Posts Tagged scalar field

Recent Postings from scalar field

Comment on the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We comment upon the application of Hojman’s method for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been introduced by Capozziello \& Roshan (Phys. Lett. B 726 (2013) 471 (arXiv:1308.3910)), and has been applied recently in the cosmological scenario of a nonminimally coupled scalar field by Paolella \& Capozziello (Phys. Lett. A (2015), in press (arXiv:1503.00098)). We apply the Ansatz, $\phi\left( t\right) =\phi\left( a\left( t\right) \right) $, which was introduced by the cited authors for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of the Noether conservation law of momentum for the free particle. Finally we show that Hojman’s method for Hamiltonian systems, in which the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent with the application of Noether’s Theorem for generalized transformations.

Comment on the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

We comment upon the application of Hojman’s method for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been introduced by Capozziello \& Roshan (Phys. Lett. B 726 (2013) 471 (arXiv:1308.3910)), and has been applied recently in the cosmological scenario of a nonminimally coupled scalar field by Paolella \& Capozziello (Phys. Lett. A (2015), in press (arXiv:1503.00098)). We apply the Ansatz, $\phi\left( t\right) =\phi\left( a\left( t\right) \right) $, which was introduced by the cited authors for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of the Noether conservation law of momentum for the free particle. Finally we show that Hojman’s method for Hamiltonian systems, in which the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent with the application of Noether’s Theorem for generalized transformations.

Conformal defects in supergravity - backreacted Dirac delta sources [Cross-Listing]

We construct numerically gravitational duals of theories deformed by localized Dirac delta sources for scalar operators both at zero and at finite temperature. We find that requiring that the backreacted geometry preserves the original scale invariance of the source uniquely determines the potential for the scalar field to be the one found in a certain Kaluza-Klein compactification of $11D$ supergravity. This result is obtained using an efficient perturbative expansion of the backreacted background at zero temperature and is confirmed by a direct numerical computation. Numerical solutions at finite temperatures are obtained and a detailed discussion of the numerical approach to the treatment of the Dirac delta sources is presented. The physics of defect configurations is illustrated with a calculation of entanglement entropy.

Conformal defects in supergravity - backreacted Dirac delta sources

We construct numerically gravitational duals of theories deformed by localized Dirac delta sources for scalar operators both at zero and at finite temperature. We find that requiring that the backreacted geometry preserves the original scale invariance of the source uniquely determines the potential for the scalar field to be the one found in a certain Kaluza-Klein compactification of $11D$ supergravity. This result is obtained using an efficient perturbative expansion of the backreacted background at zero temperature and is confirmed by a direct numerical computation. Numerical solutions at finite temperatures are obtained and a detailed discussion of the numerical approach to the treatment of the Dirac delta sources is presented. The physics of defect configurations is illustrated with a calculation of entanglement entropy.

Singular cosmological evolution using canonical and phantom scalar fields [Cross-Listing]

We demonstrate that finite time singularities of Type IV can be consistently incorporated in the Universe’s cosmological evolution, either appearing in the inflationary era, or in the late-time regime. While using only one scalar field instabilities can in principle occur at the time of the phantom-divide crossing, when two fields are involved we are able to avoid such instabilities. Additionally, the two-field scalar-tensor theories prove to be able to offer a plethora of possible viable cosmological scenarios, at which various types of cosmological singularities can be realized. Amongst others, it is possible to describe inflation with the appearance of a Type IV singularity, and phantom late-time acceleration which ends in a Big Rip. Finally, for completeness, we also present the Type IV realization in the context of suitably reconstructed $F(R)$ gravity.

Singular cosmological evolution using canonical and phantom scalar fields [Cross-Listing]

We demonstrate that finite time singularities of Type IV can be consistently incorporated in the Universe’s cosmological evolution, either appearing in the inflationary era, or in the late-time regime. While using only one scalar field instabilities can in principle occur at the time of the phantom-divide crossing, when two fields are involved we are able to avoid such instabilities. Additionally, the two-field scalar-tensor theories prove to be able to offer a plethora of possible viable cosmological scenarios, at which various types of cosmological singularities can be realized. Amongst others, it is possible to describe inflation with the appearance of a Type IV singularity, and phantom late-time acceleration which ends in a Big Rip. Finally, for completeness, we also present the Type IV realization in the context of suitably reconstructed $F(R)$ gravity.

Singular cosmological evolution using canonical and phantom scalar fields

We demonstrate that finite time singularities of Type IV can be consistently incorporated in the Universe’s cosmological evolution, either appearing in the inflationary era, or in the late-time regime. While using only one scalar field instabilities can in principle occur at the time of the phantom-divide crossing, when two fields are involved we are able to avoid such instabilities. Additionally, the two-field scalar-tensor theories prove to be able to offer a plethora of possible viable cosmological scenarios, at which various types of cosmological singularities can be realized. Amongst others, it is possible to describe inflation with the appearance of a Type IV singularity, and phantom late-time acceleration which ends in a Big Rip. Finally, for completeness, we also present the Type IV realization in the context of suitably reconstructed $F(R)$ gravity.

