Posts Tagged scalar field

Recent Postings from scalar field

Towards relativistic quantum geometry [Cross-Listing]

We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like integrable manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reisnn\"er-Nordstr\"om black-hole is studied.

Towards relativistic quantum geometry [Cross-Listing]

We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like integrable manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reisnn\"er-Nordstr\"om black-hole is studied.

Towards relativistic quantum geometry

We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like integrable manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reisnn\"er-Nordstr\"om black-hole is studied.

A new halo model for clusters of galaxies

This paper presents a model for the dark halos of galaxy clusters in the framework of Weyl geometric scalar tensor theory with a MOND-like approximation in the weak field static limit. The basics of this approach are introduced in the first part of the paper; then a three component halo model is derived (without presupposing prior knowledge of Weyl geometric gravity). The cluster halo is constituted by the scalar field energy and the phantom energy of the gravitational structure, thus transparent rather than "dark". It is completely determined by the baryonic mass distribution of hot gas and stars. The model is tested against recent observational data for 19 clusters. The total mass of Coma and 15 other clusters is correctly predicted on the basis of data on baryonic mass in the bounds of the error intervals (1 sigma); one cluster lies in the 2 sigma interval, two more in 3 sigma.

A new halo model for clusters of galaxies [Cross-Listing]

This paper presents a model for the dark halos of galaxy clusters in the framework of Weyl geometric scalar tensor theory with a MOND-like approximation in the weak field static limit. The basics of this approach are introduced in the first part of the paper; then a three component halo model is derived (without presupposing prior knowledge of Weyl geometric gravity). The cluster halo is constituted by the scalar field energy and the phantom energy of the gravitational structure, thus transparent rather than "dark". It is completely determined by the baryonic mass distribution of hot gas and stars. The model is tested against recent observational data for 19 clusters. The total mass of Coma and 15 other clusters is correctly predicted on the basis of data on baryonic mass in the bounds of the error intervals (1 sigma); one cluster lies in the 2 sigma interval, two more in 3 sigma.

Scalar - Tensor gravity with scalar -matter direct coupling and its cosmological probe

SNIA and CMB datasets have shown both of evolving Newton’s "constant" and a signature of the coupling of scalar field to matter. These observations motivate the consideration of the scalar-matter coupling in Jordan frame in the framework of scalar-tensor gravity. So far, majority of the works on the coupling of scalar matter has performed in Einstein frame in the framework of minimally coupled scalar fields. In this work, we generalize the original scalar-tensor theories of gravity introducing a direct coupling of scalar to matter in the Jordan frame. The combined consideration of both evolving Newton’s constant and scalar-matter coupling using the recent observation datasets, shows features different from the previous works. The analysis shows a vivid signature of the scalar-matter coupling. The variation rate of the Newton’s constant is obtained rather greater than that determined in the previous works.

Scalar - Tensor gravity with scalar -matter direct coupling and its cosmological probe [Cross-Listing]

SNIA and CMB datasets have shown both of evolving Newton’s "constant" and a signature of the coupling of scalar field to matter. These observations motivate the consideration of the scalar-matter coupling in Jordan frame in the framework of scalar-tensor gravity. So far, majority of the works on the coupling of scalar matter has performed in Einstein frame in the framework of minimally coupled scalar fields. In this work, we generalize the original scalar-tensor theories of gravity introducing a direct coupling of scalar to matter in the Jordan frame. The combined consideration of both evolving Newton’s constant and scalar-matter coupling using the recent observation datasets, shows features different from the previous works. The analysis shows a vivid signature of the scalar-matter coupling. The variation rate of the Newton’s constant is obtained rather greater than that determined in the previous works.

Scalar - Tensor gravity with scalar -matter direct coupling and its cosmological probe [Cross-Listing]

SNIA and CMB datasets have shown both of evolving Newton’s "constant" and a signature of the coupling of scalar field to matter. These observations motivate the consideration of the scalar-matter coupling in Jordan frame in the framework of scalar-tensor gravity. So far, majority of the works on the coupling of scalar matter has performed in Einstein frame in the framework of minimally coupled scalar fields. In this work, we generalize the original scalar-tensor theories of gravity introducing a direct coupling of scalar to matter in the Jordan frame. The combined consideration of both evolving Newton’s constant and scalar-matter coupling using the recent observation datasets, shows features different from the previous works. The analysis shows a vivid signature of the scalar-matter coupling. The variation rate of the Newton’s constant is obtained rather greater than that determined in the previous works.

