Posts Tagged scenarios

Recent Postings from scenarios

Two-body charmed B(Bs) decays involving a light scalar meson

Based on the assumption of two-quark structure for the light scalar mesons, within the framework of perturbative QCD approach, we investigate the $B_{q}\to D_{(s)}^{(*)} S(q=u,d,s)$ decays induced by $b\to u $ transition, where $S$ denotes a light scalar meson. Under two different scenarios, we calculate the branching ratios of 96 decay modes totally, which are in the range of $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-8}$. The comparison between our predictions and the experimental data will allow us to probe the inner structure of the scalar mesons. In the standard model, since all decays can only occur through tree operators, there are no $CP$ asymmetries. From our calculations, it has been shown that the annihilation type diagrams, especially the nonfactorizable annihilation diagrams, play important roles in the decay amplitudes, especially for these color-suppressed and pure annihilation type decay modes. We also find that the branching ratios of color-allowed type decays are sensitive to the different scenarios, so the measurements of them will be ideal places to differentiate the different scenarios. It can be found that the ratios between $Br(B^0\to D^{(*)0}\sigma)$ and $Br(B^0\to D^{(*)0}f_0)$, and between $Br(B^+\to D^{(*)+}\sigma)$ and $Br(B^{+}\to D^{(*)+}f_0)$ can be used to determine the mixing angle of $\sigma$ and $f_0$.

Dark matter in GUT inspired $Z^\prime$ portal scenarios

We consider simple dark matter extensions of the standard model in $Z^\prime$ portal scenarios inspired by grand unification theory constructions and we study the phenomenology of such models by considering Spin Dependent and Spin Independent direct detection constraints, confronting the canonical thermally produced dark matter scenario and we show that in this simple framework the combination and the complementary of these constraints is a powerful tool to derive stringent bounds and to reduce the viable parameter space of the model.

Palatable Leptoquark Scenarios for Lepton Flavor Violation in Exclusive $b\to s\ell_1\ell_2$ modes [Replacement]

We examine various scenarios that involve a light ${\cal O}(1 TeV)$ leptoquark state and select those which are compatible with the current experimental values for $\mathcal{B}(B_s\to \mu\mu)$, $\mathcal{B}(B\to K\mu\mu)_{\mathrm{large}-q^2}$, $R_K=\mathcal{B^\prime}(B\to K\mu\mu)/\mathcal{B^\prime}(B\to Kee)$, and which lead to predictions consistent with other experimental data. We show that two such scenarios are phenomenologically plausible, namely the one with a doublet of scalar leptoquarks of hypercharge $1/6$, and the one with a triplet of vector leptoquarks of hypercharge $2/3$. We also argue that a model with a singlet scalar leptoquark of hypercharge $1/3$ is not viable. Using the present experimental data as constraints, it is shown that the exclusive lepton flavor violating decays, $\mathcal{B}(B_s\to \mu\tau)$, $\mathcal{B}(B\to K \mu\tau)$ and $\mathcal{B}(B\to K^\ast \mu\tau)$, can be as large as $\mathcal{O}(10^{-5})$.

Palatable Leptoquark Scenarios for Lepton Flavor Violation in Exclusive $b\to s\ell_1\ell_2$ modes [Replacement]

We examine various scenarios that involve a light ${\cal O}(1 TeV)$ leptoquark state and select those which are compatible with the current experimental values for $\mathcal{B}(B_s\to \mu\mu)$, $\mathcal{B}(B\to K\mu\mu)_{\mathrm{large}-q^2}$, $R_K=\mathcal{B^\prime}(B\to K\mu\mu)/\mathcal{B^\prime}(B\to Kee)$, and which lead to predictions consistent with other experimental data. We show that two such scenarios are phenomenologically plausible, namely the one with a doublet of scalar leptoquarks of hypercharge $1/6$, and the one with a triplet of vector leptoquarks of hypercharge $2/3$. We also argue that a model with a singlet scalar leptoquark of hypercharge $1/3$ is not viable. Using the present experimental data as constraints, it is shown that the exclusive lepton flavor violating decays, $\mathcal{B}(B_s\to \mu\tau)$, $\mathcal{B}(B\to K \mu\tau)$ and $\mathcal{B}(B\to K^\ast \mu\tau)$, can be as large as $\mathcal{O}(10^{-5})$.

Statistical Cosmological Fermion Systems With Interparticle Fantom Scalar Interaction

The article represents a research of the cosmological evolution of fermion statistical systems with fantom scalar interaction where "kinetic" term's contribution to the total energy of a scalar field is negative. As a result of analytical and numerical simulation of such systems it has been revealed a existence of four possible scenarios depending on parameters of the system and initial conditions. Among these scenarios there are scenarios with an early, intermediate and late non-relativistic stages of the cosmological evolution, all of which also have necessary inflation stage.

