Posts Tagged scalar field

Recent Postings from scalar field

Searching for an oscillating massive scalar field as a dark matter candidate using atomic hyperfine frequency comparisons

We use six years of accurate hyperfine frequency comparison data of the dual Rubidium and Caesium cold atom fountain FO2 at LNE-SYRTE to search for a massive scalar dark matter candidate. Such a scalar field can induce harmonic variations of the fine structure constant, of the mass of fermions and of the quantum chromodynamic mass scale, which will directly impact the Rubidium/Caesium hyperfine transition frequency ratio. We find no signal consistent with a scalar dark matter candidate but provide improved constraints on the coupling of the putative scalar field to standard matter. Our limits are complementary to previous results that were only sensitive to the fine-structure constant, and improve them by more than an order of magnitude when only a coupling to electromagnetism is assumed.

Searching for an oscillating massive scalar field as a dark matter candidate using atomic hyperfine frequency comparisons [Cross-Listing]

We use six years of accurate hyperfine frequency comparison data of the dual Rubidium and Caesium cold atom fountain FO2 at LNE-SYRTE to search for a massive scalar dark matter candidate. Such a scalar field can induce harmonic variations of the fine structure constant, of the mass of fermions and of the quantum chromodynamic mass scale, which will directly impact the Rubidium/Caesium hyperfine transition frequency ratio. We find no signal consistent with a scalar dark matter candidate but provide improved constraints on the coupling of the putative scalar field to standard matter. Our limits are complementary to previous results that were only sensitive to the fine-structure constant, and improve them by more than an order of magnitude when only a coupling to electromagnetism is assumed.

AdS and Lifshitz Scalar Hairy Black Holes in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

We consider Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity in general dimensions, which is non-minimally coupled to a scalar field, together with a generic scalar potential. By choosing the scalar potential of the type $V(\phi)=2\Lambda_0+\fft 12m^2\phi^2+\gamma_4\phi^4$, we first obtain large classes of scalar hairy black holes with spherical/hyperbolic/planar topologies that are asymptotic to locally anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times. We derive the first law of black hole thermodynamics using Wald formalism. In particular, for one class of the solutions, the scalar hair forms a thermodynamic conjugate with the graviton and nontrivially contributes to the thermodynamical first law. We observe that except for one class of planar black holes, all these solutions are constructed at the critical point of GB gravity where there exists an unique AdS vacua. Actually Lifshitz vacuum is also allowed at the critical point. We then construct many new classes of neutral and charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for a either minimally or non-minimally coupled scalar and derive the thermodynamical first laws. We also obtain new classes of exact dynamical AdS and Lifshitz solutions which describe radiating white holes. The solutions eventually become an AdS or Lifshitz vacua at late retarded times. However, for one class of the solutions the final state is an AdS space-time with a globally naked singularity.

Hot scalar radiation around a cosmic string setting bounds on $\xi$

In this work, by investigating the low temperature behaviour of a scalar field around a cosmic string, and assuming stable thermodynamic equilibrium, it is shown that the coupling parameter of the field with curvature must be restricted to a certain range of values whose bounds are determined by the deficit angle of the associated conical geometry.

Hot scalar radiation around a cosmic string setting bounds on $\xi$ [Cross-Listing]

In this work, by investigating the low temperature behaviour of a scalar field around a cosmic string, and assuming stable thermodynamic equilibrium, it is shown that the coupling parameter of the field with curvature must be restricted to a certain range of values whose bounds are determined by the deficit angle of the associated conical geometry.

A Study of Cosmic Expansion Generated by Non-conservation of Matter in the Framework of Brans-Dicke Theory

The present study, on the expansion of universe, is based on an assumption regarding the possibility of inter-conversion between matter and dark energy, through some interaction of matter with the scalar field in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. The field equations for a spatially flat space-time have been solved using an empirical dependence of scalar field parameter upon the scale factor. To represent the behaviour regarding the non-conservation of matter, a function, expressed in terms of the Hubble parameter, has been empirically incorporated into the field equations. Their solution shows that, this function, whose value is proportional to the matter content of the universe, decreases monotonically with time. This matter-field interaction generates late time acceleration, causing the deceleration parameter to change its sign from positive to negative. Time dependence of the proportion of dark energy component of the universe has been determined and shown graphically. Time variation of gravitational constant and the Brans-Dicke dimensionless parameter has been analyzed in the present study. The rate of generation of dark energy from matter has been found to affect the time variations of deceleration parameter and gravitational constant.

Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production

We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\cal P}^s_T\sim ({\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.

Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\cal P}^s_T\sim ({\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.

Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\cal P}^s_T\sim ({\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.

Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\cal P}^s_T\sim ({\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.

Do massive neutron stars end as invisible dark energy objects?

