Posts Tagged scalar field

Recent Postings from scalar field

Entanglement Entropy Renormalization for the NC scalar field coupled to classical BTZ geometry

In this work, we consider a noncommutative (NC) massless scalar field coupled to the classical nonrotational BTZ geometry. In a manner of the theories where the gravity emerges from the underlying scalar field theory, we study the effective action and the entropy derived from this noncommutative model. In particular, the entropy is calculated by making use of the two different approaches, the brick wall method and the heat kernel method designed for spaces with conical singularity. We show that the UV divergent structures of the entropy, obtained through these two different methods, agree with each other. It is also shown that the same renormalization condition that removes the infinities from the effective action can also be used to renormalize the entanglement entropy for the same system. Besides, the interesting feature of the NC model considered here is that it allows an interpretation in terms of an equivalent system comprising of a commutative massive scalar field, but in a modified geometry; that of the rotational BTZ black hole, the result that hints at a duality between the commutative and noncommutative systems in the background of a BTZ black hole.

Entanglement Entropy Renormalization for the NC scalar field coupled to classical BTZ geometry [Cross-Listing]

In this work, we consider a noncommutative (NC) massless scalar field coupled to the classical nonrotational BTZ geometry. In a manner of the theories where the gravity emerges from the underlying scalar field theory, we study the effective action and the entropy derived from this noncommutative model. In particular, the entropy is calculated by making use of the two different approaches, the brick wall method and the heat kernel method designed for spaces with conical singularity. We show that the UV divergent structures of the entropy, obtained through these two different methods, agree with each other. It is also shown that the same renormalization condition that removes the infinities from the effective action can also be used to renormalize the entanglement entropy for the same system. Besides, the interesting feature of the NC model considered here is that it allows an interpretation in terms of an equivalent system comprising of a commutative massive scalar field, but in a modified geometry; that of the rotational BTZ black hole, the result that hints at a duality between the commutative and noncommutative systems in the background of a BTZ black hole.

Stress tensor for a scalar field in a spatially varying background potential: Divergences, "renormalization," anomalies, and Casimir forces

Motivated by a desire to understand quantum fluctuation energy densities and stress within a spatially varying dielectric medium, we examine the vacuum expectation value for the stress tensor of a scalar field with arbitrary conformal parameter, in the background of a given potential that depends on only one spatial coordinate. We regulate the expressions by incorporating a temporal-spatial cutoff in the (imaginary) time and transverse-spatial directions. The divergences are captured by the zeroth- and second-order WKB approximations. Then the stress tensor is "renormalized" by omitting the terms that depend on the cutoff. The ambiguities that inevitably arise in this procedure are both duly noted and restricted by imposing certain physical conditions; one result is that the renormalized stress tensor exhibits the expected trace anomaly. The renormalized stress tensor exhibits no pressure anomaly, in that the principle of virtual work is satisfied for motions in a transverse direction. We then consider a potential that defines a wall, a one-dimensional potential that vanishes for $z<0$ and rises like $z^\alpha$, $\alpha>0$, for $z>0$. The full finite stress tensor is computed numerically for the two cases where explicit solutions to the differential equation are available, $\alpha=1$ and 2. The energy density exhibits an inverse linear divergence as the boundary is approached from the inside for a linear potential, and a logarithmic divergence for a quadratic potential. Finally, the interaction between two such walls is computed, and it is shown that the attractive Casimir pressure between the two walls also satisfies the principle of virtual work (i.e., the pressure equals the negative derivative of the energy with respect to the distance between the walls).

Planck constraints on scalar-tensor cosmology and the variation of the gravitational constant

Cosmological constraints on the scalar-tensor theory of gravity by analyzing the angular power spectrum data of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) obtained from the Planck 2015 results are presented. We consider the harmonic attractor model, in which the scalar field has a harmonic potential with curvature ($\beta$) in the Einstein frame and the theory relaxes toward the Einstein gravity with time. Analyzing the ${\it TT}$, ${\it EE}$, and ${\it TE}$ CMB data from Planck by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we find that the present-day deviation from the Einstein gravity (${\alpha_0}^2$) is constrained as ${\alpha_0}^2<1.5\times10^{-4-20\beta^2}\ (2\sigma)$ and ${\alpha_0}^2<2.0\times10^{-3-20\beta^2}\ (4\sigma)$ for $0<\beta<0.45$. The time variation of the effective gravitational constant between the recombination and the present epochs is constrained as $G_{\rm rec}/G_0<1.0030\ (2\sigma)$ and $G_{\rm rec}/G_0<1.0067\ (4\sigma)$. We also find that the constraints are little affected by extending to nonflat cosmological models because the diffusion damping effect revealed by Planck breaks the degeneracy of the projection effect.

