Posts Tagged scalar field

Recent Postings from scalar field

Trace anomaly as a result of the thermodynamic inconsistency in a model of a free neutral scalar field on the lattice and in the continuum

The thermodynamic properties of the free neutral scalar field given in the framework of the method of the path integral quantization both on the lattice and in the continuum limit were investigated. It was revealed that the trace anomaly for the free neutral scalar field at low temperature and finite volume is a consequence of the thermodynamic inconsistency of the model both on the lattice and in the continuum limit. It was also found that the prescription for the free massless neutral scalar field adopted in [J.Engels et al., Nucl. Phys. B 205, 239 (1982)], i.e., the suppression of the $\vec{k}=0,k_{\beta}=0$ term in the summation for the energy density, leads to the inequivalence of the path integral quantization method with the canonical quantization method for such a field.

Non-minimal kinetic coupled gravity: inflation on the Warped DGP brane

We consider a $5D$ bulk spacetime together with a single $4D$ brane, on which the gravity is confined, and derive the effective $4D$ gravitational field equations. Then, we study the non-minimally kinetic coupled version of a braneworld gravity proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati, so called DGP model, where the kinetic term of the scalar field is coupled to the metric and Einstein tensor. We derive the corresponding field equations, using the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric accompanied with the perfect fluid, and study the inflationary scenario to confront the numerical analysis of six typical scalar field potentials with the current observational results. It turns out that the potentials $V(\phi)\propto \phi^2$ and $V(\phi)\propto \phi^3$ provide the best observational fits.

Models of free quantum field theories on curved backgrounds [Cross-Listing]

Free quantum field theories on curved backgrounds are discussed via three explicit examples: the real scalar field, the Dirac field and the Proca field. The first step consists of outlining the main properties of globally hyperbolic spacetimes, that is the class of manifolds on which the classical dynamics of all physically relevant free fields can be written in terms of a Cauchy problem. The set of all smooth solutions of the latter encompasses the dynamically allowed configurations which are used to identify via a suitable pairing a collection of classical observables. As a last step we use such collection to construct a $*$-algebra which encodes the information on the dynamics and on the canonical commutation or anti-commutation relations depending whether the underlying field is a Fermion or a Boson.

Static and Dynamic Hairy Planar Black Holes

We consider Einstein gravity in general dimensions, coupled to a scalar field either minimally or non-minimally, together with a generic scalar potential. By making appropriate choices of the scalar potential, we obtain large classes of new scalar hairy black holes that are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter spacetimes in planar coordinates. For some classes of solutions, we can promote the scalar charge to be dependent on the advanced or retarded times in the Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates, and obtain exact dynamic solutions. In particular, one class of the collapse solutions describe the evolution from the AdS vacua to some stable black hole states, driven by a conformally-massless scalar. It is an explicit demonstration of nonlinear instability of the AdS vacuum that is stable at the linear level.

Static and Dynamic Hairy Planar Black Holes [Cross-Listing]

We consider Einstein gravity in general dimensions, coupled to a scalar field either minimally or non-minimally, together with a generic scalar potential. By making appropriate choices of the scalar potential, we obtain large classes of new scalar hairy black holes that are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter spacetimes in planar coordinates. For some classes of solutions, we can promote the scalar charge to be dependent on the advanced or retarded times in the Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates, and obtain exact dynamic solutions. In particular, one class of the collapse solutions describe the evolution from the AdS vacua to some stable black hole states, driven by a conformally-massless scalar. It is an explicit demonstration of nonlinear instability of the AdS vacuum that is stable at the linear level.