Backreaction in Growing Neutrino Quintessence

We investigate the cosmological effects of neutrino lumps in Growing Neutrino Quintessence. The strongly non-linear effects are resolved by means of numerical N-body simulations which include relativistic particles, non-linear scalar field equations and backreaction effects. For the investigated models with a constant coupling between the scalar field and the neutrinos the backreaction effects are so strong that a realistic cosmology is hard to realize. This points towards the necessity of a field dependent coupling in Growing Neutrino Quintessence. In this case realistic models of dynamical Dark Energy exist which are testable by the observation or non-observation of large neutrino lumps.

Loop quantum cosmology with self-dual variables

Using the complex-valued self-dual connection variables, the loop quantum cosmology of a closed Friedmann universe coupled to a massless scalar field is studied. It is shown how the reality conditions can be imposed in the quantum theory by choosing a particular measure for the inner product in the kinematical Hilbert space. While holonomies of the self-dual Ashtekar connection are not well-defined in the kinematical Hilbert space, it is possible to introduce a family of generalized holonomy-like operators, some of which are well-defined; these operators in turn are used in the definition of a Hamiltonian constraint operator where the scalar field can be used as a relational clock. The resulting quantum dynamics are similar, although not identical, to standard loop quantum cosmology constructed from the Ashtekar-Barbero variables with a real Immirzi parameter. Effective Friedmann equations are derived, which provide a good approximation to the full quantum dynamics for sharply-peaked states whose volume remains much larger than the Planck volume, and they show that for these states quantum gravity effects resolve the big-bang and big-crunch singularities and replace them by a non-singular bounce. Finally, the loop quantization in self-dual variables of a flat Friedmann space-time is recovered in the limit of zero spatial curvature and is identical to the standard loop quantization in terms of the real-valued Ashtekar-Barbero variables.

A model for accelerated expansion of the universe from $\mathcal{N}=1$ Supergravity [Cross-Listing]

In this paper we present a model for accelerated expansion of the universe, both during inflation and the present stage of the expansion, from four dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ supergravity. We evaluate the tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r\approx 0.00034$), the scalar spectral index ($n_s\approx 0.970$) and the running spetral index ($dn_s/dk\approx -6\times10^{-5}$), and we notice that these parameters are in agreement with Planck+WP+lensing data and with BICEP2/Keck and Planck joint analysis, at $95\%$ CL. The number of e-folds is $50$ or higher. The reheating period has an associated temperature $T_R\sim10^{12}$ Gev, which agrees with the one required by thermal leptogenesis. Regarding the scalar field as dark energy, the autonomous system for the scalar field in the presence of a barotropic fluid provides a stable fixed point that leads to a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe, with an equation of state that mimics the cosmological constant ($w_\Phi\approx -0.997$).

A model for accelerated expansion of the universe from $\mathcal{N}=1$ Supergravity

In this paper we present a model for accelerated expansion of the universe, both during inflation and the present stage of the expansion, from four dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ supergravity. We evaluate the tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r\approx 0.00034$), the scalar spectral index ($n_s\approx 0.970$) and the running spetral index ($dn_s/dk\approx -6\times10^{-5}$), and we notice that these parameters are in agreement with Planck+WP+lensing data and with BICEP2/Keck and Planck joint analysis, at $95\%$ CL. The number of e-folds is $50$ or higher. The reheating period has an associated temperature $T_R\sim10^{12}$ Gev, which agrees with the one required by thermal leptogenesis. Regarding the scalar field as dark energy, the autonomous system for the scalar field in the presence of a barotropic fluid provides a stable fixed point that leads to a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe, with an equation of state that mimics the cosmological constant ($w_\Phi\approx -0.997$).

Inflation and Dark Energy from a Scalar Field in Supergravity [Replacement]

In this paper we present a model for accelerated expansion of the universe, both during inflation and the present stage of the expansion, from four dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ supergravity. We evaluate the tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r\approx 0.00034$), the scalar spectral index ($n_s\approx 0.970$) and the running spetral index ($dn_s/dk\approx -6\times10^{-5}$), and we notice that these parameters are in agreement with Planck+WP+lensing data and with BICEP2/Keck and Planck joint analysis, at $95\%$ CL. The number of e-folds is $50$ or higher. The reheating period has an associated temperature $T_R\sim10^{12}$ GeV, which agrees with the one required by thermal leptogenesis. Regarding the scalar field as dark energy, the autonomous system for it in the presence of a barotropic fluid provides a stable fixed point that leads to a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe, with an equation of state that mimics the cosmological constant ($w_\Phi\approx -0.997$).

