodeled long-lived GW transients. Finding no evidence of GW emission, we place 90% confidence level upper limits on the GW fluence at Earth from long GRBs for three waveforms inspired by a model of GWs from accretion disk instabilities. These limits range from F<3.5 ergs cm^-2 to $F<1200 ergs cm^-2, depending on the GRB and on the model, allowing us to probe optimistic scenarios of GW production out to distances as far as ~33 Mpc. Advanced detectors are expected to achieve strain sensitivities 10x better than initial LIGO, potentially allowing us to probe the engines of the nearest long GRBs.

A search for long-lived gravitational-wave transients coincident with long gamma-ray bursts [Replacement]

Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been linked to extreme core-collapse supernovae from massive stars. Gravitational waves (GW) offer a probe of the physics behind long GRBs. We investigate models of long-lived (~10-1000s) GW emission associated with the accretion disk of a collapsed star or with its protoneutron star remnant. Using data from LIGO’s fifth science run, and GRB triggers from the swift experiment, we perform a search for unmodeled long-lived GW transients. Finding no evidence of GW emission, we place 90% confidence level upper limits on the GW fluence at Earth from long GRBs for three waveforms inspired by a model of GWs from accretion disk instabilities. These limits range from F<3.5 ergs cm^-2 to $F<1200 ergs cm^-2, depending on the GRB and on the model, allowing us to probe optimistic scenarios of GW production out to distances as far as ~33 Mpc. Advanced detectors are expected to achieve strain sensitivities 10x better than initial LIGO, potentially allowing us to probe the engines of the nearest long GRBs.

A search for long-lived gravitational-wave transients coincident with long gamma-ray bursts

Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been linked to extreme core-collapse supernovae from massive stars. Gravitational waves (GW) offer a probe of the physics behind long GRBs. We investigate models of long-lived (~10-1000s) GW emission associated with the accretion disk of a collapsed star or with its protoneutron star remnant. Using data from LIGO’s fifth science run, and GRB triggers from the swift experiment, we perform a search for unmodeled long-lived GW transients. Finding no evidence of GW emission, we place 90% confidence level upper limits on the GW fluence at Earth from long GRBs for three waveforms inspired by a model of GWs from accretion disk instabilities. These limits range from F<3.5 ergs cm^-2 to $F<1200 ergs cm^-2, depending on the GRB and on the model, allowing us to probe optimistic scenarios of GW production out to distances as far as ~33 Mpc. Advanced detectors are expected to achieve strain sensitivities 10x better than initial LIGO, potentially allowing us to probe the engines of the nearest long GRBs.

A search for long-lived gravitational-wave transients coincident with long gamma-ray bursts [Cross-Listing]

Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been linked to extreme core-collapse supernovae from massive stars. Gravitational waves (GW) offer a probe of the physics behind long GRBs. We investigate models of long-lived (~10-1000s) GW emission associated with the accretion disk of a collapsed star or with its protoneutron star remnant. Using data from LIGO’s fifth science run, and GRB triggers from the swift experiment, we perform a search for unmodeled long-lived GW transients. Finding no evidence of GW emission, we place 90% confidence level upper limits on the GW fluence at Earth from long GRBs for three waveforms inspired by a model of GWs from accretion disk instabilities. These limits range from F<3.5 ergs cm^-2 to $F<1200 ergs cm^-2, depending on the GRB and on the model, allowing us to probe optimistic scenarios of GW production out to distances as far as ~33 Mpc. Advanced detectors are expected to achieve strain sensitivities 10x better than initial LIGO, potentially allowing us to probe the engines of the nearest long GRBs.

Numerical simulations of composite supernova remnants for small $\sigma$ pulsar wind nebulae

Composite supernova remnants consist of a pulsar wind nebula located inside a shell-type remnant. The presence of a shell has implications on the evolution of the nebula, although the converse is generally not true. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to determine the effect of the pulsar’s initial luminosity and spin-down rate, the supernova ejecta mass, and density of the interstellar medium on the evolution of a spherically-symmetric, composite supernova remnant expanding into a homogeneous medium. The second aim is to investigate the evolution of the magnetic field in the pulsar wind nebula when the the composite remnant expands into a non-uniform interstellar medium. The Euler conservation equations for inviscid flow, together with the magnetohydrodynamic induction law in the kinematic limit, are solved numerically for a number of scenarios where the ratio of magnetic to particle energy is $\sigma < 0.01$. The simulations in the first part of the paper is solved in a one-dimensional configuration. In the second part of the paper, the effect of an inhomogeneous medium on the evolution is studied using a two-dimensional, axis-symmetric configuration.