Hairy black holes in N=2 gauged supergravity [Cross-Listing]

We construct black holes with scalar hair in a wide class of four-dimensional N=2 Fayet-Iliopoulos gauged supergravity theories that are characterized by a prepotential containing one free parameter. Considering the truncated model in which only a single real scalar survives, the theory is reduced to an Einstein-scalar system with a potential, which admits at most two AdS critical points and is expressed in terms of a real superpotential. Our solution is static, admits maximally symmetric horizons, asymptotically tends to AdS space corresponding to an extremum of the superpotential, but is disconnected from the Schwarzschild-AdS family. The condition under which the spacetime admits an event horizon is addressed for each horizon topology. It turns out that for hyperbolic horizons the black holes can be extremal. In this case, the near-horizon geometry is AdS_2 x H^2, where the scalar goes to the other, non-supersymmetric, critical point of the potential. Our solution displays fall-off behaviours different from the standard one, due to the fact that the mass parameter $m^2=-2/\ell^2$ at the supersymmetric vacuum lies in a characteristic range $m^2_{BF}\le m^2\le m^2_{\rm BF}+\ell^{-2}$ for which the slowly decaying scalar field is also normalizable. Nevertheless, we identify a well-defined mass for our spacetime, following the prescription of Hertog and Maeda. Quite remarkably, the product of all horizon areas is not given in terms of the asymptotic cosmological constant alone, as one would expect in absence of electromagnetic charges and angular momentum. Our solution shows qualitatively the same thermodynamic behaviour as the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, but the entropy is always smaller for a given mass and AdS curvature radius. We also find that our spherical black holes are unstable against radial perturbations.

Hairy black holes in N=2 gauged supergravity

We construct black holes with scalar hair in a wide class of four-dimensional N=2 Fayet-Iliopoulos gauged supergravity theories that are characterized by a prepotential containing one free parameter. Considering the truncated model in which only a single real scalar survives, the theory is reduced to an Einstein-scalar system with a potential, which admits at most two AdS critical points and is expressed in terms of a real superpotential. Our solution is static, admits maximally symmetric horizons, asymptotically tends to AdS space corresponding to an extremum of the superpotential, but is disconnected from the Schwarzschild-AdS family. The condition under which the spacetime admits an event horizon is addressed for each horizon topology. It turns out that for hyperbolic horizons the black holes can be extremal. In this case, the near-horizon geometry is AdS_2 x H^2, where the scalar goes to the other, non-supersymmetric, critical point of the potential. Our solution displays fall-off behaviours different from the standard one, due to the fact that the mass parameter $m^2=-2/\ell^2$ at the supersymmetric vacuum lies in a characteristic range $m^2_{BF}\le m^2\le m^2_{\rm BF}+\ell^{-2}$ for which the slowly decaying scalar field is also normalizable. Nevertheless, we identify a well-defined mass for our spacetime, following the prescription of Hertog and Maeda. Quite remarkably, the product of all horizon areas is not given in terms of the asymptotic cosmological constant alone, as one would expect in absence of electromagnetic charges and angular momentum. Our solution shows qualitatively the same thermodynamic behaviour as the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, but the entropy is always smaller for a given mass and AdS curvature radius. We also find that our spherical black holes are unstable against radial perturbations.

Kundt spacetimes minimally coupled to scalar field

We derive an exact solutions belonging to Kundt class of spacetimes both with and without a cosmological constant that are minimally coupled to free massless scalar field. We show the algebraic type of these solutions. Subsequently, we look for solutions additionally containing electromagnetic field satisfying nonlinear field equations.

The simplest extension of Starobinsky inflation

We consider the simplest extension to the Starobinsky model, by allowing an extra scalar field to help drive inflation. We perform our analysis in the Einstein frame and calculate the power spectra at the end of inflation to second order in the slow–roll parameters. We find that the model gives predictions in great agreement with the current Planck data without the need for fine-tuning. Our results encourage current efforts to embed the model in a supergravity setting.

The simplest extension of Starobinsky inflation [Cross-Listing]

We consider the simplest extension to the Starobinsky model, by allowing an extra scalar field to help drive inflation. We perform our analysis in the Einstein frame and calculate the power spectra at the end of inflation to second order in the slow–roll parameters. We find that the model gives predictions in great agreement with the current Planck data without the need for fine-tuning. Our results encourage current efforts to embed the model in a supergravity setting.

The simplest extension of Starobinsky inflation [Cross-Listing]

We consider the simplest extension to the Starobinsky model, by allowing an extra scalar field to help drive inflation. We perform our analysis in the Einstein frame and calculate the power spectra at the end of inflation to second order in the slow–roll parameters. We find that the model gives predictions in great agreement with the current Planck data without the need for fine-tuning. Our results encourage current efforts to embed the model in a supergravity setting.

