Posts Tagged scalar field

Recent Postings from scalar field

Feynman Diagrams for Stochastic Inflation and Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter Space [Cross-Listing]

We consider a massive scalar field with quartic self-interaction $\lambda/4!\,\phi^4$ in de~Sitter spacetime and present a diagrammatic expansion that describes the field as driven by stochastic noise. This is compared with the Feynman diagrams in the Keldysh basis of the Amphichronous (Closed-Time-Path) Field Theoretical formalism. For all orders in the expansion, we find that the diagrams agree when evaluated in the leading infrared approximation, i.e. to leading order in $m^2/H^2$, where $m$ is the mass of the scalar field and $H$ is the Hubble rate. As a consequence, the correlation functions computed in both approaches also agree to leading infrared order. This perturbative correspondence shows that the stochastic Theory is exactly equivalent to the Field Theory in the infrared. The former can then offer a non-perturbative resummation of the Field Theoretical Feynman diagram expansion, including fields with $0\leq m^2\ll\sqrt \lambda H^2$ for which the perturbation expansion fails at late times.

Feynman Diagrams for Stochastic Inflation and Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter Space

We consider a massive scalar field with quartic self-interaction $\lambda/4!\,\phi^4$ in de~Sitter spacetime and present a diagrammatic expansion that describes the field as driven by stochastic noise. This is compared with the Feynman diagrams in the Keldysh basis of the Amphichronous (Closed-Time-Path) Field Theoretical formalism. For all orders in the expansion, we find that the diagrams agree when evaluated in the leading infrared approximation, i.e. to leading order in $m^2/H^2$, where $m$ is the mass of the scalar field and $H$ is the Hubble rate. As a consequence, the correlation functions computed in both approaches also agree to leading infrared order. This perturbative correspondence shows that the stochastic Theory is exactly equivalent to the Field Theory in the infrared. The former can then offer a non-perturbative resummation of the Field Theoretical Feynman diagram expansion, including fields with $0\leq m^2\ll\sqrt \lambda H^2$ for which the perturbation expansion fails at late times.

Feynman Diagrams for Stochastic Inflation and Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter Space [Cross-Listing]

We consider a massive scalar field with quartic self-interaction $\lambda/4!\,\phi^4$ in de~Sitter spacetime and present a diagrammatic expansion that describes the field as driven by stochastic noise. This is compared with the Feynman diagrams in the Keldysh basis of the Amphichronous (Closed-Time-Path) Field Theoretical formalism. For all orders in the expansion, we find that the diagrams agree when evaluated in the leading infrared approximation, i.e. to leading order in $m^2/H^2$, where $m$ is the mass of the scalar field and $H$ is the Hubble rate. As a consequence, the correlation functions computed in both approaches also agree to leading infrared order. This perturbative correspondence shows that the stochastic Theory is exactly equivalent to the Field Theory in the infrared. The former can then offer a non-perturbative resummation of the Field Theoretical Feynman diagram expansion, including fields with $0\leq m^2\ll\sqrt \lambda H^2$ for which the perturbation expansion fails at late times.

Feynman Diagrams for Stochastic Inflation and Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter Space [Cross-Listing]

We consider a massive scalar field with quartic self-interaction $\lambda/4!\,\phi^4$ in de~Sitter spacetime and present a diagrammatic expansion that describes the field as driven by stochastic noise. This is compared with the Feynman diagrams in the Keldysh basis of the Amphichronous (Closed-Time-Path) Field Theoretical formalism. For all orders in the expansion, we find that the diagrams agree when evaluated in the leading infrared approximation, i.e. to leading order in $m^2/H^2$, where $m$ is the mass of the scalar field and $H$ is the Hubble rate. As a consequence, the correlation functions computed in both approaches also agree to leading infrared order. This perturbative correspondence shows that the stochastic Theory is exactly equivalent to the Field Theory in the infrared. The former can then offer a non-perturbative resummation of the Field Theoretical Feynman diagram expansion, including fields with $0\leq m^2\ll\sqrt \lambda H^2$ for which the perturbation expansion fails at late times.

