Posts Tagged scalar field

Recent Postings from scalar field

Dark Energy and Dark Matter in a Model of an Axion Coupled to a Non-Abelian Gauge Field [Cross-Listing]

We study cosmological field configurations (solutions) in a model in which the pseudo-scalar phase of a complex field couples to the Pontryagin density of a massive non-abelian gauge field, in analogy to how the Peccei-Quinn axion field couples to the $SU(3)$-color gauge field of QCD. Assuming that the self-interaction potential of the complex scalar field has the typical {\it Mexican hat} form, we find that the radial fluctuations of this field can act as {\it Dark Matter}, while its phase may give rise to tracking {\it Dark Energy}. In our model, Dark-Energy domination will, however, not continue for ever. A new component of dark matter, namely the one originating from the gauge field, will dominate in the future.

Evolution of scalar fields surrounding black holes on compactified constant mean curvature hypersurfaces

Motivated by the goal for high accuracy modeling of gravitational radiation emitted by isolated systems, recently, there has been renewed interest in the numerical solution of the hyperboloidal initial value problem for Einstein's field equations in which the outer boundary of the numerical grid is placed at null infinity. In this article, we numerically implement the tetrad-based approach presented in [J.M. Bardeen, O. Sarbach, and L.T. Buchman, Phys. Rev. D 83, 104045 (2011)] for a spherically symmetric, minimally coupled, self-gravitating scalar field. When this field is massless, the evolution system reduces to a regular, first-order symmetric hyperbolic system of equations for the conformally rescaled scalar field which is coupled to a set of singular elliptic constraints for the metric coefficients. We show how to solve this system based on a numerical finite-difference approximation, obtaining stable numerical evolutions for initial black hole configurations which are surrounded by a spherical shell of scalar field, part of which disperses to infinity and part of which is accreted by the black hole. As a non-trivial test, we study the tail decay of the scalar field along different curves, including one along the marginally trapped tube, one describing the world line of a time-like observer at a finite radius outside the horizon, and one corresponding to a generator of null infinity. Our results are in agreement with the usual power-law decay predicted by the linearized theory and with previous numerical simulations of the nonlinear equations.

Jacobi stability analysis of scalar field models with minimal coupling to gravity in a cosmological background [Cross-Listing]

We perform the study of the stability of the cosmological scalar field models, by using the Jacobi stability analysis, or the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory. In the KCC approach we describe the time evolution of the scalar field cosmologies in geometric terms, by performing a "second geometrization", by considering them as paths of a semispray. By introducing a non-linear connection and a Berwald type connection associated to the Friedmann and Klein-Gordon equations, five geometrical invariants can be constructed, with the second invariant giving the Jacobi stability of the cosmological model. We obtain all the relevant geometric quantities, and we formulate the condition of the Jacobi stability for scalar field cosmologies in the second order formalism. As an application of the developed methods we consider the Jacobi stability properties of the scalar fields with exponential and Higgs type potential. We find that the Universe dominated by a scalar field exponential potential is in Jacobi unstable state, while the cosmological evolution in the presence of Higgs fields has alternating stable and unstable phases. By using the standard first order formulation of the cosmological models as dynamical systems we have investigated the stability of the phantom quintessence and tachyonic scalar fields, by lifting the first order system to the tangent bundle. It turns out that in the presence of a power law potential both these models are Jacobi unstable during the entire cosmological evolution.

Jacobi stability analysis of scalar field models with minimal coupling to gravity in a cosmological background

We perform the study of the stability of the cosmological scalar field models, by using the Jacobi stability analysis, or the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory. In the KCC approach we describe the time evolution of the scalar field cosmologies in geometric terms, by performing a "second geometrization", by considering them as paths of a semispray. By introducing a non-linear connection and a Berwald type connection associated to the Friedmann and Klein-Gordon equations, five geometrical invariants can be constructed, with the second invariant giving the Jacobi stability of the cosmological model. We obtain all the relevant geometric quantities, and we formulate the condition of the Jacobi stability for scalar field cosmologies in the second order formalism. As an application of the developed methods we consider the Jacobi stability properties of the scalar fields with exponential and Higgs type potential. We find that the Universe dominated by a scalar field exponential potential is in Jacobi unstable state, while the cosmological evolution in the presence of Higgs fields has alternating stable and unstable phases. By using the standard first order formulation of the cosmological models as dynamical systems we have investigated the stability of the phantom quintessence and tachyonic scalar fields, by lifting the first order system to the tangent bundle. It turns out that in the presence of a power law potential both these models are Jacobi unstable during the entire cosmological evolution.

Jacobi stability analysis of scalar field models with minimal coupling to gravity in a cosmological background [Cross-Listing]

We perform the study of the stability of the cosmological scalar field models, by using the Jacobi stability analysis, or the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory. In the KCC approach we describe the time evolution of the scalar field cosmologies in geometric terms, by performing a "second geometrization", by considering them as paths of a semispray. By introducing a non-linear connection and a Berwald type connection associated to the Friedmann and Klein-Gordon equations, five geometrical invariants can be constructed, with the second invariant giving the Jacobi stability of the cosmological model. We obtain all the relevant geometric quantities, and we formulate the condition of the Jacobi stability for scalar field cosmologies in the second order formalism. As an application of the developed methods we consider the Jacobi stability properties of the scalar fields with exponential and Higgs type potential. We find that the Universe dominated by a scalar field exponential potential is in Jacobi unstable state, while the cosmological evolution in the presence of Higgs fields has alternating stable and unstable phases. By using the standard first order formulation of the cosmological models as dynamical systems we have investigated the stability of the phantom quintessence and tachyonic scalar fields, by lifting the first order system to the tangent bundle. It turns out that in the presence of a power law potential both these models are Jacobi unstable during the entire cosmological evolution.