A realistic model of neutron star in minimal dilatonic gravity [Cross-Listing]

We present derivation of the basic equations and boundary conditions for relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG) which offers an alternative and simultaneous description of the effects of dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) using one dilaton field $\Phi$. The numerical results for a realistic equation of state (EOS) MPA1 of neutron matter are represented for the first time. The existing three very different scales: the Compton length of the scalar field $\lambda_\Phi$, the star’s radius $r^*$, and the finite radius of MDG Universe $r_{U}$ are a source of numerical difficulties. Owing to introduction of a new dark scalar field $\varphi=\ln(1+\ln\Phi)$ we were able to study numerically an unprecedentedly large interval of $\lambda_\Phi$ and discovered existence of $\lambda_\Phi^{crit}\approx 2.1\, km$ for NS with MPA1 EOS. It is related with bifurcation of the physical domain in phase space of the system. Some novel physical consequences are discussed.

A realistic model of neutron star in minimal dilatonic gravity [Cross-Listing]

We present derivation of the basic equations and boundary conditions for relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG) which offers an alternative and simultaneous description of the effects of dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) using one dilaton field $\Phi$. The numerical results for a realistic equation of state (EOS) MPA1 of neutron matter are represented for the first time. The existing three very different scales: the Compton length of the scalar field $\lambda_\Phi$, the star’s radius $r^*$, and the finite radius of MDG Universe $r_{U}$ are a source of numerical difficulties. Owing to introduction of a new dark scalar field $\varphi=\ln(1+\ln\Phi)$ we were able to study numerically an unprecedentedly large interval of $\lambda_\Phi$ and discovered existence of $\lambda_\Phi^{crit}\approx 2.1\, km$ for NS with MPA1 EOS. It is related with bifurcation of the physical domain in phase space of the system. Some novel physical consequences are discussed.

A realistic model of neutron star in minimal dilatonic gravity

We present derivation of the basic equations and boundary conditions for relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG) which offers an alternative and simultaneous description of the effects of dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) using one dilaton field $\Phi$. The numerical results for a realistic equation of state (EOS) MPA1 of neutron matter are represented for the first time. The existing three very different scales: the Compton length of the scalar field $\lambda_\Phi$, the star’s radius $r^*$, and the finite radius of MDG Universe $r_{U}$ are a source of numerical difficulties. Owing to introduction of a new dark scalar field $\varphi=\ln(1+\ln\Phi)$ we were able to study numerically an unprecedentedly large interval of $\lambda_\Phi$ and discovered existence of $\lambda_\Phi^{crit}\approx 2.1\, km$ for NS with MPA1 EOS. It is related with bifurcation of the physical domain in phase space of the system. Some novel physical consequences are discussed.

Quantum reduced loop gravity: extension to scalar field [Replacement]

The quantization of the Hamiltonian for a scalar field is performed in the framework of Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity. We outline how the regularization can be performed by using the analogous tools adopted in full Loop Quantum Gravity and the matrix elements of the resulting operator between basis states are analytic coefficients. These achievements open the way for a consistent analysis of the Quantum Gravity corrections to the classical dynamics of gravity in the presence of a scalar field in a cosmological setting.

Quantum reduced loop gravity: extension to scalar field

The quantization of the Hamiltonian for a scalar field is performed in the framework of Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity. We outline how the regularization can be performed by using the analogous tools adopted in full Loop Quantum Gravity and the matrix elements of the resulting operator between basis states are analytic coefficients. These achievements open the way for a consistent analysis of the Quantum Gravity corrections to the classical dynamics of gravity in the presence of a scalar field in a cosmological setting.

Cosmological disformal transformations to the Einstein frame and gravitational couplings with matter perturbations

The disformal transformation of metric $g_{\mu \nu} \to \Omega^2 (\phi)g_{\mu \nu}+\Gamma(\phi,X) \partial_{\mu}\phi \partial_{\nu}\phi$, where $\phi$ is a scalar field with the kinetic energy $X= \partial_{\mu}\phi \partial^{\mu}\phi/2$, preserves the Lagrangian structure of Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories (which is the minimum extension of Horndeski theories). In the presence of matter, this transformation gives rise to a kinetic-type coupling between the scalar field $\phi$ and matter. We consider the Einstein frame in which the second-order action of tensor perturbations on the isotropic cosmological background is of the same form as that in General Relativity and study the role of couplings at the levels of both background and linear perturbations. We show that the effective gravitational potential felt by matter perturbations in the Einstein frame can be conveniently expressed in terms of the sum of a General Relativistic contribution and couplings induced by the modification of gravity. For the theories in which the transformed action belongs to a class of Horndeski theories, there is no anisotropic stress between two gravitational potentials in the Einstein frame due to a gravitational de-mixing. We propose a concrete dark energy model encompassing Brans-Dicke theories as well as theories with the tensor propagation speed $c_{\rm t}$ different from 1. We clarify the correspondence between physical quantities in the Jordan/Einstein frames and study the evolution of gravitational potentials and matter perturbations from the matter-dominated epoch to today in both analytic and numerical approaches.