ADM with Massless Scalar Field as Internal Time and Wheeler-Dewitt Equation for 4D Supermetric

We study the ADM split with respect to the scalar massless field serving as internal time. The four dimensional hyper-surfaces $\Sigma_{\phi = const}$ span the five dimensional space with the scalar field being the fifth coordinate. As a result we obtain the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the 4-dimensional supermetric. We compare the ADM action with the non-compactified Kaluza-Klein action for the same physical space and obtain the equation for the extrinsic curvature and the scalar massless field.

ADM with Massless Scalar Field as Internal Time and Wheeler-DeWitt Equation for 4D Supermetric [Replacement]

We study the ADM split with respect to the scalar massless field serving as internal time. The four dimensional hyper-surfaces $\Sigma_{\phi = const}$ span the five dimensional space with the scalar field being the fifth coordinate. As a result we obtain the analog of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the 4-dimensional supermetric. We compare the ADM action with the non-compactified Kaluza-Klein action for the same physical space and obtain the equation for the extrinsic curvature and the scalar massless field.

Cosmology in GSG

We describe what cosmology looks like in the context of the geometric theory of gravity (GSG) based on a single scalar field. There are two distinct classes of cosmological solutions. An interesting feature is the possibility of having a bounce without invoking exotic equations of state for the cosmic fluid. We also discuss cosmological perturbation and present the basis of structure formation by gravitational instability in the framework of the geometric scalar gravity.

Cosmology in GSG [Cross-Listing]

We describe what cosmology looks like in the context of the geometric theory of gravity (GSG) based on a single scalar field. There are two distinct classes of cosmological solutions. An interesting feature is the possibility of having a bounce without invoking exotic equations of state for the cosmic fluid. We also discuss cosmological perturbation and present the basis of structure formation by gravitational instability in the framework of the geometric scalar gravity.

Einstein-Maxwell gravity coupled to a scalar field in 2+1-dimensions

We consider Einstein-Maxwell-self-interacting scalar field theory described by a potential $V\left( \phi \right) $ in $2+1-$dimensions. The self-interaction potential is chosen to be a highly non-linear double-Liouville type. Exact solutions, including chargeless black holes and singularity-free non-black hole solutions are obtained in this model.

Stationary axisymmetric spacetimes with a conformally coupled scalar field [Cross-Listing]

Solution generating techniques for general relativity with a conformally (and minimally) coupled scalar field are pushed forward to build a wide class of asymptotically flat, axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes continuously connected to Kerr. This family contains, amongst other things, rotating extensions of the BBMB black hole and also its angular and mass multipolar generalisations. Further addition of NUT charge is also discussed.

Stationary axisymmetric spacetimes with a conformally coupled scalar field

Solution generating techniques for general relativity with a conformally (and minimally) coupled scalar field are pushed forward to build a wide class of asymptotically flat, axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes continuously connected to Kerr. This family contains, amongst other things, rotating extensions of the BBMB black hole and also its angular and mass multipolar generalisations. Further addition of NUT charge is also discussed.

Monochromatic neutrinos generated by dark matter and the see-saw mechanism

We study a minimal extension of the Standard Model where a scalar field is coupled to the right handed neutrino responsible for the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. In the absence of other couplings, the scalar $A$ has a unique decay mode $A \rightarrow \nu \nu$, $\nu$ being the physical observed light neutrino state. Imposing constraints on neutrino masses $m_\nu$ from atmospheric and solar experiments implies a long lifetime for $A$, much larger than the age of the Universe, making it a natural dark matter candidate. Its lifetime can be as large as $10^{29}$ seconds, and its signature would be a clear monochromatic neutrino signal, which can be observed by IceCube. Under certain conditions, the scalar $A$ may be viewed as a Goldstone mode of a complex scalar field whose vacuum expectation value generates the Majorana mass for $\nu_R$. In this case, we expect the dark matter scalar to have a mass $\lesssim 10$ GeV.