Evidence of Cosmic Strings by Observation of the Alignment of Quasar Polarization Axes [Replacement]

We find an approximate bounded wavelike solution to second order of the coupled Einstein-scalar gauge field on a warped five dimensional axially symmetric brane world spacetime, where the standard model matter field resides on the brane and gravity can propagate into the bulk. For a zero effective cosmological constant, one can explain the self-acceleration of our universe by the projection of the five dimensional Weyl tensor on the brane. The self-gravitating U(1) scalar gauge field builds up a huge mass per unit length in the bulk and can induce massive Kaluza-Klein-modes felt on the brane and cause fluctuations on this hyper surface. Due to the warp factor, disturbances don't fade away during the expansion of the universe. The late-time behavior could deviate significant from the standard evolution of the universe. Disturbances are no longer axially symmetric. It turns out, by using a multiple-scale method, that equations for the first and second order perturbations of the metric and scalar-gauge field show a spectrum of polar-angle dependent wavelike modes with extremal values dependent of the winding numbers of the background, first and second order perturbations of the scalar field respectively. This result can be used to explain the recently found spooky alignment of the rotation axes of quasars over large distances.

Inflation with teleparallelism: Can torsion generate primordial fluctuations without local Lorentz symmetry?

Arbitrary generalization to the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity loses local Lorentz invariance to reparametrize the orthonormal coordinate system and gives rise to asymmetry field equations. We investigate consequences of local Lorentz violation to primordial fluctuations in extended single field inflationary models based on the scalar-tensor formulation of the torsion scalar $T$ that effectively includes $f(T)$ gravity as a special case. We show that despite some asymmetry part of the field equations are removed in a spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmic background, no subhorizon scalar-perturbation mode can survive by the time of horizon crossing. As a result, any scalar field mediated in torsion cannot generate enough primordial density inhomogeneity alone, even if it brings some de Sitter background solutions in generalized teleparallel gravity.

Radiation Like Scalar Field and Gauge Fields in Cosmology for a theory with Dynamical Time [Cross-Listing]

Cosmological solutions with a scalar field behaving as radiation are obtained, in the context of gravitational theory with dynamical time. The solution requires the spacial curvature of the universe k, to be zero, unlike the standard radiation solutions, which do not impose any constraint on the spacial curvature of the universe. This is because only such $ k=0 $ radiation solutions poses a homothetic Killimg vector. This kind of theory can be used to generalize electromagnetism and other gauge theories, in curved space time, and there are no deviations from standard gauge filed equation (like Maxwell equations) in the case there exist a conformal Killing vector. But there could be departures from Maxwell and Yang Mills equations, for more general space times.

Radiation Like Scalar Field and Gauge Fields in Cosmology for a theory with Dynamical Time

Cosmological solutions with a scalar field behaving as radiation are obtained, in the context of gravitational theory with dynamical time. The solution requires the spacial curvature of the universe k, to be zero, unlike the standard radiation solutions, which do not impose any constraint on the spacial curvature of the universe. This is because only such $ k=0 $ radiation solutions poses a homothetic Killimg vector. This kind of theory can be used to generalize electromagnetism and other gauge theories, in curved space time, and there are no deviations from standard gauge filed equation (like Maxwell equations) in the case there exist a conformal Killing vector. But there could be departures from Maxwell and Yang Mills equations, for more general space times.

Cluster mass estimates in screened modified gravity

We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the effect of screened modified gravity models on the mass estimates of galaxy clusters. In particular, we focus on two novel aspects: (i) we study modified gravity models in which baryons and dark matter are coupled with different strengths to the scalar field, and, (ii) we put the simulation results into the greater context of a general screened-modified gravity parametrization. We compare the mass of clusters inferred via lensing versus the mass inferred via kinematical measurements as a probe of violations of the equivalence principle at Mpc scales. We find that estimates of cluster masses via X-ray observations is mainly sensitive to the coupling between the scalar degree of freedom and baryons -- while the kinematical mass is mainly sensitive to the coupling to dark matter. Therefore, the relation between the two mass estimates is a probe of a possible non-universal coupling between the scalar field, the standard model fields, and dark matter. Finally, we use observational data of kinetic, thermal and lensing masses to place constraints on deviations from general relativity on cluster scales for a general parametrization of screened modified gravity theories which contains $f(R)$ and Symmetron models. We find that while the kinematic mass can be used to place competitive constraints, using thermal measurements is challenging as a potential non-thermal contribution is degenerate with the imprint of modified gravity.

Cosmological models in modified gravity theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings

We construct gravitational modifications that go beyond Horndeski, namely theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings, in which the coefficient functions depend not only on the scalar field but also on its kinetic energy. Such theories prove to be ghost-free in a cosmological background. We investigate the early-time cosmology and show that a de Sitter inflationary phase can be realized as a pure result of the novel gravitational couplings. Additionally, we study the late-time evolution, where we obtain an effective dark energy sector which arises from the scalar field and its extended couplings to gravity. We extract various cosmological observables and analyse their behavior at small redshifts for three choices of potentials, namely, for the exponential, the power-law, and the Higgs potential. We show that the Universe passes from deceleration to acceleration in the recent cosmological past, while the effective dark-energy equation-of-state parameter tends to the cosmological-constant value at present. Finally, the effective dark energy can be phantom-like, although the scalar field is canonical, which is an advantage of the model.