Inflation and Dark Energy from a Scalar Field in Supergravity [Replacement]

In this paper we present a model for accelerated expansion of the universe, both during inflation and the present stage of the expansion, from four dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ supergravity. We evaluate the tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r\approx 0.00034$), the scalar spectral index ($n_s\approx 0.970$) and the running spetral index ($dn_s/dk\approx -6\times10^{-5}$), and we notice that these parameters are in agreement with Planck+WP+lensing data and with BICEP2/Keck and Planck joint analysis, at $95\%$ CL. The number of e-folds is $50$ or higher. The reheating period has an associated temperature $T_R\sim10^{12}$ GeV, which agrees with the one required by thermal leptogenesis. Regarding the scalar field as dark energy, the autonomous system for it in the presence of a barotropic fluid provides a stable fixed point that leads to a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe, with an equation of state that mimics the cosmological constant ($w_\Phi\approx -0.997$).

Hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit: I. General formalism and perturbations analysis

Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with a $\lambda|\varphi|^4$ potential. We study the evolution of the homogeneous background in the fluid representation and derive the linearized equations describing the evolution of small perturbations in a static and in an expanding universe. We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. We study the evolution of the perturbations in the matter era using the nonrelativistic limit of our formalism. Perturbations whose wavelength is below the Jeans length oscillate in time while pertubations whose wavelength is above the Jeans length grow linearly with the scale factor as in the cold dark matter model. The growth of perturbations in the scalar field model is substantially faster than in the cold dark matter model. When the wavelength of the pertubations approaches the cosmological horizon (Hubble length), a relativistic treatment is mandatory. In that case, we find that relativistic effects attenuate or even prevent the growth of pertubations. This paper exposes the general formalism and provides illustrations in simple cases. Other applications of our formalism will be considered in companion papers.

Global dynamics and asymptotics for monomial scalar field potentials and perfect fluids [Cross-Listing]

We consider a minimally coupled scalar field with a monomial potential and a perfect fluid in flat FLRW cosmology. We apply local and global dynamical systems techniques to a new three-dimensional dynamical systems reformulation of the field equations on a compact state space. This leads to a visual global description of the solution space and asymptotic behavior. At late times we employ averaging techniques to prove statements about how the relationship between the equation of state of the fluid and the monomial exponent of the scalar field affects asymptotic source dominance and asymptotic manifest self-similarity breaking. We also situate the `attractor’ solution in the three-dimensional state space and show that it corresponds to the one-dimensional unstable center manifold of a de Sitter fixed point, located on an unphysical boundary associated with the dynamics at early times. By deriving a center manifold expansion we obtain approximate expressions for the attractor solution. We subsequently improve the accuracy and range of the approximation by means of Pad\’e approximants and compare with the slow-roll approximation.

Global dynamics and asymptotics for monomial scalar field potentials and perfect fluids

We consider a minimally coupled scalar field with a monomial potential and a perfect fluid in flat FLRW cosmology. We apply local and global dynamical systems techniques to a new three-dimensional dynamical systems reformulation of the field equations on a compact state space. This leads to a visual global description of the solution space and asymptotic behavior. At late times we employ averaging techniques to prove statements about how the relationship between the equation of state of the fluid and the monomial exponent of the scalar field affects asymptotic source dominance and asymptotic manifest self-similarity breaking. We also situate the `attractor’ solution in the three-dimensional state space and show that it corresponds to the one-dimensional unstable center manifold of a de Sitter fixed point, located on an unphysical boundary associated with the dynamics at early times. By deriving a center manifold expansion we obtain approximate expressions for the attractor solution. We subsequently improve the accuracy and range of the approximation by means of Pad\’e approximants and compare with the slow-roll approximation.

Search for ultralight scalar dark matter with atomic spectroscopy [Cross-Listing]

We report new limits on ultralight scalar dark matter (DM) with dilaton-like couplings to photons that can induce oscillations in the fine-structure constant alpha. Atomic dysprosium exhibits an electronic structure with two nearly degenerate levels whose energy splitting is sensitive to changes in alpha. Spectroscopy data for two isotopes of dysprosium over a two-year span is analyzed for coherent oscillations with angular frequencies below 1 rad/s. No signal consistent with a DM coupling is identified, leading to new constraints on dilaton-like photon couplings over a wide mass range. Under the assumption that the scalar field comprises all of the DM, our limits on the coupling exceed those from equivalence-principle tests by up to 4 orders of magnitude for masses below 3 * 10^-18 eV. Excess oscillatory power, inconsistent with fine-structure variation, is detected in a control data set, and is likely due to a systematic effect. Our atomic spectroscopy limits on DM are the first of their kind, and leave substantial room for improvement with state-of-the-art atomic clocks.