Monochromatic neutrinos generated by dark matter and the see-saw mechanism [Cross-Listing]

We study a minimal extension of the Standard Model where a scalar field is coupled to the right handed neutrino responsible for the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. In the absence of other couplings, the scalar $A$ has a unique decay mode $A \rightarrow \nu \nu$, $\nu$ being the physical observed light neutrino state. Imposing constraints on neutrino masses $m_\nu$ from atmospheric and solar experiments implies a long lifetime for $A$, much larger than the age of the Universe, making it a natural dark matter candidate. Its lifetime can be as large as $10^{29}$ seconds, and its signature would be a clear monochromatic neutrino signal, which can be observed by IceCube. Under certain conditions, the scalar $A$ may be viewed as a Goldstone mode of a complex scalar field whose vacuum expectation value generates the Majorana mass for $\nu_R$. In this case, we expect the dark matter scalar to have a mass $\lesssim 10$ GeV.

Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the obvious energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability [Cross-Listing]

We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the obvious energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability [Replacement]

We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the obvious energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability [Replacement]

We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the obvious energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

Interacting Holographic Extended Chaplygin Gas and Phantom Cosmology in the Light of BICEP2

In this paper, we study the holographic dark energy density and interacting extended Chaplygin gas energy density in Einstein gravity. We reconstruct the scalar field and the scalar potential describing the extended Chaplygin gas. In the special case, we obtain energy density and investigate some cosmological parameters. Assuming interaction between components we find energy density for some different parametrization of total EoS. We analyze tensor to scalar ratio and use recent observational data of BICEP2 to fix the model parameters.

Interacting Holographic Extended Chaplygin Gas and Phantom Cosmology in the Light of BICEP2 [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we study the holographic dark energy density and interacting extended Chaplygin gas energy density in Einstein gravity. We reconstruct the scalar field and the scalar potential describing the extended Chaplygin gas. In the special case, we obtain energy density and investigate some cosmological parameters. Assuming interaction between components we find energy density for some different parametrization of total EoS. We analyze tensor to scalar ratio and use recent observational data of BICEP2 to fix the model parameters.

MOND-like acceleration in integrable Weyl geometric gravity

In a Weyl geometric scalar tensor theory of gravity we replace the quadratic kinetic Lagrangian of the scalar field by a cubic term, similar to the one of Bekenstein and Milgrom’s first relativistic MOND theory (AQUAL). In Einstein-scalar field gauge of the Weylian metric, the scale connection expresses an additional acceleration adding to the (Riemannian) metrical component known from Einstein gravity. It becomes MOND-like in the static weak field approximation, while the Riemannian component remains Newtonian. Near mass centers the energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field acquires spatial inhomogeneities containing a considerable amount of energy. These inhomogeneities have consequences comparable to the ones attributed to dark matter, as far as cluster dynamics and gravitational lensing are concerned.

A New Instability of the Topological black hole

We investigate the stability of massless topological black holes in AdS_d when minimally coupled to a scalar field of negative mass-squared. In many cases such black holes are unstable to the formation of scalar hair even though the field is above the BF bound and the geometry is locally AdS. The instability depends on the choice of boundary conditions for the scalars: scalars with non-standard (Neumann) boundary conditions tend to be more unstable, though scalars with standard (Dirichlet) boundary conditions can be unstable as well. This leads to an apparent mismatch between boundary and bulk results in the Vasiliev/Vector-like matter duality.

Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies [Replacement]

In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology in the WKB approximation. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrarily to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs to be generically non-zero.

Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies [Replacement]

In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology in the WKB approximation. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrarily to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs to be generically non-zero.

Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies [Replacement]

In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology in the WKB approximation. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrarily to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs to be generically non-zero.

Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies

In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology in the WKB approximation. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrarily to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs to be generically non-zero.

Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies [Replacement]

In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology in the WKB approximation. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrarily to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs to be generically non-zero.

Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies [Cross-Listing]

In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology in the WKB approximation. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrarily to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs to be generically non-zero.

Geometric phases and cyclic isotropic cosmologies [Cross-Listing]

In the present paper we study the evolution of the modes of a scalar field in a cyclic cosmology. In order to keep the discussion clear, we study the features of a scalar field in a toy model, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a periodic scale factor, in which the universe expands, contracts and bounces infinite times, in the approximation in which the dynamic features of this universe are driven by some external factor, without the backreaction of the scalar field under study. In particular, we show that particle production exhibits features of the cyclic cosmology in the WKB approximation. Also, by studying the Berry phase of the scalar field, we show that contrarily to what is commonly believed, the scalar field carries information from one bounce to another in the form of a global phase which occurs to be generically non-zero.

Nonlocal Scalar Quantum Field Theory from Causal Sets [Cross-Listing]

We study a non-local scalar quantum field theory in flat spacetime derived from the dynamics of a scalar field on a causal set. We show that this non-local QFT contains a continuum of massive modes in any dimension. In 2 dimensions the Hamiltonian is positive definite and therefore the quantum theory is well-defined. In 4-dimensions, we show that the unstable modes of the non-local d’Alembertian are propagated via the so called Wheeler propagator and hence do not appear in the asymptotic states. In the free case studied here the continuum of massive mode are shown to not propagate in the asymptotic states. However the Hamiltonian is not positive definite, therefore potential issues with the quantum theory remain. Finally, we conclude with hints toward what kind of phenomenology one might expect from such non-local QFTs.

Nonlocal Scalar Quantum Field Theory from Causal Sets

We study a non-local scalar quantum field theory in flat spacetime derived from the dynamics of a scalar field on a causal set. We show that this non-local QFT contains a continuum of massive modes in any dimension. In 2 dimensions the Hamiltonian is positive definite and therefore the quantum theory is well-defined. In 4-dimensions, we show that the unstable modes of the non-local d’Alembertian are propagated via the so called Wheeler propagator and hence do not appear in the asymptotic states. In the free case studied here the continuum of massive mode are shown to not propagate in the asymptotic states. However the Hamiltonian is not positive definite, therefore potential issues with the quantum theory remain. Finally, we conclude with hints toward what kind of phenomenology one might expect from such non-local QFTs.

Fine tuning and vacuum stability in Wilsonian effective action

We have computed Wilsonian effective action in a simple model containing scalar field with quartic self-coupling which interacts via Yukawa coupling with a Dirac fermion. The model is invariant under a chiral parity operation, which can be spontaneously broken by a vev of the scalar field. We have computed explicitly Wilsonian running of relevant parameters which makes it possible to discuss in a consistent manner the issue of fine-tuning and stability of the scalar potential. This has been compared with the typical picture based on Gell-Mann-Low running. Since Wilsonian running includes automatically integration out of heavy degrees of freedom, the running differs markedly from the Gell-Mann-Low version. However, similar behaviour can be observed: scalar mass squared parameter and the quartic coupling can change sign from a positive to a negative one due to running which causes spontaneous symmetry breaking or an instability in the renormalizable part of the potential for a given range of scales. However, care must be taken when drawing conclusions, because of the truncation of higher dimension operators. As for the issue of fine-tuning, since in the Wilsonian approach power-law terms are not subtracted, one can clearly observe the quadratic sensitivity of fine-tuning measure to the change of the cut-off scale.

Fine-tuning and vacuum stability in Wilsonian effective action [Replacement]

We have computed Wilsonian effective action in a simple model containing scalar field with quartic self-coupling which interacts via Yukawa coupling with a Dirac fermion. The model is invariant under a chiral parity operation, which can be spontaneously broken by a vev of the scalar field. We have computed explicitly Wilsonian running of relevant parameters which makes it possible to discuss in a consistent manner the issue of fine-tuning and stability of the scalar potential. This has been compared with the typical picture based on Gell-Mann-Low running. Since Wilsonian running includes automatically integration out of heavy degrees of freedom, the running differs markedly from the Gell-Mann-Low version. However, similar behaviour can be observed: scalar mass squared parameter and the quartic coupling can change sign from a positive to a negative one due to running which causes spontaneous symmetry breaking or an instability in the renormalizable part of the potential for a given range of scales. However, care must be taken when drawing conclusions, because of the truncation of higher dimension operators. As for the issue of fine-tuning, since in the Wilsonian approach power-law terms are not subtracted, one can clearly observe the quadratic sensitivity of fine-tuning measure to the change of the cut-off scale.