Local zeta regularization and the scalar Casimir effect III. The case with a background harmonic potential [Cross-Listing]

Applying the general framework for local zeta regularization proposed in Part I of this series of papers, we renormalize the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor (and of the total energy) for a scalar field in presence of an external harmonic potential.

Local zeta regularization and the scalar Casimir effect II. Some explicitly solvable cases [Cross-Listing]

In Part I of this series of papers we have described a general formalism to compute the vacuum effects of a scalar field via local (or global) zeta regularization. In the present Part II we exemplify the general formalism in a number of cases which can be solved explicitly by analytical means. More in detail we deal with configurations involving parallel or perpendicular planes and we also discuss the case of a three-dimensional wedge.

Galaxy cluster constraints on the coupling to photons of low-mass scalars

We consider a broad class of interactions between radiation and a light scalar field, including both conformal and disformal couplings. Such a scalar field potentially acts on cosmological scales as dark energy and could also appear in modified gravity theories. We study the consequences of these couplings on the mixing between the scalar field and photons in galaxy clusters in the presence of a magnetic field. In particular we focus on the resulting turbulence-induced irregularities in the X-ray and UV bands. We find new bounds on the photon-to-scalar couplings, both conformal and disformal, which complement laboratory experiments and other astrophysical constraints.

Galaxy cluster constraints on the coupling to photons of low-mass scalars [Cross-Listing]

We consider a broad class of interactions between radiation and a light scalar field, including both conformal and disformal couplings. Such a scalar field potentially acts on cosmological scales as dark energy and could also appear in modified gravity theories. We study the consequences of these couplings on the mixing between the scalar field and photons in galaxy clusters in the presence of a magnetic field. In particular we focus on the resulting turbulence-induced irregularities in the X-ray and UV bands. We find new bounds on the photon-to-scalar couplings, both conformal and disformal, which complement laboratory experiments and other astrophysical constraints.

The boundary effect of anomaly-induced action [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the boundary effect of anomaly-induced action in two-dimensional spacetime, which is ignored in previous studies. Anomaly-induced action, which gives the stress tensor with the same trace as the trace anomaly, can be represented in terms of local operators by introducing an auxiliary scalar field. Although the degrees of freedom of the auxiliary field can in principle describe the quantum states of the original field, the principal relation between them was unclear. We show here that, by considering the boundary effect, the solutions of classical auxiliary fields are naturally related to the quantum states of the original field. We demonstrate this conclusion via several examples such as the flat, black hole and the de Sitter spacetime.

The boundary effect of anomaly-induced action

We discuss the boundary effect of anomaly-induced action in two-dimensional spacetime, which is ignored in previous studies. Anomaly-induced action, which gives the stress tensor with the same trace as the trace anomaly, can be represented in terms of local operators by introducing an auxiliary scalar field. Although the degrees of freedom of the auxiliary field can in principle describe the quantum states of the original field, the principal relation between them was unclear. We show here that, by considering the boundary effect, the solutions of classical auxiliary fields are naturally related to the quantum states of the original field. We demonstrate this conclusion via several examples such as the flat, black hole and the de Sitter spacetime.

Inflation in a conformally-invariant two-scalar-field theory with an extra $R^2$ term

We explore inflationary cosmology in a theory where there are two scalar fields which non-minimally couple to the Ricci scalar and an additional $R^2$ term, which breaks the conformal invariance. Particularly, we investigate the slow-roll inflation in the case of one dynamical scalar field and that of two dynamical scalar fields. It is explicitly demonstrated that the spectral index of scalar mode of the density perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be consistent with the observations acquired by the recent Planck satellite. The graceful exit from the inflationary stage is achieved as in convenient $R^2$ gravity. We also propose the generalization of the model under discussion with three scalar fields.

Inflation in a conformally-invariant two-scalar-field theory with an extra $R^2$ term [Cross-Listing]

We explore inflationary cosmology in a theory where there are two scalar fields which non-minimally couple to the Ricci scalar and an additional $R^2$ term, which breaks the conformal invariance. Particularly, we investigate the slow-roll inflation in the case of one dynamical scalar field and that of two dynamical scalar fields. It is explicitly demonstrated that the spectral index of scalar mode of the density perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be consistent with the observations acquired by the recent Planck satellite. The graceful exit from the inflationary stage is achieved as in convenient $R^2$ gravity. We also propose the generalization of the model under discussion with three scalar fields.