Study of non-canonical scalar field model using various parametrizations of dark energy equation of state

In this present work, we try to build up a cosmological model using a non-canonical scalar field within the framework of a spatially flat FRW space-time. In this context, we have considered four different parametrizations of the equation of state parameter of the non- canonical scalar field. Under this scenario, an analytical solution for the various cosmological parameters have been found out. It has been found that the deceleration parameter shows a smooth transition from a positive value to some negative value which indicates that the universe was undergoing an early deceleration followed by late time acceleration which is essential for the structure formation of the universe. With these four parametrizations, the future evolution of the models are also discussed. We have also shown that the two models mimic as the concordance $\Lambda$CDM in the near future, whereas the other two models diverge due to the future singularity. Finally, we have studied these theoretical models with the Union2.1 SN Ia dataset.

Study of non-canonical scalar field model using various parametrizations of dark energy equation of state [Cross-Listing]

In this present work, we try to build up a cosmological model using a non-canonical scalar field within the framework of a spatially flat FRW space-time. In this context, we have considered four different parametrizations of the equation of state parameter of the non- canonical scalar field. Under this scenario, an analytical solution for the various cosmological parameters have been found out. It has been found that the deceleration parameter shows a smooth transition from a positive value to some negative value which indicates that the universe was undergoing an early deceleration followed by late time acceleration which is essential for the structure formation of the universe. With these four parametrizations, the future evolution of the models are also discussed. We have also shown that the two models mimic as the concordance $\Lambda$CDM in the near future, whereas the other two models diverge due to the future singularity. Finally, we have studied these theoretical models with the Union2.1 SN Ia dataset.

Logamediate Inflation by Tachyon Field

A logamediate inflationary model in the presence of the tachyon scalar field will be studied. Considering slow-roll inflation, the equations of motion of the universe and the tachyon field will be derived. In the context of perturbation theory, some important perturbation parameters will be obtained and using numerical calculations the consistency of our model with observational data will be illustrated.

Definition of Mass for Asymptotically AdS space-times for Gravities Coupled to Matter Fields

We give a general definition of mass for gravities coupled to matter fields. We study the gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with weakened boundary conditions, with the masses calculated by the Hamiltonian formula and Wald’s formula. We show that the masses calculated by these two formulas are equivalent to each other in this case, but are non-integrable. We then discuss the illness of this non-integrable mass and its failure to give interpretation to the entropy of some special solutions. We also show that Wald’s formula cannot give the right mass for RN-AdS black holes. To solve these problems we introduce a not conserved scalar charge and develop a new definition for mass based on Wald’s formula. The new definition is similar in spirit to both Wald’s formula and the Hamiltonian formula, with the difference that we require the variation of the mass to have no contribution from the variation of the matter charges. This new definition is also valid for gravities coupled to matter fields with other charges.

Superradiance Instability of Small Rotating AdS Black Holes in Arbitrary Dimensions

We investigate the stability of $D$ dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged AdS black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS Black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this work we analytically prove that, rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also show superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and space-time dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

Superradiance Instability of Small Rotating AdS Black Holes in Arbitrary Dimensions [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the stability of $D$ dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged AdS black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS Black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this work we analytically prove that, rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also show superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and space-time dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

Dynamical analysis in scalar field cosmology

A general method to extract exact cosmological solutions for scalar field dark energy in the presence of perfect fluids is presented. We use as a selection rule the existence of invariant transformations for the Wheeler De Witt (WdW) equation. We show that the existence of point transformation in which the WdW equation is invariant is equivalent to the existence of conservation laws for the field equations. Mathematically, the existence of extra integrals of motion indicates the existence of analytical solutions. We extend previous work by providing exact solutions for the Hubble parameter and the effective dark energy equation of state parameter for cosmologies containing a combination of perfect fluid and a scalar field whose self-interaction potential is a power of hyperbolic functions. Finally, we perform a dynamical analysis by studying the fixed points of the field equations using dimensionless variables. Amongst the variety of dynamical cases, we find that if the current cosmological model is Liouville integrable (admits conservation laws) then there is a unique stable point which describes the de-Sitter phase of the universe.

Dynamical analysis in scalar field cosmology [Cross-Listing]

A general method to extract exact cosmological solutions for scalar field dark energy in the presence of perfect fluids is presented. We use as a selection rule the existence of invariant transformations for the Wheeler De Witt (WdW) equation. We show that the existence of point transformation in which the WdW equation is invariant is equivalent to the existence of conservation laws for the field equations. Mathematically, the existence of extra integrals of motion indicates the existence of analytical solutions. We extend previous work by providing exact solutions for the Hubble parameter and the effective dark energy equation of state parameter for cosmologies containing a combination of perfect fluid and a scalar field whose self-interaction potential is a power of hyperbolic functions. Finally, we perform a dynamical analysis by studying the fixed points of the field equations using dimensionless variables. Amongst the variety of dynamical cases, we find that if the current cosmological model is Liouville integrable (admits conservation laws) then there is a unique stable point which describes the de-Sitter phase of the universe.

