Posts Tagged scalar field

Recent Postings from scalar field

Dirac fields in massive conformal gravity

In this article we show that the gravitational field in massive conformal gravity couples consistently with Dirac spinor fields. We solve the problem of consistency by considering that the Dirac spinor fields couple with both the metric field and a scalar field, which are the gravitational field variables of massive conformal gravity.

Dynamical symmetries and observational constraints in scalar field cosmology

We propose to use dynamical symmetries of the field equations, in order to classify the dark energy models in the context of scalar field (quintessence or phantom) FLRW cosmologies. Practically, symmetries provide a useful mathematical tool in physical problems since they can be used to simplify a given system of differential equations as well as to determine the integrability of the physical system. The requirement that the field equations admit dynamical symmetries results in two potentials one of which is the well known Unified Dark Matter (UDM) potential and another new potential. For each hyperbolic potential we obtain the corresponding analytic solution of the field equations. The proposed analysis suggests that the requirement of the contact symmetry appears to be very competitive to other independent tests used to probe the functional form of a given potential and thus the associated nature of dark energy. Finally, in order to test the viability of the above scalar field models we perform a joint likelihood analysis using some of the latest cosmological data.

Dynamical symmetries and observational constraints in scalar field cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We propose to use dynamical symmetries of the field equations, in order to classify the dark energy models in the context of scalar field (quintessence or phantom) FLRW cosmologies. Practically, symmetries provide a useful mathematical tool in physical problems since they can be used to simplify a given system of differential equations as well as to determine the integrability of the physical system. The requirement that the field equations admit dynamical symmetries results in two potentials one of which is the well known Unified Dark Matter (UDM) potential and another new potential. For each hyperbolic potential we obtain the corresponding analytic solution of the field equations. The proposed analysis suggests that the requirement of the contact symmetry appears to be very competitive to other independent tests used to probe the functional form of a given potential and thus the associated nature of dark energy. Finally, in order to test the viability of the above scalar field models we perform a joint likelihood analysis using some of the latest cosmological data.

Dynamical symmetries and observational constraints in scalar field cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We propose to use dynamical symmetries of the field equations, in order to classify the dark energy models in the context of scalar field (quintessence or phantom) FLRW cosmologies. Practically, symmetries provide a useful mathematical tool in physical problems since they can be used to simplify a given system of differential equations as well as to determine the integrability of the physical system. The requirement that the field equations admit dynamical symmetries results in two potentials one of which is the well known Unified Dark Matter (UDM) potential and another new potential. For each hyperbolic potential we obtain the corresponding analytic solution of the field equations. The proposed analysis suggests that the requirement of the contact symmetry appears to be very competitive to other independent tests used to probe the functional form of a given potential and thus the associated nature of dark energy. Finally, in order to test the viability of the above scalar field models we perform a joint likelihood analysis using some of the latest cosmological data.

Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions [Cross-Listing]

Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and a quartic potential of the field. Then, using this scalar field model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential; therefore, containing all information about the bubble collisions. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions: the former is obtained numerically, in full General Relativity and the latter analytically, in the flat spacetime approximation. The thin-wall and quadrupole approximations are assumed to simplify our computations and the next-to-leading order corrections beyond these approximations are disregarded in our analysis. Nonetheless, we gain qualitative insights into the time-domain gravitational waveforms from the bubble collisions: during (i), the waveforms show the non-linearity of the collisions, characterized by a modulating frequency and cusp-like bumps, whereas during (ii), the waveforms exhibit the linearity of the collisions, featured by smooth monochromatic oscillations.

Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions

Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and a quartic potential of the field. Then, using this scalar field model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential; therefore, containing all information about the bubble collisions. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions: the former is obtained numerically, in full General Relativity and the latter analytically, in the flat spacetime approximation. The thin-wall and quadrupole approximations are assumed to simplify our computations and the next-to-leading order corrections beyond these approximations are disregarded in our analysis. Nonetheless, we gain qualitative insights into the time-domain gravitational waveforms from the bubble collisions: during (i), the waveforms show the non-linearity of the collisions, characterized by a modulating frequency and cusp-like bumps, whereas during (ii), the waveforms exhibit the linearity of the collisions, featured by smooth monochromatic oscillations.