Inflation in a conformally-invariant two-scalar-field theory with an extra $R^2$ term [Cross-Listing]

We explore inflationary cosmology in a theory where there are two scalar fields which non-minimally couple to the Ricci scalar and an additional $R^2$ term, which breaks the conformal invariance. Particularly, we investigate the slow-roll inflation in the case of one dynamical scalar field and that of two dynamical scalar fields. It is explicitly demonstrated that the spectral index of scalar mode of the density perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be consistent with the observations acquired by the recent Planck satellite. The graceful exit from the inflationary stage is achieved as in convenient $R^2$ gravity. We also propose the generalization of the model under discussion with three scalar fields.

Inflation in a conformally-invariant two-scalar-field theory with an extra $R^2$ term [Cross-Listing]

We explore inflationary cosmology in a theory where there are two scalar fields which non-minimally couple to the Ricci scalar and an additional $R^2$ term, which breaks the conformal invariance. Particularly, we investigate the slow-roll inflation in the case of one dynamical scalar field and that of two dynamical scalar fields. It is explicitly demonstrated that the spectral index of scalar mode of the density perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be consistent with the observations acquired by the recent Planck satellite. The graceful exit from the inflationary stage is achieved as in convenient $R^2$ gravity. We also propose the generalization of the model under discussion with three scalar fields.

Bosenova and Axiverse [Cross-Listing]

We report some new interesting features of the dynamics of a string axion field (i.e., a (pseudo-)scalar field with tiny mass with sine-Gordon-type self-interaction) around a rotating black hole in three respects. First, we revisit the calculation of the growth rate of superradiant instability, and show that in some cases, overtone modes have larger growth rates than the fundamental mode with the same angular quantum numbers when the black hole is rapidly rotating. Next, we study the dynamical evolution of the scalar field caused by the nonlinear self-interaction, taking attention to the dependence of the dynamical phenomena on the axion mass and the modes. The cases in which two superradiantly unstable modes are excited simultaneously are also studied. Finally, we report on our preliminary simulations for gravitational wave emission from the dynamical axion cloud in the Schwarzschild background approximation. Our result suggests that fairly strong gravitational wave burst is emitted during the bosenova, which could be detected by the ground-based detectors if it happens in Our Galaxy or nearby galaxies.

Bosenova and Axiverse [Cross-Listing]

We report some new interesting features of the dynamics of a string axion field (i.e., a (pseudo-)scalar field with tiny mass with sine-Gordon-type self-interaction) around a rotating black hole in three respects. First, we revisit the calculation of the growth rate of superradiant instability, and show that in some cases, overtone modes have larger growth rates than the fundamental mode with the same angular quantum numbers when the black hole is rapidly rotating. Next, we study the dynamical evolution of the scalar field caused by the nonlinear self-interaction, taking attention to the dependence of the dynamical phenomena on the axion mass and the modes. The cases in which two superradiantly unstable modes are excited simultaneously are also studied. Finally, we report on our preliminary simulations for gravitational wave emission from the dynamical axion cloud in the Schwarzschild background approximation. Our result suggests that fairly strong gravitational wave burst is emitted during the bosenova, which could be detected by the ground-based detectors if it happens in Our Galaxy or nearby galaxies.

Bosenova and Axiverse

We report some new interesting features of the dynamics of a string axion field (i.e., a (pseudo-)scalar field with tiny mass with sine-Gordon-type self-interaction) around a rotating black hole in three respects. First, we revisit the calculation of the growth rate of superradiant instability, and show that in some cases, overtone modes have larger growth rates than the fundamental mode with the same angular quantum numbers when the black hole is rapidly rotating. Next, we study the dynamical evolution of the scalar field caused by the nonlinear self-interaction, taking attention to the dependence of the dynamical phenomena on the axion mass and the modes. The cases in which two superradiantly unstable modes are excited simultaneously are also studied. Finally, we report on our preliminary simulations for gravitational wave emission from the dynamical axion cloud in the Schwarzschild background approximation. Our result suggests that fairly strong gravitational wave burst is emitted during the bosenova, which could be detected by the ground-based detectors if it happens in Our Galaxy or nearby galaxies.