Cosmological models in modified gravity theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings [Cross-Listing]

We construct gravitational modifications that go beyond Horndeski, namely theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings, in which the coefficient functions depend not only on the scalar field but also on its kinetic energy. Such theories prove to be ghost-free in a cosmological background. We investigate the early-time cosmology and show that a de Sitter inflationary phase can be realized as a pure result of the novel gravitational couplings. Additionally, we study the late-time evolution, where we obtain an effective dark energy sector which arises from the scalar field and its extended couplings to gravity. We extract various cosmological observables and analyse their behavior at small redshifts for three choices of potentials, namely, for the exponential, the power-law, and the Higgs potential. We show that the Universe passes from deceleration to acceleration in the recent cosmological past, while the effective dark-energy equation-of-state parameter tends to the cosmological-constant value at present. Finally, the effective dark energy can be phantom-like, although the scalar field is canonical, which is an advantage of the model.

Cosmological models in modified gravity theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings [Cross-Listing]

We construct gravitational modifications that go beyond Horndeski, namely theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings, in which the coefficient functions depend not only on the scalar field but also on its kinetic energy. Such theories prove to be ghost-free in a cosmological background. We investigate the early-time cosmology and show that a de Sitter inflationary phase can be realized as a pure result of the novel gravitational couplings. Additionally, we study the late-time evolution, where we obtain an effective dark energy sector which arises from the scalar field and its extended couplings to gravity. We extract various cosmological observables and analyse their behavior at small redshifts for three choices of potentials, namely, for the exponential, the power-law, and the Higgs potential. We show that the Universe passes from deceleration to acceleration in the recent cosmological past, while the effective dark-energy equation-of-state parameter tends to the cosmological-constant value at present. Finally, the effective dark energy can be phantom-like, although the scalar field is canonical, which is an advantage of the model.

Slowly decaying resonances of charged massive scalar fields in the Reissner-Nordstr\"om black-hole spacetime

We determine the characteristic timescales associated with the linearized relaxation dynamics of the composed Reissner-Nordstr\"om-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. To that end, the quasinormal resonant frequencies $\{\omega_n(\mu,q,M,Q)\}_{n=0}^{n=\infty}$ which characterize the dynamics of a charged scalar field of mass $\mu$ and charge coupling constant $q$ in the charged Reissner-Nordstr\"om black-hole spacetime of mass $M$ and electric charge $Q$ are determined {\it analytically} in the eikonal regime $1\ll M\mu<qQ$. Interestingly, we find that, for a given value of the dimensionless black-hole electric charge $Q/M$, the imaginary part of the resonant oscillation frequency is a monotonically {\it decreasing} function of the dimensionless ratio $\mu/q$. In particular, it is shown that the quasinormal resonance spectrum is characterized by the asymptotic behavior $\Im\omega\to0$ in the limiting case $M\mu\to qQ$. This intriguing finding implies that the composed Reissner-Nordstr\"om-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system is characterized by extremely long relaxation times $\tau_{\text{relax}}\equiv 1/\Im\omega\to\infty$ in the $M\mu/qQ\to 1^-$ limit.

Iron K$\alpha$ line of boson stars [Replacement]

The present paper is a sequel to our previous work [Y. Ni et al., JCAP 1607, 049 (2016)] in which we studied the iron K$\alpha$ line expected in the reflection spectrum of Kerr black holes with scalar hair. These metrics are solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a massive, complex scalar field. They form a continuous bridge between a subset of Kerr black holes and a family of rotating boson stars depending on one extra parameter, the dimensionless scalar hair parameter $q$, ranging from 0 (Kerr black holes) to 1 (boson stars). Here we study the limiting case $q=1$, corresponding to rotating boson stars. For comparison, spherical boson stars are also considered. We simulate observations with XIS/Suzaku. Using the fact that current observations are well fit by the Kerr solution and thus requiring that acceptable alternative compact objects must be compatible with a Kerr fit, we find that some boson star solutions are relatively easy to rule out as potential candidates to explain astrophysical black holes, while other solutions, which are neither too dilute nor too compact are more elusive and we argue that they cannot be distinguished from Kerr black holes by the analysis of the iron line with current X-ray facilities.

Iron K$\alpha$ line of boson stars

The present paper is a sequel to our previous work [Y. Ni et al., JCAP 1607, 049 (2016)] in which we studied the iron K$\alpha$ line expected in the reflection spectrum of Kerr black holes with scalar hair. These metrics are solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a massive, complex scalar field. They form a continuous bridge between a subset of Kerr black holes and a family of rotating boson stars depending on one extra parameter, the dimensionless scalar hair parameter $q$, ranging from 0 (Kerr black holes) to 1 (boson stars). Here we study the limiting case $q=1$, corresponding to rotating boson stars. For comparison, spherical boson stars are also considered. We simulate observations with XIS/Suzaku. Using the fact that current observations are well fit by the Kerr solution and thus requiring that acceptable alternative compact objects must be compatible with a Kerr fit, we find that some boson star solutions are relatively easy to rule out as potential candidates to explain astrophysical black holes, while other solutions, which are neither too dilute nor too compact are more elusive and we argue that they cannot be distinguished from Kerr black holes by the analysis of the iron line with current X-ray facilities.