Dynamical analysis in scalar field cosmology [Cross-Listing]

A general method to extract exact cosmological solutions for scalar field dark energy in the presence of perfect fluids is presented. We use as a selection rule the existence of invariant transformations for the Wheeler De Witt (WdW) equation. We show that the existence of point transformation in which the WdW equation is invariant is equivalent to the existence of conservation laws for the field equations. Mathematically, the existence of extra integrals of motion indicates the existence of analytical solutions. We extend previous work by providing exact solutions for the Hubble parameter and the effective dark energy equation of state parameter for cosmologies containing a combination of perfect fluid and a scalar field whose self-interaction potential is a power of hyperbolic functions. Finally, we perform a dynamical analysis by studying the fixed points of the field equations using dimensionless variables. Amongst the variety of dynamical cases, we find that if the current cosmological model is Liouville integrable (admits conservation laws) then there is a unique stable point which describes the de-Sitter phase of the universe.

Lattice worldline representation of correlators in a background field

We use a discrete worldline representation in order to study the continuum limit of the one-loop expectation value of dimension two and four local operators in a background field. We illustrate this technique in the case of a scalar field coupled to a non-Abelian background gauge field. The first two coefficients of the expansion in powers of the lattice spacing can be expressed as sums over random walks on a d-dimensional cubic lattice. Using combinatorial identities for the distribution of the areas of closed random walks on a lattice, these coefficients can be turned into simple integrals. Our results are valid for an anisotropic lattice, with arbitrary lattice spacings in each direction.

Lattice worldline representation of correlators in a background field [Cross-Listing]

We use a discrete worldline representation in order to study the continuum limit of the one-loop expectation value of dimension two and four local operators in a background field. We illustrate this technique in the case of a scalar field coupled to a non-Abelian background gauge field. The first two coefficients of the expansion in powers of the lattice spacing can be expressed as sums over random walks on a d-dimensional cubic lattice. Using combinatorial identities for the distribution of the areas of closed random walks on a lattice, these coefficients can be turned into simple integrals. Our results are valid for an anisotropic lattice, with arbitrary lattice spacings in each direction.

Asymptotically flat black holes sourced by a massless scalar field [Replacement]

We derive exact, asymptotically flat black hole solutions of Einstein-scalar gravity sourced by a non trivial scalar field with $1/r$ asymptotic behaviour. They are determined using an ansatz for the scalar field profile and working out, together with the metric functions, the corresponding form of the scalar self-interaction potential. Near to the singularity the black hole behaves as the Janis-Newmann-Winicour-Wyman solution. We also work out a consistent thermodynamical description of our black hole solutions. For large mass our hairy black holes have the same thermodynamical behaviour of the Schwarzschild black hole, whereas for small masses they differ substantially from the latter.

Asymptotically flat black holes sourced by a massless scalar field

We derive exact, asymptotically flat black hole solutions of Einstein-scalar gravity sourced by a non trivial scalar field with $1/r$ asymptotic behaviour. They are determined using an ansatz for the scalar field profile and working out, together with the metric functions, the corresponding form of the scalar self-interaction potential. Near to the singularity the black hole behaves as the Janis-Newmann-Winicour-Wyman solution. We also work out a consistent thermodynamical description of our black hole solutions. For large mass our hairy black holes have the same thermodynamical behaviour of the Schwarzschild black hole, whereas for small masses they differ substantially from the latter.

Asymptotically flat black holes sourced by a massless scalar field [Cross-Listing]

We derive exact, asymptotically flat black hole solutions of Einstein-scalar gravity sourced by a non trivial scalar field with $1/r$ asymptotic behaviour. They are determined using an ansatz for the scalar field profile and working out, together with the metric functions, the corresponding form of the scalar self-interaction potential. Near to the singularity the black hole behaves as the Janis-Newmann-Winicour-Wyman solution. We also work out a consistent thermodynamical description of our black hole solutions. For large mass our hairy black holes have the same thermodynamical behaviour of the Schwarzschild black hole, whereas for small masses they differ substantially from the latter.

Asymptotically flat black holes sourced by a massless scalar field [Replacement]

We derive exact, asymptotically flat black hole solutions of Einstein-scalar gravity sourced by a non trivial scalar field with $1/r$ asymptotic behaviour. They are determined using an ansatz for the scalar field profile and working out, together with the metric functions, the corresponding form of the scalar self-interaction potential. Near to the singularity the black hole behaves as the Janis-Newmann-Winicour-Wyman solution. We also work out a consistent thermodynamical description of our black hole solutions. For large mass our hairy black holes have the same thermodynamical behaviour of the Schwarzschild black hole, whereas for small masses they differ substantially from the latter.