Finite Temperature Scalar Field Dark Matter and Dwarf Spheroidal galaxies

We analyse the velocity dispersion for eight of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellites in the context of finite temperature scalar field dark mater. In this model the finite temperature allows the scalar field to be in configurations that possess excited states, a feature that has proved to be necessary in order to explain the asymptotic rotational velocities found in low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. In this work we show that excited states are not only important in large galaxies but also have visible effects in dwarf spheroidals. Additionally, we stress that contrary to previous works where the scalar field dark matter haloes are consider to be purely Bose-Einstein condensates, the inclusion of excited states in these halo configurations provides a consistent framework capable of describing LSBs and dwarf galaxies of different sizes without arriving to contradictions within the scalar field dark matter model. Using this new framework we find that the addition of excited states accounts very well for the raise in the velocity dispersion in Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies improving the fit compared to the one obtained assuming all the DM to be in the form of a Bose Einstein Condensate.

Dwarf galaxies in multistate Scalar Field Dark Matter haloes [Replacement]

We analyse the velocity dispersion for eight of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellites in the context of finite temperature scalar field dark mater. In this model the finite temperature allows the scalar field to be in configurations that possess excited states, a feature that has proved to be necessary in order to explain the asymptotic rotational velocities found in low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. In this work we show that excited states are not only important in large galaxies but also have visible effects in dwarf spheroidals. Additionally, we stress that contrary to previous works where the scalar field dark matter haloes are consider to be purely Bose-Einstein condensates, the inclusion of excited states in these halo configurations provides a consistent framework capable of describing LSBs and dwarf galaxies of different sizes without arriving to contradictions within the scalar field dark matter model. Using this new framework we find that the addition of excited states accounts very well for the raise in the velocity dispersion in Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies improving the fit compared to the one obtained assuming all the DM to be in the form of a Bose Einstein Condensate.

Scalar field collapse with negative cosmological constant

The formation of black holes or naked singularities is studied in a model in which a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field with an exponential potential couples to four dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. An analytic solution is derived and its consequences are discussed. The model depends only on one free parameter which determines the equation of state and decides the fate of the spacetime. Depending on the value of this parameter the collapse ends in a black hole or a naked singularity. The latter case violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.

Scalar field collapse with negative cosmological constant [Cross-Listing]

The formation of black holes or naked singularities is studied in a model in which a homogeneous time-dependent scalar field with an exponential potential couples to four dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. An analytic solution is derived and its consequences are discussed. The model depends only on one free parameter which determines the equation of state and decides the fate of the spacetime. Depending on the value of this parameter the collapse ends in a black hole or a naked singularity. The latter case violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.

The rotating scalar field vacuum on anti-de Sitter space-time

We consider the definition of the vacuum state of a quantum scalar field on $n$-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time as seen by an observer rotating about the polar axis. Since positive (or negative) frequency scalar field modes must have positive (or negative) Klein-Gordon norm respectively, we find that the only sensible choice of positive frequency corresponds to positive frequency as seen by a static observer. This means that the rotating vacuum is identical to the nonrotating vacuum. If the angular velocity of the rotating observer is smaller than the inverse of the anti-de Sitter radius of curvature, then modes with positive Klein-Gordon norm also have positive frequency as seen by the rotating observer. We comment on the implications of this result for the construction of rotating thermal states.

A late time accelerated FRW model with scalar and vector fields via Noether symmetry

We study the evolution of a three-dimensional minisuperspace cosmological model by the Noether symmetry approach. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factor of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model, a scalar field with potential function $V(\phi)$ with which the gravity part of the action is minimally coupled and a vector field its kinetic energy is coupled with the scalar field by a coupling function $f(\phi)$. Then, the Noether symmetry of such a cosmological model is investigated by utilizing the behavior of the corresponding Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the desired symmetry. We explicitly calculate the form of the coupling function between the scalar and the vector fields and also the scalar field potential function for which such symmetry exists. Finally, by means of the corresponding Noether current we integrate the equations of motion and obtain exact solutions for the scale factor, scalar and vector fields. It is shown that the resulting cosmology is an accelerated expansion universe which its expansion is due to the presence of the vector field in the early times, while the scalar field is responsible of its late time expansion.