Cosmological evolution of a complex scalar field with repulsive or attractive self-interaction

We study the cosmological evolution of a complex scalar field with a self-interaction potential $V(|\varphi|^2)$, possibly describing self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, using a fully general relativistic treatment. We generalize the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field approximation developed in our previous paper. We establish the general equations governing the evolution of a spatially homogeneous complex scalar field in an expanding background. We show how they can be simplified in the fast oscillation regime and derive the equation of state of the scalar field in parametric form for an arbitrary potential. We explicitly consider the case of a quartic potential with repulsive or attractive self-interaction and determine the phase diagram of the scalar field. We show that the transition between the weakly self-interacting regime and the strongly self-interacting regime depends on how the scattering length of the bosons compares with their effective Schwarzschild radius. We also constrain the parameters of the scalar field from astrophysical and cosmological observations. Numerical applications are made for ultralight bosons without self-interaction (fuzzy dark matter), for bosons with repulsive self-interaction, and for bosons with attractive self-interaction (QCD axions and ultralight axions).

Stationary Charged Scalar Clouds around Black Holes in String Theory [Cross-Listing]

It was reported that Kerr-Newman black holes can support linear charged scalar field in their exterior regions. This stationary massive charged scalar field can form a bound-state and these bound-states are called stationary scalar clouds. In this paper, we study that Kerr-Sen black holes can also support stationary massive charged scalar clouds by matching the near and far region solutions of the radial part of Klein-Gordon wave equation. We also review stationary scalar clouds within the background of static electrically charged black hole solution in the low energy limit of heterotic string field theory namely the GMGHS black holes.

Lagrange Multipliers and Third Order Scalar-Tensor Field Theories [Replacement]

In a space of 4-dimensions, I will examine constrained variational problems in which the Lagrangian, and constraint scalar density, are concomitants of a (pseudo-Riemannian) metric tensor and its first two derivatives. The Lagrange multiplier for these constrained extremal problems will be a scalar field. For suitable choices of the Lagrangian, and constraint, we can obtain Euler-Lagrange equations which are second order in the scalar field and third order in the metric tensor. The effect of disformal transformations on the constraint Lagrangians, and their generalizations, is examined. This will yield other second order scalar-tensor Lagrangians which yield field equations which are at most of third order. No attempt is made to construct all possible third order scalar-tensor Euler-Lagrange equations in a 4-space, although nine classes of such field equations are presented. Two of these classes admit subclasses which yield conformally invariant field equations. A few remarks on scalar-tensor-connection theories are also presented.

Kerr-Newman black holes with scalar hair [Replacement]

We construct electrically charged Kerr black holes (BHs) with scalar hair. Firstly, we take an uncharged scalar field, interacting with the electromagnetic field only indirectly, via the background metric. The corresponding family of solutions, dubbed Kerr-Newman BHs with ungauged scalar hair, reduces to (a sub-family of) Kerr-Newman BHs in the limit of vanishing scalar hair and to uncharged rotating boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon. It adds one extra parameter to the uncharged solutions: the total electric charge. This leading electromagnetic multipole moment is unaffected by the scalar hair and can be computed by using Gauss's law on any closed 2-surface surrounding (a spatial section of) the event horizon. By contrast, the first sub-leading electromagnetic multipole -- the magnetic dipole moment --, gets suppressed by the scalar hair, such that the gyromagnetic ratio is always smaller than the Kerr-Newman value ($g=2$). Secondly, we consider a gauged scalar field and obtain a family of Kerr-Newman BHs with gauged scalar hair. The electrically charged scalar field now stores a part of the total electric charge, which can only be computed by applying Gauss' law at spatial infinity and introduces a new solitonic limit -- electrically charged rotating boson stars. In both cases, we analyse some physical properties of the solutions.

Kerr-Newman black holes with scalar hair [Replacement]

We construct electrically charged Kerr black holes (BHs) with scalar hair. Firstly, we take an uncharged scalar field, interacting with the electromagnetic field only indirectly, via the background metric. The corresponding family of solutions, dubbed Kerr-Newman BHs with ungauged scalar hair, reduces to (a sub-family of) Kerr-Newman BHs in the limit of vanishing scalar hair and to uncharged rotating boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon. It adds one extra parameter to the uncharged solutions: the total electric charge. This leading electromagnetic multipole moment is unaffected by the scalar hair and can be computed by using Gauss's law on any closed 2-surface surrounding (a spatial section of) the event horizon. By contrast, the first sub-leading electromagnetic multipole -- the magnetic dipole moment --, gets suppressed by the scalar hair, such that the gyromagnetic ratio is always smaller than the Kerr-Newman value ($g=2$). Secondly, we consider a gauged scalar field and obtain a family of Kerr-Newman BHs with gauged scalar hair. The electrically charged scalar field now stores a part of the total electric charge, which can only be computed by applying Gauss' law at spatial infinity and introduces a new solitonic limit -- electrically charged rotating boson stars. In both cases, we analyse some physical properties of the solutions.

Building a Holographic Superconductor with a Scalar Field Coupled Kinematically to Einstein Tensor [Cross-Listing]

We study the holographic dual description of a superconductor in which the gravity sector consists of a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field which except its minimal coupling to gravity it is also coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor. As the strength of the new coupling is increased, the critical temperature below which the scalar field condenses is lowering, the condensation gap decreases faster than the temperature, the width of the condensation gap is not proportional to the size of the condensate and at low temperatures the condensation gap tends to zero for the strong coupling. These effects which are the result of the presence of the coupling of the scalar field to the Einstein tensor in the gravity bulk, provide a dual description of impurities concentration in a superconducting state on the boundary.