Astronomical observations reveal a gap in the mass spectrum of relativistic objects: neither black holes nor neutron stars having masses in the range of 2 - 5$\,\MSun$ have ever been observed. Based on the solution of the TOV equation modified to include a universal scalar field $\cal{H},$ we argue that all moderate and massive neutron stars should end invisible dark energy objects (DEOs). Triggered by the $\cal{H}-$baryonic matter interaction, a phase transition from normal compressible nuclear matter into an incompressible quark-superfluid is shown to occur at roughly $3$ times the nuclear density. At the transition front, the scalar field is set to inject energy at the maximum possible rate via a non-local interaction potential $V_\phi = a_0 r^2 + b_0.$ This energy creates a global confining bag, inside which a sea of freely moving quarks is formed in line with the asymptotic freedom of quantum chromodynamics. The transition front, $r_f,$ creeps from inside-to-outside to reach the surface of the object on the scale of Gyrs or even shorter, depending on its initial compactness. Having $r_f$ reached $R_\star,$ then the total injected dark energy via $V_\phi $ turns NSs into invisible DEOs. While this may provide an explanation for the absence of stellar BHs with $M_{BH}\leq 5 \MSun$ and NSs with $M_{NS}\geq 2 \MSun$, it also suggests that DEOs might have hidden connection to dark matter and dark energy in cosmology.

Conserved Charges of Minimal Massive Gravity Coupled to Scalar Field

Recently, the theory of Topologically massive gravity non-minimally coupled to a scalar field has been proposed which comes from Lorentz-Chern-Simons theory \cite{1}. That theory is a torsion free one. We extend that theory by adding an extra term which makes torsion to be non-zero. The extended theory can be regarded as an extension of Minimal massive gravity such that it is non-minimally coupled to a scalar field. We obtain equations of motion of extended theory such that they are expressed in terms of usual torsion free spin-connection. We show that BTZ spacetime is a solution of this theory when scalar field is constant. We define quasi-local conserved charge by the concept of generalized off-shell ADT current which both are conserved for any asymptotically Killing vector field as well as a Killing vector field which is admitted by spacetime everywhere. Also we find general formula for entropy of stationary black hole solution in the context of considered theory. We apply the obtained formulas on BTZ black hole solution, to calculate energy, angular momentum and entropy of this soultion. We obtain the central extension term, the central charges and the eigenvalues of the Virasoro algebra generators for the BTZ black hole solution. We calculate energy and angular momentum of BTZ black hole using the eigenvalues of the Virasoro algebra generators. Also we calculate the entropy of BTZ black hole by using the Cardy formula. We find that obtained results using two different ways are exactly matched as we expected.

Relativistic stars in scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling [Cross-Listing]

We present a general formulation to analyze the structure of slowly rotating relativistic stars in a broad class of scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling to matter. Our approach includes theories with generalized kinetic terms, generic scalar field potentials and contains theories with conformal coupling as particular limits. In order to investigate how the disformal coupling affects the structure of relativistic stars, we propose a minimal model of a massless scalar-tensor theory and investigate in detail how the disformal coupling affects the spontaneous scalarization of slowly rotating neutron stars. We show that for negative values of the disformal coupling parameter between scalar field and matter, scalarization can be suppressed, while for large positive values of the disformal coupling parameter stellar models cannot be obtained. This allows us to put a mild upper bound on this parameter. We also show that these properties can be qualitatively understood by linearizing the scalar field equation of motion in the background of a general relativistic incompressible star. To address the intrinsic degeneracy between uncertainties in the equation of state of neutron stars and gravitational theory, we also show the existence of universal equation of state independent relations between the moment of inertia and compactness of neutron stars in this theory. We show that in a certain range of the theory's parameter space the universal relation largely deviates from that of General Relativity, allowing, in principle, to probe the existence of spontaneous scalarization with future observations.

Relativistic stars in scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling

We present a general formulation to analyze the structure of slowly rotating relativistic stars in a broad class of scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling to matter. Our approach includes theories with generalized kinetic terms, generic scalar field potentials and contains theories with conformal coupling as particular limits. In order to investigate how the disformal coupling affects the structure of relativistic stars, we propose a minimal model of a massless scalar-tensor theory and investigate in detail how the disformal coupling affects the spontaneous scalarization of slowly rotating neutron stars. We show that for negative values of the disformal coupling parameter between scalar field and matter, scalarization can be suppressed, while for large positive values of the disformal coupling parameter stellar models cannot be obtained. This allows us to put a mild upper bound on this parameter. We also show that these properties can be qualitatively understood by linearizing the scalar field equation of motion in the background of a general relativistic incompressible star. To address the intrinsic degeneracy between uncertainties in the equation of state of neutron stars and gravitational theory, we also show the existence of universal equation of state independent relations between the moment of inertia and compactness of neutron stars in this theory. We show that in a certain range of the theory's parameter space the universal relation largely deviates from that of General Relativity, allowing, in principle, to probe the existence of spontaneous scalarization with future observations.