An alternative scenario for critical scalar field collapse in $AdS_3$

In the context of gravitational collapse and black hole formation, we reconsider the problem to describe analytically the critical collapse of a massless and minimally coupled scalar field in $2+1$ gravity.

An alternative scenario for critical scalar field collapse in $AdS_3$ [Cross-Listing]

In the context of gravitational collapse and black hole formation, we reconsider the problem to describe analytically the critical collapse of a massless and minimally coupled scalar field in $2+1$ gravity.

Scalar and Vector Field Constraints, Deflection of Light and Lensing in Modified Gravity (MOG)

A conformal coupling of the metric in the Jordan frame to the energy-momentum tensor, screens the scalar field gravitational coupling strength $G$ in modified gravity (MOG). The scalar field acquires a mass which depends on the local matter density: the scalar field particle is massive for the Sun and earth, where the density is high compared to low density environments in cosmology and astrophysics. Together with the screening of the vector field $\phi_\mu$, this guarantees that solar system tests of gravity are satisfied. The conformal metric is coupled to the electromagnetic matter field and energy-momentum tensor, screening $G$ for the Sun and the deflection of light by the Sun and the Shapiro time delay in MOG are in agreement with general relativity. For galaxies and galactic clusters the enhanced gravitational coupling constant $G$ leads to agreement with gravitational lensing without dark matter. For compact binary pulsars the screening of $G$ removes the monopole and dipole gravitational radiation modes in agreement with the binary pulsar timing data.

Scalar and Vector Field Constraints, Deflection of Light and Lensing in Modified Gravity (MOG) [Cross-Listing]

A conformal coupling of the metric in the Jordan frame to the energy-momentum tensor, screens the scalar field gravitational coupling strength $G$ in modified gravity (MOG). The scalar field acquires a mass which depends on the local matter density: the scalar field particle is massive for the Sun and earth, where the density is high compared to low density environments in cosmology and astrophysics. Together with the screening of the vector field $\phi_\mu$, this guarantees that solar system tests of gravity are satisfied. The conformal metric is coupled to the electromagnetic matter field and energy-momentum tensor, screening $G$ for the Sun and the deflection of light by the Sun and the Shapiro time delay in MOG are in agreement with general relativity. For galaxies and galactic clusters the enhanced gravitational coupling constant $G$ leads to agreement with gravitational lensing without dark matter. For compact binary pulsars the screening of $G$ removes the monopole and dipole gravitational radiation modes in agreement with the binary pulsar timing data.

3.5 keV X-ray Line Signal from Dark Matter Decay in Local $U(1)_{B-L}$ Extension of Zee-Babu Model

We consider a local $U(1)_{B-L}$ extension of Zee-Babu model to explain the recently observed 3.5 keV X-ray line signal. The model has three Standard model (SM)-singlet Dirac fermions with different $U(1)_{B-L}$ charges. A complex scalar field charged under $U(1)_{B-L}$ is introduced to break the $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry. After $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry breaking a remnant discrete symmetry stabilizes the lightest state of the Dirac fermions, which can be a stable dark matter (DM). The second lightest state, if mass splitting with the stable DM is about 3.5 keV, decays dominantly to the stable DM and 3.5 keV photon through two-loop diagrams, explaining the X-ray line signal. Two-loop suppression of the decay amplitude makes its lifetime much longer than the age of the universe and it can be a decaying DM candidate in large parameter region. We also introduce a real scalar field which is singlet under both the SM and $U(1)_{B-L}$ and can explain the current relic abundance of the Dirac fermionic DMs. If the mixing with the SM Higgs boson is small, it does not contribute to DM direct detection. The main contribution to the scattering of DM off atomic nuclei comes from the exchange of $U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge boson, $Z’$, and is suppressed below current experimental bound when $Z’$ mass is heavy ($\gtrsim 10$ TeV). If the singlet scalar mass is about 0.1-10 MeV, the DM self-interaction can be large enough to solve small scale structure problems in simulations with the cold DM, such as, the core-vs-cusp problem and too-big-to-fail problem.