Cosmological disformal transformations to the Einstein frame and gravitational couplings with matter perturbations [Cross-Listing]

The disformal transformation of metric $g_{\mu \nu} \to \Omega^2 (\phi)g_{\mu \nu}+\Gamma(\phi,X) \partial_{\mu}\phi \partial_{\nu}\phi$, where $\phi$ is a scalar field with the kinetic energy $X= \partial_{\mu}\phi \partial^{\mu}\phi/2$, preserves the Lagrangian structure of Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories (which is the minimum extension of Horndeski theories). In the presence of matter, this transformation gives rise to a kinetic-type coupling between the scalar field $\phi$ and matter. We consider the Einstein frame in which the second-order action of tensor perturbations on the isotropic cosmological background is of the same form as that in General Relativity and study the role of couplings at the levels of both background and linear perturbations. We show that the effective gravitational potential felt by matter perturbations in the Einstein frame can be conveniently expressed in terms of the sum of a General Relativistic contribution and couplings induced by the modification of gravity. For the theories in which the transformed action belongs to a class of Horndeski theories, there is no anisotropic stress between two gravitational potentials in the Einstein frame due to a gravitational de-mixing. We propose a concrete dark energy model encompassing Brans-Dicke theories as well as theories with the tensor propagation speed $c_{\rm t}$ different from 1. We clarify the correspondence between physical quantities in the Jordan/Einstein frames and study the evolution of gravitational potentials and matter perturbations from the matter-dominated epoch to today in both analytic and numerical approaches.

Cosmological disformal transformations to the Einstein frame and gravitational couplings with matter perturbations [Cross-Listing]

The disformal transformation of metric $g_{\mu \nu} \to \Omega^2 (\phi)g_{\mu \nu}+\Gamma(\phi,X) \partial_{\mu}\phi \partial_{\nu}\phi$, where $\phi$ is a scalar field with the kinetic energy $X= \partial_{\mu}\phi \partial^{\mu}\phi/2$, preserves the Lagrangian structure of Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories (which is the minimum extension of Horndeski theories). In the presence of matter, this transformation gives rise to a kinetic-type coupling between the scalar field $\phi$ and matter. We consider the Einstein frame in which the second-order action of tensor perturbations on the isotropic cosmological background is of the same form as that in General Relativity and study the role of couplings at the levels of both background and linear perturbations. We show that the effective gravitational potential felt by matter perturbations in the Einstein frame can be conveniently expressed in terms of the sum of a General Relativistic contribution and couplings induced by the modification of gravity. For the theories in which the transformed action belongs to a class of Horndeski theories, there is no anisotropic stress between two gravitational potentials in the Einstein frame due to a gravitational de-mixing. We propose a concrete dark energy model encompassing Brans-Dicke theories as well as theories with the tensor propagation speed $c_{\rm t}$ different from 1. We clarify the correspondence between physical quantities in the Jordan/Einstein frames and study the evolution of gravitational potentials and matter perturbations from the matter-dominated epoch to today in both analytic and numerical approaches.

Cosmological disformal transformations to the Einstein frame and gravitational couplings with matter perturbations [Cross-Listing]

The disformal transformation of metric $g_{\mu \nu} \to \Omega^2 (\phi)g_{\mu \nu}+\Gamma(\phi,X) \partial_{\mu}\phi \partial_{\nu}\phi$, where $\phi$ is a scalar field with the kinetic energy $X= \partial_{\mu}\phi \partial^{\mu}\phi/2$, preserves the Lagrangian structure of Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories (which is the minimum extension of Horndeski theories). In the presence of matter, this transformation gives rise to a kinetic-type coupling between the scalar field $\phi$ and matter. We consider the Einstein frame in which the second-order action of tensor perturbations on the isotropic cosmological background is of the same form as that in General Relativity and study the role of couplings at the levels of both background and linear perturbations. We show that the effective gravitational potential felt by matter perturbations in the Einstein frame can be conveniently expressed in terms of the sum of a General Relativistic contribution and couplings induced by the modification of gravity. For the theories in which the transformed action belongs to a class of Horndeski theories, there is no anisotropic stress between two gravitational potentials in the Einstein frame due to a gravitational de-mixing. We propose a concrete dark energy model encompassing Brans-Dicke theories as well as theories with the tensor propagation speed $c_{\rm t}$ different from 1. We clarify the correspondence between physical quantities in the Jordan/Einstein frames and study the evolution of gravitational potentials and matter perturbations from the matter-dominated epoch to today in both analytic and numerical approaches.

Large-scale magnetic fields, non-Gaussianity, and gravitational waves from inflation [Cross-Listing]

We explore the generation of large-scale magnetic fields in the so-called moduli inflation. The hypercharge electromagnetic fields couple to not only a scalar field but also a pseudoscalar one, so that the conformal invariance of the hypercharge electromagnetic fields can be broken. We explicitly analyze the strength of the magnetic fields on the Hubble horizon scale at the present time, the local non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbations originating from the massive gauge fields, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations. As a consequence, we find that the local non-Gaussianity and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are compatible with the recent Planck results.