Fine tuning and vacuum stability in Wilsonian effective action [Cross-Listing]

We have computed Wilsonian effective action in a simple model containing scalar field with quartic self-coupling which interacts via Yukawa coupling with a Dirac fermion. The model is invariant under a chiral parity operation, which can be spontaneously broken by a vev of the scalar field. We have computed explicitly Wilsonian running of relevant parameters which makes it possible to discuss in a consistent manner the issue of fine-tuning and stability of the scalar potential. This has been compared with the typical picture based on Gell-Mann-Low running. Since Wilsonian running includes automatically integration out of heavy degrees of freedom, the running differs markedly from the Gell-Mann-Low version. However, similar behaviour can be observed: scalar mass squared parameter and the quartic coupling can change sign from a positive to a negative one due to running which causes spontaneous symmetry breaking or an instability in the renormalizable part of the potential for a given range of scales. However, care must be taken when drawing conclusions, because of the truncation of higher dimension operators. As for the issue of fine-tuning, since in the Wilsonian approach power-law terms are not subtracted, one can clearly observe the quadratic sensitivity of fine-tuning measure to the change of the cut-off scale.

Fine-tuning and vacuum stability in Wilsonian effective action [Replacement]

We have computed Wilsonian effective action in a simple model containing scalar field with quartic self-coupling which interacts via Yukawa coupling with a Dirac fermion. The model is invariant under a chiral parity operation, which can be spontaneously broken by a vev of the scalar field. We have computed explicitly Wilsonian running of relevant parameters which makes it possible to discuss in a consistent manner the issue of fine-tuning and stability of the scalar potential. This has been compared with the typical picture based on Gell-Mann-Low running. Since Wilsonian running includes automatically integration out of heavy degrees of freedom, the running differs markedly from the Gell-Mann-Low version. However, similar behaviour can be observed: scalar mass squared parameter and the quartic coupling can change sign from a positive to a negative one due to running which causes spontaneous symmetry breaking or an instability in the renormalizable part of the potential for a given range of scales. However, care must be taken when drawing conclusions, because of the truncation of higher dimension operators. As for the issue of fine-tuning, since in the Wilsonian approach power-law terms are not subtracted, one can clearly observe the quadratic sensitivity of fine-tuning measure to the change of the cut-off scale.

Fine tuning and vacuum stability in Wilsonian effective action

We have computed Wilsonian effective action in a simple model containing scalar field with quartic self-coupling which interacts via Yukawa coupling with a Dirac fermion. The model is invariant under a chiral parity operation, which can be spontaneously broken by a vev of the scalar field. We have computed explicitly Wilsonian running of relevant parameters which makes it possible to discuss in a consistent manner the issue of fine-tuning and stability of the scalar potential. This has been compared with the typical picture based on Gell-Mann-Low running. Since Wilsonian running includes automatically integration out of heavy degrees of freedom, the running differs markedly from the Gell-Mann-Low version. However, similar behaviour can be observed: scalar mass squared parameter and the quartic coupling can change sign from a positive to a negative one due to running which causes spontaneous symmetry breaking or an instability in the renormalizable part of the potential for a given range of scales. However, care must be taken when drawing conclusions, because of the truncation of higher dimension operators. As for the issue of fine-tuning, since in the Wilsonian approach power-law terms are not subtracted, one can clearly observe the quadratic sensitivity of fine-tuning measure to the change of the cut-off scale.