Planck constraints on scalar-tensor cosmology and the variation of the gravitational constant [Cross-Listing]

Cosmological constraints on the scalar-tensor theory of gravity by analyzing the angular power spectrum data of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) obtained from the Planck 2015 results are presented. We consider the harmonic attractor model, in which the scalar field has a harmonic potential with curvature ($\beta$) in the Einstein frame and the theory relaxes toward the Einstein gravity with time. Analyzing the ${\it TT}$, ${\it EE}$, and ${\it TE}$ CMB data from Planck by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we find that the present-day deviation from the Einstein gravity (${\alpha_0}^2$) is constrained as ${\alpha_0}^2<1.5\times10^{-4-20\beta^2}\ (2\sigma)$ and ${\alpha_0}^2<2.0\times10^{-3-20\beta^2}\ (4\sigma)$ for $0<\beta<0.45$. The time variation of the effective gravitational constant between the recombination and the present epochs is constrained as $G_{\rm rec}/G_0<1.0030\ (2\sigma)$ and $G_{\rm rec}/G_0<1.0067\ (4\sigma)$. We also find that the constraints are little affected by extending to nonflat cosmological models because the diffusion damping effect revealed by Planck breaks the degeneracy of the projection effect.

Planck constraints on scalar-tensor cosmology and the variation of the gravitational constant [Cross-Listing]

Cosmological constraints on the scalar-tensor theory of gravity by analyzing the angular power spectrum data of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) obtained from the Planck 2015 results are presented. We consider the harmonic attractor model, in which the scalar field has a harmonic potential with curvature ($\beta$) in the Einstein frame and the theory relaxes toward the Einstein gravity with time. Analyzing the ${\it TT}$, ${\it EE}$, and ${\it TE}$ CMB data from Planck by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we find that the present-day deviation from the Einstein gravity (${\alpha_0}^2$) is constrained as ${\alpha_0}^2<1.5\times10^{-4-20\beta^2}\ (2\sigma)$ and ${\alpha_0}^2<2.0\times10^{-3-20\beta^2}\ (4\sigma)$ for $0<\beta<0.45$. The time variation of the effective gravitational constant between the recombination and the present epochs is constrained as $G_{\rm rec}/G_0<1.0030\ (2\sigma)$ and $G_{\rm rec}/G_0<1.0067\ (4\sigma)$. We also find that the constraints are little affected by extending to nonflat cosmological models because the diffusion damping effect revealed by Planck breaks the degeneracy of the projection effect.

Topological Excitations in Magnetic Materials [Cross-Listing]

In this work we propose a new route to describe topological excitations in magnetic systems through a single real scalar field. We show here that spherically symmetric structures in two spatial dimensions, which map helical excitations in magnetic materials, admit this formulation and can be used to model skyrmion-like structures in magnetic materials.

Casimir entropy and internal energy of the objects in fluctuating scalar and electromagnetic fields [Cross-Listing]

Casimir entropy is an important aspect of casimir effect.In this paper,we employ the path integral method to derive the total relation for casimir entropy and internal energy of arbitrary shaped objects in the presence of two,three and four dimensions scalar fields and electromagnetic field.We obtain the casimir entropy and internal energy of two nanoribbon immersed in scalar field and two nanospheres immersed in scalar field and electromagnetic field.The casmir entropy of two nanospheres immersed in the electromagnetic field in small interval of temperature variations,shown a different behavior.

Eternal Hilltop Inflation

We consider eternal inflation in hilltop-type inflation models, favored by current data, in which the scalar field in inflation rolls off of a local maximum of the potential. Unlike chaotic or plateau-type inflation models, in hilltop inflation the region of field space which supports eternal inflation is finite, and the expansion rate $H_{EI}$ during eternal inflation is almost exactly the same as the expansion rate $H_*$ during slow roll inflation. Therefore, in any given Hubble volume, there is a finite and calculable expectation value for the lifetime of the "eternal" inflation phase, during which quantum flucutations dominate over classical field evolution. We show that despite this, inflation in hilltop models is nonetheless eternal in the sense that the volume of the spacetime at any finite time is exponentially dominated by regions which continue to inflate. This is true regardless of the energy scale of inflation, and eternal inflation is supported for inflation at arbitrarily low energy scale.