Order and chaos in hydrodynamic BL Her models

Many dynamical systems of different complexity, e.g. 1D logistic map, the Lorentz equations, or real phenomena, like turbulent convection, show chaotic behaviour. Despite huge differences, the dynamical scenarios for these systems are strikingly similar: chaotic bands are born through the series of period doubling bifurcations and merge through interior crises. Within chaotic bands periodic windows are born through the tangent bifurcations, preceded by the intermittent behaviour. This is a universal behaviour of dynamical systems (Feigenbaum 1983). We demonstrate such behaviour in models of pulsating stars.

Scale-free primordial cosmology

The large-scale structure of the universe suggests that the physics underlying its early evolution is scale-free. This was the historic motivation for the Harrison-Zel’dovich-Peebles spectrum and for inflation. Based on a hydrodynamical approach, we identify scale-free forms for the background equation-of-state for both inflationary and cyclic scenarios and use these forms to derive predictions for the spectral tilt and tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial density perturbations. For the case of inflation, we find three classes of scale-free models with distinct predictions. Including all classes, we show that scale-free inflation predicts tensor-to-scalar ratio $r > 10^{-4}$. We show that the observationally favored class is theoretically disfavored because it suffers from an initial conditions problem and the hydrodynamical form of an unlikeliness problem similar to that identified recently for certain inflaton potentials. We contrast these results with those for scale-free cyclic models.

Long-term polarization observations of Mira variable stars suggest asymmetric structures

Mira and semi-regular variable stars have been studied for centuries but continue to be enigmatic. One unsolved mystery is the presence of polarization from these stars. In particular, we present 40 years of polarization measurements for the prototype o Ceti and V CVn and find very different phenomena for each star. The polarization fraction and position angle for Mira is found to be small and highly variable. On the other hand, the polarization fraction for V CVn is large and variable, from 2 – 7 %, and its position angle is approximately constant, suggesting a long-term asymmetric structure. We suggest a number of potential scenarios to explain these observations.

Searches for axions with the EDELWEISS experiment [Cross-Listing]

The EDELWEISS experiment primarily aims at the direct detection of WIMPs using germanium bolometers. It is also sensitive to the low-energy electron recoils that would be induced by axions. We present new constraints on the couplings of axions using data from the EDELWEISS-II experiment. Using a total exposure of up to 448~kg.d, we searched for axion-induced electron recoils down to 2.5~keV within four scenarios involving different hypotheses on the origin and couplings of axions. We set a 95~\% CL limit on the coupling to photons $g_{A\gamma}<2.15\times 10^{-9}$~GeV$^{-1}$ in a mass range not fully covered by axion helioscopes. We constrain the coupling to electrons, $g_{Ae} < 2.59\times 10^{-11}$, similar to the more indirect solar neutrino bound. Finally we place a limit on $g_{Ae}\times g_{AN}^{\rm eff}<4.82 \times 10^{-17}$, where $g_{AN}^{\rm eff}$ is the effective axion-nucleon coupling for $^{57}$Fe. Combining these results we fully exclude the mass range $0.91\,{\rm eV}<m_A<80$~keV for DFSZ axions and $5.73\,{\rm eV}<m_A<40$~keV for KSVZ axions.

Emitting Electron Spectra and Acceleration Processes in the Jet of PKS 0447-439

We investigate the electron energy distributions (EEDs) and the corresponding acceleration processes in the jet of PKS 0447$-$439 and estimate its redshift through modeling its observed spectral energy distribution (SED) in the frame of a one-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) model. Three EEDs formed in different acceleration scenarios are assumed: the power-law with exponential cut-off (PLC) EED (shock-acceleration scenario or the case of the EED approaching equilibrium in the stochastic-acceleration scenario), the log-parabolic (LP) EED (stochastic-acceleration scenario and the acceleration dominating) and the broken power law (BPL) EED (no acceleration scenario), and then the corresponding fluxes of both synchrotron and SSC are calculated. The model is applied to PKS 0447-439 and modeling SEDs are compared to the observed SED of this object by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Calculating results show that PLC model fails to fit the observed SED well, while the LP and BPL models give comparably good fits for the observed SED. The results indicate that it is possible that stochastic acceleration process acts in the emitting region of PKS 0447-439 and the EED is far from equilibrium (acceleration dominating) or no acceleration process works (in the emitting region). The redshift of PKS 0447-439 is also estimated in our fitting, and $z=0.16\pm0.05$ for LP case and $z=0.17\pm0.04$ for BPL case.