A Topological Field Theory for the triple Milnor linking coefficient

The subject of this work is a three-dimensional topological field theory with a non-semisimple group of gauge symmetry with observables consisting in the holonomies of connections around three closed loops. The connections are a linear combination of gauge potentials with coefficients containing a set of one-dimensional scalar fields. It is checked that these observables are both metric independent and gauge invariant. The gauge invariance is achieved by requiring non-trivial gauge transformations in the scalar field sector. This topological field theory is solvable and has only a relevant amplitude which has been computed exactly. From this amplitude it is possible to isolate a topological invariant which is Milnor’s triple linking invariant. The topological invariant obtained in this way is in the form of a sum of multiple contour integrals. The contours coincide with the trajectories of the three loops mentioned before. The introduction of the one-dimensional scalar field is necessary in order to reproduce correctly the particular path ordering of the integration over the contours which is present in the triple Milnor linking coefficient. This is the first example of a local topological gauge field theory that is solvable and can be associated to a topological invariant of the complexity of the triple Milnor linking coefficient.

Notes on quantum fields on two dimensional spacetimes

We point out how to construct the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state for the minimaly coupled massless quantum real scalar field in the two dimensional BTZ black hole. We also calculate the renormalized energy-momentum tensor for the same field in the eternal CGHS black hole, AdS, Robertson-Walker and Rindler spacetime in two dimensions. We also discuss the Boulware, the Hartle-Hawking-Israel and the Unruh state for the eternal CGHS black hole.

Notes on quantum fields on two dimensional spacetimes [Cross-Listing]

We point out how to construct the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state for the minimaly coupled massless quantum real scalar field in the two dimensional BTZ black hole. We also calculate the renormalized energy-momentum tensor for the same field in the eternal CGHS black hole, AdS, Robertson-Walker and Rindler spacetime in two dimensions. We also discuss the Boulware, the Hartle-Hawking-Israel and the Unruh state for the eternal CGHS black hole.

Cosmological Evolution of Statistical System of Scalar Charged Particles

In the paper we consider the macroscopic model of plasma of scalar charged particles, obtained by means of the statistical averaging of the microscopic equations of particle dynamics in a scalar field. On the basis of kinetic equations, obtained from averaging, and their strict integral consequences, a self-consistent set of equations is formulated which describes the self-gravitating plasma of scalar charged particles. It was obtained the corresponding closed cosmological model which also was numerically simulated for the case of one-component degenerated Fermi gas and two-component Boltzmann system. It was shown that results depend weakly on the choice of a statistical model. Two specific features of cosmological evolution of a statistical system of scalar charged particles were obtained with respect to cosmological evolution of the minimal interaction models: appearance of giant bursts of invariant cosmological acceleration $\Omega$ at the time interval $8\cdot10^3\div2\cdot10^4 t_{Pl}$ and strong heating ($3\div 8$ orders of magnitude) of a statistical system at the same times. The presence of such features can modify the quantum theory of generation of cosmological gravitational perturbations.

Testing the quasi-static approximation in $f(R)$ gravity simulations

Numerical simulations in modified gravity have commonly been performed under the quasi-static approximation — that is, by neglecting the effect of time derivatives in the equation of motion of the scalar field that governs the fifth force in a given modified gravity theory. To test the validity of this approximation, we analyse the case of $f(R)$ gravity beyond this quasi-static limit, by considering effects, if any, these terms have in the matter and velocity divergence cosmic fields. To this end, we use the adaptive mesh refinement code ECOSMOG to study three variants ($|f_{R}|= 10^{-4}[$F4$], 10^{-5}[$F5$]$ and $10^{-6}[$F6$]$) of the Hu-Sawicki $f(R)$ gravity model, each of which refers to a different magnitude for the scalar field that generates the fifth force. We find that for F4 and F5, which show stronger deviations from standard gravity, a low-resolution simulation is enough to conclude that time derivatives make a negligible contribution to the matter distribution. The F6 model shows a larger deviation from the quasi-static approximation, but one that diminishes when re-simulated at higher resolution. We therefore come to the conclusion that the quasi-static approximation is valid for the most practical applications in $f(R)$ cosmologies.