C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field [Replacement]

The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.

C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field

The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.

C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field [Replacement]

The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.

C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field [Cross-Listing]

The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.

Numerical Analysis of Coleman-de Luccia Tunneling

We study the false vacuum decay of a single scalar field $\phi$ coupled to gravity described by the Coleman-de Luccia (CdL) instanton. We show that it is possible to numerically calculate the bounce factor, which is related to the CdL tunneling rate, without using the thin-wall approximation. In this paper, we consider $1/\cosh(\phi)$- and $\cos(\phi)$-type potential as examples, which have cosmological and phenomenological applications. Especially, in the $\cos(\phi)$-type potential we show that the range of values in which axion decay constant can take is restricted by the form of the periodic potential if the CdL tunneling occurs.

Neutron Limit on the Strongly-Coupled Chameleon Field

The physical origin of the dark energy that causes the accelerated expansion rate of the universe is one of the major open questions of cosmology. One set of theories postulates the existence of a self-interacting scalar field for dark energy coupling to matter. In the chameleon dark energy theory, this coupling induces a screening mechanism such that the field amplitude is nonzero in empty space but is greatly suppressed in regions of terrestrial matter density. However measurements performed under appropriate vacuum conditions can enable the chameleon field to appear in the apparatus, where it can be subjected to laboratory experiments. Here we report the most stringent upper bound on the free neutron-chameleon coupling in the strongly-coupled limit of the chameleon theory using neutron interferometric techniques. Our experiment sought the chameleon field through the relative phase shift it would induce along one of the neutron paths inside a perfect crystal neutron interferometer. The amplitude of the chameleon field was actively modulated by varying the millibar pressures inside a dual-chamber aluminum cell. We report a 95% confidence level upper bound on the neutron-chameleon coupling $\beta$ ranging from $\beta < 4.7\times 10^6$ for a Ratra-Peebles index of n = 1 in the nonlinear scalar field potential to $\beta < 2.4\times 10^7$ for n = 6, one order of magnitude more sensitive than the most recent free neutron limit for intermediate n. Similar experiments can explore the full parameter range for chameleon dark energy in the foreseeable future.

Quantum electrodynamics and the electron self-energy in a deformed space with a minimal length scale

The main motivation to study models in the presence of a minimal length is to obtain a quantum field theory free of the divergences. In this way, in this paper, we have constructed a new framework for quantum electrodynamics embedded in a minimal length scale background. New operators are introduced and the Green function method was used for the solution of the field equations, i.e., the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We have analyzed specifically the scalar field and its one loop propagator. The mass of the scalar field regularized by the minimal length was obtained. The QED Lagrangian containing a minimal length was also constructed and the divergences were analyzed. The electron and photon propagators, and the electron self-energy at one loop as a function of the minimal length was also obtained.

Lorentz violation naturalness revisited [Cross-Listing]

We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-energy percolation also in this case.

On D-brane-Anti D-brane Effective actions and their all order Bulk Singularity Structures [Cross-Listing]

All four point functions of brane anti brane system including their correct all order $\alpha'$ corrections have been addressed. All five point functions of one closed string Ramond-Ramond (RR), two real tachyons and either one gauge field or the scalar field in both symmetric and asymmetric pictures have also been explored. The entire analysis of $<C^{-2} A^0 T^0 T ^{0}>$ is carried out. Not only does it fix the vertex operator of RR in asymmetric picture and in higher point functions of string theory amplitudes but also it confirms the fact that there is no issue of picture dependence of the mixed closed RR, gauge fields, tachyons and fermion fields in all symmetric or anti symmetric ones. We compute $<C^{-2} \phi^0 T^0 T ^{0}>$ S-matrix in the presence of a transverse scalar field, two real tachyons and that reveals two different kinds of bulk singularity structures, involving an infinite number of $u'$ gauge field and $(u+s'+t')$ bulk poles. In order to produce all those bulk singularity structures, we define various couplings at the level of the effective field theory that involve the mixing term of Chern-Simons coupling (with C-potential field) and a covariant derivative of the scalar field that comes from the pull-back of brane. Eventually we explore their all order $\alpha'$ corrections in the presence of brane anti brane system where various remarks will be also pointed out.