Relativistic stars in scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling [Cross-Listing]

We present a general formulation to analyze the structure of slowly rotating relativistic stars in a broad class of scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling to matter. Our approach includes theories with generalized kinetic terms, generic scalar field potentials and contains theories with conformal coupling as particular limits. In order to investigate how the disformal coupling affects the structure of relativistic stars, we propose a minimal model of a massless scalar-tensor theory and investigate in detail how the disformal coupling affects the spontaneous scalarization of slowly rotating neutron stars. We show that for negative values of the disformal coupling parameter between scalar field and matter, scalarization can be suppressed, while for large positive values of the disformal coupling parameter stellar models cannot be obtained. This allows us to put a mild upper bound on this parameter. We also show that these properties can be qualitatively understood by linearizing the scalar field equation of motion in the background of a general relativistic incompressible star. To address the intrinsic degeneracy between uncertainties in the equation of state of neutron stars and gravitational theory, we also show the existence of universal equation of state independent relations between the moment of inertia and compactness of neutron stars in this theory. We show that in a certain range of the theory's parameter space the universal relation largely deviates from that of General Relativity, allowing, in principle, to probe the existence of spontaneous scalarization with future observations.

Bounce inflation in $f(T)$ Cosmology: A unified inflaton-quintessence field [Cross-Listing]

We investigate a bounce inflation model with a graceful exit into the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) decelerated universe within $f(T)$-gravity framework, where $T$ is the torsion scalar in the teleparallelism. We study the cosmic thermal evolution, the model predicts a super-cold universe during the pre-contraction phase, which is consistent with the requirements of the slow-roll models, while it performs a reheating period by the end of the contraction with a maximum temperature just below the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) temperature. However, it matches the radiation temperature of the hot big bang at later stages. The equation-of-state due to the effective gravitational sector suggests that our universe is self-accelerated by teleparallel gravity. We consider the case of the propagating torsion when a scalar field, called the tlaplon field, serves as torsion potential, the tlaplon model gives a unified description of inflaton and quintessence models in a single model.

Bounce inflation in $f(T)$ Cosmology: A unified inflaton-quintessence field

We investigate a bounce inflation model with a graceful exit into the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) decelerated universe within $f(T)$-gravity framework, where $T$ is the torsion scalar in the teleparallelism. We study the cosmic thermal evolution, the model predicts a super-cold universe during the pre-contraction phase, which is consistent with the requirements of the slow-roll models, while it performs a reheating period by the end of the contraction with a maximum temperature just below the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) temperature. However, it matches the radiation temperature of the hot big bang at later stages. The equation-of-state due to the effective gravitational sector suggests that our universe is self-accelerated by teleparallel gravity. We consider the case of the propagating torsion when a scalar field, called the tlaplon field, serves as torsion potential, the tlaplon model gives a unified description of inflaton and quintessence models in a single model.

Bounce inflation in $f(T)$ Cosmology: A unified inflaton-quintessence field [Cross-Listing]

We investigate a bounce inflation model with a graceful exit into the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) decelerated universe within $f(T)$-gravity framework, where $T$ is the torsion scalar in the teleparallelism. We study the cosmic thermal evolution, the model predicts a super-cold universe during the pre-contraction phase, which is consistent with the requirements of the slow-roll models, while it performs a reheating period by the end of the contraction with a maximum temperature just below the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) temperature. However, it matches the radiation temperature of the hot big bang at later stages. The equation-of-state due to the effective gravitational sector suggests that our universe is self-accelerated by teleparallel gravity. We consider the case of the propagating torsion when a scalar field, called the tlaplon field, serves as torsion potential, the tlaplon model gives a unified description of inflaton and quintessence models in a single model.

Bounce inflation in $f(T)$ Cosmology: A unified inflaton-quintessence field [Cross-Listing]

We investigate a bounce inflation model with a graceful exit into the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) decelerated universe within $f(T)$-gravity framework, where $T$ is the torsion scalar in the teleparallelism. We study the cosmic thermal evolution, the model predicts a super-cold universe during the pre-contraction phase, which is consistent with the requirements of the slow-roll models, while it performs a reheating period by the end of the contraction with a maximum temperature just below the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) temperature. However, it matches the radiation temperature of the hot big bang at later stages. The equation-of-state due to the effective gravitational sector suggests that our universe is self-accelerated by teleparallel gravity. We consider the case of the propagating torsion when a scalar field, called the tlaplon field, serves as torsion potential, the tlaplon model gives a unified description of inflaton and quintessence models in a single model.

Thermodynamics in $f(R,R_{\alpha\beta}R^{\alpha\beta},\phi)$ theory of gravity

First and second laws of black hole thermodynamics are examined at the apparent horizon of FRW spacetime in $f(R,R_{\alpha\beta}R^{\alpha\beta} ,\phi)$ gravity, where $R$, $R_{\alpha\beta}$ and $\phi$ are the Ricci scalar, Ricci invariant and the scalar field respectively. In this modified theory, Friedmann equations are formulated for any spatial curvature. These equations can be presented into the form of first law of thermodynamics $T_{h}d\hat{S}_{h}+ T_{h}d_{i}\hat{S}_{h}+W dV=dE$, where $d_{i}\hat{S}_{h}$ is an extra entropy term because of the non-equilibrium presentation of the equations. The generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) is expressed in an inclusive form where these results can be represented, in GR, $f(R)$ and $f(R, \phi)$ gravities. Finally to check the validity of GSLT, we take some particular models and produce constraints of the parameters.