Sparticles in Motion - getting to the line in compressed scenarios with the Recursive Jigsaw Reconstruction

The observation of light super-partners from a supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model is an intensely sought-after experimental outcome, providing an explanation for the stabilization of the electroweak scale and indicating the existence of new particles which could be consistent with dark matter phenomenology. For compressed scenarios, where sparticle spectra mass-splittings are small and decay products carry low momenta, dedicated techniques are required in all searches for supersymmetry. In this paper we suggest an approach for these analyses based on the concept of Recursive Jigsaw Reconstruction, decomposing each event into a basis of complementary observables, for cases where strong initial state radiation has sufficient transverse momentum to elicit the recoil of any final state sparticles. We introduce a collection of kinematic observables which can be used to probe compressed scenarios, in particular exploiting the correlation between missing momentum and that of radiative jets. As an example, we study squark and gluino production, focusing on mass-splittings between parent super-particles and their lightest decay products between 25 and 200 GeV, in hadronic final states where there is an ambiguity in the provenance of reconstructed jets.

Phenomenology of SU(5) low-energy realizations: the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation

We discuss different $\rm SU(5)$ low-energy realizations and illustrate their use with the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation, which require new physics at the TeV scale. In particular, we study two scenarios for a $750$ GeV resonance: in the first one the resonance belongs to the adjoint of $\rm SU(5)$, being either an $\rm SU(2)_L$ singlet or a triplet, while in the second case the signal is due to the CP-even and CP-odd states of a new $\rm SU(2)_L$ Higgs doublet belonging to a ${\bf 45}_H$ or a ${\bf 70}_H$ representations, giving rise to a two-Higgs doublet model at low energies. We study the fine-tuning needed for the desired members of the multiplets to be light enough, while having the rest at the GUT scale. In these scenarios, the production and decay into photons of the new resonance are mediated by the leptoquarks (LQ) present in these large $\rm SU(5)$ representations. We analyse the phenomenology of such scenarios, focusing on the most relevant predictions that can help to disentangle the different models, like decays into gauge bosons, Standard Model (SM) fermions and LQs pair production. In the case of the ${\bf 45}_H$ (the Georgi-Jarlskog model), we also study the possibility to have Higgs flavor violation. We find that $B_s$ mixing limits (in addition to $\tau\rightarrow \mu \gamma$) always imply that $\rm{BR}(h\rightarrow \tau\mu,\,bs)\lesssim 10^{-5}$.

Phenomenology of SU(5) low-energy realizations: the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation [Replacement]

We discuss different $\rm SU(5)$ low-energy realizations and illustrate their use with the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation, which require new physics at the TeV scale. In particular, we study two scenarios for a $750$ GeV resonance: in the first one the resonance belongs to the adjoint of $\rm SU(5)$, being either an $\rm SU(2)_L$ singlet or a triplet, while in the second case the signal is due to the CP-even and CP-odd states of a new $\rm SU(2)_L$ Higgs doublet belonging to a ${\bf 45}_H$ or a ${\bf 70}_H$ representations, giving rise to a two-Higgs doublet model at low energies. We study the fine-tuning needed for the desired members of the multiplets to be light enough, while having the rest at the GUT scale. In these scenarios, the production and decay into photons of the new resonance are mediated by the leptoquarks (LQ) present in these large $\rm SU(5)$ representations. We analyse the phenomenology of such scenarios, focusing on the most relevant predictions that can help to disentangle the different models, like decays into gauge bosons, Standard Model (SM) fermions and LQs pair production. In the case of the ${\bf 45}_H$ (the Georgi-Jarlskog model), we also study the possibility to have Higgs flavor violation. We find that $B_s$ mixing limits (in addition to $\tau\rightarrow \mu \gamma$) always imply that $\rm{BR}(h\rightarrow \tau\mu,\,bs)\lesssim 10^{-5}$.

Radiative accidental matter

Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\mu\to e \gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\,$ GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable $\tau\to \mu \gamma$ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton-flavor violating experiments.

Radiative accidental matter [Replacement]

Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\mu\to e \gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6$ GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable $\tau\to \mu \gamma$ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton-flavor violating experiments.

Naturalness of MSSM dark matter

There exists a vast literature examining the electroweak (EW) fine-tuning problem in supersymmetric scenarios, but little concerned with the dark matter (DM) one, which should be combined with the former. In this paper, we study this problem in an, as much as possible, exhaustive and rigorous way. We have considered the MSSM framework, assuming that the LSP is the lightest neutralino, $\chi_1^0$, and exploring the various possibilities for the mass and composition of $\chi_1^0$, as well as different mechanisms for annihilation of the DM particles in the early Universe (well-tempered neutralinos, funnels and co-annihilation scenarios). We also present a discussion about the statistical meaning of the fine-tuning and how it should be computed for the DM abundance, and combined with the EW fine-tuning. The results are very robust and model-independent and favour some scenarios (like the h-funnel when $M_{\chi_1^0}$ is not too close to $m_h/2$) with respect to others (such as the pure wino case). These features should be taken into account when one explores "natural SUSY" scenarios and their possible signatures at the LHC and in DM detection experiments.