3.5 keV X-ray Line Signal from Dark Matter Decay in Local $U(1)_{B-L}$ Extension of Zee-Babu Model [Replacement]

We consider a local $U(1)_{B-L}$ extension of Zee-Babu model to explain the recently observed 3.5 keV X-ray line signal. The model has three Standard model (SM)-singlet Dirac fermions with different $U(1)_{B-L}$ charges. A complex scalar field charged under $U(1)_{B-L}$ is introduced to break the $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry. After $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry breaking a remnant discrete symmetry stabilizes the lightest state of the Dirac fermions, which can be a stable dark matter (DM). The second lightest state, if mass splitting with the stable DM is about 3.5 keV, decays dominantly to the stable DM and 3.5 keV photon through two-loop diagrams, explaining the X-ray line signal. Two-loop suppression of the decay amplitude makes its lifetime much longer than the age of the universe and it can be a decaying DM candidate in large parameter region. We also introduce a real scalar field which is singlet under both the SM and $U(1)_{B-L}$ and can explain the current relic abundance of the Dirac fermionic DMs. If the mixing with the SM Higgs boson is small, it does not contribute to DM direct detection. The main contribution to the scattering of DM off atomic nuclei comes from the exchange of $U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge boson, $Z’$, and is suppressed below current experimental bound when $Z’$ mass is heavy ($\gtrsim 10$ TeV). If the singlet scalar mass is about 0.1-10 MeV, the DM self-interaction can be large enough to solve small scale structure problems in simulations with the cold DM, such as, the core-vs-cusp problem and too-big-to-fail problem.

Dark energy as a cosmological consequence of existence of the Dirac scalar field

The solution of the field equations of the conformal theory of gravitation with Dirac scalar field in Cartan-Weyl spacetime at the very early Universe is obtained. In this theory dark energy (describing by an effective cosmological constant) is a function of the Dirac scalar field $\beta$. This solution describes the exponential decreasing of $\beta$ at the inflation stage and has a limit to a constant value of the dark energy at large time. This can give a way to solving the fundamental cosmological constant problem as a consequence of the fields dynamics in the early Universe.

A new mechanism of realizing inflationary universe with recourse to backreaction of quantized free fields -- Inflation without inflaton [Cross-Listing]

It is shown that the inflationary era in early universe is realized due to the effect of backreaction of quantized matter fields. In fact we start by quantizing a free scalar field in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time, and the field is fluctuating quantum mechanically around the bottom of the mass potential. We then obtain the vacuum expectation value of the energy density of the scalar field as a functional of the scale factor $a(t)$ of the universe. By plugging it into the Einstein equation, a self-consistent equation is established in which the matter fields determine the time evolution of the universe. We solve this equation by setting few conditions and find the following solution: the universe expands \`{a} la de Sitter with e-folding number $\gtrsim 60$ and then it turns to shrink with a decreasing Hubble parameter $H(t)$ which rapidly goes to zero.

A new mechanism of realizing inflationary universe with recourse to backreaction of quantized free fields -- Inflation without inflaton

It is shown that the inflationary era in early universe is realized due to the effect of backreaction of quantized matter fields. In fact we start by quantizing a free scalar field in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time, and the field is fluctuating quantum mechanically around the bottom of the mass potential. We then obtain the vacuum expectation value of the energy density of the scalar field as a functional of the scale factor $a(t)$ of the universe. By plugging it into the Einstein equation, a self-consistent equation is established in which the matter fields determine the time evolution of the universe. We solve this equation by setting few conditions and find the following solution: the universe expands \`{a} la de Sitter with e-folding number $\gtrsim 60$ and then it turns to shrink with a decreasing Hubble parameter $H(t)$ which rapidly goes to zero.

Higgs effective potential in a perturbed Robertson-Walker background [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the one-loop effective potential of a scalar field in a Robertson-Walker background with scalar metric perturbations. A complete set of orthonormal solutions of the perturbed equations is obtained by using the adiabatic approximation for comoving observers. After analyzing the problem of renormalization in inhomogeneous backgrounds, we get the explicit contribution of metric perturbations to the effective potential. We apply these results to the Standard Model Higgs effective potential and evaluate the effects of metric perturbations on the Higgs vacuum expectation value. Space-time variations are found, which are proportional to the gravitational slip parameter, with a typical amplitude of the order of $\Delta\phi/\phi\simeq 10^{-11}$ on cosmological scales. We also discuss possible astrophysical signatures in the Solar System and in the Milky Way that could open new possibilities to explore the symmetry breaking sector of the electroweak interactions.