Probing the origin of the iron K_alpha line around stellar and supermassive black holes using X-ray polarimetry

Asymmetric, broad iron lines are a common feature in the X-ray spectra of both X-ray binaries (XRBs) and type-1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It was suggested that the distortion of the Fe K_alpha emission results from Doppler and relativistic effects affecting the radiative transfer close to the strong gravitational well of the central compact object: a stellar mass black hole (BH) or neutron star (NS) in the case of XRBs, or a super massive black hole (SMBH) in the case of AGN. However, alternative approaches based on reprocessing and transmission of radiation through surrounding media also attempt to explain the line broadening. So far, spectroscopic and timing analyzes have not yet convinced the whole community to discriminate between the two scenarios. Here we study to which extent X-ray polarimetric measurements of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) and type-1 AGN could help to identify the possible origin of the line distortion. To do so, we report on recent simulations obtained for the two BH flavors and show that the proposed scenarios are found to behave differently in polarization degree and polarization angle. A relativistic origin for the distortion is found to be more probable in the context of BHXRBs, supporting the idea that the same mechanism should lead the way also for AGN. We show that the discriminating polarization signal could have been detectable by several X-ray polarimetry missions proposed in the past.

Qatar-1: indications for possible transit timing variations

Variations in the timing of transiting exoplanets provide a powerful tool detecting additional planets in the system. Thus, the aim of this paper is to discuss the plausibility of transit timing variations on the Qatar-1 system by means of primary transit light curves analysis. Furthermore, we provide an interpretation of the timing variation. We observed Qatar-1 between March 2011 and October 2012 using the 1.2 m OLT telescope in Germany and the 0.6 m PTST telescope in Spain. We present 26 primary transits of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b. In total, our light curves cover a baseline of 18 months. We report on indications for possible long-term transit timing variations (TTVs). Assuming that these TTVs are true, we present two different scenarios that could explain them. Our reported $\sim$ 190 days TTV signal can be reproduced by either a weak perturber in resonance with Qatar-1b, or by a massive body in the brown dwarf regime. More observations and radial velocity monitoring are required to better constrain the perturber’s characteristics. We also refine the ephemeris of Qatar-1b, which we find to be \mbox{$T_0 = 2456157.42204 \pm 0.0001$ \bjdtdb} and \mbox{$P = 1.4200246 \pm 0.0000007$ days}, and improve the system orbital parameters.

Noiseless Gravitational Lensing Simulations

The microphysical properties of the DM particle can, in principle, be constrained by the properties and abundance of substructures in DM halos, as measured through strong gravitational lensing. Unfortunately, there is a lack of accurate theoretical predictions for the lensing signal of substructures, mainly because of the discreteness noise inherent to N-body simulations. Here we present Recursive-TCM, a method that is able to provide lensing predictions with an arbitrarily low discreteness noise, without any free parameters or smoothing scale. This solution is based on a novel way of interpreting the results of N-body simulations, where particles simply trace the evolution and distortion of Lagrangian phase-space volume elements. We discuss the advantages of this method over the widely used cloud-in-cells and adaptive-kernel smoothing density estimators. Applying the new method to a cluster-sized DM halo simulated in warm and cold DM scenarios, we show how the expected differences in their substructure population translate into differences in the convergence and magnification maps. We anticipate that our method will provide the high-precision theoretical predictions required to interpret and fully exploit strong gravitational lensing observations.