Naturalness of MSSM dark matter [Replacement]

There exists a vast literature examining the electroweak (EW) fine-tuning problem in supersymmetric scenarios, but little concerned with the dark matter (DM) one, which should be combined with the former. In this paper, we study this problem in an, as much as possible, exhaustive and rigorous way. We have considered the MSSM framework, assuming that the LSP is the lightest neutralino, $\chi_1^0$, and exploring the various possibilities for the mass and composition of $\chi_1^0$, as well as different mechanisms for annihilation of the DM particles in the early Universe (well-tempered neutralinos, funnels and co-annihilation scenarios). We also present a discussion about the statistical meaning of the fine-tuning and how it should be computed for the DM abundance, and combined with the EW fine-tuning. The results are very robust and model-independent and favour some scenarios (like the h-funnel when $M_{\chi_1^0}$ is not too close to $m_h/2$) with respect to others (such as the pure wino case). These features should be taken into account when one explores "natural SUSY" scenarios and their possible signatures at the LHC and in DM detection experiments.

Observational constraints and differential diagnosis for cosmic evolutionary models [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we have proposed a plotting method based on the " natural plotting rule " (NPR) which can be used to distinguish different cosmological scenarios more efficiently and obtain more useful information. By using the NPR, we have avoided the blindness to use different diagnostics when discovering that some scenarios can be hardly differentiated from each other, and develop a logical line to adopt different diagnostics. As a concrete instance, we take this method based on the NPR to distinguish several Cardassian scenarios from the base cosmology scenario, and one from the other. We place constraints on three Cardassian cosmological scenarios and their flat versions by utilizing the Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, observational Hubble parameter (OHD) data-sets as well as the single data point from the newest event GW150914, and discover that our results are more stringent than previous results for constraining the cosmological parameters of the Cardassian scenarios. We find that the flat original Cardassian (FOC) and original Cardassian (OC) scenarios can only be distinguished in the plane of $\{\Omega_m,S_3^{(1)}\}$ at the present epoch, however, if applying the NPR to plot hierarchically for these Cardassian scenarios in the plane of $\{S_3^{(1)},S_4^{(1)}\}$, we can obtain more detailed information and distinguish the two scenarios better than before. More importantly, from the planes of $\{S_4,S_4^{(2)}\}$, $\{S_5^{(1)},S_5^{(2)}\}$, $\{S_3^{(2)},S_4^{(2)}\}$, $\{\Omega_m,S_3^{(1)}\}$,$\{z,\omega\}$ $\{\epsilon(z),S_3^{(1)}\}$ and $\{z,Om\}$, we dsicover that the flat modified polytropic Cardassian (FMPC) scenario can be directly removed from the possible candidates of dark energy phenomenon, since its evolutional behavior deviates from the base cosmology scenario too much.

Observational constraints and differential diagnosis for cosmic evolutionary models

In this paper, we have proposed a plotting method based on the " natural plotting rule " (NPR) which can be used to distinguish different cosmological scenarios more efficiently and obtain more useful information. By using the NPR, we have avoided the blindness to use different diagnostics when discovering that some scenarios can be hardly differentiated from each other, and develop a logical line to adopt different diagnostics. As a concrete instance, we take this method based on the NPR to distinguish several Cardassian scenarios from the base cosmology scenario, and one from the other. We place constraints on three Cardassian cosmological scenarios and their flat versions by utilizing the Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, observational Hubble parameter (OHD) data-sets as well as the single data point from the newest event GW150914, and discover that our results are more stringent than previous results for constraining the cosmological parameters of the Cardassian scenarios. We find that the flat original Cardassian (FOC) and original Cardassian (OC) scenarios can only be distinguished in the plane of $\{\Omega_m,S_3^{(1)}\}$ at the present epoch, however, if applying the NPR to plot hierarchically for these Cardassian scenarios in the plane of $\{S_3^{(1)},S_4^{(1)}\}$, we can obtain more detailed information and distinguish the two scenarios better than before. More importantly, from the planes of $\{S_4,S_4^{(2)}\}$, $\{S_5^{(1)},S_5^{(2)}\}$, $\{S_3^{(2)},S_4^{(2)}\}$, $\{\Omega_m,S_3^{(1)}\}$,$\{z,\omega\}$ $\{\epsilon(z),S_3^{(1)}\}$ and $\{z,Om\}$, we dsicover that the flat modified polytropic Cardassian (FMPC) scenario can be directly removed from the possible candidates of dark energy phenomenon, since its evolutional behavior deviates from the base cosmology scenario too much.