Higgs effective potential in a perturbed Robertson-Walker background [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the one-loop effective potential of a scalar field in a Robertson-Walker background with scalar metric perturbations. A complete set of orthonormal solutions of the perturbed equations is obtained by using the adiabatic approximation for comoving observers. After analyzing the problem of renormalization in inhomogeneous backgrounds, we get the explicit contribution of metric perturbations to the effective potential. We apply these results to the Standard Model Higgs effective potential and evaluate the effects of metric perturbations on the Higgs vacuum expectation value. Space-time variations are found, which are proportional to the gravitational slip parameter, with a typical amplitude of the order of $\Delta\phi/\phi\simeq 10^{-11}$ on cosmological scales. We also discuss possible astrophysical signatures in the Solar System and in the Milky Way that could open new possibilities to explore the symmetry breaking sector of the electroweak interactions.

Higgs effective potential in a perturbed Robertson-Walker background

We calculate the one-loop effective potential of a scalar field in a Robertson-Walker background with scalar metric perturbations. A complete set of orthonormal solutions of the perturbed equations is obtained by using the adiabatic approximation for comoving observers. After analyzing the problem of renormalization in inhomogeneous backgrounds, we get the explicit contribution of metric perturbations to the effective potential. We apply these results to the Standard Model Higgs effective potential and evaluate the effects of metric perturbations on the Higgs vacuum expectation value. Space-time variations are found, which are proportional to the gravitational slip parameter, with a typical amplitude of the order of $\Delta\phi/\phi\simeq 10^{-11}$ on cosmological scales. We also discuss possible astrophysical signatures in the Solar System and in the Milky Way that could open new possibilities to explore the symmetry breaking sector of the electroweak interactions.

Higgs effective potential in a perturbed Robertson-Walker background [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the one-loop effective potential of a scalar field in a Robertson-Walker background with scalar metric perturbations. A complete set of orthonormal solutions of the perturbed equations is obtained by using the adiabatic approximation for comoving observers. After analyzing the problem of renormalization in inhomogeneous backgrounds, we get the explicit contribution of metric perturbations to the effective potential. We apply these results to the Standard Model Higgs effective potential and evaluate the effects of metric perturbations on the Higgs vacuum expectation value. Space-time variations are found, which are proportional to the gravitational slip parameter, with a typical amplitude of the order of $\Delta\phi/\phi\simeq 10^{-11}$ on cosmological scales. We also discuss possible astrophysical signatures in the Solar System and in the Milky Way that could open new possibilities to explore the symmetry breaking sector of the electroweak interactions.

Does massive gravity have viable cosmologies? [Cross-Listing]

Massive gravity has a well-known no-go theorem forbidding flat FLRW solutions; other solutions are unstable, seemingly ruling out the possibility of homogeneous and isotropic massive cosmology. Recently, de Rham, Heisenberg, and Ribeiro showed that this can be overcome if matter is coupled to both the spacetime metric and the reference metric, reopening the possibilities for cosmology with a single, massive graviton. It is shown that this proof, however, relies crucially on the existence of a scalar field or some other nonstandard matter, while a universe filled with only dust or radiation faces the same no-go restriction as in the original theory. Unusually, the total density, pressure, and Einstein-frame Friedmann equation are completely determined in terms of the scale factor, independent of the matter content; the physical Hubble rate, however, does not have this property. In the presence of a scalar, these models possess pathological evolution at both early and late times, unless the scalar has a highly contrived potential or violates the equivalence principle. Because this theory requires "exotic" matter in addition to dust and radiation in order to produce dynamical cosmological solutions, it cannot make unambiguous predictions for observations. These problems can be avoided by giving the reference metric dynamics.

Does massive gravity have viable cosmologies?