Large-scale magnetic fields, non-Gaussianity, and gravitational waves from inflation [Cross-Listing]

We explore the generation of large-scale magnetic fields in the so-called moduli inflation. The hypercharge electromagnetic fields couple to not only a scalar field but also a pseudoscalar one, so that the conformal invariance of the hypercharge electromagnetic fields can be broken. We explicitly analyze the strength of the magnetic fields on the Hubble horizon scale at the present time, the local non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbations originating from the massive gauge fields, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations. As a consequence, we find that the local non-Gaussianity and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are compatible with the recent Planck results.

Large-scale magnetic fields, non-Gaussianity, and gravitational waves from inflation

We explore the generation of large-scale magnetic fields in the so-called moduli inflation. The hypercharge electromagnetic fields couple to not only a scalar field but also a pseudoscalar one, so that the conformal invariance of the hypercharge electromagnetic fields can be broken. We explicitly analyze the strength of the magnetic fields on the Hubble horizon scale at the present time, the local non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbations originating from the massive gauge fields, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations. As a consequence, we find that the local non-Gaussianity and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are compatible with the recent Planck results.

Large-scale magnetic fields, non-Gaussianity, and gravitational waves from inflation [Cross-Listing]

We explore the generation of large-scale magnetic fields in the so-called moduli inflation. The hypercharge electromagnetic fields couple to not only a scalar field but also a pseudoscalar one, so that the conformal invariance of the hypercharge electromagnetic fields can be broken. We explicitly analyze the strength of the magnetic fields on the Hubble horizon scale at the present time, the local non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbations originating from the massive gauge fields, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations. As a consequence, we find that the local non-Gaussianity and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are compatible with the recent Planck results.

Non-commutative and commutative vacua effects in a scalar torsion scenario

In this work, the effects of non-commutative and commutative vacua on the phase space generated by a scalar field in a scalar torsion scenario are investigated. For both classical and quantum regimes, the commutative and non-commutative cases are compared. To take account the effects of non-commutativity, two well known non-commutative parameters, $\theta$ and $\beta,$ are introduced. It should be emphasized, the effects of $\beta$ which is related to momentum sector has more key role in comparison to $\theta$ which is related to space sector. Also the different boundary conditions and mathematical interpretations of non-commutativity are explored.

The Quasi-normal Modes of Charged Scalar Fields in Kerr-Newman black hole and Its Geometric Interpretation

It is well-known that there is a geometric correspondence between high-frequency quasi-normal modes(QNMs) and null geodesics(spherical photon orbits). In this paper, we generalize such correspondence to charged scalar field in Kerr-Newman space-time. In our case, the particle and black hole are all charged, so one should consider non-geodesic orbits. Using the WKB approximation, we find that the real part of quasi-normal frequency corresponds to the orbits frequency, the imaginary part of the frequency corresponds to the Lyapunov exponent of these orbits and the eigenvalue of angular equation corresponds to carter constant. From the properties of the imaginary part of quasi-normal frequency of charged massless scalar field, we can still find that the QNMs of charged massless scalar field possess the zero damping modes in extreme Kerr-Newman spacetime under certain condition which has been fixed in this paper.

The Quasi-normal Modes of Charged Scalar Fields in Kerr-Newman black hole and Its Geometric Interpretation [Cross-Listing]

It is well-known that there is a geometric correspondence between high-frequency quasi-normal modes(QNMs) and null geodesics(spherical photon orbits). In this paper, we generalize such correspondence to charged scalar field in Kerr-Newman space-time. In our case, the particle and black hole are all charged, so one should consider non-geodesic orbits. Using the WKB approximation, we find that the real part of quasi-normal frequency corresponds to the orbits frequency, the imaginary part of the frequency corresponds to the Lyapunov exponent of these orbits and the eigenvalue of angular equation corresponds to carter constant. From the properties of the imaginary part of quasi-normal frequency of charged massless scalar field, we can still find that the QNMs of charged massless scalar field possess the zero damping modes in extreme Kerr-Newman spacetime under certain condition which has been fixed in this paper.

The Klein-Gordon Equation of a Rotating Charged Hairy Black Hole in (2+1) Dimensions [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we consider the Klein-Gordon equation in a 3D charged rotating hairy black hole background to study behavior of a massive scalar field. In the general case we find periodic-like behavior for the scalar field which may be vanishes at the black hole horizon or far from the black hole horizon. For the special cases of non-rotating or near horizon approximation we find radial solution of Klein-Gordon equation in terms of hypergeometric and Kummer functions. Also for the case of uncharged black hole we find numerical solution of the Klein-Gordon equation as periodic function which may enhanced out of the black hole or vanish at horizon. We find allowed boundary conditions which yield to the identical bosons described by scalar field.