Cosmological models with the spinor and non-minimally interacting scalar field

The solution to the current extending Universe problem, and the description of all stages of evolution compels scientists to consider various cosmological models. Scalar – tensor models are rather simple and also allow us to clearly define the separate stages of evolution. Furthermore, other cosmological models are reduced. Our work takes into consideration the non-minimally interacted scalar field and the spinor field. The spinor field has been considered to establish a better understanding of the stages of evolution in our Universe.

Vacuum Energy Densities of a Field in a Cavity with a Mobile Boundary [Cross-Listing]

We consider the zero-point field fluctuations, and the related field energy densities, inside a one-dimensional and a three-dimensional cavity with a mobile wall. The mechanical degrees of freedom of the mobile wall are described quantum-mechanically and they are fully included in the overall system dynamics. In this optomechanical system, the field and the wall can interact with each other through the radiation pressure on the wall, given by the photons inside the cavity or even by vacuum fluctuations. We consider two cases: the 1D electromagnetic field and the 3D scalar field, and use the Green’s functions formalism, that allows extension of the results obtained for the scalar field to the electromagnetic field. We show that the quantum fluctuations of the position of the cavity’s mobile wall significantly affect the field energy density inside the cavity, in particular at the very proximity of the mobile wall. The dependence of this effect from the ultraviolet cut-off frequency, related to the plasma frequency of the cavity walls, is discussed. We also compare our new results for the 1D electromagnetic field and the 3D massless scalar field to results recently obtained for the 1D massless scalar field. We show that the presence of a mobile wall also changes the Casimir-Polder force on a polarizable body placed inside the cavity, giving possibility to detect experimentally the new effects we have considered.

Evolution of Vacuum Fluctuations of an Ultra-Light Massive Scalar Field generated during and before Inflation [Cross-Listing]

An ultra light scalar field with a mass comparable to (or lighter than) the Hubble parameter at present universe plays a role of the dark energy. In this paper we calculate time evolution of the energy-momentum tensor of the vacuum fluctuations generated during and before the inflation until the late-time radiation-dominated and matter-dominated universe. The equation of state changes from $w=1/3$ in the early universe to $w=-1$ at present. It then oscillates between $w=-1$ and $1$ with the amplitude of the energy density decaying as $a^{-3}.$ If the fluctuations are generated during the ordinary inflation with the Hubble parameter $H_I \lesssim 10^{-5} M_{\rm Pl}$, where $M_{\rm Pl}$ is the reduced Planck scale, we need a very large e-folding number $N \gtrsim 10^{12}$. If a Planckian universe with a large Hubble parameter $H_P \sim M_{\rm Pl}$ existed before the ordinary inflation, an e-folding number $N \sim 240$ of the Planckian inflation is sufficient to generate the fluctuations $\sim 10^{-3} {\rm eV}$ at present.

Evolution of Vacuum Fluctuations of an Ultra-Light Massive Scalar Field generated during and before Inflation [Cross-Listing]

An ultra light scalar field with a mass comparable to (or lighter than) the Hubble parameter at present universe plays a role of the dark energy. In this paper we calculate time evolution of the energy-momentum tensor of the vacuum fluctuations generated during and before the inflation until the late-time radiation-dominated and matter-dominated universe. The equation of state changes from $w=1/3$ in the early universe to $w=-1$ at present. It then oscillates between $w=-1$ and $1$ with the amplitude of the energy density decaying as $a^{-3}.$ If the fluctuations are generated during the ordinary inflation with the Hubble parameter $H_I \lesssim 10^{-5} M_{\rm Pl}$, where $M_{\rm Pl}$ is the reduced Planck scale, we need a very large e-folding number $N \gtrsim 10^{12}$. If a Planckian universe with a large Hubble parameter $H_P \sim M_{\rm Pl}$ existed before the ordinary inflation, an e-folding number $N \sim 240$ of the Planckian inflation is sufficient to generate the fluctuations $\sim 10^{-3} {\rm eV}$ at present.