Fine Structure Constant: Theme With Variations

In this paper, we study the spatial variation of the fine structure constant $\alpha$ due to the presence of a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source. The procedure consists of calculating the solution including the energy eigenvalues of a massive scalar field around that source, considering the weak-field regimen, which yields the gravitational analog of the atomic Bohr levels. From this result, we obtain several values for the effective $\alpha$ by considering some scenarios of semi-classical and quantum gravities. Constraints on the parameters of the involved theories are calculated from astrophysical observations of the white dwarf emission spectra. Such constraints are compared with those ones obtained in the literature.

Fine Structure Constant: Theme With Variations [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we study the spatial variation of the fine structure constant $\alpha$ due to the presence of a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source. The procedure consists of calculating the solution including the energy eigenvalues of a massive scalar field around that source, considering the weak-field regimen, which yields the gravitational analog of the atomic Bohr levels. From this result, we obtain several values for the effective $\alpha$ by considering some scenarios of semi-classical and quantum gravities. Constraints on the parameters of the involved theories are calculated from astrophysical observations of the white dwarf emission spectra. Such constraints are compared with those ones obtained in the literature.

Fine Structure Constant: Theme With Variations [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we study the spatial variation of the fine structure constant $\alpha$ due to the presence of a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source. The procedure consists of calculating the solution including the energy eigenvalues of a massive scalar field around that source, considering the weak-field regimen, which yields the gravitational analog of the atomic Bohr levels. From this result, we obtain several values for the effective $\alpha$ by considering some scenarios of semi-classical and quantum gravities. Constraints on the parameters of the involved theories are calculated from astrophysical observations of the white dwarf emission spectra. Such constraints are compared with those ones obtained in the literature.

Holographic properties in three-dimensional AdS soliton using $AdS_3/CFT_2$

We study the holographic description of a superconductor by the $AdS_{3}/CFT_{2}$ correspondence. The system is constructed with a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field coupled in the (2+1)-dimensional AdS soliton background. With analytical methods, we obtain the exact expression for the critical chemical potential as $\mu_{c} = 1 + \sqrt{1+m^2}$, which has also been generalized to higher dimensions as $\mu_c \thickapprox a + \sqrt{m^2-m_{BF}^2}$ in this work. Around the phase transition points, we find a correspondence between the value of the scalar field at the tip and the scalar operator at infinity. We also arrive at the classical second order phase transition threshold exponent $\beta=\frac{1}{2}$ as the same as the mean field theory near the critical chemical potential. As the condensation becomes heavier, we show surprisingly that superconducting phases exist only in a certain range of the chemical potential, which is very different from higher-dimensional cases. And for the small enough negative scalar mass, the size of the range becomes zero or there is no superconductor.

Mass and angular momentum of black holes in low-energy heterotic string theory

We investigate conserved charges in the low-energy effective field theory describing heterotic string theory. Starting with a general Lagrangian that consists of a metric, a scalar field, a vector gauge field, together with a two-form potential, we derive off-shell Noether potentials of the Lagrangian and generalize the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) formalism to the off-shell level by establishing one-to-one correspondence between the ADT potential and the off-shell Noether potential. It is proved that the off-shell generalized ADT formalism is conformally invariant. Then we apply the formulation to compute mass and angular momentum of the four-dimensional Kerr-Sen black hole and the five-dimensional rotating charged black string in the string frame without a necessity to transform the metrics into the Einstein frame.

Canonical Transformations can Dramatically Simplify Supersymmetry

A useful way to keep track of the SUSY invariance of a theory is by formulating it with a BRST Poisson Bracket. It turns out that there is a crucial subtlety that is hidden in this formulation. When the theory contains a Chiral Multiplet, the relevant BRST Poisson Bracket has a very important Canonical Transformation that leaves it invariant. This Canonical Transformation takes all or part of the Scalar Field $A$ and replaces it with a Zinn Source $J_A$, and also takes the related Zinn Source $\Gamma_A$ and replaces it with an `Antighost' Field $\eta_A$. Naively, this looks like it is just a change of notation. But in fact the interpretation means that one has moved some of the conserved Noether SUSY current from the Field Action, and placed it partly in the Zinn Sources Action, and so the SUSY current in the Field part of the Action is no longer conserved, because the Zinn Sources do not satisfy any equations of motion. They are not quantized, because they are Sources. So it needs to be recognized that SUSY theory is not necessarily bound by the SUSY algebra that is responsible for many of its woes, as well as its successes. SUSY is still present after one of these Canonical Transformations, because the BRST Poisson Bracket still yields zero for the new Action. However, the new Action has different physical consequences, because Quantum Field Theory arises from the Fields, and the Zinns just help us to observe and organize the symmetry. For example, if one does this, it is not necessary to implement spontaneous (or explicit) breaking of SUSY to split Fermion and Boson masses. This paper explains the way this Canonical Transformation was found, and how and why it works.