On D-brane-Anti D-brane Effective actions and their all order Bulk Singularity Structures [Cross-Listing]

All four point functions of brane anti brane system including their correct all order $\alpha'$ corrections have been addressed. All five point functions of one closed string Ramond-Ramond (RR), two real tachyons and either one gauge field or the scalar field in both symmetric and asymmetric pictures have also been explored. The entire analysis of $<C^{-2} A^0 T^0 T ^{0}>$ is carried out. Not only does it fix the vertex operator of RR in asymmetric picture and in higher point functions of string theory amplitudes but also it confirms the fact that there is no issue of picture dependence of the mixed closed RR, gauge fields, tachyons and fermion fields in all symmetric or anti symmetric ones. We compute $<C^{-2} \phi^0 T^0 T ^{0}>$ S-matrix in the presence of a transverse scalar field, two real tachyons and that reveals two different kinds of bulk singularity structures, involving an infinite number of $u'$ gauge field and $(u+s'+t')$ bulk poles. In order to produce all those bulk singularity structures, we define various couplings at the level of the effective field theory that involve the mixing term of Chern-Simons coupling (with C-potential field) and a covariant derivative of the scalar field that comes from the pull-back of brane. Eventually we explore their all order $\alpha'$ corrections in the presence of brane anti brane system where various remarks will be also pointed out.

On D-brane-Anti D-brane Effective actions and their all order Bulk Singularity Structures

All four point functions of brane anti brane system including their correct all order $\alpha'$ corrections have been addressed. All five point functions of one closed string Ramond-Ramond (RR), two real tachyons and either one gauge field or the scalar field in both symmetric and asymmetric pictures have also been explored. The entire analysis of $<C^{-2} A^0 T^0 T ^{0}>$ is carried out. Not only does it fix the vertex operator of RR in asymmetric picture and in higher point functions of string theory amplitudes but also it confirms the fact that there is no issue of picture dependence of the mixed closed RR, gauge fields, tachyons and fermion fields in all symmetric or anti symmetric ones. We compute $<C^{-2} \phi^0 T^0 T ^{0}>$ S-matrix in the presence of a transverse scalar field, two real tachyons and that reveals two different kinds of bulk singularity structures, involving an infinite number of $u'$ gauge field and $(u+s'+t')$ bulk poles. In order to produce all those bulk singularity structures, we define various couplings at the level of the effective field theory that involve the mixing term of Chern-Simons coupling (with C-potential field) and a covariant derivative of the scalar field that comes from the pull-back of brane. Eventually we explore their all order $\alpha'$ corrections in the presence of brane anti brane system where various remarks will be also pointed out.

Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a quantized bulk scalar field in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time

In a previous work [S. Rahbardehghan et al. in Phys. Lett. B 750, 627 (2015)], we considered a simple brane-world model; a single $4$-dimensional brane embedded in a $5$-dimensional de Sitter (dS) space-time. Then, by including a conformally coupled scalar field in the bulk, we studied the induced Casimir energy-momentum tensor. Technically, the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler (KGB) quantization scheme as a covariant and renormalizable quantum field theory in dS space was used to perform the calculations. In the present paper, we generalize this study to a less idealized, but physically motivated, scenario, namely we consider Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time which behaves asymptotically as a dS space-time. More precisely, we evaluate Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a system with two $D$-dimensional curved branes on background of $D+1$-dimensional FRW space-time with negative spatial curvature and a bulk conformally coupled scalar field that satisfies Dirichlet boundary condition on the branes.

Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a quantized bulk scalar field in the geometry of two curved branes on Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background [Replacement]

In a previous work [S. Rahbardehghan et al. in Phys. Lett. B 750, 627 (2015)], we considered a simple brane-world model; a single $4$-dimensional brane embedded in a $5$-dimensional de Sitter (dS) space-time. Then, by including a conformally coupled scalar field in the bulk, we studied the induced Casimir energy-momentum tensor. Technically, the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler (KGB) quantization scheme as a covariant and renormalizable quantum field theory in dS space was used to perform the calculations. In the present paper, we generalize this study to a less idealized, but physically motivated, scenario, namely we consider Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time which behaves asymptotically as a dS space-time. More precisely, we evaluate Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a system with two $D$-dimensional curved branes on background of $D+1$-dimensional FRW space-time with negative spatial curvature and a conformally coupled bulk scalar field that satisfies Dirichlet boundary condition on the branes.