Gauge-Invariant Perturbations in Hybrid Quantum Cosmology

We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representation of the homogeneous sector with a more standard field quantization of the perturbations. Covariance is guaranteed in this approach inasmuch as no gauge fixing is adopted. Next, we adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for physical states and show how to obtain a Schr\"odinger-like equation for the quantum evolution of the perturbations. This evolution is governed by the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian, with the dependence on the homogeneous geometry evaluated at quantum expectation values, and with a time parameter defined also in terms of suitable expectation values on that geometry. Finally, we derive effective equations for the dynamics of the Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, that include quantum contributions, but have the same ultraviolet limit as the classical equations. They provide the master equation to extract predictions about the power spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations.

Search for dark energy potentials in quintessence theory

The time evolution of the equation of state $w$ for quintessence models with a scalar field as dark energy is studied up to the third derivative ($d^3w/da^3$) with respect to scale factor $a$, in order to predict the future observations and specify the scalar potential parameters with the observables. The third derivative of $w$ for general potential $V$ was derived and applied to several types of potential. They are the inverse power-law ($V=M^{4+\alpha}/Q^{\alpha}$), exponential ($V=M^4\exp{(\beta M/Q)}$), mixed ( $V=M^{4+\gamma}\exp{(\beta M/Q)}/Q^{\gamma}$), cosine ($V=M^4(\cos (Q/f)+1)$) and the Gaussian types ($V=M^4\exp(-Q^2/\sigma^2)$), which are prototypical potentials for the freezing and thawing models. If the parameter number for a potential form is $ n$, it is necessary to find at least for $n+2$ independent observations to identify the potential form and the evolution of scalar field ($Q$ and $ \dot{Q} $). Such observations would be the values of $ \Omega_Q, w, dw/da. \cdots $, and $ dw^n/da^n$. From these specific potentials, we could predict the $ n+1 $ and higher derivative of $w$ ; $ dw^{n+1}/da^{n+1}, \cdots$. Since four of the above mentioned potentials have two parameters, it is necessary to calculate the third derivative of $w$ for them to estimate the predict values. If they are tested observationally, it will be understood whether the dark energy could be described by the scalar field with this potential. At least it will satisfy the necessary conditions.

Charged Galileon black holes [Cross-Listing]

We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

A note on the charged boson stars with torsion-coupled field

Within the framework of the extended teleparallel gravity, a new class of boson stars has recently been constructed by introducing the nonminimal coupling of the scalar field to the torsion scalar. An interesting feature of these static, spherical, self-gravitating configurations of the massive complex scalar field is their central region with outwardly increasing energy density, surrounded by a thick shell within which the joining with the usual asymptotically Schwarzschild tail takes place. In this work we extend the original model with the $U(1)$ gauge field and we find that the combined effect of the charge and coupling of the field to torsion leads to a significant increase of the maximal mass and the particle number that can be supported against gravity. We also show that some charged configurations preserve the property of having the outwardly increasing energy density over the central region, regardless of the fact that charging the configurations affects the anisotropy of the pressures in the opposite way relative to that of the field-to-torsion coupling terms.

ScalPy: A Python Package For Late Time Scalar Field Cosmology

We present a python package "ScalPy" for studying the late time scalar field cosmology for a wide variety of scalar field models, namely the quintessence, tachyon and Galileon model. The package solves the autonomous system of equations for power law and exponential potential. But it can be easily generalized to add more complicated potential. For completeness, we also include the standard parameterization for dark energy models, e.g. the $\Lambda$CDM, $w$CDM, $w_{0}w_{a}$CDM as well as the GCG parameterization. The package also solves the linear growth equation for matter perturbations on sub-horizon scales. All the important observables related to background universe as well as to the perturbed universe, e.g. luminosity distance ($D_{L}(z)$), angular diameter distance ($D_{A}(z)$), normalized Hubble parameter ($h(z)$), lookback time ($t_{L}$), equation of state for the dark energy ($w(z)$), growth rate ($f=\frac{d \ln\delta}{d \ln a}$), linear matter power spectra ($P(k)$), and its normalization $\sigma_{8}$ can be obtained from this package. The code is further integrated with the publicly available MCMC hammer "emcee" to constrain the different models using the presently available observational data.

Stability of disformally coupled accretion disks [Cross-Listing]

In scalar-tensor theories, presence of matter in the vicinity of black holes can lead to the so called "spontaneous scalarisation" instability that can trigger the development of scalar hair. In the Brans-Dicke type theories, this effect can be understood as a result of tachyonic effective mass of the scalar field, induced by the purely conformal coupling to matter. Here this instability, in matter configurations around both Schwarzschild and rotating black holes, is explored in more general scalar-tensor theories featuring non-conformal, i.e. "disformal", couplings to matter. It is found that on one hand the disformal coupling can add to scalarisation b making the configuration more unstable. On the other hand, especially large enough disformal part of the coupling tends quite generically to stabilise the system.