Cosmological reconstruction and energy bounds in $f(R,R_{\alpha \beta}R^{\alpha\beta},\phi)$ gravity

We discuss the cosmological reconstruction of $f(R,R_{\alpha\beta}R^{\alpha\beta},\phi)$ (where $R$, $R_{\alpha\beta}R^{\alpha\beta}$ and $\phi$ represents the Ricci scalar, Ricci invariant and scalar field) corresponding to power law and de Sitter evolution in the framework of FRW universe model. We derive the energy conditions for this modified theory which seem to be more general and can be reduced to some known forms of these conditions in general relativity, $f(R)$ and $f(R,\phi)$ theories. We have presented the general constraints in terms of recent values of snap, jerk, deceleration and Hubble parameters. The energy bounds are analyzed for reconstructed as well as known models in this theory. Finally, the free parameters are analyzed comprehensively.

General Analytical Solutions of Scalar Field Cosmology with Arbitrary Potential

We present the solution space for the case of a minimally coupled scalar field with arbitrary potential in a FLRW metric. This is made possible due to the existence of a nonlocal integral of motion corresponding to the conformal Killing field of the two-dimensional minisuperspace metric. The case for both spatially flat and non flat are studied first in the presence of only the scalar field and subsequently with the addition of non interacting perfect fluids. It is verified that this addition does not change the general form of the solution, but only the particular expressions of the scalar field and the potential. The results are applied in the case of parametric dark energy models where we derive the scalar field equivalence solution for some proposed models in the literature.

Quasinormal modes of a black hole with a cloud of strings in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

The quasinormal modes for a scalar field in the background spacetime corresponding to a black hole, with a cloud of strings, in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and the tensor quasinormal modes corresponding to perturbations in such spacetime, were both calculated using the WKB approximation. In the obtained results we emphasize the role played by the parameter associated with the string cloud, comparing them with the results already obtained for the Boulware-Deser metric. We also study how the Gauss-Bonnet correction to general relativity affects the results for the quasinormal modes, comparing them with the same background in general relativity.

Scalar field as an intrinsic time measure in coupled dynamical matter-geometry systems. II. Electrically charged gravitational collapse

Investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems, especially in the regime of quantum gravity, poses a problem of measuring time during the evolution. One of the approaches to this issue is using one of the internal degrees of freedom as a time variable. The objective of our research was to check whether a scalar field or any other dynamical quantity being a part of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system can be treated as a `clock' during its evolution. We investigated a collapse of a self-gravitating electrically charged scalar field in the Einstein and Brans-Dicke theories using the 2+2 formalism. Our findings concentrated on the spacetime region of high curvature existing in the vicinity of the emerging singularity, which is essential for the quantum gravity applications. We investigated several values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke and the electrically charged scalar fields. It turned out that both evolving scalar fields and a function which measures the amount of electric charge within a sphere of a given radius can be used to quantify time nearby the singularity in the dynamical spacetime part, in which the apparent horizon surrounding the singularity is spacelike. Using them in this respect in the asymptotic spacetime region is possible only when both fields are present in the system and, moreover, they are coupled to each other. The only nonzero component of the Maxwell field four-potential cannot be used to quantify time during the considered process in the neighborhood of the whole central singularity. None of the investigated dynamical quantities is a good candidate for measuring time nearby the Cauchy horizon, which is also singular due to the mass inflation phenomenon.

Scalar field as an intrinsic time measure in coupled dynamical matter-geometry systems. II. Electrically charged gravitational collapse [Cross-Listing]

Investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems, especially in the regime of quantum gravity, poses a problem of measuring time during the evolution. One of the approaches to this issue is using one of the internal degrees of freedom as a time variable. The objective of our research was to check whether a scalar field or any other dynamical quantity being a part of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system can be treated as a `clock' during its evolution. We investigated a collapse of a self-gravitating electrically charged scalar field in the Einstein and Brans-Dicke theories using the 2+2 formalism. Our findings concentrated on the spacetime region of high curvature existing in the vicinity of the emerging singularity, which is essential for the quantum gravity applications. We investigated several values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke and the electrically charged scalar fields. It turned out that both evolving scalar fields and a function which measures the amount of electric charge within a sphere of a given radius can be used to quantify time nearby the singularity in the dynamical spacetime part, in which the apparent horizon surrounding the singularity is spacelike. Using them in this respect in the asymptotic spacetime region is possible only when both fields are present in the system and, moreover, they are coupled to each other. The only nonzero component of the Maxwell field four-potential cannot be used to quantify time during the considered process in the neighborhood of the whole central singularity. None of the investigated dynamical quantities is a good candidate for measuring time nearby the Cauchy horizon, which is also singular due to the mass inflation phenomenon.