Local zeta regularization and the scalar Casimir effect I. A general approach based on integral kernels [Cross-Listing]

This is the first one of a series of papers about zeta regularization of the divergences appearing in the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of several local and global observables in quantum field theory. More precisely we consider a quantized, neutral scalar field on a domain in any spatial dimension, with arbitrary boundary conditions and, possibly, in presence of an external classical potential. We analyze, in particular, the VEV of the stress-energy tensor, the corresponding boundary forces and the total energy, thus taking into account both local and global aspects of the Casimir effect. In comparison with the wide existing literature on these subjects, we try to develop a more systematic approach, allowing to treat specific configurations by mere application of a general machinery. The present Part I is mainly devoted to setting up this general framework; at the end of the paper, this is exemplified in a very simple case. In Parts II, III and IV we will consider more engaging applications, indicated in the Introduction of the present work.

A rotating hairy AdS$_3$ black hole with the metric having only one Killing vector field

We perturbatively construct a three-dimensional rotating AdS black hole with a real scalar hair. We choose the mass of a scalar field slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and impose a more general boundary condition for the bulk scalar field at AdS infinity. We first show that rotating BTZ black holes are unstable against superradiant modes under our more general boundary condition. Next we construct a rotating hairy black hole perturbatively with respect to a small amplitude $\epsilon$ of the scalar field, up to $O(\epsilon^4)$. The lumps of non-linearly perturbed geometry admit only one Killing vector field and co-rotate with the black hole, and it shows no dissipation. We numerically show that the entropy of our hairy black hole is larger than that of the BTZ black hole with the same energy and the angular momentum. This indicates, at least in the perturbative level, that our rotating hairy black hole in lumpy geometry can be the endpoint of the superradiant instability.

A rotating hairy AdS$_3$ black hole with the metric having only one Killing vector field [Cross-Listing]

We perturbatively construct a three-dimensional rotating AdS black hole with a real scalar hair. We choose the mass of a scalar field slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and impose a more general boundary condition for the bulk scalar field at AdS infinity. We first show that rotating BTZ black holes are unstable against superradiant modes under our more general boundary condition. Next we construct a rotating hairy black hole perturbatively with respect to a small amplitude $\epsilon$ of the scalar field, up to $O(\epsilon^4)$. The lumps of non-linearly perturbed geometry admit only one Killing vector field and co-rotate with the black hole, and it shows no dissipation. We numerically show that the entropy of our hairy black hole is larger than that of the BTZ black hole with the same energy and the angular momentum. This indicates, at least in the perturbative level, that our rotating hairy black hole in lumpy geometry can be the endpoint of the superradiant instability.

Black Holes and Scalar Fields

No-hair theorems in theories of gravity with a scalar field are briefly and critically reviewed. Their significance and limitations are discussed and potential evasions are considered.

Black Holes and Scalar Fields [Cross-Listing]

No-hair theorems in theories of gravity with a scalar field are briefly and critically reviewed. Their significance and limitations are discussed and potential evasions are considered.

Black Holes and Scalar Fields [Cross-Listing]

No-hair theorems in theories of gravity with a scalar field are briefly and critically reviewed. Their significance and limitations are discussed and potential evasions are considered.

Hyperscaling violation and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV.

Hyperscaling violation and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV.

Hyperscaling violation and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking [Cross-Listing]

We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV.