Building a Holographic Superconductor with a Scalar Field Coupled Kinematically to Einstein Tensor [Replacement]

We study the holographic dual description of a superconductor in which the gravity sector consists of a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field which except its minimal coupling to gravity it is also coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor. As the strength of the new coupling is increased, the critical temperature below which the scalar field condenses is lowering, the condensation gap decreases faster than the temperature, the width of the condensation gap is not proportional to the size of the condensate and at low temperatures the condensation gap tends to zero for the strong coupling. These effects which are the result of the presence of the coupling of the scalar field to the Einstein tensor in the gravity bulk, provide a dual description of impurities concentration in a superconducting state on the boundary.

Building a Holographic Superconductor with a Scalar Field Coupled Kinematically to Einstein Tensor

We study the holographic dual description of a superconductor in which the gravity sector consists of a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field which except its minimal coupling to gravity it is also coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor. As the strength of the new coupling is increased, the critical temperature below which the scalar field condenses is lowering, the condensation gap decreases faster than the temperature, the width of the condensation gap is not proportional to the size of the condensate and at low temperatures the condensation gap tends to zero for the strong coupling. These effects which are the result of the presence of the coupling of the scalar field to the Einstein tensor in the gravity bulk, provide a dual description of impurities concentration in a superconducting state on the boundary.

Building a Holographic Superconductor with a Scalar Field Coupled Kinematically to Einstein Tensor [Replacement]

We study the holographic dual description of a superconductor in which the gravity sector consists of a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field which except its minimal coupling to gravity it is also coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor. As the strength of the new coupling is increased, the critical temperature below which the scalar field condenses is lowering, the condensation gap decreases faster than the temperature, the width of the condensation gap is not proportional to the size of the condensate and at low temperatures the condensation gap tends to zero for the strong coupling. These effects which are the result of the presence of the coupling of the scalar field to the Einstein tensor in the gravity bulk, provide a dual description of impurities concentration in a superconducting state on the boundary.

Building a Holographic Superconductor with a Scalar Field Coupled Kinematically to Einstein Tensor [Replacement]

We study the holographic dual description of a superconductor in which the gravity sector consists of a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field which except its minimal coupling to gravity it is also coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor. As the strength of the new coupling is increased, the critical temperature below which the scalar field condenses is lowering, the condensation gap decreases faster than the temperature, the width of the condensation gap is not proportional to the size of the condensate and at low temperatures the condensation gap tends to zero for the strong coupling. These effects which are the result of the presence of the coupling of the scalar field to the Einstein tensor in the gravity bulk, provide a dual description of impurities concentration in a superconducting state on the boundary.

Building a Holographic Superconductor with a Scalar Field Coupled Kinematically to Einstein Tensor [Replacement]

We study the holographic dual description of a superconductor in which the gravity sector consists of a Maxwell field and a charged scalar field which except its minimal coupling to gravity it is also coupled kinematically to Einstein tensor. As the strength of the new coupling is increased, the critical temperature below which the scalar field condenses is lowering, the condensation gap decreases faster than the temperature, the width of the condensation gap is not proportional to the size of the condensate and at low temperatures the condensation gap tends to zero for the strong coupling. These effects which are the result of the presence of the coupling of the scalar field to the Einstein tensor in the gravity bulk, provide a dual description of impurities concentration in a superconducting state on the boundary.

Scalar field dark energy with a minimal coupling in a spherically symmetric background

Dark energy models and modified gravity theories have been actively studied and the behaviors in the solar system have been also carefully investigated in a part of the models. However, the behaviors of the scalar field in an isotropic space-time under the simple models of dark energy, e.g. quintessence model without matter coupling, have not been well investigated. One of the reason of it would be the nonlinearity of the field equation. In this paper, the theoretical analysises are carried out by using the appropriate values of the parameters and taking some limit for the field. As a result, it is shown that there is a model that can naturally pass the solar system tests and there is also a model that would not be valid.

Scalar field dark energy with a minimal coupling in a spherically symmetric background [Replacement]

Dark energy models and modified gravity theories have been actively studied and the behaviors in the solar system have been also carefully investigated in a part of the models. However, the behaviors of the scalar field in an isotropic space-time under the simple models of dark energy, e.g. quintessence model without matter coupling, have not been well investigated. One of the reason of it would be the nonlinearity of the field equation. In this paper, the theoretical analyses are carried out by using the appropriate values of the parameters and taking some limit for the field. As a result, it is shown that there is a model that can naturally pass the solar system tests and there is also a model that would not be valid.

Scalar field dark energy with a minimal coupling in a spherically symmetric background [Cross-Listing]

Dark energy models and modified gravity theories have been actively studied and the behaviors in the solar system have been also carefully investigated in a part of the models. However, the behaviors of the scalar field in an isotropic space-time under the simple models of dark energy, e.g. quintessence model without matter coupling, have not been well investigated. One of the reason of it would be the nonlinearity of the field equation. In this paper, the theoretical analysises are carried out by using the appropriate values of the parameters and taking some limit for the field. As a result, it is shown that there is a model that can naturally pass the solar system tests and there is also a model that would not be valid.