The Klein-Gordon Equation of a Rotating Charged Hairy Black Hole in (2+1) Dimensions

In this paper, we consider the Klein-Gordon equation in a 3D charged rotating hairy black hole background to study behavior of a massive scalar field. In the general case we find periodic-like behavior for the scalar field which may be vanishes at the black hole horizon or far from the black hole horizon. For the special cases of non-rotating or near horizon approximation we find radial solution of Klein-Gordon equation in terms of hypergeometric and Kummer functions. Also for the case of uncharged black hole we find numerical solution of the Klein-Gordon equation as periodic function which may enhanced out of the black hole or vanish at horizon. We find allowed boundary conditions which yield to the identical bosons described by scalar field.

Scalar field and Cosmological constant in $f(R,T)$ gravity for Bianchi type-I Universe

In this article, we have tried to analyse the behaviour of scalar field and cosmological constant in f(R,T) theory of gravity. Here we consider simplest form of $f(R,T)$ i.e $f(R,T)=R+2f(T)$ and explore the spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I cosmological model. It is assumed that the universe is filled with two noninteracting matter sources, scalar field (normal or phantom) with scalar potential and matter contribution due to $f(R,T)$ action. We have discussed two cosmological models according to power law and exponential law along with constant and exponential scalar potential as submodels. Power law models is compatible with normal (quintessence) and phantom scalar field where as exponential models is compatible with only normal (quintessence) scalar field. Cosmological constant is in agreement with the observation from literature for our models. Finally we discussed some physical and kinematical properties of both the models.

Thermalization Process after Inflation and Effective Potential of Scalar Field [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the thermalization process of the Universe after inflation to determine the evolution of the effective temperature. The time scale of thermalization is found to be so long that it delays the evolution of the effective temperature, and the resulting maximal temperature of the Universe can be significantly lower than the one obtained in the literature. Our results clarify the finite density corrections to the effective potential of a scalar field and also processes of heavy particle production. In particular, we find that the maximum temperature of the Universe may be at most electroweak scale if the reheating temperature is as low as ${\cal O} (1)$ MeV, which implies that the electroweak symmetry may be marginally restored. In addition, it is noticeable that the dark matter may not be produced from thermal plasma in such a low reheating scenario, since the maximum temperature can be smaller than the conventional estimation by five orders of magnitude. We also give implications to the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis.

Thermalization Process after Inflation and Effective Potential of Scalar Field

We investigate the thermalization process of the Universe after inflation to determine the evolution of the effective temperature. The time scale of thermalization is found to be so long that it delays the evolution of the effective temperature, and the resulting maximal temperature of the Universe can be significantly lower than the one obtained in the literature. Our results clarify the finite density corrections to the effective potential of a scalar field and also processes of heavy particle production. In particular, we find that the maximum temperature of the Universe may be at most electroweak scale if the reheating temperature is as low as ${\cal O} (1)$ MeV, which implies that the electroweak symmetry may be marginally restored. In addition, it is noticeable that the dark matter may not be produced from thermal plasma in such a low reheating scenario, since the maximum temperature can be smaller than the conventional estimation by five orders of magnitude. We also give implications to the Peccei-Quinn mechanism and the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis.

An effective field theory during inflation: reduced density matrix and its quantum master equation [Cross-Listing]

We study the power spectrum of super-Hubble fluctuations of an inflaton-like scalar field, the "system", coupled to another scalar field, the "environment" during de Sitter inflation. We obtain the reduced density matrix for the inflaton fluctuations by integrating out the environmental degrees of freedom. These are considered to be massless and conformally coupled to gravity as a \emph{proxy} to describe degrees of freedom that remain sub-Hubble all throughout inflation. The time evolution of the density matrix is described by a quantum master equation, which describes the decay of the vacuum state, the production of particles and correlated pairs and quantum entanglement between super and sub-Hubble degrees of freedom. The quantum master equation provides a non-perturbative resummation of secular terms from self-energy (loop) corrections to the inflaton fluctuations. In the case studied here these are Sudakov-type double logarithms which result in the \emph{decay} of the power spectrum of inflaton fluctuations upon horizon crossing with a concomitant violation of scale invariance. The reduced density matrix and its quantum master equation furnish a powerful non-perturbative framework to study the effective field theory of long wavelength fluctuations by tracing short wavelength degrees of freedom.

An effective field theory during inflation: reduced density matrix and its quantum master equation

We study the power spectrum of super-Hubble fluctuations of an inflaton-like scalar field, the "system", coupled to another scalar field, the "environment" during de Sitter inflation. We obtain the reduced density matrix for the inflaton fluctuations by integrating out the environmental degrees of freedom. These are considered to be massless and conformally coupled to gravity as a \emph{proxy} to describe degrees of freedom that remain sub-Hubble all throughout inflation. The time evolution of the density matrix is described by a quantum master equation, which describes the decay of the vacuum state, the production of particles and correlated pairs and quantum entanglement between super and sub-Hubble degrees of freedom. The quantum master equation provides a non-perturbative resummation of secular terms from self-energy (loop) corrections to the inflaton fluctuations. In the case studied here these are Sudakov-type double logarithms which result in the \emph{decay} of the power spectrum of inflaton fluctuations upon horizon crossing with a concomitant violation of scale invariance. The reduced density matrix and its quantum master equation furnish a powerful non-perturbative framework to study the effective field theory of long wavelength fluctuations by tracing short wavelength degrees of freedom.