A study of phantom scalar field cosmology using Lie and Noether symmetries

The paper deals with phantom scalar field cosmology in Einstein gravity. At first using Lie symmetry, the coupling function to the kinetic term and the potential function of the scalar field and the equation of state parameter of the matter field are determined and a simple solution is obtained. Subsequently, Noether symmetry is imposed on the Lagrangian of the system. The symmetry vector is obtained and the potential takes a very general form from which potential using Lie Symmetry can be obtained as a particular case. Then we choose a point transformation $(a,\phi)\rightarrow(u,v)$ such that one of the transformed variables (say u) is a cyclic for the Lagrangian. Using conserved charge (corresponding to the cyclic coordinate) and the constant of motion, solutions are obtained.

Dynamical system approach to running $\Lambda$ cosmological models

We discussed the dynamics of cosmological models in which the cosmological constant term is a time dependent function through the scale factor $a(t)$, Hubble function $H(t)$, Ricci scalar $R(t)$ and scalar field $\phi(t)$. We considered five classes of models; two non-covariant parametrization of $\Lambda$: 1) $\Lambda(H)$CDM cosmologies where $H(t)$ is the Hubble parameter, 2) $\Lambda(a)$CDM cosmologies where $a(t)$ is the scale factor, and three covariant parametrization of $\Lambda$: 3) $\Lambda(R)$CDM cosmologies, where $R(t)$ is the Ricci scalar, 4) $\Lambda(\phi)$-cosmologies with diffusion, 5) $\Lambda(X)$-cosmologies, where $X=\frac{1}{2}g^{\alpha\beta}\nabla_{\alpha}\nabla_{\beta}\phi$ is a kinetic part of density of the scalar field. We also considered the case of an emergent $\Lambda(a)$ relation obtained from the behavior of trajectories in a neighborhood of an invariant submanifold. In study of dynamics we use dynamical system methods for investigating how a evolutional scenario can depend on the choice of special initial conditions. We showed that methods of dynamical systems offer the possibility of investigation all admissible solutions of a running $\Lambda$ cosmology for all initial conditions, their stability, asymptotic states as well as a nature of the evolution in the early universe (singularity or bounce) and a long term behavior at the large times. We also formulated an idea of the emergent cosmological term derived directly from an approximation of exact dynamics. We show that some non-covariant parametrizations of Lambda term like $\Lambda(a)$, $\Lambda(H)$ give rise to pathological and nonphysical behaviour of trajectories in the phase space. This behaviour disappears if the term $\Lambda(a)$ is emergent from the covariant parametrization.

Growth of spherical overdensities in scalar-tensor cosmologies

The accelerated expansion of the universe is a rather established fact in cosmology and many different models have been proposed as a viable explanation. Many of these models are based on the standard general relativistic framework of non-interacting fluids or more recently of coupled (interacting) dark energy models, where dark energy (the scalar field) is coupled to the dark matter component giving rise to a fifth-force. An interesting alternative is to couple the scalar field directly to the gravity sector via the Ricci scalar. These models are dubbed non-minimally coupled models and give rise to a time-dependent gravitational constant. In this work we study few models falling into this category and describe how observables depend on the strength of the coupling. We extend recent work on the subject by taking into account also the effects of the perturbations of the scalar field and showing their relative importance on the evolution of the mass function. By working in the framework of the spherical collapse model, we show that perturbations of the scalar field have a limited impact on the growth factor (for small coupling constant) and on the mass function with respect to the case where perturbations are neglected.

Growth of spherical overdensities in scalar-tensor cosmologies [Cross-Listing]

The accelerated expansion of the universe is a rather established fact in cosmology and many different models have been proposed as a viable explanation. Many of these models are based on the standard general relativistic framework of non-interacting fluids or more recently of coupled (interacting) dark energy models, where dark energy (the scalar field) is coupled to the dark matter component giving rise to a fifth-force. An interesting alternative is to couple the scalar field directly to the gravity sector via the Ricci scalar. These models are dubbed non-minimally coupled models and give rise to a time-dependent gravitational constant. In this work we study few models falling into this category and describe how observables depend on the strength of the coupling. We extend recent work on the subject by taking into account also the effects of the perturbations of the scalar field and showing their relative importance on the evolution of the mass function. By working in the framework of the spherical collapse model, we show that perturbations of the scalar field have a limited impact on the growth factor (for small coupling constant) and on the mass function with respect to the case where perturbations are neglected.