Scalar field dark energy with a minimal coupling in a spherically symmetric background [Replacement]

Dark energy models and modified gravity theories have been actively studied and the behaviors in the solar system have been also carefully investigated in a part of the models. However, the behaviors of the scalar field in an isotropic space-time under the simple models of dark energy, e.g. quintessence model without matter coupling, have not been well investigated. One of the reason of it would be the nonlinearity of the field equation. In this paper, the theoretical analyses are carried out by using the appropriate values of the parameters and taking some limit for the field. As a result, it is shown that there is a model that can naturally pass the solar system tests and there is also a model that would not be valid.

Scalar field dark energy with a minimal coupling in a spherically symmetric background [Cross-Listing]

Dark energy models and modified gravity theories have been actively studied and the behaviors in the solar system have been also carefully investigated in a part of the models. However, the behaviors of the scalar field in an isotropic space-time under the simple models of dark energy, e.g. quintessence model without matter coupling, have not been well investigated. One of the reason of it would be the nonlinearity of the field equation. In this paper, the theoretical analysises are carried out by using the appropriate values of the parameters and taking some limit for the field. As a result, it is shown that there is a model that can naturally pass the solar system tests and there is also a model that would not be valid.

Scalar field dark energy with a minimal coupling in a spherically symmetric background [Replacement]

Dark energy models and modified gravity theories have been actively studied and the behaviors in the solar system have been also carefully investigated in a part of the models. However, the behaviors of the scalar field in an isotropic space-time under the simple models of dark energy, e.g. quintessence model without matter coupling, have not been well investigated. One of the reason of it would be the nonlinearity of the field equation. In this paper, the theoretical analyses are carried out by using the appropriate values of the parameters and taking some limit for the field. As a result, it is shown that there is a model that can naturally pass the solar system tests and there is also a model that would not be valid.

Feebly Interacting Dark Matter Particle as the Inflaton [Replacement]

We present a scenario where a $Z_2$-symmetric scalar field $\phi$ first drives cosmic inflation, then reheats the Universe but remains out-of-equilibrium itself, and finally comprises the observed dark matter abundance, produced by particle decays \`{a} la freeze-in mechanism. We work model-independently without specifying the interactions of the scalar field besides its self-interaction coupling, $\lambda\phi^4$, non-minimal coupling to gravity, $\xi\phi^2R$, and coupling to another scalar field, $g\phi^2\sigma^2$. We find the scalar field $\phi$ serves both as the inflaton and a dark matter candidate if $10^{-9}\lesssim \lambda\lesssim g\lesssim 10^{-7}$ and $3 \rm{keV} \lesssim m_{\rm \phi}\lesssim 85 \rm{MeV}$ for $\xi=\mathcal{O}(1)$. Such a small value of the non-minimal coupling is also found to be of the right magnitude to produce the observed curvature perturbation amplitude within the scenario. We also discuss how the model may be distinguished from other inflationary models of the same type by the next generation CMB satellites.

Feebly Interacting Dark Matter Particle as the Inflaton [Replacement]

We present a scenario where a $Z_2$-symmetric scalar field $\phi$ first drives cosmic inflation, then reheats the Universe but remains out-of-equilibrium itself, and finally comprises the observed dark matter abundance, produced by particle decays \`{a} la freeze-in mechanism. We work model-independently without specifying the interactions of the scalar field besides its self-interaction coupling, $\lambda\phi^4$, non-minimal coupling to gravity, $\xi\phi^2R$, and coupling to another scalar field, $g\phi^2\sigma^2$. We find the scalar field $\phi$ serves both as the inflaton and a dark matter candidate if $10^{-9}\lesssim \lambda\lesssim g\lesssim 10^{-7}$ and $3 \rm{keV} \lesssim m_{\rm \phi}\lesssim 85 \rm{MeV}$ for $\xi=\mathcal{O}(1)$. Such a small value of the non-minimal coupling is also found to be of the right magnitude to produce the observed curvature perturbation amplitude within the scenario. We also discuss how the model may be distinguished from other inflationary models of the same type by the next generation CMB satellites.

Polymer-Fourier quantization of the scalar field revisited

The Polymer Quantization of the Fourier modes of the real scalar field is studied within algebraic scheme. We replace the positive linear functional of the standard Poincar\'e invariant quantization by a singular one. This singular positive linear functional is constructed as mimicking the singular limit of the complex structure of the Poincar\'e invariant Fock quantization. The resulting symmetry group of such Polymer Quantization is the subgroup $\mbox{SDiff}(\mathbb{R}^4)$ which is a subgroup of $\mbox{Diff}(\mathbb{R}^4)$ formed by spatial volume preserving diffeomorphisms. In consequence, this yields an entirely different irreducible representation of the Canonical Commutation Relations, non-unitary equivalent to the standard Fock representation. We also compared the Poincar\'e invariant Fock vacuum with the Polymer Fourier vacuum.

Full linear perturbations and localization of gravity on $f(R,T)$ brane [Cross-Listing]

We study the thick brane world system constructed in the recently proposed $f(R,T)$ theories of gravity, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $T$ the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. The analytic solution with a kink scalar field is obtained in a specific model, thus a domain wall configuration is constructed. We also discuss the full linear perturbations, especially the scalar perturbations. It is found that no tachyon state exists in this model and only the massless tensor mode can be localized on the brane, which recovers the effective four-dimensional gravity. These conclusions hold provided that two constraints on the original formalism of the action are satisfied.