An effective field theory during inflation: reduced density matrix and its quantum master equation [Cross-Listing]

We study the power spectrum of super-Hubble fluctuations of an inflaton-like scalar field, the "system", coupled to another scalar field, the "environment" during de Sitter inflation. We obtain the reduced density matrix for the inflaton fluctuations by integrating out the environmental degrees of freedom. These are considered to be massless and conformally coupled to gravity as a \emph{proxy} to describe degrees of freedom that remain sub-Hubble all throughout inflation. The time evolution of the density matrix is described by a quantum master equation, which describes the decay of the vacuum state, the production of particles and correlated pairs and quantum entanglement between super and sub-Hubble degrees of freedom. The quantum master equation provides a non-perturbative resummation of secular terms from self-energy (loop) corrections to the inflaton fluctuations. In the case studied here these are Sudakov-type double logarithms which result in the \emph{decay} of the power spectrum of inflaton fluctuations upon horizon crossing with a concomitant violation of scale invariance. The reduced density matrix and its quantum master equation furnish a powerful non-perturbative framework to study the effective field theory of long wavelength fluctuations by tracing short wavelength degrees of freedom.

An effective field theory during inflation: reduced density matrix and its quantum master equation [Cross-Listing]

We study the power spectrum of super-Hubble fluctuations of an inflaton-like scalar field, the "system", coupled to another scalar field, the "environment" during de Sitter inflation. We obtain the reduced density matrix for the inflaton fluctuations by integrating out the environmental degrees of freedom. These are considered to be massless and conformally coupled to gravity as a \emph{proxy} to describe degrees of freedom that remain sub-Hubble all throughout inflation. The time evolution of the density matrix is described by a quantum master equation, which describes the decay of the vacuum state, the production of particles and correlated pairs and quantum entanglement between super and sub-Hubble degrees of freedom. The quantum master equation provides a non-perturbative resummation of secular terms from self-energy (loop) corrections to the inflaton fluctuations. In the case studied here these are Sudakov-type double logarithms which result in the \emph{decay} of the power spectrum of inflaton fluctuations upon horizon crossing with a concomitant violation of scale invariance. The reduced density matrix and its quantum master equation furnish a powerful non-perturbative framework to study the effective field theory of long wavelength fluctuations by tracing short wavelength degrees of freedom.

Massive scalar Casimir interaction beyond proximity force approximation

Since massive scalar field plays an important role in theoretical physics, we consider the interaction between a sphere and a plate due to the vacuum fluctuation of a massive scalar field. We consider combinations of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. There is a simple prescription to obtain the functional formulas for the Casimir interaction energies, known as TGTG formula, for the massive interactions from the massless interactions. From the TGTG formulas, we discuss how to compute the small separation asymptotic expansions of the Casimir interaction energies up to the next-to-leading order terms. Unlike the massless case, the results could not be expressed as simple algebraic expressions, but instead could only be expressed as infinite sums over some integrals. Nonetheless, it is easy to show that one can obtain the massless limits which agree with previously established results. We also show that the leading terms agree with that derive using proximity force approximation. The dependence of the leading order terms and the next-to-leading order terms on the mass of the scalar field is studied both numerically and analytically. In particular, we derive the small mass asymptotic expansions of these terms. Surprisingly, the small mass asymptotic expansions are quite complicated as they contain terms that are of odd powers in mass as well as logarithms of mass terms.

Formation of a condensate during charged collapse

We observe a condensate forming in the interior of a black hole (BH) during numerical simulations of gravitational collapse of a massless charged (complex) scalar field. The magnitude of the scalar field in the interior tends to a non-zero constant; spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry occurs and a condensate forms. This phenomena occurs in the presence of a BH without the standard symmetry breaking quartic potential; the breaking occurs via the dynamics of the system itself. We also observe that the scalar field in the interior rotates in the complex plane and show that it matches numerically the electric potential to within $1\%$. That a charged scalar condensate can form near the horizon of a black hole in the Abelian Higgs model without the standard symmetry breaking potential had previously been shown analytically in an explicit model involving a massive scalar field in an $AdS_4$ background. Our numerical simulation lends strong support to this finding, although in our case the scalar field is massless and the spacetime is asymptotically flat.