Massive gravity has a well-known no-go theorem forbidding flat FLRW solutions; other solutions are unstable, seemingly ruling out the possibility of homogeneous and isotropic massive cosmology. Recently, de Rham, Heisenberg, and Ribeiro showed that this can be overcome if matter is coupled to both the spacetime metric and the reference metric, reopening the possibilities for cosmology with a single, massive graviton. It is shown that this proof, however, relies crucially on the existence of a scalar field or some other nonstandard matter, while a universe filled with only dust or radiation faces the same no-go restriction as in the original theory. Unusually, the total density, pressure, and Einstein-frame Friedmann equation are completely determined in terms of the scale factor, independent of the matter content; the physical Hubble rate, however, does not have this property. In the presence of a scalar, these models possess pathological evolution at both early and late times, unless the scalar has a highly contrived potential or violates the equivalence principle. Because this theory requires "exotic" matter in addition to dust and radiation in order to produce dynamical cosmological solutions, it cannot make unambiguous predictions for observations. These problems can be avoided by giving the reference metric dynamics.

Does massive gravity have viable cosmologies? [Cross-Listing]

Massive gravity has a well-known no-go theorem forbidding flat FLRW solutions; other solutions are unstable, seemingly ruling out the possibility of homogeneous and isotropic massive cosmology. Recently, de Rham, Heisenberg, and Ribeiro showed that this can be overcome if matter is coupled to both the spacetime metric and the reference metric, reopening the possibilities for cosmology with a single, massive graviton. It is shown that this proof, however, relies crucially on the existence of a scalar field or some other nonstandard matter, while a universe filled with only dust or radiation faces the same no-go restriction as in the original theory. Unusually, the total density, pressure, and Einstein-frame Friedmann equation are completely determined in terms of the scale factor, independent of the matter content; the physical Hubble rate, however, does not have this property. In the presence of a scalar, these models possess pathological evolution at both early and late times, unless the scalar has a highly contrived potential or violates the equivalence principle. Because this theory requires "exotic" matter in addition to dust and radiation in order to produce dynamical cosmological solutions, it cannot make unambiguous predictions for observations. These problems can be avoided by giving the reference metric dynamics.

Quasinormal modes of charged fields around a Reissner-Nordstr\"om black hole [Replacement]

The quasinormal spectrum of a charged scalar field around a non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\"om black hole, specially in the limit of large electromagnetic interaction, has been comprehensively studied only very recently. In this work, we extend the analysis to Dirac fields using the continued fraction method and compare the results with the scalar case. In particular, we study the behaviour of the fundamental quasinormal mode as a function of the black hole’s charge and of the electromagnetic interaction parameter. We derive an analytical formula for the quasinormal frequencies in the limit of large electromagnetic interaction. As the extremal limit of black hole charge is approached, we show that, unlike the case of neutral fields, the imaginary part of the quasinormal frequencies approach zero for charged fields.

Quasinormal modes of charged fields around a Reissner-Nordstr\"om black hole

The quasinormal spectrum of a charged scalar field around a non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\"om black hole, specially in the limit of large electromagnetic interaction, has been comprehensively studied only very recently. In this work, we extend the analysis to Dirac fields using the continued fraction method and compare the results with the scalar case. In particular, we study the behaviour of the fundamental quasinormal mode as a function of the black hole’s charge and of the electromagnetic interaction parameter. We derive an analytical formula for the quasinormal frequencies in the limit of large electromagnetic interaction. As the extremal limit of black hole charge is approached, we obtain evidence that, unlike the case of neutral fields, the imaginary part of the quasinormal frequencies approach zero for charged fields.

Kibble-Zurek Scaling in Holographic Quantum Quench : Backreaction [Replacement]

We study gauge and gravity backreaction in a holographic model of quantum quench across a superfluid critical transition. The model involves a complex scalar field coupled to a gauge and gravity field in the bulk. In earlier work (arXiv:1211.1776) the scalar field had a strong self-coupling, in which case the backreaction on both the metric and the gauge field can be ignored. In this approximation, it was shown that when a time dependent source for the order parameter drives the system across the critical point at a rate slow compared to the initial gap, the dynamics in the critical region is dominated by a zero mode of the bulk scalar, leading to a Kibble-Zurek type scaling function. We show that this mechanism for emergence of scaling behavior continues to hold without any self-coupling in the presence of backreaction of gauge field and gravity. Even though there are no zero modes for the metric and the gauge field, the scalar dynamics induces adiabaticity breakdown leading to scaling. This yields scaling behavior for the time dependence of the charge density and energy momentum tensor.