Stability of disformally coupled accretion disks [Cross-Listing]

In scalar-tensor theories, presence of matter in the vicinity of black holes can lead to the so called "spontaneous scalarisation" instability that can trigger the development of scalar hair. In the Brans-Dicke type theories, this effect can be understood as a result of tachyonic effective mass of the scalar field, induced by the purely conformal coupling to matter. Here this instability, in matter configurations around both Schwarzschild and rotating black holes, is explored in more general scalar-tensor theories featuring non-conformal, i.e. "disformal", couplings to matter. It is found that on one hand the disformal coupling can add to scalarisation b making the configuration more unstable. On the other hand, especially large enough disformal part of the coupling tends quite generically to stabilise the system.

Stability of disformally coupled accretion disks

In scalar-tensor theories, presence of matter in the vicinity of black holes can lead to the so called "spontaneous scalarisation" instability that can trigger the development of scalar hair. In the Brans-Dicke type theories, this effect can be understood as a result of tachyonic effective mass of the scalar field, induced by the purely conformal coupling to matter. Here this instability, in matter configurations around both Schwarzschild and rotating black holes, is explored in more general scalar-tensor theories featuring non-conformal, i.e. "disformal", couplings to matter. It is found that on one hand the disformal coupling can add to scalarisation b making the configuration more unstable. On the other hand, especially large enough disformal part of the coupling tends quite generically to stabilise the system.

A quantum peek inside the black hole event horizon

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation for a scalar field, in the background geometry of a dust cloud collapsing to form a black hole, everywhere in the (1+1) spacetime: that is, both inside and outside the event horizon and arbitrarily close to the curvature singularity. This allows us to determine the regularized stress tensor expectation value, everywhere in the appropriate quantum state (viz., the Unruh vacuum) of the field. We use this to study the behaviour of energy density and the flux measured in local inertial frames for the radially freely falling observer at any given event. Outside the black hole, energy density and flux lead to the standard results expected from the Hawking radiation emanating from the black hole, as the collapse proceeds. Inside the collapsing dust ball, the energy densities of both matter and scalar field diverge near the singularity in both (1+1) and (1+3) spacetime dimensions; but the energy density of the field dominates over that of classical matter. In the (1+3) dimensions, the total energy (of both scalar field and classical matter) inside a small spatial volume around the singularity is finite (and goes to zero as the size of the region goes to zero) but the total energy of the quantum field still dominates over that of the classical matter. Inside the event horizon, but \textit{outside} the collapsing matter, freely falling observers find that the energy density and the flux diverge close to the singularity. In this region, even the integrated energy inside a small spatial volume enclosing the singularity diverges. This result holds in both (1+1) and (1+3) spacetime dimensions with a \emph{milder} divergence for the total energy inside a small region in (1+3) dimensions. These results suggest that the back-reaction effects are significant even in the region \emph{outside the matter but inside the event horizon}, close to the singularity.

A quantum peek inside the black hole event horizon [Replacement]

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation for a scalar field, in the background geometry of a dust cloud collapsing to form a black hole, everywhere in the (1+1) spacetime: that is, both inside and outside the event horizon and arbitrarily close to the curvature singularity. This allows us to determine the regularized stress tensor expectation value, everywhere in the appropriate quantum state (viz., the Unruh vacuum) of the field. We use this to study the behaviour of energy density and the flux measured in local inertial frames for the radially freely falling observer at any given event. Outside the black hole, energy density and flux lead to the standard results expected from the Hawking radiation emanating from the black hole, as the collapse proceeds. Inside the collapsing dust ball, the energy densities of both matter and scalar field diverge near the singularity in both (1+1) and (1+3) spacetime dimensions; but the energy density of the field dominates over that of classical matter. In the (1+3) dimensions, the total energy (of both scalar field and classical matter) inside a small spatial volume around the singularity is finite (and goes to zero as the size of the region goes to zero) but the total energy of the quantum field still dominates over that of the classical matter. Inside the event horizon, but \textit{outside} the collapsing matter, freely falling observers find that the energy density and the flux diverge close to the singularity. In this region, even the integrated energy inside a small spatial volume enclosing the singularity diverges. This result holds in both (1+1) and (1+3) spacetime dimensions with a \emph{milder} divergence for the total energy inside a small region in (1+3) dimensions. These results suggest that the back-reaction effects are significant even in the region \emph{outside the matter but inside the event horizon}, close to the singularity.