Foundations of the Curved Field Space Theory [Cross-Listing]

The aim of this letter is to indicate a possibility of extending the current field theoretical description of Nature into the domain of curved field spaces, i.e.\! the phase spaces in which values of the fields "live". After discussing the motivation and general aspects of such theories we present a detailed analysis of a prototype (quantum) Curved Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. As we show, non-vanishing curvature of the space of configurations and momenta of the field leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: a generalization of the uncertainty relation, non-localities, algebra deformations, the constrained maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy, and extra poles in the field propagator which are characterized by modified dispersion relations.

Resonant SIMP dark matter [Cross-Listing]

We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark $U(1)_D$. After the $U(1)_D$ is broken down to a $Z_5$ discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced $3\rightarrow 2$ annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

Resonant SIMP dark matter

We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark $U(1)_D$. After the $U(1)_D$ is broken down to a $Z_5$ discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced $3\rightarrow 2$ annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

Large mass expansion of the one-loop effective action induced by a scalar field on the two-dimensional Minkowski background with non-trivial $(1+1)$ splitting [Replacement]

A large mass expansion of the one-loop effective action of a scalar field on the two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime is found in the system of coordinates, where the metric $g_{\mu\nu}(t,x)\neq\eta_{\mu\nu}=diag(1,-1)$, and $g_{\mu\nu}(t,x)$ tends to $\eta_{\mu\nu}$ at the spatial and temporal infinities. It is shown that, apart from the Coleman-Weinberg potential, this expansion contains the terms both analytic and non-analytic in $m^{-2}$, where $m$ is the mass of a scalar field. A general unambiguous expression for the one-loop correction to the effective action on non-stationary backgrounds is derived.

Large mass expansion of the one-loop effective action induced by a scalar field on the two-dimensional Minkowski background with non-trivial $(1+1)$ splitting [Replacement]

A large mass expansion of the one-loop effective action of a scalar field on the two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime is found in the system of coordinates, where the metric $g_{\mu\nu}(t,x)\neq\eta_{\mu\nu}=diag(1,-1)$, and $g_{\mu\nu}(t,x)$ tends to $\eta_{\mu\nu}$ at the spatial and temporal infinities. It is shown that, apart from the Coleman-Weinberg potential, this expansion contains the terms both analytic and non-analytic in $m^{-2}$, where $m$ is the mass of a scalar field. A general unambiguous expression for the one-loop correction to the effective action on non-stationary backgrounds is derived.

Large mass expansion of the one-loop effective action induced by a scalar field on the two-dimensional Minkowski background with non-trivial $(1+1)$ splitting [Cross-Listing]

A large mass expansion of the one-loop effective action of a scalar field on the two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime is found in the system of coordinates, where the metric $g_{\mu\nu}(t,x)\neq\eta_{\mu\nu}=diag(1,-1)$, and $g_{\mu\nu}(t,x)$ tends to $\eta_{\mu\nu}$ at the spatial and temporal infinities. It is shown that, apart from the Coleman-Weinberg potential, this expansion contains the terms both analytic and non-analytic in $m^{-2}$, where $m$ is the mass of a scalar field. A general unambiguous expression for the one-loop correction to the effective action on non-stationary backgrounds is derived.

AdS/CFT prescription for angle-deficit space and winding geodesics

We present the holographic computation of the boundary two-point correlator using the GKPW prescription for a scalar field in the AdS$_3$ space with a conical defect. Generally speaking, a conical defect breaks conformal invariance in the dual theory, however we calculate the classical Green functions for a scalar field in the bulk with conical defect and use them to compute the two-point correlator in the boundary theory. We compare the obtained general expression with previous studies based on the geodesic approximation. They are in good agreement for short correlators, and main discrepancy comes in the region of long correlations. Meanwhile, in case of $\mathbb{Z}_r$-orbifold, the GKPW result coincides with the one obtained via geodesic images prescription and with the general result for the boundary theory, which is conformal in this special case.

Fluid/Gravity Correspondence with Scalar Field and Electromagnetic Field [Cross-Listing]

We consider fluid/gravity correspondence in a general rotating black hole background with scalar and electromagnetic fields. Using the method of Petrov-like boundary condition, we show that the scalar and the electromagnetic fields contribute external forces to the dual Navier-Stokes equation and the rotation of black hole induces the Coriolis force.