Observational constraints and differential diagnosis for cosmic evolutionary models [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we have proposed a plotting method based on the " natural plotting rule " (NPR) which can be used to distinguish different cosmological scenarios more efficiently and obtain more useful information. By using the NPR, we have avoided the blindness to use different diagnostics when discovering that some scenarios can be hardly differentiated from each other, and develop a logical line to adopt different diagnostics. As a concrete instance, we take this method based on the NPR to distinguish several Cardassian scenarios from the base cosmology scenario, and one from the other. We place constraints on three Cardassian cosmological scenarios and their flat versions by utilizing the Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, observational Hubble parameter (OHD) data-sets as well as the single data point from the newest event GW150914, and discover that our results are more stringent than previous results for constraining the cosmological parameters of the Cardassian scenarios. We find that the flat original Cardassian (FOC) and original Cardassian (OC) scenarios can only be distinguished in the plane of $\{\Omega_m,S_3^{(1)}\}$ at the present epoch, however, if applying the NPR to plot hierarchically for these Cardassian scenarios in the plane of $\{S_3^{(1)},S_4^{(1)}\}$, we can obtain more detailed information and distinguish the two scenarios better than before. More importantly, from the planes of $\{S_4,S_4^{(2)}\}$, $\{S_5^{(1)},S_5^{(2)}\}$, $\{S_3^{(2)},S_4^{(2)}\}$, $\{\Omega_m,S_3^{(1)}\}$,$\{z,\omega\}$ $\{\epsilon(z),S_3^{(1)}\}$ and $\{z,Om\}$, we dsicover that the flat modified polytropic Cardassian (FMPC) scenario can be directly removed from the possible candidates of dark energy phenomenon, since its evolutional behavior deviates from the base cosmology scenario too much.

Characterising the 750 GeV diphoton excess

We study kinematic distributions that may help characterise the recently observed excess in diphoton events at 750 GeV at the LHC Run 2. Several scenarios are considered, including spin-0 and spin-2 750 GeV resonances that decay directly into photon pairs as well as heavier parent resonances that undergo three-body or cascade decays. We find that combinations of the distributions of the diphoton system and the leading photon can distinguish the topology and mass spectra of the different scenarios, while patterns of QCD radiation can help differentiate the production mechanisms. Moreover, missing energy is a powerful discriminator for the heavy parent scenarios if they involve (effectively) invisible particles. While our study concentrates on the current excess at 750 GeV, the analysis is general and can also be useful for characterising other potential diphoton signals in the future.

Characterising the 750 GeV diphoton excess [Cross-Listing]

We study kinematic distributions that may help characterise the recently observed excess in diphoton events at 750 GeV at the LHC Run 2. Several scenarios are considered, including spin-0 and spin-2 750 GeV resonances that decay directly into photon pairs as well as heavier parent resonances that undergo three-body or cascade decays. We find that combinations of the distributions of the diphoton system and the leading photon can distinguish the topology and mass spectra of the different scenarios, while patterns of QCD radiation can help differentiate the production mechanisms. Moreover, missing energy is a powerful discriminator for the heavy parent scenarios if they involve (effectively) invisible particles. While our study concentrates on the current excess at 750 GeV, the analysis is general and can also be useful for characterising other potential diphoton signals in the future.

Characterising the 750 GeV diphoton excess [Replacement]

We study kinematic distributions that may help characterise the recently observed excess in diphoton events at 750 GeV at the LHC Run 2. Several scenarios are considered, including spin-0 and spin-2 750 GeV resonances that decay directly into photon pairs as well as heavier parent resonances that undergo three-body or cascade decays. We find that combinations of the distributions of the diphoton system and the leading photon can distinguish the topology and mass spectra of the different scenarios, while patterns of QCD radiation can help differentiate the production mechanisms. Moreover, missing energy is a powerful discriminator for the heavy parent scenarios if they involve (effectively) invisible particles. While our study concentrates on the current excess at 750 GeV, the analysis is general and can also be useful for characterising other potential diphoton signals in the future.

Characterising the 750 GeV diphoton excess [Replacement]

We study kinematic distributions that may help characterise the recently observed excess in diphoton events at 750 GeV at the LHC Run 2. Several scenarios are considered, including spin-0 and spin-2 750 GeV resonances that decay directly into photon pairs as well as heavier parent resonances that undergo three-body or cascade decays. We find that combinations of the distributions of the diphoton system and the leading photon can distinguish the topology and mass spectra of the different scenarios, while patterns of QCD radiation can help differentiate the production mechanisms. Moreover, missing energy is a powerful discriminator for the heavy parent scenarios if they involve (effectively) invisible particles. While our study concentrates on the current excess at 750 GeV, the analysis is general and can also be useful for characterising other potential diphoton signals in the future.