Dark photons in the Dalitz-like decay of a scalar

The couplings of the Standard Model sector to the scale invariant degrees of freedom can open the possibility to study dark photons (DP). The Dalitz-like decay of the (Higgs-like) scalar boson into a single photon and DP is studied. The interaction between DP and quarks is mediated by the derivative of the scalar field - the dilaton, the virtual (fictitious) state. The mass of the dilaton does not enter the final solutions. Upper limits are set on the DP mass, the mixing strength between the standard photon and DP. The model does allow to estimate the DP mass with the value of 4.5 MeV.

Dark photons in the Dalitz-like decay of a scalar [Cross-Listing]

The couplings of the Standard Model sector to the scale invariant degrees of freedom can open the possibility to study dark photons (DP). The Dalitz-like decay of the (Higgs-like) scalar boson into a single photon and DP is studied. The interaction between DP and quarks is mediated by the derivative of the scalar field - the dilaton, the virtual (fictitious) state. The mass of the dilaton does not enter the final solutions. Upper limits are set on the DP mass, the mixing strength between the standard photon and DP. The model does allow to estimate the DP mass with the value of 4.5 MeV.

A magnetically induced quantum phase transition in holography

We investigate quantum phase transitions in a 2+1 dimensional gauge theory at finite chemical potential $\chi$ and magnetic field $B$. The gravity dual is based on 4D $\mathcal{N}=2$ Fayet-Iliopoulos gauged supergravity and the solutions we consider---that are constructed analytically---are extremal, dyonic, asymptotically $AdS_4$ black-branes with a nontrivial radial profile for the scalar field. We discover a line of second order fixed points at $B=B_c(\chi)$ between the dyonic black brane and an extremal "thermal gas" solution with a singularity of good-type, according to the acceptability criteria of Gubser [1]. The dual field theory is the ABJM theory [2] deformed by a triple trace operator $\Phi^3$ and placed at finite charge and magnetic field. This line of fixed points might be useful in studying the various strongly interacting quantum critical phenomena such as the ones proposed to underlie the cuprate superconductors. We also find curious similarities between the behaviour of the VeV $\langle \Phi \rangle$ under B and that of the quark condensate in 2+1 dimensional NJL models.

Interacting Quintessence in a New Scalar-Torsion Gravity [Cross-Listing]

In the framework of teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, we study a gravity theory where a scalar field beyond its minimal coupling, is also coupled with the vector torsion through a non-minimal derivative coupling. After a suitable choice of auxiliary variables that allows us to perform the phase-space analysis of the model we obtain the critical points and their stability. While there is no scaling attractor in non-interacting scenario, by considering an interaction between dark energy and dark matter, we find scaling attractors in which the fractional densities of dark energy and matter are non-vanishing constants over there. The universe can evolve to these scaling attractors regardless of initial conditions and the cosmological coincidence problem could be alleviated without fine-tunings.

Interacting Quintessence in a New Scalar-Torsion Gravity

In the framework of teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, we study a gravity theory where a scalar field beyond its minimal coupling, is also coupled with the vector torsion through a non-minimal derivative coupling. After a suitable choice of auxiliary variables that allows us to perform the phase-space analysis of the model we obtain the critical points and their stability. While there is no scaling attractor in non-interacting scenario, by considering an interaction between dark energy and dark matter, we find scaling attractors in which the fractional densities of dark energy and matter are non-vanishing constants over there. The universe can evolve to these scaling attractors regardless of initial conditions and the cosmological coincidence problem could be alleviated without fine-tunings.

Classical and quantum dynamics of a perfect fluid scalar-energy dependent metric cosmology

Inspired from the idea of minimally coupling of a real scalar field to geometry, we investigate the classical and quantum models of a flat energy-dependent FRW cosmology coupled to a perfect fluid in the framework of the scalar-rainbow metric gravity. We use the standard Schutz' representation for the perfect fluid and show that under a particular energy-dependent gauge fixing, it may lead to the identification of a time parameter for the corresponding dynamical system. It is shown that, under some circumstances on the minisuperspace prob energy, the classical evolution of the of the universe represents a late time expansion coming from a bounce instead of the big-bang singularity. Then we go forward by showing that this formalism gives rise to a Schr\"{o}dinger-Wheeler-DeWitt (SWD) equation for the quantum-mechanical description of the model under consideration, the eigenfunctions of which can be used to construct the wave function of the universe. We use the resulting wave function in order to investigate the possibility of the avoidance of classical singularities due to quantum effects by means of the many-worlds and Bohmian interpretation of quantum cosmology.