Inflation from cosmological constant and nonminimally coupled scalar

We consider inflation in a universe with a positive cosmological constant and a nonminimally coupled scalar field, in which the field couples both quadratically and quartically to the Ricci scalar. When considered in the Einstein frame and when the nonminimal couplings are negative, the field starts in slow roll and inflation ends with an asymptotic value of the principal slow roll parameter, $\epsilon_E=4/3$. Graceful exit can be achieved by suitably (tightly) coupling the scalar field to matter, such that at late time the total energy density reaches the scaling of matter, $\epsilon_E=\epsilon_m$. Quite generically the model produces a red spectrum of scalar cosmological perturbations and a small amount of gravitational radiation. With a suitable choice of the nonminimal couplings, the spectral slope can be as large as $n_s\simeq 0.955$, which is about one standard deviation away from the central value measured by the Planck satellite. The model can be ruled out by future measurements if any of the following is observed: (a) the spectral index of scalar perturbations is $n_s>0.960$; (b) the amplitude of tensor perturbations is above about $r\sim 10^{-2}$; (c) the running of the spectral index of scalar perturbations is positive.

Inflation from cosmological constant and nonminimally coupled scalar [Cross-Listing]

We consider inflation in a universe with a positive cosmological constant and a nonminimally coupled scalar field, in which the field couples both quadratically and quartically to the Ricci scalar. When considered in the Einstein frame and when the nonminimal couplings are negative, the field starts in slow roll and inflation ends with an asymptotic value of the principal slow roll parameter, $\epsilon_E=4/3$. Graceful exit can be achieved by suitably (tightly) coupling the scalar field to matter, such that at late time the total energy density reaches the scaling of matter, $\epsilon_E=\epsilon_m$. Quite generically the model produces a red spectrum of scalar cosmological perturbations and a small amount of gravitational radiation. With a suitable choice of the nonminimal couplings, the spectral slope can be as large as $n_s\simeq 0.955$, which is about one standard deviation away from the central value measured by the Planck satellite. The model can be ruled out by future measurements if any of the following is observed: (a) the spectral index of scalar perturbations is $n_s>0.960$; (b) the amplitude of tensor perturbations is above about $r\sim 10^{-2}$; (c) the running of the spectral index of scalar perturbations is positive.

Dilatonic dyon black hole solutions

Dilatonic black hole dyon solutions with arbitrary dilatonic coupling constant $\lambda \neq 0$ and canonical sign $\varepsilon = +1$ for scalar field kynetic term are considered. These solutions are defined up to solutions of two master equations for moduli funtions. For $\lambda^2 \neq 1/2$ the solutions are extended to $\varepsilon = \pm 1$, where $\varepsilon = -1$ corresponds to ghost (phantom) scalar field. Some physical parameters of the solutions: gravitational mass, scalar charge, Hawking temperature, black hole area entropy and parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters $\beta$ and $\gamma$ are obtained. It is shown that PPN parameters do not depend on scalar field coupling $\lambda$ and $\varepsilon$. Two group of bounds on gravitational mass and scalar charge (for fixed and arbitrary extremality parameter $\mu >0$) are found by using a certain conjecture on parameters of solutions when $1 +2 \lambda^2 \varepsilon > 0$. These bounds are verified numerically for certain examples. By product we are led to well-known lower bound on mass which was obtained earlier by Gibbons, Kastor, London, Townsend and Traschen with the aid of a special assumption.

Fast-roll solutions from two scalar field inflation

The cosmological equations of motion of scalar fields are commonly not easy to be analytically solved, which makes necessary to use approximation methods, as the {\it slow-roll} regime. In such an approximation one considers the scalar field potentials to be nearly flat. On the other hand, the so called {\it fast-roll} regime considers exactly flat potentials. Our purpose in this work is to obtain solutions for a two scalar field quintessence model in the fast-roll regime. Cosmological interpretations for such solutions are also presented.

Cosmological simulations with disformally coupled symmetron fields

We use N-body simulations to study the matter distribution in disformal gravity. The disformal model studied here is a conformally coupled symmetron field with an additional exponential disformal term. We conduct cosmological simulations with the aim to find the impact of the new disformal terms in the matter power spectrum, halo mass function and radial profile of the scalar field. This is done by calculating the disformal geodesic equation and the equation of motion for the scalar field, then implementing them into the N-body code ISIS, which is a modified gravity version of the code RAMSES. The presence of a conformal symmetron field increases both the power spectrum and mass function compared to standard gravity on small scales. Our main result is that the newly added disformal terms tend to counteract this effects and can make the evolution slightly closer to standard gravity. We finally show that the disformal terms give rise to oscillations of the scalar field in the centre of the dark matter haloes.