Noiseless Gravitational Lensing Simulations [Replacement]

The microphysical properties of the DM particle can, in principle, be constrained by the properties and abundance of substructures in DM halos, as measured through strong gravitational lensing. Unfortunately, there is a lack of accurate theoretical predictions for the lensing signal of substructures, mainly because of the discreteness noise inherent to N-body simulations. Here we present Recursive-TCM, a method that is able to provide lensing predictions with an arbitrarily low discreteness noise, without any free parameters or smoothing scale. This solution is based on a novel way of interpreting the results of N-body simulations, where particles simply trace the evolution and distortion of Lagrangian phase-space volume elements. We discuss the advantages of this method over the widely used cloud-in-cells and adaptive-kernel smoothing density estimators. Applying the new method to a cluster-sized DM halo simulated in warm and cold DM scenarios, we show how the expected differences in their substructure population translate into differences in the convergence and magnification maps. We anticipate that our method will provide the high-precision theoretical predictions required to interpret and fully exploit strong gravitational lensing observations.

Kepler White Paper: Asteroseismology of Solar-Like Oscillators in a 2-Wheel Mission

We comment on the potential for continuing asteroseismology of solar-type and red-giant stars in a 2-wheel Kepler Mission. Our main conclusion is that by targeting stars in the ecliptic it should be possible to perform high-quality asteroseismology, as long as favorable scenarios for 2-wheel pointing performance are met. Targeting the ecliptic would potentially facilitate unique science that was not possible in the nominal Mission, notably from the study of clusters that are significantly brighter than those in the Kepler field. Our conclusions are based on predictions of 2-wheel observations made by a space photometry simulator, with information provided by the Kepler Project used as input to describe the degraded pointing scenarios. We find that elevated levels of frequency-dependent noise, consistent with the above scenarios, would have a significant negative impact on our ability to continue asteroseismic studies of solar-like oscillators in the Kepler field. However, the situation may be much more optimistic for observations in the ecliptic, provided that pointing resets of the spacecraft during regular desaturations of the two functioning reaction wheels are accurate at the < 1 arcsec level. This would make it possible to apply a post-hoc analysis that would recover most of the lost photometric precision. Without this post-hoc correction—and the accurate re-pointing it requires—the performance would probably be as poor as in the Kepler-field case. Critical to our conclusions for both fields is the assumed level of pointing noise (in the short-term jitter and the longer-term drift). We suggest that further tests will be needed to clarify our results once more detail and data on the expected pointing performance becomes available, and we offer our assistance in this work.

Oblique MHD shocks: space-like and time-like

Shock waves constitute discontinuities in matter which are relevant in studying the plasma behaviour in astrophysical scenarios and in heavy-ion collision. They can produce conical emission in relativistic collisions and are also thought to be the mechanism behind the acceleration of energetic particles in active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursts. The shocks are mostly hydrodynamic shocks. In a magnetic background they become magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks. For that reason we study the space-like and time-like shock discontinuity in a magnetic plasma. The shocks induce a phase transition in the plasma, here assuming a transition from hadron to quarks. The MHD conservation conditions are derived across the shock. The conservation conditions are solved for downstream velocities and flow angles for given upstream variables. The shock conditions are solved at different baryon densities. For the space-like shocks the anisotropy in the downstream velocity arises due to the magnetic field. The downstream velocity vector always points downward with respect to the shock normal. With the increase in density the anisotropy is somewhat reduced. The magnetic field has effectively no effect on time-like shocks. The slight anisotropy in the downstream flow velocities is caused by the boosting that brings the quantities from the fluid frame to normal incidence (NI) frame.

Formation and internal structure of superdense dark matter clumps and ultracompact minihaloes

We discuss the formation mechanisms and structure of the superdense dark matter clumps (SDMC) and ultracompact minihaloes (UCMH) and outline the differences between these types of DM objects. We define as SDMC the gravitationally bounded DM objects which have come into virial equilibrium at the radiation-dominated (RD) stage of the universe evolution. Such objects can form from the isocurvature (entropy) density perturbations or from the peaks in the spectrum of curvature (adiabatic) perturbation. The axion miniclusters (Kolb and Tkachev 1994) are the example of the former model. The system of central compact mass (e.g. in the form of SDMC or primordial black hole (PBH)) with the outer DM envelope formed in the process of secondary accretion we refer to as UCMH. Therefore, the SDMC can serve as the seed for the UCMH in some scenarios. Recently, the SDMC and UCMH were considered in the many works, and we try to systematize them here. We consider also the effect of asphericity of the initial density perturbation in the gravitational evolution, which decreases the SDMC amount and, as the result, suppresses the gamma-ray signal from DM annihilation.

 

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