Classical and quantum dynamics of a perfect fluid scalar-energy dependent metric cosmology [Replacement]

Inspired from the idea of minimally coupling of a real scalar field to geometry, we investigate the classical and quantum models of a flat energy-dependent FRW cosmology coupled to a perfect fluid in the framework of the scalar-rainbow metric gravity. We use the standard Schutz' representation for the perfect fluid and show that under a particular energy-dependent gauge fixing, it may lead to the identification of a time parameter for the corresponding dynamical system. It is shown that, under some circumstances on the minisuperspace prob energy, the classical evolution of the of the universe represents a late time expansion coming from a bounce instead of the big-bang singularity. Then we go forward by showing that this formalism gives rise to a Schr\"{o}dinger-Wheeler-DeWitt (SWD) equation for the quantum-mechanical description of the model under consideration, the eigenfunctions of which can be used to construct the wave function of the universe. We use the resulting wave function in order to investigate the possibility of the avoidance of classical singularities due to quantum effects by means of the many-worlds and Bohmian interpretation of quantum cosmology.

Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamic in Modified Teleparallel Theory

This study is conducted to examine the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) in modified teleparallel gravity involving coupling between a scalar field with the torsion scalar and a boundary term. This theory is very useful since it can reproduce other well-known theories in suitable limits. The power law solution is employed to develop the constraints on coupling parameters for different theories of gravity in the background of thermodynamics properties for all potentials. We have also considered the logarithmic entropy corrected relation and discuss the GSLT both on apparent and event horizons. In case of entropy correction, we have constrained the coupling parameters for quartic and inverse potentials.

High Temperature Effects on Compactlike Structures

In this work we investigate the transition from kinks to compactons at high temperatures. We deal with a family of models, described by a real scalar field with standard kinematics, controlled by a single parameter, real and positive. The family of models supports kinklike solutions, and the solutions tend to become compact when the parameter increases to larger and larger values. We study the one-loop corrections at finite temperature, to see how the thermal effects add to the effective potential. The results suggest that the symmetry is restored at high temperatures.

Time evolutions of scalar field perturbations in $D$-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\"om Anti-de Sitter black holes

Reissner-Nordstr\"om Anti-de Sitter (RNAdS) black holes are unstable against the charged scalar field perturbations due to the well-known superradiance phenomenon. We present the time domain analysis of charged scalar field perturbations in the RNAdS black hole background in general dimensions. We show that the instabilities of charged scalar field can be explicitly illustrated from the time profiles of evolving scalar field. By using the Prony method to fit the time evolution data, we confirm the mode that dominates the long time behavior of scalar field is in accordance with the quasinormal mode from the frequency domain analysis. The superradiance origin of the instability can also be demonstrated by comparing the real part of the dominant mode with the superradiant condition of charged scalar field. It is shown that all the unstable modes are superradiant, which is consistent with the analytical result in the frequency domain analysis. Furthermore, we also confirm there exists the rapid exponential growing modes in the RNAdS case, which makes the RNAdS black hole a good test ground to investigate the nonlinear evolution of superradiant instability.

Stability of gravitating charged-scalar solitons in a cavity

We present new regular solutions of Einstein-charged scalar field theory in a cavity. The system is enclosed inside a reflecting mirror-like boundary, on which the scalar field vanishes. The mirror is placed at the zero of the scalar field closest to the origin, and inside this boundary our solutions are regular. We study the stability of these solitons under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, scalar and electromagnetic fields. If the radius of the mirror is sufficiently large, we present numerical evidence for the stability of the solitons. For small mirror radius, some of the solitons are unstable. We discuss the physical interpretation of this instability.

Nonrelativistic Effective Field Theory for Axions

Axions can be described by a relativistic field theory with a real scalar field $\phi$ whose self-interaction potential is a periodic function of $\phi$. Low-energy axions, such as those produced in the early universe by the vacuum misalignment mechanism, can be described more simply by a nonrelativistic effective field theory with a complex scalar field $\psi$ whose effective potential is a function of $\psi^*\psi$. We determine the coefficients in the expansion of the effective potential to fifth order in $\psi^*\psi$ by matching low-energy axion scattering amplitudes. In order to describe a Bose-Einstein condensate of axions that is too dense to expand the effective potential in powers of $\psi^*\psi$, we develop a sequence of systematically improvable approximations to the effective potential that include terms of all orders in $\psi^*\psi$.

Friedmann inflation in Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a scalar field

We study Friedmann inflation in general Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity with detailed and non-detailed but also without the projectability conditions. Accordingly, we derive the modifications in the Friedmann equations due to single scalar field potentials describing power-law and minimal-supersymmetrically extended inflation. By implementing four types of the equations-of-state charactering the cosmic background geometry, the dependence of the tensorial and spectral density fluctuations and their ratio on the inflation field is determined. The latter characterizes the time evolution of the inflation field relative to the Hubble parameter. Furthermore, the ratio of tensorial-to-spectral density fluctuations is calculated in dependence on the spectral index. The resulting slow-roll parameters apparently differ from the ones deduced from the standard General Relativity (Friedmann gravity). We also observe that the tensorial-to-spectral density fluctuations continuously decrease when moving from non-detailed HL gravity, to Friedmann gravity, to HL gravity without the projectibility, and to detailed HL gravity. This regular patter is valid for three types of cosmic equations-of-state and different inflation potential models. The results fit well with the recent PLANCK observations.