Formation of a condensate during charged collapse [Cross-Listing]

We observe a condensate forming in the interior of a black hole (BH) during numerical simulations of gravitational collapse of a massless charged (complex) scalar field. The magnitude of the scalar field in the interior tends to a non-zero constant; spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry occurs and a condensate forms. This phenomena occurs in the presence of a BH without the standard symmetry breaking quartic potential; the breaking occurs via the dynamics of the system itself. We also observe that the scalar field in the interior rotates in the complex plane and show that it matches numerically the electric potential to within $1\%$. That a charged scalar condensate can form near the horizon of a black hole in the Abelian Higgs model without the standard symmetry breaking potential had previously been shown analytically in an explicit model involving a massive scalar field in an $AdS_4$ background. Our numerical simulation lends strong support to this finding, although in our case the scalar field is massless and the spacetime is asymptotically flat.

Coupling dark energy to dark matter perturbations [Replacement]

This Letter proposes that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter perturbations. The idea is that dark matter particles could annihilate/interact inside dense clumps and transfer energy to the scalar field, which would then enter an accelerated regime. This hypothesis is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter perturbations become sufficiently dense. Here we study a possible realization of this general idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. Moreover, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this model does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions.

Coupling dark energy to dark matter perturbations [Replacement]

This Letter proposes that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter perturbations. The idea is that dark matter particles could annihilate/interact inside dense clumps and transfer energy to the scalar field, which would then enter an accelerated regime. This hypothesis is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter perturbations become sufficiently dense. Here we study a possible realization of this general idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. Moreover, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this model does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions.

Coupling dark energy to dark matter perturbations [Replacement]

This Letter proposes that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter perturbations. The idea is that dark matter particles could annihilate/interact inside dense clumps and transfer energy to the scalar field, which would then enter an accelerated regime. This hypothesis is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter perturbations become sufficiently dense. Here we study a possible realization of this general idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. Moreover, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this model does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions.

Coupling dark energy to dark matter perturbations

This Letter proposes that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter perturbations. The idea is that dark matter particles could annihilate/interact inside dense clumps and transfer energy to the scalar field, which would then enter an accelerated regime. This hypothesis appears interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe as dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter perturbations become sufficiently dense. In other words, this proposal does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions. Here we study a possible realization of this general idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology free from the fine-tuning problem typical of dark energy models.

Coupling dark energy to dark matter perturbations [Replacement]

This Letter proposes that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter perturbations. The idea is that dark matter particles could annihilate/interact inside dense clumps and transfer energy to the scalar field, which would then enter an accelerated regime. This hypothesis is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter perturbations become sufficiently dense. Here we study a possible realization of this general idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. Moreover, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this model does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions.

Revisiting the Minimal Chaotic Inflation Model [Cross-Listing]

We point out that the prediction of the minimal chaotic inflation model is altered if a scalar field takes a large field value close to the Planck scale during inflation due to a negative Hubble induced mass. In particular, we show that the inflaton potential is effectively suppressed at a large inflaton field value in the presence of such a scalar field. The scalar field may be identified with the standard model Higgs field or flat directions in supersymmetric theory. With such spontaneous suppression, we find that the minimal chaotic inflation model, especially the model with a quadratic potential, is consistent with recent observations of the cosmic microwave background fluctuation without modifying the inflation model itself.

Revisiting the Minimal Chaotic Inflation Model

We point out that the prediction of the minimal chaotic inflation model is altered if a scalar field takes a large field value close to the Planck scale during inflation due to a negative Hubble induced mass. In particular, we show that the inflaton potential is effectively suppressed at a large inflaton field value in the presence of such a scalar field. The scalar field may be identified with the standard model Higgs field or flat directions in supersymmetric theory. With such spontaneous suppression, we find that the minimal chaotic inflation model, especially the model with a quadratic potential, is consistent with recent observations of the cosmic microwave background fluctuation without modifying the inflation model itself.

Tunneling decay of false kinks

We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1+1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to $\exp(-S_E)$ where $S_E$ is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters $S_E$ can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

On Lovelock galileons and black holes

We study a scalar-tensor version of Lovelock theory with a non trivial higher order galileon term involving the coupling of the Lovelock two tensor with derivatives of the scalar galileon field. For a static and spherically symmetric spacetime we extend the Boulware-Deser solution to the presence of a Galileon field. The hairy solution has a regular scalar field on the black hole event horizon and presents certain self tuning properties for the bulk cosmological constant and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling. The combined time and radial dependence of the galileon field permits its horizon regularity. Furthermore in order to investigate the effects of linear time dependence we find spherically symmetric solutions in 4 and 5 spacetime dimensions. They are shown to have singular horizons. Afar from the Schwarzschild radius and for weak higher dimensional couplings the solutions are perturbratively close to GR representing GR like star solutions for scalar tensor theories.