LHC Benchmark Scenarios for the Real Higgs Singlet Extension of the Standard Model [Replacement]

We present benchmark scenarios for searches for an additional Higgs state in the real Higgs singlet extension of the Standard Model in Run 2 of the LHC. The scenarios are selected such that they fulfill all relevant current theoretical and experimental constraints, but can potentially be discovered at the current LHC run. We take into account the results presented in earlier work and update the experimental constraints from relevant LHC Higgs searches and signal rate measurements. The benchmark scenarios are given separately for the low mass and high mass region, i.e. the mass range where the additional Higgs state is lighter or heavier than the discovered Higgs state at around 125 GeV. They have also been presented in the framework of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group.

LHC Benchmark Scenarios for the Real Higgs Singlet Extension of the Standard Model [Cross-Listing]

We present benchmark scenarios for searches for an additional Higgs state in the real Higgs singlet extension of the Standard Model in Run 2 of the LHC. The scenarios are selected such that they fulfill all relevant current theoretical and experimental constraints, but can potentially be discovered at the current LHC run. We take into account the results presented in earlier work and update the experimental constraints from relevant LHC Higgs searches and signal rate measurements. The benchmark scenarios are given separately for the low mass and high mass region, i.e. the mass range where the additional Higgs state is lighter or heavier than the discovered Higgs state at around 125 GeV. They have also been presented in the framework of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group.

LHC Benchmark Scenarios for the Real Higgs Singlet Extension of the Standard Model

We present benchmark scenarios for searches for an additional Higgs state in the real Higgs singlet extension of the Standard Model in Run 2 of the LHC. The scenarios are selected such that they fulfill all relevant current theoretical and experimental constraints, but can potentially be discovered at the current LHC run. We take into account the results presented in earlier work and update the experimental constraints from relevant LHC Higgs searches and signal rate measurements. The benchmark scenarios are given separately for the low mass and high mass region, i.e. the mass range where the additional Higgs state is lighter or heavier than the discovered Higgs state at around 125 GeV. They have also been presented in the framework of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group.

LHC Benchmark Scenarios for the Real Higgs Singlet Extension of the Standard Model [Replacement]

We present benchmark scenarios for searches for an additional Higgs state in the real Higgs singlet extension of the Standard Model in Run 2 of the LHC. The scenarios are selected such that they fulfill all relevant current theoretical and experimental constraints, but can potentially be discovered at the current LHC run. We take into account the results presented in earlier work and update the experimental constraints from relevant LHC Higgs searches and signal rate measurements. The benchmark scenarios are given separately for the low mass and high mass region, i.e. the mass range where the additional Higgs state is lighter or heavier than the discovered Higgs state at around 125 GeV. They have also been presented in the framework of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group.

How plausible are the proposed formation scenarios of CEMP-r/s stars?

CEMP-$r/s$ stars are metal-poor stars with enhanced abundances of carbon and heavy elements associated with the slow ($s$-) and rapid ($r$-) neutron-capture process. It is believed that carbon and $s$-elements were accreted from the wind of an AGB primary star, a scenario that is generally accepted to explain the formation of CEMP stars that are only enhanced in $s$-elements (CEMP-$s$ stars). The origin of $r$-element-enrichment in CEMP-$r/s$ stars is debated and many formation scenarios have been put forward. We aim to determine the likelihood of the scenarios proposed to explain the formation of CEMP-$r/s$ stars. We calculate the frequency of CEMP-$r/s$ stars among CEMP-$s$ stars for a variety of scenarios, and we compare it with that determined from an observed sample of CEMP-$r/s$ stars collected from the literature. The theoretical frequency of CEMP-$r/s$ stars predicted in most scenarios underestimates the observed ratio by at least a factor of 5. If the enrichments in $s$- and $r$-elements are independent, the model ratio of CEMP-$r/s$ to CEMP-$s$ stars is about 22%, that is approximately consistent with the lowest estimate of the observed ratio. However, this model predicts that about one third of all carbon-normal stars have [Ba/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] higher than 1, and that 40% of all CEMP stars have [Ba/Eu]$\le0$. Stars with these properties are at least ten times rarer in our observed sample. The $intermediate$ or $i$-process, which is supposedly active in some circumstances during the AGB phase, could provide an explanation of the origin of CEMP-$r/s$ stars, similar to that of CEMP-$s$ stars, in the context of wind mass accretion in binary systems. Further calculations of the nucleosynthesis of the $i$-process and of the detailed evolution of late AGB stars are needed to investigate if this scenario predicts a CEMP-$r/s$ star frequency consistent with the observations.

Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Inflation [Replacement]

We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T_{reh} <~ 10^2 MeV can magnetic fields of 10^{-15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Inflation [Replacement]

We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T_{reh} <~ 10^2 MeV can magnetic fields of 10^{-15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Inflation

We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T_{reh} <~ 10^2 MeV can magnetic fields of 10^{-15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T_{reh} <~ 10^2 MeV can magnetic fields of 10^{-15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Inflation [Replacement]

We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T_{reh} <~ 10^2 MeV can magnetic fields of 10^{-15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T_{reh} <~ 10^2 MeV can magnetic fields of 10^{-15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Inflation [Replacement]

We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T_{reh} <~ 10^2 MeV can magnetic fields of 10^{-15} G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples.

The Super-Natural Supersymmetry and Its Classic Example: M-Theory Inspired NMSSM

We briefly review the super-natural supersymmetry (SUSY), which provides a most promising solution to the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning problem. In particular, we address its subtle issues as well. Unlike the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard model (MSSM), the Next to MSSM (NMSSM) can be scale invariant and has no mass parameter in its Lagrangian before SUSY and gauge symmetry breakings. Therefore, the NMSSM is a perfect framework for super-natural SUSY. To give the SUSY breaking soft mass to the singlet, we consider the moduli and dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenarios in M-theory on $S^1/Z_2$. In these scenarios, SUSY is broken by one and only one $F$-term of moduli or dilaton, and the SUSY breaking soft terms can be determined via the K\"ahler potential and superpotential from Calabi-Yau compactification of M-theory on $S^1/Z_2$. Thus, as predicted by super-natural SUSY, the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning measure is of unity order. In the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the right-handed sleptons are relatively light around 1 TeV, stau can be even as light as 580 GeV and degenerate with the lightest neutralino, chargino masses are larger than 1 TeV, the light stop masses are around 2 TeV or larger, the first two-generation squark masses are about 3 TeV or larger, and gluinos are heavier than squarks. In the dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the qualitative picture remain the same but we have heavier spectra as compared to moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario. In addition to it, we have Higgs $H_{2}/A_{1}$-resonance solutions for dark matter (DM). In both scenarios, the minimal value of DM relic density is about 0.2. To obtain the observed DM relic density, we can consider the dilution effect from supercritical string cosmology or introduce the axino as the lightest supersymmetric particle.

The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. V. Constraints on Formation Scenarios

We build on the evidence provided by our Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters (GC) to submit to a crucial test four scenarios currently entertained for the formation of multiple stellar generations in GCs. The observational constraints on multiple generations to be fulfilled are manifold, including GC specificity, ubiquity, variety, predominance, discreteness, supernova avoidance, p-capture processing, helium enrichment and mass budget. We argue that scenarios appealing to supermassive stars, fast rotating massive stars and massive interactive binaries violate in an irreparable fashion two or more among such constraints. Also the scenario appealing to AGB stars as producers of the material for next generation stars encounters severe difficulties, specifically concerning the mass budget problem and the detailed chemical composition of second generation stars. We qualitatively explore ways possibly allowing one to save the AGB scenario, specifically appealing to a possible revision of the cross section of a critical reaction rate destroying sodium, or alternatively by a more extensive exploration of the vast parameter space controlling the evolutionary behavior of AGB stellar models. Still, we cannot ensure success for these efforts and totally new scenarios may have to be invented to understand how GCs formed in the early Universe.

A critical assessment of models for the origin of multiple populations in globular clusters

A number of scenarios have been put forward to explain the origin of the chemical anomalies (and resulting complex colour-magnitude diagrams) observed in globular clusters (GCs), namely the AGB, Fast Rotating Massive Star, Very Massive Star, and Early Disc Accretion scenarios. We compare the predictions of these scenarios with a range of observations (including young massive clusters (YMCs), chemical patterns, and GC population properties) and find that all models are inconsistent with observations. In particular, YMCs do not show evidence for multiple epochs of star-formation and appear to be gas free by an age of ~3 Myr. Also, the chemical patterns displayed in GCs vary from one to the next in such a way that cannot be reproduced by standard nucleosynthetic yields. Finally, we show that the "mass budget problem" for the scenarios cannot be solved by invoking heavy cluster mass loss (i.e. that clusters were 10-100 times more massive at birth) as this solution makes basic predictions about the GC population that are inconsistent with observations. We conclude that none of the proposed scenarios can explain the multiple population phenomenon, hence alternative theories are needed.

Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering [Replacement]

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for $X$, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio $\bar{X}$ = 0.30 $\pm$ 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for $X$ and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80 - 100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for $X$, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio $\bar{X}$ = 0.30 $\pm$ 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for $X$ and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80 - 100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering [Replacement]

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for $X$, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio $\bar{X}$ = 0.30 $\pm$ 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for $X$ and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80 - 100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering [Cross-Listing]

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for $X$, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio $\bar{X}$ = 0.30 $\pm$ 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for $X$ and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80 - 100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering [Replacement]

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for $X$, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio $\bar{X}$ = 0.30 $\pm$ 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for $X$ and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80 - 100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering [Replacement]

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for $X$, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio $\bar{X}$ = 0.30 $\pm$ 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for $X$ and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80 - 100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering [Replacement]

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for $X$, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio $\bar{X}$ = 0.30 $\pm$ 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for $X$ and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80 - 100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

Exploring central opacity and asymptotic scenarios in elastic hadron scattering [Replacement]

In the absence of a global description of the experimental data on elastic and soft diffractive scattering from the first principles of QCD, model-independent analyses may provide useful phenomenological insights for the development of the theory in the soft sector. With that in mind, we present an empirical study on the energy dependence of the ratio $X$ between the elastic and total cross sections; a quantity related to the evolution of the hadronic central opacity. The dataset comprises all the experimental information available on proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV - 8 TeV. Generalizing previous works, we discuss four model-independent analytical parameterizations for $X$, consisting of sigmoid functions composed with elementary functions of the energy and three distinct asymptotic scenarios: either the standard black disk limit or scenarios above or below that limit. Our two main conclusions are the following: (1) although consistent with the experimental data, the black disk does not represent an unique solution; (2) the data reductions favor a semi-transparent scenario, with asymptotic average value for the ratio $\bar{X}$ = 0.30 $\pm$ 0.12. In this case, within the uncertainty, the asymptotic regime may already be reached around 1000 TeV. We present a comparative study of the two scenarios, including predictions for the inelastic channel (diffraction dissociation) and the ratio associated with the total cross-section and the elastic slope. Details on the selection of our empirical ansatz for $X$ and physical aspects related to a change of curvature in this quantity at 80 - 100 GeV, indicating the beginning of a saturation effect, are also presented and discussed.

Modified gravity in three dimensional metric-affine scenarios

We consider metric-affine scenarios where a modified gravitational action is sourced by electrovacuum fields in a three dimensional space-time. Such scenarios are supported by the physics of crystalline structures with microscopic defects and, in particular, those that can be effectively treated as bi-dimensional (like graphene). We first study the case of $f(R)$ theories, finding deviations near the center as compared to the solutions of General Relativity. We then consider Born-Infeld gravity, which has raised a lot of interest in the last few years regarding its applications in astrophysics and cosmology, and show that new features always arise at a finite distance from the center. Several properties of the resulting space-times, in particular in presence of a cosmological constant term, are discussed.

Modified Supersymmetric Dark Sectors

SUSY models with a modified dark sector require constraints to be reinterpreted, which may allow for scenarios with low tuning. A modified dark sector can also change the phenomenology greatly. The addition of the QCD axion to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) solves the strong CP problem and also modifies the dark sector with new dark matter candidates. While SUSY axion phenomenology is usually restricted to searches for the axion itself or searches for the ordinary SUSY particles, this work focuses on scenarios where the axion's superpartner, the axino may be detectable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the decays of neutralinos displaced from the primary vertex. In particular this work focuses on the KSVZ axino. The decay length of neutralinos in this scenario easily fits the ATLAS detector for SUSY spectra expected to be testable at the 14 TeV LHC. This signature of displaced decays to axinos is compared to other well motivated scenarios containing a long lived neutralino which decays inside the detector. These alternative scenarios can in some cases very closely mimic the expected axino signature, and the degree to which they are distinguishable is discussed. The cosmological viability of such a scenario is also considered briefly.

The tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce

Matter bounces are bouncing scenarios wherein the universe contracts as in a matter dominated phase at early times. Such scenarios are known to lead to a scale invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations just as de Sitter inflation does. In this work, we examine if the tensor bi-spectrum can discriminate between the inflationary and the bouncing scenarios. Using the Maldacena formalism, we analytically evaluate the tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. We show that, over scales of cosmological interest, the non-Gaussianity parameter $h_{_{\rm NL}}$ that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bi-spectrum is quite small when compared to the corresponding values in de Sitter inflation. During inflation, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations freeze on super-Hubble scales, a behavior that results in the so-called consistency condition relating the tensor bi-spectrum and the power spectrum in the squeezed limit. In contrast, in the bouncing scenarios, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations grow strongly as one approaches the bounce, which suggests that the consistency condition will not be valid in such situations. We explicitly show that the consistency relation is indeed violated in the matter bounce. We discuss the implications of the results.

The tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce [Cross-Listing]

Matter bounces are bouncing scenarios wherein the universe contracts as in a matter dominated phase at early times. Such scenarios are known to lead to a scale invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations just as de Sitter inflation does. In this work, we examine if the tensor bi-spectrum can discriminate between the inflationary and the bouncing scenarios. Using the Maldacena formalism, we analytically evaluate the tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. We show that, over scales of cosmological interest, the non-Gaussianity parameter $h_{_{\rm NL}}$ that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bi-spectrum is quite small when compared to the corresponding values in de Sitter inflation. During inflation, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations freeze on super-Hubble scales, a behavior that results in the so-called consistency condition relating the tensor bi-spectrum and the power spectrum in the squeezed limit. In contrast, in the bouncing scenarios, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations grow strongly as one approaches the bounce, which suggests that the consistency condition will not be valid in such situations. We explicitly show that the consistency relation is indeed violated in the matter bounce. We discuss the implications of the results.

The tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce [Cross-Listing]

Matter bounces are bouncing scenarios wherein the universe contracts as in a matter dominated phase at early times. Such scenarios are known to lead to a scale invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations just as de Sitter inflation does. In this work, we examine if the tensor bi-spectrum can discriminate between the inflationary and the bouncing scenarios. Using the Maldacena formalism, we analytically evaluate the tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. We show that, over scales of cosmological interest, the non-Gaussianity parameter $h_{_{\rm NL}}$ that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bi-spectrum is quite small when compared to the corresponding values in de Sitter inflation. During inflation, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations freeze on super-Hubble scales, a behavior that results in the so-called consistency condition relating the tensor bi-spectrum and the power spectrum in the squeezed limit. In contrast, in the bouncing scenarios, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations grow strongly as one approaches the bounce, which suggests that the consistency condition will not be valid in such situations. We explicitly show that the consistency relation is indeed violated in the matter bounce. We discuss the implications of the results.

The tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce [Replacement]

Matter bounces are bouncing scenarios wherein the universe contracts as in a matter dominated phase at early times. Such scenarios are known to lead to a scale invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations just as de Sitter inflation does. In this work, we examine if the tensor bi-spectrum can discriminate between the inflationary and the bouncing scenarios. Using the Maldacena formalism, we analytically evaluate the tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. We show that, over scales of cosmological interest, the non-Gaussianity parameter $h_{_{\rm NL}}$ that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bi-spectrum is quite small when compared to the corresponding values in de Sitter inflation. During inflation, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations freeze on super-Hubble scales, a behavior that results in the so-called consistency condition relating the tensor bi-spectrum and the power spectrum in the squeezed limit. In contrast, in the bouncing scenarios, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations grow strongly as one approaches the bounce, which suggests that the consistency condition will not be valid in such situations. We explicitly show that the consistency relation is indeed violated in the matter bounce. We discuss the implications of the results.

The tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce [Replacement]

Matter bounces are bouncing scenarios wherein the universe contracts as in a matter dominated phase at early times. Such scenarios are known to lead to a scale invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations just as de Sitter inflation does. In this work, we examine if the tensor bi-spectrum can discriminate between the inflationary and the bouncing scenarios. Using the Maldacena formalism, we analytically evaluate the tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. We show that, over scales of cosmological interest, the non-Gaussianity parameter $h_{_{\rm NL}}$ that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bi-spectrum is quite small when compared to the corresponding values in de Sitter inflation. During inflation, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations freeze on super-Hubble scales, a behavior that results in the so-called consistency condition relating the tensor bi-spectrum and the power spectrum in the squeezed limit. In contrast, in the bouncing scenarios, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations grow strongly as one approaches the bounce, which suggests that the consistency condition will not be valid in such situations. We explicitly show that the consistency relation is indeed violated in the matter bounce. We discuss the implications of the results.

The tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce [Replacement]

Matter bounces are bouncing scenarios wherein the universe contracts as in a matter dominated phase at early times. Such scenarios are known to lead to a scale invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations just as de Sitter inflation does. In this work, we examine if the tensor bi-spectrum can discriminate between the inflationary and the bouncing scenarios. Using the Maldacena formalism, we analytically evaluate the tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. We show that, over scales of cosmological interest, the non-Gaussianity parameter $h_{_{\rm NL}}$ that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bi-spectrum is quite small when compared to the corresponding values in de Sitter inflation. During inflation, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations freeze on super-Hubble scales, a behavior that results in the so-called consistency condition relating the tensor bi-spectrum and the power spectrum in the squeezed limit. In contrast, in the bouncing scenarios, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations grow strongly as one approaches the bounce, which suggests that the consistency condition will not be valid in such situations. We explicitly show that the consistency relation is indeed violated in the matter bounce. We discuss the implications of the results.

 

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