Scalar multi-wormholes

In 1921 Bach and Weyl derived the method of superposition to construct new axially symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity. In this paper we extend the Bach-Weyl approach to non-vacuum configurations with massless scalar fields. Considering a phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy, we construct a multi-wormhole solution describing an axially symmetric superposition of $N$ wormholes. The solution found is static, everywhere regular and has no event horizons. These features drastically tell the multi-wormhole configuration from other axially symmetric vacuum solutions which inevitably contain gravitationally inert singular structures, such as `struts' and `membranes', that keep the two bodies apart making a stable configuration. However, the multi-wormholes are static without any singular struts. Instead, the stationarity of the multi-wormhole configuration is provided by the phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy. Anther unusual property is that the multi-wormhole spacetime has a complicated topological structure. Namely, in the spacetime there exist $2^N$ asymptotically flat regions connected by throats.

Post-Newtonian parameters and cosmological constant of screened modified gravity

Screened modified gravity (SMG) is a kind of scalar-tensor theories with screening mechanisms, which can generate screening effect to suppress the fifth force in high density environments and pass the solar system tests. Meanwhile, the potential of scalar field in the theories can drive the acceleration of the late universe. In this paper, we calculate the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters $\gamma$ and $\beta$, the effective gravitational constant $G_{\rm eff}$ and the effective cosmological constant $\Lambda$ for SMG with a general potential $V$ and coupling function $A$. The dependence of these parameters on the model parameters of SMG and/or the physical properties of the source object are clearly presented. As an application of these results, we focus on three specific theories of SMG (chameleon, symmetron and dilaton models). Using the formulae to calculate their PPN parameters and cosmological constant, we derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations on solar system and cosmological scales.

Post-Newtonian parameters and cosmological constant of screened modified gravity [Cross-Listing]

Screened modified gravity (SMG) is a kind of scalar-tensor theories with screening mechanisms, which can generate screening effect to suppress the fifth force in high density environments and pass the solar system tests. Meanwhile, the potential of scalar field in the theories can drive the acceleration of the late universe. In this paper, we calculate the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters $\gamma$ and $\beta$, the effective gravitational constant $G_{\rm eff}$ and the effective cosmological constant $\Lambda$ for SMG with a general potential $V$ and coupling function $A$. The dependence of these parameters on the model parameters of SMG and/or the physical properties of the source object are clearly presented. As an application of these results, we focus on three specific theories of SMG (chameleon, symmetron and dilaton models). Using the formulae to calculate their PPN parameters and cosmological constant, we derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations on solar system and cosmological scales.

Intermediate Modified Chaplygin Gas Inflation on the Brane with Bulk Viscous Pressure [Cross-Listing]

We examine the role of bulk viscous pressure on the warm inflationary modified Chaplygin gas in brane-world framework by taking standard scalar field. We consider the intermediate inflationary scenario and develop various quantities such as inflaton ($\phi$), effective potential ($V(\phi)$) and entropy density ($S$) for variable as well as constant dissipation and bulk viscous coefficients at high dissipative regime. The spectral index and its running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio is also computed in terms of number of e-folds in the present scenario. It is interesting to remark here that our results of these parameters are compatible with recent observational data such as WMAP $7+9$, BICEP $2$ and Planck data.

Intermediate Modified Chaplygin Gas Inflation on the Brane with Bulk Viscous Pressure

We examine the role of bulk viscous pressure on the warm inflationary modified Chaplygin gas in brane-world framework by taking standard scalar field. We consider the intermediate inflationary scenario and develop various quantities such as inflaton ($\phi$), effective potential ($V(\phi)$) and entropy density ($S$) for variable as well as constant dissipation and bulk viscous coefficients at high dissipative regime. The spectral index and its running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio is also computed in terms of number of e-folds in the present scenario. It is interesting to remark here that our results of these parameters are compatible with recent observational data such as WMAP $7+9$, BICEP $2$ and Planck data.

Intermediate Modified Chaplygin Gas Inflation on the Brane with Bulk Viscous Pressure [Replacement]

We examine the role of bulk viscous pressure on the warm inflationary modified Chaplygin gas in brane-world framework by taking standard scalar field. We consider the intermediate inflationary scenario and develop various quantities such as inflaton ($\phi$), effective potential ($V(\phi)$) and entropy density ($S$) for variable as well as constant dissipation and bulk viscous coefficients at high dissipative regime. The spectral index and its running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio is also computed in terms of number of e-folds in the present scenario. It is interesting to remark here that our results of these parameters are compatible with recent observational data such as WMAP $7+9$, BICEP $2$ and Planck data.

 

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