Kibble-Zurek Scaling in Holographic Quantum Quench : Backreaction [Replacement]

We study gauge and gravity backreaction in a holographic model of quantum quench across a superfluid critical transition. The model involves a complex scalar field coupled to a gauge and gravity field in the bulk. In earlier work (arXiv:1211.1776) the scalar field had a strong self-coupling, in which case the backreaction on both the metric and the gauge field can be ignored. In this approximation, it was shown that when a time dependent source for the order parameter drives the system across the critical point at a rate slow compared to the initial gap, the dynamics in the critical region is dominated by a zero mode of the bulk scalar, leading to a Kibble-Zurek type scaling function. We show that this mechanism for emergence of scaling behavior continues to hold without any self-coupling in the presence of backreaction of gauge field and gravity. Even though there are no zero modes for the metric and the gauge field, the scalar dynamics induces adiabaticity breakdown leading to scaling. This yields scaling behavior for the time dependence of the charge density and energy momentum tensor.

Kibble-Zurek Scaling in Holographic Quantum Quench : Backreaction

We study gauge and gravity backreaction in a holographic model of quantum quench across a superfluid critical transition. The model involves a complex scalar field coupled to a gauge and gravity field in the bulk. In earlier work (arXiv:1211.1776) the scalar field had a strong self-coupling, in which case the backreaction on both the metric and the gauge field can be ignored. In this approximation, it was shown that when a time dependent source for the order parameter drives the system across the critical point at a rate slow compared to the initial gap, the dynamics in the critical region is dominated by a zero mode of the bulk scalar, leading to a Kibble-Zurek type scaling function. We show that this mechanism for emergence of scaling behavior continues to hold without any self-coupling in the presence of backreaction of gauge field and gravity. Even though there are no zero modes for the metric and the gauge field, the scalar dynamics induces adiabaticity breakdown leading to scaling. This yields scaling behavior for the time dependence of the charge density and energy momentum tensor.

Polymer inflation [Cross-Listing]

We consider the semi-classical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semi-classical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by a epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

Polymer inflation

We consider the semi-classical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semi-classical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by a epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

Polymer inflation [Cross-Listing]

We consider the semi-classical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semi-classical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by a epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

On a symmetry relating gravity with antigravity [Replacement]

I investigate the impact of a "would be" fundamental symmetry of the laws of nature under the interchange of gravity and antigravity, on the understanding of negative energies in general relativity. For this purpose a toy model that is based on Einstein-Hilbert gravity with two minimally coupled self-interacting scalar fields is explored, where the second (exotic) scalar field with negative energy density may be regarded, alternatively, as an antigravitating field with positive energy. Spontaneous breakdown of reflection symmetry is then considered in order to discuss the implications the proposed "would be" fundamental symmetry might have for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. A possible connection of the gravity-antigravity symmetry with the so called quintom field is also explored.

On a symmetry relating gravity with antigravity [Replacement]

I investigate the impact of a "would be" fundamental symmetry of the laws of nature under the interchange of gravity and antigravity, on the understanding of negative energies in general relativity. For this purpose a toy model that is based on Einstein-Hilbert gravity with two minimally coupled self-interacting scalar fields is explored, where the second (exotic) scalar field with negative energy density may be regarded, alternatively, as an antigravitating field with positive energy. Spontaneous breakdown of reflection symmetry is then considered in order to discuss the implications the proposed "would be" fundamental symmetry might have for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. A possible connection of the gravity-antigravity symmetry with the so called quintom field is also explored.

On a symmetry relating gravity with antigravity

I investigate the impact of a "would be" fundamental symmetry of the laws of nature under the interchange of gravity and antigravity, on the understanding of negative energies in general relativity. For this purpose a toy model that is based on Einstein-Hilbert gravity with two minimally coupled self-interacting scalar fields is explored, where the second (exotic) scalar field with negative energy density may be regarded, alternatively, as an antigravitating field with positive energy. Spontaneous breakdown of reflection symmetry is then considered in order to discuss the implications the proposed "would be" fundamental symmetry might have for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. A possible connection of the gravity-antigravity symmetry with the so called quintom field is also explored.