The masses of higher spin fields on AdS_4 and conformal perturbation theory [Replacement]

We study the breaking of gauge symmetry for higher spin theory on AdS_4 dual to the 3d critical O(N) vector model. It was argued that the breaking is due to the change of boundary condition for scalar field, and the Goldstone modes are bound states of scalar field and higher spin field. The masses of higher spin fields were obtained from the anomalous dimensions of dual currents. We confirm the bulk interpretation quantitatively by reproducing the masses or the anomalous dimensions from the bulk theory. The anomalous dimensions can be computed from the bulk theory using Witten diagrams, and it is shown that the bulk computation reduces to that of the O(N) vector model in conformal perturbation theory. Using the conformal perturbation theory, we reproduce the anomalous dimensions.

A flashless quantization of the scalar field on the "trousers"

The "trousers" spacetime is a pair of flat 2D cylinders ("legs") merging into into a single one ("trunk"). In spite of its simplicity this spacetime has a few features (including, in particular, a naked singularity in the "crotch") each of which is presumably unphysical, but for none of which a mechanism is known able to prevent its occurrence. Therefore it is interesting and important to study the behavior of the quantum fields in such a space. Anderson and DeWitt were the first to consider the free scalar field in the trousers spacetime. They argued that the crotch singularity produces an infinitely bright flash, which was interpreted as evidence that the topology of space is dynamically preserved. Similar divergencies were later discovered by Manogue, Copeland and Dray who used a more exotic quantization scheme. Later yet the same result obtained within a somewhat different approach led Sorkin to the conclusion that the topological transition in question is suppressed in quantum gravity. In this paper I show that the Anderson--DeWitt divergence is an artifact of their choice of the Fock space. By choosing a different one-particle Hilbert space one gets a quantum state in which the components of the stress-energy tensor (SET) are bounded in the frame of a free-falling observer.

Chaotic Inflationary Models in f(R) Gravity

In this paper, we discuss inflationary scenario via scalar field and fluid cosmology for anisotropic homogeneous universe model in $f(R)$ gravity. We consider an equation of state which corresponds to quasi-de Sitter expansion and investigate the effect of anisotropy parameter for different values of deviation parameter. We evaluate potential models like linear, quadratic and quartic which correspond to chaotic inflation. We construct the observational parameters for power-law model of this gravity and discuss the graphical behavior of spectral index and tensor-scalar ratio which indicates consistency of these parameters with Planck 2015 data.

Thermodynamics of general scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling [Replacement]

With the usual definitions for the entropy and the temperature associated with the apparent horizon, we discuss the first law of the thermodynamics on the apparent in the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with the kinetic term of the scalar field non-minimally coupling to Einstein tensor. We show the equivalence between the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and Friedmann equation for the general models, by using a mass-like function which is equal to the Misner-Sharp mass on the apparent horizon. The results further support the universal relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equation.

Thermodynamics of general scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling [Replacement]

With the usual definitions for the entropy and the temperature associated with the apparent horizon, we discuss the first law of the thermodynamics on the apparent in the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with the kinetic term of the scalar field non-minimally coupling to Einstein tensor. We show the equivalence between the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and Friedmann equation for the general models, by using a mass-like function which is equal to the Misner-Sharp mass on the apparent horizon. The results further support the universal relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equation.

Thermodynamics of general scalar-tensor theory with non-minimally derivative coupling [Replacement]

With the usual definitions for the entropy and the temperature associated with the apparent horizon, we discuss the first law of the thermodynamics on the apparent in the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with the kinetic term of the scalar field non-minimally coupling to Einstein tensor. We show the equivalence between the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and Friedmann equation for the general models, by using a mass-like function which is equal to the Misner-Sharp mass on the apparent horizon. The results further support the universal relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equation.

Emergent spontaneous symmetry breaking and emergent symmetry restoration in rippling gravitational background

We study effects of a rippling gravitational background on a scalar field with a double well potential, focusing on the analogy with the well known dynamics of the Kapitza's pendulum. The ripples are rendered as infinitesimal but rapidly oscillating perturbations of the scale factor. We find that the resulting dynamics crucially depends on a value of the parameter $\xi$ in the $\xi \,R\, \phi^2$ vertex. For the time-dependent perturbations of a proper form the resulting effective action is generally covariant, and at a high enough frequency at $\xi<0$ and at $\xi>1/6$ the effective potential has a single minimum at zero, thereby restoring spontaneously broken symmetry of the ground state. On the other side, at $0<\xi< 1/6$ spontaneous symmetry breaking emerges even when it is absent in the non perturbed case.