Evolution of Vacuum Fluctuations of an Ultra-Light Massive Scalar Field generated during and before Inflation [Cross-Listing]

An ultra light scalar field with a mass comparable to (or lighter than) the Hubble parameter at present universe plays a role of the dark energy. In this paper we calculate time evolution of the energy-momentum tensor of the vacuum fluctuations generated during and before the inflation until the late-time radiation-dominated and matter-dominated universe. The equation of state changes from $w=1/3$ in the early universe to $w=-1$ at present. It then oscillates between $w=-1$ and $1$ with the amplitude of the energy density decaying as $a^{-3}.$ If the fluctuations are generated during the ordinary inflation with the Hubble parameter $H_I \lesssim 10^{-5} M_{\rm Pl}$, where $M_{\rm Pl}$ is the reduced Planck scale, we need a very large e-folding number $N \gtrsim 10^{12}$. If a Planckian universe with a large Hubble parameter $H_P \sim M_{\rm Pl}$ existed before the ordinary inflation, an e-folding number $N \sim 240$ of the Planckian inflation is sufficient to generate the fluctuations $\sim 10^{-3} {\rm eV}$ at present.

Evolution of Vacuum Fluctuations of an Ultra-Light Massive Scalar Field generated during and before Inflation

An ultra light scalar field with a mass comparable to (or lighter than) the Hubble parameter at present universe plays a role of the dark energy. In this paper we calculate time evolution of the energy-momentum tensor of the vacuum fluctuations generated during and before the inflation until the late-time radiation-dominated and matter-dominated universe. The equation of state changes from $w=1/3$ in the early universe to $w=-1$ at present. It then oscillates between $w=-1$ and $1$ with the amplitude of the energy density decaying as $a^{-3}.$ If the fluctuations are generated during the ordinary inflation with the Hubble parameter $H_I \lesssim 10^{-5} M_{\rm Pl}$, where $M_{\rm Pl}$ is the reduced Planck scale, we need a very large e-folding number $N \gtrsim 10^{12}$. If a Planckian universe with a large Hubble parameter $H_P \sim M_{\rm Pl}$ existed before the ordinary inflation, an e-folding number $N \sim 240$ of the Planckian inflation is sufficient to generate the fluctuations $\sim 10^{-3} {\rm eV}$ at present.

Brane structure from a scalar field in general covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity

In this paper we have considered the structure of the non-projectable Horava-Melby-Thompson (HMT) gravity to find braneworld scenarios. A relativistic scalar field is considered in the matter sector. We have found thick brane solutions of several types such as dilatonic and Randall-Sundrum brane-like. For a specific value of the parameters it is possible to reduce the equations of motion to first-order differential equations.

Brane structure from a scalar field in general covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity [Replacement]

In this paper we have considered the structure of the non-projectable Horava-Melby-Thompson (HMT) gravity to find braneworld scenarios. A relativistic scalar field is considered in the matter sector and we have shown how to reduce the equations of motion to first-order differential equations. In particular, we have studied thick brane solutions of both the dilatonic and Randall-Sundrum types.

Brane structure from a scalar field in general covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity [Replacement]

In this paper we have considered the structure of the non-projectable Horava-Melby-Thompson (HMT) gravity to find braneworld scenarios. A relativistic scalar field is considered in the matter sector and we have shown how to reduce the equations of motion to first-order differential equations. In particular, we have studied thick brane solutions of both the dilatonic and Randall-Sundrum types.

Brane structure from a scalar field in general covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity [Cross-Listing]

In this paper we have considered the structure of the non-projectable Horava-Melby-Thompson (HMT) gravity to find braneworld scenarios. A relativistic scalar field is considered in the matter sector. We have found thick brane solutions of several types such as dilatonic and Randall-Sundrum brane-like. For a specific value of the parameters it is possible to reduce the equations of motion to first-order differential equations.

 

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