On Lovelock galileons and black holes [Cross-Listing]

We study a scalar-tensor version of Lovelock theory with a non trivial higher order galileon term involving the coupling of the Lovelock two tensor with derivatives of the scalar galileon field. For a static and spherically symmetric spacetime we extend the Boulware-Deser solution to the presence of a Galileon field. The hairy solution has a regular scalar field on the black hole event horizon and presents certain self tuning properties for the bulk cosmological constant and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling. The combined time and radial dependence of the galileon field permits its horizon regularity. Furthermore in order to investigate the effects of linear time dependence we find spherically symmetric solutions in 4 and 5 spacetime dimensions. They are shown to have singular horizons. Afar from the Schwarzschild radius and for weak higher dimensional couplings the solutions are perturbratively close to GR representing GR like star solutions for scalar tensor theories.

Early-time cosmological solutions in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet theory

In this work, we consider a generalised gravitational theory that contains the Einstein term, a scalar field and the quadratic Gauss-Bonnet term. We focus on the early-universe dynamics, and demonstrate that a simple choice of the coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term and a simplifying assumption regarding the role of the Ricci scalar can lead to new, analytical, elegant solutions with interesting characteristics. We first argue, and demonstrate in the context of two different models, that the presence of the Ricci scalar in the theory at early times, when the curvature is strong, does not affect the actual cosmological solutions. By considering therefore a pure scalar-GB theory with a quadratic coupling function we derive a plethora of interesting, analytic solutions: for a negative coupling parameter, we obtain inflationary, de Sitter-type solutions or expanding solutions with a de Sitter phase in their past and a natural exit mechanism at later times; for a positive coupling function, we find instead singularity-free solutions with no Big-Bang singularity. We show that the aforementioned solutions arise only for this particular choice of coupling function, a result that may hint to some fundamental role that this coupling function may hold in the context of an ultimate theory.

Early-time cosmological solutions in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet theory [Cross-Listing]

In this work, we consider a generalised gravitational theory that contains the Einstein term, a scalar field and the quadratic Gauss-Bonnet term. We focus on the early-universe dynamics, and demonstrate that a simple choice of the coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term and a simplifying assumption regarding the role of the Ricci scalar can lead to new, analytical, elegant solutions with interesting characteristics. We first argue, and demonstrate in the context of two different models, that the presence of the Ricci scalar in the theory at early times, when the curvature is strong, does not affect the actual cosmological solutions. By considering therefore a pure scalar-GB theory with a quadratic coupling function we derive a plethora of interesting, analytic solutions: for a negative coupling parameter, we obtain inflationary, de Sitter-type solutions or expanding solutions with a de Sitter phase in their past and a natural exit mechanism at later times; for a positive coupling function, we find instead singularity-free solutions with no Big-Bang singularity. We show that the aforementioned solutions arise only for this particular choice of coupling function, a result that may hint to some fundamental role that this coupling function may hold in the context of an ultimate theory.

Early-time cosmological solutions in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet theory [Cross-Listing]

In this work, we consider a generalised gravitational theory that contains the Einstein term, a scalar field and the quadratic Gauss-Bonnet term. We focus on the early-universe dynamics, and demonstrate that a simple choice of the coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term and a simplifying assumption regarding the role of the Ricci scalar can lead to new, analytical, elegant solutions with interesting characteristics. We first argue, and demonstrate in the context of two different models, that the presence of the Ricci scalar in the theory at early times, when the curvature is strong, does not affect the actual cosmological solutions. By considering therefore a pure scalar-GB theory with a quadratic coupling function we derive a plethora of interesting, analytic solutions: for a negative coupling parameter, we obtain inflationary, de Sitter-type solutions or expanding solutions with a de Sitter phase in their past and a natural exit mechanism at later times; for a positive coupling function, we find instead singularity-free solutions with no Big-Bang singularity. We show that the aforementioned solutions arise only for this particular choice of coupling function, a result that may hint to some fundamental role that this coupling function may hold in the context of an ultimate theory.

Early-time cosmological solutions in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet theory [Cross-Listing]

In this work, we consider a generalised gravitational theory that contains the Einstein term, a scalar field and the quadratic Gauss-Bonnet term. We focus on the early-universe dynamics, and demonstrate that a simple choice of the coupling function between the scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term and a simplifying assumption regarding the role of the Ricci scalar can lead to new, analytical, elegant solutions with interesting characteristics. We first argue, and demonstrate in the context of two different models, that the presence of the Ricci scalar in the theory at early times, when the curvature is strong, does not affect the actual cosmological solutions. By considering therefore a pure scalar-GB theory with a quadratic coupling function we derive a plethora of interesting, analytic solutions: for a negative coupling parameter, we obtain inflationary, de Sitter-type solutions or expanding solutions with a de Sitter phase in their past and a natural exit mechanism at later times; for a positive coupling function, we find instead singularity-free solutions with no Big-Bang singularity. We show that the aforementioned solutions arise only for this particular choice of coupling function, a result that may hint to some fundamental role that this coupling function may hold in the context of an ultimate theory.

 

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