Cosmological simulations with disformally coupled symmetron fields [Cross-Listing]

We use N-body simulations to study the matter distribution in disformal gravity. The disformal model studied here is a conformally coupled symmetron field with an additional exponential disformal term. We conduct cosmological simulations with the aim to find the impact of the new disformal terms in the matter power spectrum, halo mass function and radial profile of the scalar field. This is done by calculating the disformal geodesic equation and the equation of motion for the scalar field, then implementing them into the N-body code ISIS, which is a modified gravity version of the code RAMSES. The presence of a conformal symmetron field increases both the power spectrum and mass function compared to standard gravity on small scales. Our main result is that the newly added disformal terms tend to counteract this effects and can make the evolution slightly closer to standard gravity. We finally show that the disformal terms give rise to oscillations of the scalar field in the centre of the dark matter haloes.

Cosmological simulations with disformally coupled symmetron fields [Cross-Listing]

We use N-body simulations to study the matter distribution in disformal gravity. The disformal model studied here is a conformally coupled symmetron field with an additional exponential disformal term. We conduct cosmological simulations with the aim to find the impact of the new disformal terms in the matter power spectrum, halo mass function and radial profile of the scalar field. This is done by calculating the disformal geodesic equation and the equation of motion for the scalar field, then implementing them into the N-body code ISIS, which is a modified gravity version of the code RAMSES. The presence of a conformal symmetron field increases both the power spectrum and mass function compared to standard gravity on small scales. Our main result is that the newly added disformal terms tend to counteract this effects and can make the evolution slightly closer to standard gravity. We finally show that the disformal terms give rise to oscillations of the scalar field in the centre of the dark matter haloes.

Cosmological simulations with disformally coupled symmetron fields [Cross-Listing]

We use N-body simulations to study the matter distribution in disformal gravity. The disformal model studied here is a conformally coupled symmetron field with an additional exponential disformal term. We conduct cosmological simulations with the aim to find the impact of the new disformal terms in the matter power spectrum, halo mass function and radial profile of the scalar field. This is done by calculating the disformal geodesic equation and the equation of motion for the scalar field, then implementing them into the N-body code ISIS, which is a modified gravity version of the code RAMSES. The presence of a conformal symmetron field increases both the power spectrum and mass function compared to standard gravity on small scales. Our main result is that the newly added disformal terms tend to counteract this effects and can make the evolution slightly closer to standard gravity. We finally show that the disformal terms give rise to oscillations of the scalar field in the centre of the dark matter haloes.

Stationary cylindrically symmetric spacetimes with a massless scalar field and a non-positive cosmological constant

The general stationary cylindrically symmetric solution of Einstein-massless scalar field system with a non-positive cosmological constant is presented. It is shown that the general solution is characterized by four integration constants. Two of these essential parameters have a local meaning and characterize the gravitational field strength. The other two have a topological origin, as they define an improper coordinate transformation that provides the stationary solution from the static one. The Petrov scheme is considered to explore the effects of the scalar field on the algebraic classification of the solutions. In general, these spacetimes are of type I. However, the presence of the scalar field allows us to find a non-vacuum type O solution and a wider family of type D spacetimes, in comparison with the vacuum case. The mass and angular momentum of the solution are computed using the Regge-Teitelboim method in the case of a negative cosmological constant. In absence of a cosmological constant, the curvature singularities in the vacuum solutions can be removed by including a phantom scalar field, yielding non-trivial locally homogeneous spacetimes. These spacetimes are of particular interest, as they have all their curvature invariants constant.

Curvature Singularity in f(R) Theories of Gravity

Although f(R) modifications of late time cosmology is successful in explaining present cosmic acceleration, it is very difficult to simultaneously satisfy the fifth-force constraint. Even when the fifth-force constraint is satisfied, the effective scalar degree of freedom may move to a point (close to its minima) in the field space where the Ricci scalar diverges. We elucidate this point further with a specific example of f(R) gravity that incorporates several viable f(R) gravity models in the literature. In particular, we show that the nonlinear evolution of the scalar field in pressureless contracting dust can easily lead to the curvature singularity, making this theory unviable.