Emergent spontaneous symmetry breaking and emergent symmetry restoration in rippling gravitational background [Cross-Listing]

We study effects of a rippling gravitational background on a scalar field with a double well potential, focusing on the analogy with the well known dynamics of the Kapitza's pendulum. The ripples are rendered as infinitesimal but rapidly oscillating perturbations of the scale factor. We find that the resulting dynamics crucially depends on a value of the parameter $\xi$ in the $\xi \,R\, \phi^2$ vertex. For the time-dependent perturbations of a proper form the resulting effective action is generally covariant, and at a high enough frequency at $\xi<0$ and at $\xi>1/6$ the effective potential has a single minimum at zero, thereby restoring spontaneously broken symmetry of the ground state. On the other side, at $0<\xi< 1/6$ spontaneous symmetry breaking emerges even when it is absent in the non perturbed case.

On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

We discuss the application of the Hojmans Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like $f(R)$ gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. $\phi\left( t\right) =\phi\left( a\left( t\right) \right) $, which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of the Noether conservation law of momentum for the free particle. On the other hand, for $f(T)$ teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of $f(T)$ functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the application of the Hojmans Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like $f(R)$ gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. $\phi\left( t\right) =\phi\left( a\left( t\right) \right) $, which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of the Noether conservation law of momentum for the free particle. On the other hand, for $f(T)$ teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of $f(T)$ functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology [Replacement]

We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like $f(R)$ gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. $\phi\left( t\right) =\phi\left( a\left( t\right) \right) $, which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for $f(T)$ teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of $f(T)$ functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology [Replacement]

We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like $f(R)$ gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. $\phi\left( t\right) =\phi\left( a\left( t\right) \right) $, which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for $f(T)$ teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of $f(T)$ functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

Massive dark photons in a Higgs portal model

An extension of the Standard Model with a hidden sector which consists of gauge singlets (a Dirac fermion $\chi$ and a scalar $S$) plus a vector boson $V_\mu$ (dark massive photon) is studied. The singlet scalar interacts with the Standard Model sector through the triple and quartic scalar interactions, while the singlet fermion and vector boson field interact with the Standard Model only via the singlet scalar. The scalar field generates the vector boson's mass. Perspectives for future $e^{-}e^{+}$ colliders is considered.

Massive dark photons in a Higgs portal model [Cross-Listing]

An extension of the Standard Model with a hidden sector which consists of gauge singlets (a Dirac fermion $\chi$ and a scalar $S$) plus a vector boson $V_\mu$ (dark massive photon) is studied. The singlet scalar interacts with the Standard Model sector through the triple and quartic scalar interactions, while the singlet fermion and vector boson field interact with the Standard Model only via the singlet scalar. The scalar field generates the vector boson's mass. Perspectives for future $e^{-}e^{+}$ colliders is considered.

Complete cosmic scenario in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld from the dynamical systems perspective [Cross-Listing]

The paper deals with dynamical system analysis of a coupled scalar field in the Randall-Sundrum(RS)2 brane world. The late time attractor describes the final state of the cosmic evolution. In RS2 based phantom model there is no late-time attractor and consequently there is uncertainty in cosmic evolution. In this paper, we have shown that it is possible to get late-time attractor when gravity is coupled to scalar field. Finally, in order to predict the final evolution of the universe, we have also studied classical stability of the model. It is found that there are late time attractors which are both locally as well as classically stable and so our model can realise the late time cosmic acceleration.

Complete cosmic scenario in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld from the dynamical systems perspective

The paper deals with dynamical system analysis of a coupled scalar field in the Randall-Sundrum(RS)2 brane world. The late time attractor describes the final state of the cosmic evolution. In RS2 based phantom model there is no late-time attractor and consequently there is uncertainty in cosmic evolution. In this paper, we have shown that it is possible to get late-time attractor when gravity is coupled to scalar field. Finally, in order to predict the final evolution of the universe, we have also studied classical stability of the model. It is found that there are late time attractors which are both locally as well as classically stable and so our model can realise the late time cosmic acceleration.

 

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