Full linear perturbations and localization of gravity on $f(R,T)$ brane

We study the thick brane world system constructed in the recently proposed $f(R,T)$ theories of gravity, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $T$ the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. The analytic solution with a kink scalar field is obtained in a specific model, thus a domain wall configuration is constructed. We also discuss the full linear perturbations, especially the scalar perturbations. It is found that no tachyon state exists in this model and only the massless tensor mode can be localized on the brane, which recovers the effective four-dimensional gravity. These conclusions hold provided that two constraints on the original formalism of the action are satisfied.

Static, spherically symmetric solutions with a scalar field in Rastall gravity [Cross-Listing]

Rastall's theory belongs to the class of non-conservative theories of gravity. In vacuum, the only non-trivial static, spherically symmetric solution is the Schwarzschild one, except in a very special case. When a canonical scalar field is coupled to the gravity sector in this theory, new exact solutions appear for some values of the Rastall parameter $a$. Some of these solutions describe the same space-time geometry as the recently found solutions in the $k$-essence theory with a power function for the kinetic term of the scalar field. There is a large class of solutions (in particular, those describing wormholes and regular black holes) whose geometry coincides with that of solutions of GR coupled to scalar fields with nontrivial self-interaction potentials; the form of these potentials, however, depends on the Rastall parameter $a$. We also note that all solutions of GR with a zero trace of the energy-momentum tensor, including black-hole and wormhole ones, may be re-interpreted as solutions of Rastall's theory.

Static, spherically symmetric solutions with a scalar field in Rastall gravity

Rastall's theory belongs to the class of non-conservative theories of gravity. In vacuum, the only non-trivial static, spherically symmetric solution is the Schwarzschild one, except in a very special case. When a canonical scalar field is coupled to the gravity sector in this theory, new exact solutions appear for some values of the Rastall parameter $a$. Some of these solutions describe the same space-time geometry as the recently found solutions in the $k$-essence theory with a power function for the kinetic term of the scalar field. There is a large class of solutions (in particular, those describing wormholes and regular black holes) whose geometry coincides with that of solutions of GR coupled to scalar fields with nontrivial self-interaction potentials; the form of these potentials, however, depends on the Rastall parameter $a$. We also note that all solutions of GR with a zero trace of the energy-momentum tensor, including black-hole and wormhole ones, may be re-interpreted as solutions of Rastall's theory.

Decoherence and disentanglement of qubits detecting scalar fields in an expanded universe

We consider Unruh-Wald qubit detector model adopted for the far future region of an exactly solvable 1+1 dimensional scalar field theory in a Robertson-Walker expanding spacetime. It is shown that the expansion of the universe in its history enhances the decoherence of the qubit coupled with a scalar field. Moreover, we consider two entangled qubits, each locally coupled a scalar field. The expansion of the universe in its history degrades the entanglement between the qubits, and can lead to entanglement sudden death if the initial entanglement is small enough. The details depend on the parameters characterizing the expansion of the universe. This work, albeit on a toy model, suggests that the history of the universe might be probed through the coherent and entanglement behavior of future detectors of quantum fields.

Complete Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations at all orders II: Non-canonical scalar field

In this work, we present a consistent Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations for generalized non-canonical scalar fields. In order to do so, we introduce a new phase-space variable that is uniquely defined for different non-canonical scalar fields. We also show that this is the simplest and efficient way of expressing the Hamiltonian. We extend the Hamiltonian approach of [arXiv:1512.02539] to non-canonical scalar field and obtain a new definition of speed of sound in phase-space. In order to invert generalized phase-space Hamilton's equations to Euler-Lagrange equations of motion, we prescribe a general inversion formulae and show that our approach for non-canonical scalar field is consistent. We also obtain the third and fourth order interaction Hamiltonian for generalized non-canonical scalar fields and briefly discuss the extension of our method to generalized Galilean scalar fields.

Complete Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations at all orders II: Non-canonical scalar field [Replacement]

In this work, we present a consistent Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations for generalized non-canonical scalar fields. In order to do so, we introduce a new phase-space variable that is uniquely defined for different non-canonical scalar fields. We also show that this is the simplest and efficient way of expressing the Hamiltonian. We extend the Hamiltonian approach of [arXiv:1512.02539] to non-canonical scalar field and obtain a new definition of speed of sound in phase-space. In order to invert generalized phase-space Hamilton's equations to Euler-Lagrange equations of motion, we prescribe a general inversion formulae and show that our approach for non-canonical scalar field is consistent. We also obtain the third and fourth order interaction Hamiltonian for generalized non-canonical scalar fields and briefly discuss the extension of our method to generalized Galilean scalar fields.

Complete Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations at all orders II: Non-canonical scalar field [Replacement]

In this work, we present a consistent Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations for generalized non-canonical scalar fields. In order to do so, we introduce a new phase-space variable that is uniquely defined for different non-canonical scalar fields. We also show that this is the simplest and efficient way of expressing the Hamiltonian. We extend the Hamiltonian approach of [arXiv:1512.02539] to non-canonical scalar field and obtain a new definition of speed of sound in phase-space. In order to invert generalized phase-space Hamilton's equations to Euler-Lagrange equations of motion, we prescribe a general inversion formulae and show that our approach for non-canonical scalar field is consistent. We also obtain the third and fourth order interaction Hamiltonian for generalized non-canonical scalar fields and briefly discuss the extension of our method to generalized Galilean scalar fields.