Curvature Singularity in f(R) Theories of Gravity [Cross-Listing]

Although f(R) modifications of late time cosmology is successful in explaining present cosmic acceleration, it is very difficult to simultaneously satisfy the fifth-force constraint. Even when the fifth-force constraint is satisfied, the effective scalar degree of freedom may move to a point (close to its minima) in the field space where the Ricci scalar diverges. We elucidate this point further with a specific example of f(R) gravity that incorporates several viable f(R) gravity models in the literature. In particular, we show that the nonlinear evolution of the scalar field in pressureless contracting dust can easily lead to the curvature singularity, making this theory unviable.

Curvature Singularity in f(R) Theories of Gravity [Cross-Listing]

Although f(R) modifications of late time cosmology is successful in explaining present cosmic acceleration, it is very difficult to simultaneously satisfy the fifth-force constraint. Even when the fifth-force constraint is satisfied, the effective scalar degree of freedom may move to a point (close to its minima) in the field space where the Ricci scalar diverges. We elucidate this point further with a specific example of f(R) gravity that incorporates several viable f(R) gravity models in the literature. In particular, we show that the nonlinear evolution of the scalar field in pressureless contracting dust can easily lead to the curvature singularity, making this theory unviable.

Curvature Singularity in f(R) Theories of Gravity [Cross-Listing]

Although f(R) modifications of late time cosmology is successful in explaining present cosmic acceleration, it is very difficult to simultaneously satisfy the fifth-force constraint. Even when the fifth-force constraint is satisfied, the effective scalar degree of freedom may move to a point (close to its minima) in the field space where the Ricci scalar diverges. We elucidate this point further with a specific example of f(R) gravity that incorporates several viable f(R) gravity models in the literature. In particular, we show that the nonlinear evolution of the scalar field in pressureless contracting dust can easily lead to the curvature singularity, making this theory unviable.

Curvature Singularity in f(R) Theories of Gravity [Cross-Listing]

Although f(R) modifications of late time cosmology is successful in explaining present cosmic acceleration, it is very difficult to simultaneously satisfy the fifth-force constraint. Even when the fifth-force constraint is satisfied, the effective scalar degree of freedom may move to a point (close to its minima) in the field space where the Ricci scalar diverges. We elucidate this point further with a specific example of f(R) gravity that incorporates several viable f(R) gravity models in the literature. In particular, we show that the nonlinear evolution of the scalar field in pressureless contracting dust can easily lead to the curvature singularity, making this theory unviable.

Symmetry breaking and cosmic acceleration in scalar field models [Replacement]

We propose a new scenario for the onset of acceleration of our Universe based on symmetry breaking in a scalar field dark energy model. In this model, when dark matter density becomes less than a critical value, the effective shape of the potential is changed and, unlike the symmetron and hybrid quintessence models, the quintessence field climbs up along its own potential. This procedure establishes the positivity of the potential required for the Universe to accelerate. In addition, we show that by choosing an appropriate interaction between dark sectors there is the possibility that the scalar field resides in a new vacuum giving rise to a positive cosmological constant which is responsible for a permanent late time acceleration.

Symmetry breaking and cosmic acceleration in scalar field models [Replacement]

We propose a new scenario for the onset of acceleration of our Universe based on symmetry breaking in a scalar field dark energy model. In this model, when dark matter density becomes less than a critical value, the effective shape of the potential is changed and, unlike the symmetron and hybrid quintessence models, the quintessence field climbs up along its own potential. This procedure establishes the positivity of the potential required for the Universe to accelerate. In addition, we show that by choosing an appropriate interaction between dark sectors there is the possibility that the scalar field resides in a new vacuum giving rise to a positive cosmological constant which is responsible for a permanent late time acceleration.

Horndeski's Stars

We consider the sector of Horndeski’s gravity characterized by a coupling between the kinetic scalar field term and the Einstein tensor. Our goal is to find realistic neutron star configurations in this framework. We show that, in a certain limit, there exist solutions that are identical to the Schwarzschild metric outside the star but change considerably inside, where the scalar field is not trivial. We study numerically the equations and find the region of the parameter space where neutron stars exist. We determine their internal pressure and mass-radius relation, and we compare them with standard general relativity models.

 

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