On a symmetry relating gravity with antigravity [Cross-Listing]

I investigate the impact of a "would be" fundamental symmetry of the laws of nature under the interchange of gravity and antigravity, on the understanding of negative energies in general relativity. For this purpose a toy model that is based on Einstein-Hilbert gravity with two minimally coupled self-interacting scalar fields is explored, where the second (exotic) scalar field with negative energy density may be regarded, alternatively, as an antigravitating field with positive energy. Spontaneous breakdown of reflection symmetry is then considered in order to discuss the implications the proposed "would be" fundamental symmetry might have for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. A possible connection of the gravity-antigravity symmetry with the so called quintom field is also explored.

Generalized Gravitational Entropy of Interacting Scalar Field and Maxwell Field [Replacement]

The generalized gravitational entropy proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in recent is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the spacetime. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy. Our investigations have not found the unexpected anomalous surface term.

Generalized Gravitational Entropy of Interacting Scalar Field and Maxwell Field

The generalized gravitational entropy proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in recent is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the spacetime. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy. Our investigations have not found the unexpected anomalous surface term.

Vacuum fluctuations in the presence of nonlinear boundary conditions

We consider a system consisting of a quantum, massless, real scalar field, in the presence of nonlinear mirrors: infinite parallel planes, upon which the field satisfies nonlinear boundary conditions. The latter are implemented by non-quadratic interaction vertices, strictly localized on the mirrors. By using the appropriate perturbative expansions, we obtain approximate expressions for the Casimir energy corresponding to weak coupling, regarding the strength of the interaction terms. We also comment on an alternative expansion scheme that may be useful when the weak coupling expansion is not justified.

Fermions in the 5D Gravity-Scalar Standing Wave Braneworld [Cross-Listing]

In the article we investigate localization problem for spinor fields within the 5D standing wave braneworld with the bulk real scalar field and show that there exist normalizable fermion field zero modes on the brane.

On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology

We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS_5. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space-time domain.

On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS_5. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space-time domain.

On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS_5. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space-time domain.

Sphalerons and the Electroweak Phase Transition in Models with Higher Scalar Representations

In this work we investigate the sphaleron solution in a $SU(2)\times U(1)_X$ gauge theory, which also encompasses the Standard Model, with higher scalar representation(s) ($J^{(i)},X^{(i)}$). We show that the field profiles describing the sphaleron in higher scalar multiplet, have similar trends like the doublet case with respect to the radial distance. We compute the sphaleron energy and find that it scales linearly with the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field and its slope depends on the representation. We also investigate the effect of $U(1)$ gauge field and find that it is small for the physical value of the mixing angle, $\theta_{W}$ and resembles the case for the doublet. For higher representations, we show that the criterion for strong first order phase transition, $v_{c}/T_{c}>\eta$, is relaxed with respect to the doublet case, i.e. $\eta<1$.

Sphalerons and the Electroweak Phase Transition in Models with Higher Scalar Representations [Cross-Listing]

In this work we investigate the sphaleron solution in a $SU(2)\times U(1)_X$ gauge theory, which also encompasses the Standard Model, with higher scalar representation(s) ($J^{(i)},X^{(i)}$). We show that the field profiles describing the sphaleron in higher scalar multiplet, have similar trends like the doublet case with respect to the radial distance. We compute the sphaleron energy and find that it scales linearly with the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field and its slope depends on the representation. We also investigate the effect of $U(1)$ gauge field and find that it is small for the physical value of the mixing angle, $\theta_{W}$ and resembles the case for the doublet. For higher representations, we show that the criterion for strong first order phase transition, $v_{c}/T_{c}>\eta$, is relaxed with respect to the doublet case, i.e. $\eta<1$.

Dark Energy and Mass Generation

We consider a set of solutions for a massless quartic scalar field, recently devised, that satisfy a massive dispersion relation. We show that such solutions have the property to give the correct behavior for the equation of state of the dark energy. It seen that conformal invariance is restored and the mass gap goes to zero on a time scale determined by the Hubble constant and the strength of the self-interaction of the scalar field. When conformal invariance is restored, the equation of state for the dark energy can apply.

 

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