Complete Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations at all orders II: Non-canonical scalar field [Cross-Listing]

In this work, we present a consistent Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations for generalized non-canonical scalar fields. In order to do so, we introduce a new phase-space variable that is uniquely defined for different non-canonical scalar fields. We also show that this is the simplest and efficient way of expressing the Hamiltonian. We extend the Hamiltonian approach of [arXiv:1512.02539] to non-canonical scalar field and obtain a new definition of speed of sound in phase-space. In order to invert generalized phase-space Hamilton's equations to Euler-Lagrange equations of motion, we prescribe a general inversion formulae and show that our approach for non-canonical scalar field is consistent. We also obtain the third and fourth order interaction Hamiltonian for generalized non-canonical scalar fields and briefly discuss the extension of our method to generalized Galilean scalar fields.

Complete Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations at all orders II: Non-canonical scalar field [Replacement]

In this work, we present a consistent Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations for generalized non-canonical scalar fields. In order to do so, we introduce a new phase-space variable that is uniquely defined for different non-canonical scalar fields. We also show that this is the simplest and efficient way of expressing the Hamiltonian. We extend the Hamiltonian approach of [arXiv:1512.02539] to non-canonical scalar field and obtain a new definition of speed of sound in phase-space. In order to invert generalized phase-space Hamilton's equations to Euler-Lagrange equations of motion, we prescribe a general inversion formulae and show that our approach for non-canonical scalar field is consistent. We also obtain the third and fourth order interaction Hamiltonian for generalized non-canonical scalar fields and briefly discuss the extension of our method to generalized Galilean scalar fields.

Complete Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations at all orders II: Non-canonical scalar field [Replacement]

In this work, we present a consistent Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations for generalized non-canonical scalar fields. In order to do so, we introduce a new phase-space variable that is uniquely defined for different non-canonical scalar fields. We also show that this is the simplest and efficient way of expressing the Hamiltonian. We extend the Hamiltonian approach of [arXiv:1512.02539] to non-canonical scalar field and obtain a new definition of speed of sound in phase-space. In order to invert generalized phase-space Hamilton's equations to Euler-Lagrange equations of motion, we prescribe a general inversion formulae and show that our approach for non-canonical scalar field is consistent. We also obtain the third and fourth order interaction Hamiltonian for generalized non-canonical scalar fields and briefly discuss the extension of our method to generalized Galilean scalar fields.

Near-Horizon Geometry and the Entropy of a Minimally Coupled Scalar Field in the Kerr Black Hole

In this article we will discuss a Lorentzian sector calculation of the entropy of a minimally coupled scalar field in the Kerr black hole background. We will use the brick wall model of t' Hooft. In the Kerr black hole, complications arise due to the absence of a global timelike Killing field and the presence of the ergosphere. Nevertheless, it is possible to calculate the entropy of a thin shell of matter field in the near-horizon region using the brick wall model. The corresponding leading order entropy of the nonsuperradiant modes is found to be proportional to the area of the horizon and is logarithmically divergent. Thus, the entropy of a three dimensional system in the near-horizon region is proportional to the boundary surface. This is similar to that of the black hole entropy itself. The corresponding internal energy remains finite if the entropy is chosen to be of the order of the black hole entropy itself. The leading order entropy is found to be half of the corresponding term in the Schwarzschild black hole. This is expected due to the preferential emission of particles in the Kerr black hole with azimuthal angular momentum in the same direction as that of the black hole itself.

Near-Horizon Geometry and the Entropy of a Minimally Coupled Scalar Field in the Kerr Black Hole [Replacement]

In this article we will discuss a Lorentzian sector calculation of the entropy of a minimally coupled scalar field in the Kerr black hole background. We will use the brick wall model of t' Hooft. In the Kerr black hole, complications arise due to the absence of a global timelike Killing field and the presence of the ergosphere. Nevertheless, it is possible to calculate the entropy of a thin shell of matter field in the near-horizon region using the brick wall model. The corresponding leading order entropy of the nonsuperradiant modes is found to be proportional to the area of the horizon and is logarithmically divergent. Thus, the entropy of a three dimensional system in the near-horizon region is proportional to the boundary surface. This is similar to that of the black hole entropy itself. The corresponding internal energy remains finite if the entropy is chosen to be of the order of the black hole entropy itself. For a fixed value of the brick wall cut-off, the leading order entropy in the Kerr black hole is found to be half of the corresponding term in the Schwarzschild black hole. This is consistent with the preferential emission of particles in the Kerr black hole with azimuthal angular momentum in the same direction as that of the black hole itself. However, we can obtain the Schwarzschild case expression by including a subleading term and taking the appropriate limit.

Near-Horizon Geometry and the Entropy of a Minimally Coupled Scalar Field in the Kerr Black Hole [Replacement]

In this article we will discuss a Lorentzian sector calculation of the entropy of a minimally coupled scalar field in the Kerr black hole background. We will use the brick wall model of t' Hooft. In the Kerr black hole, complications arise due to the absence of a global timelike Killing field and the presence of the ergosphere. Nevertheless, it is possible to calculate the entropy of a thin shell of matter field in the near-horizon region using the brick wall model. The corresponding leading order entropy of the nonsuperradiant modes is found to be proportional to the area of the horizon and is logarithmically divergent. Thus, the entropy of a three dimensional system in the near-horizon region is proportional to the boundary surface. This is similar to that of the black hole entropy itself. The corresponding internal energy remains finite if the entropy is chosen to be of the order of the black hole entropy itself. The leading order entropy is found to be half of the corresponding term in the Schwarzschild black hole. This is expected due to the preferential emission of particles in the Kerr black hole with azimuthal angular momentum in the same direction as that of the black hole itself.

 

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