A quantum peek inside the black hole event horizon [Cross-Listing]

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation for a scalar field, in the background geometry of a dust cloud collapsing to form a black hole, everywhere in the (1+1) spacetime: that is, both inside and outside the event horizon and arbitrarily close to the curvature singularity. This allows us to determine the regularized stress tensor expectation value, everywhere in the appropriate quantum state (viz., the Unruh vacuum) of the field. We use this to study the behaviour of energy density and the flux measured in local inertial frames for the radially freely falling observer at any given event. Outside the black hole, energy density and flux lead to the standard results expected from the Hawking radiation emanating from the black hole, as the collapse proceeds. Inside the collapsing dust ball, the energy densities of both matter and scalar field diverge near the singularity in both (1+1) and (1+3) spacetime dimensions; but the energy density of the field dominates over that of classical matter. In the (1+3) dimensions, the total energy (of both scalar field and classical matter) inside a small spatial volume around the singularity is finite (and goes to zero as the size of the region goes to zero) but the total energy of the quantum field still dominates over that of the classical matter. Inside the event horizon, but \textit{outside} the collapsing matter, freely falling observers find that the energy density and the flux diverge close to the singularity. In this region, even the integrated energy inside a small spatial volume enclosing the singularity diverges. This result holds in both (1+1) and (1+3) spacetime dimensions with a \emph{milder} divergence for the total energy inside a small region in (1+3) dimensions. These results suggest that the back-reaction effects are significant even in the region \emph{outside the matter but inside the event horizon}, close to the singularity.

A quantum peek inside the black hole event horizon [Replacement]

We solve the Klein-Gordon equation for a scalar field, in the background geometry of a dust cloud collapsing to form a black hole, everywhere in the (1+1) spacetime: that is, both inside and outside the event horizon and arbitrarily close to the curvature singularity. This allows us to determine the regularized stress tensor expectation value, everywhere in the appropriate quantum state (viz., the Unruh vacuum) of the field. We use this to study the behaviour of energy density and the flux measured in local inertial frames for the radially freely falling observer at any given event. Outside the black hole, energy density and flux lead to the standard results expected from the Hawking radiation emanating from the black hole, as the collapse proceeds. Inside the collapsing dust ball, the energy densities of both matter and scalar field diverge near the singularity in both (1+1) and (1+3) spacetime dimensions; but the energy density of the field dominates over that of classical matter. In the (1+3) dimensions, the total energy (of both scalar field and classical matter) inside a small spatial volume around the singularity is finite (and goes to zero as the size of the region goes to zero) but the total energy of the quantum field still dominates over that of the classical matter. Inside the event horizon, but \textit{outside} the collapsing matter, freely falling observers find that the energy density and the flux diverge close to the singularity. In this region, even the integrated energy inside a small spatial volume enclosing the singularity diverges. This result holds in both (1+1) and (1+3) spacetime dimensions with a \emph{milder} divergence for the total energy inside a small region in (1+3) dimensions. These results suggest that the back-reaction effects are significant even in the region \emph{outside the matter but inside the event horizon}, close to the singularity.

Gauss-Bonnet Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We consider a pure scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravitational theory without the Ricci scalar. We demonstrate that such a theory, with a quadratic coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term, naturally supports inflationary — de Sitter — solutions. During inflation, the scalar field decays exponentially and its effective potential remains always bounded. The theory contains also solutions where these de Sitter phases possess a natural exit mechanism and are replaced by linearly expanding — Milne — phases.

Gauss-Bonnet Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We consider a pure scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravitational theory without the Ricci scalar. We demonstrate that such a theory, with a quadratic coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term, naturally supports inflationary — de Sitter — solutions. During inflation, the scalar field decays exponentially and its effective potential remains always bounded. The theory contains also solutions where these de Sitter phases possess a natural exit mechanism and are replaced by linearly expanding — Milne — phases.

Gauss-Bonnet Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We consider a pure scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravitational theory without the Ricci scalar. We demonstrate that such a theory, with a quadratic coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term, naturally supports inflationary — de Sitter — solutions. During inflation, the scalar field decays exponentially and its effective potential remains always bounded. The theory contains also solutions where these de Sitter phases possess a natural exit mechanism and are replaced by linearly expanding — Milne — phases.

Gauss-Bonnet Inflation

We consider a pure scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravitational theory without the Ricci scalar. We demonstrate that such a theory, with a quadratic coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term, naturally supports inflationary — de Sitter — solutions. During inflation, the scalar field decays exponentially and its effective potential remains always bounded. The theory contains also solutions where these de Sitter phases possess a natural exit mechanism and are replaced by linearly expanding — Milne — phases.

On the flat spacetime Galileons and the Born-Infeld type structures

We show how the flat spacetime Galileon field theories in arbitrary dimensions can be obtained through a Born-Infeld type structure. This construction involves a brane metric and non-linear combinations of derivatives of a scalar field. Our setup gives rise to some Galileon tensors and vectors useful for the variational analysis which are related to the momentum density of the probe Lovelock branes floating in a $N$-dimensional flat bulk. We find further that the Noether currents associated to these Galileon theories may be written in terms of such tensors.

On the functional renormalization group for the scalar field on curved background with non-minimal interaction

The running of the non-minimal parameter (\xi) of the interaction of the real scalar field and scalar curvature is explored within the non-perturbative setting of the functional renormalization group (RG). We establish the RG flow in curved space-time in the scalar field sector, in particular derive an equation for the non-minimal parameter. The RG trajectory is numerically explored for different sets of initial data.

 

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