Posts Tagged rotation curves

Recent Postings from rotation curves

Formation and evolution of blue compact dwarfs: The origin of their steep rotation curves

The origin of the observed steep rotation curves of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) remains largely unexplained by theoretical models of BCD formation. We therefore investigate the rotation curves in BCDs formed from mergers between gas- rich dwarf irregular galaxies based on the results of numerical simulations for BCD formation. The principal results are as follows. The dark matter of merging dwarf irregulars undergoes a central concentration so that the central density can become up to 6 times higher than those of the initial dwarf irregulars. However, the more compact dark matter halo alone can not reproduce the gradient differences observed between dwarf irregulars and BCDs. We provide further support that the central concentration of gas due to rapid gas-transfer to the central regions of dwarf-dwarf mergers is responsible for the observed difference in rotation curve gradients. The BCDs with central gas concentration formed from merging can thus show steeply rising rotation curves in their central regions. Such gas concentration is also responsible for central starbursts of BCDs and the high central surface brightness and is consistent with previous BCD studies. We discuss the relationship between rotational velocity gradient and surface brightness, the dependence of BCD rotation curves on star formation threshold density, progenitor initial profile, interaction type and merger mass ratio, as well as potential evolutionary links between dwarf irregulars, BCDs and compact dwarf irregulars.

Formation and evolution of blue compact dwarfs: The origin of their steep rotation curves [Replacement]

The origin of the observed steep rotation curves of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) remains largely unexplained by theoretical models of BCD formation. We therefore investigate the rotation curves in BCDs formed from mergers between gas- rich dwarf irregular galaxies based on the results of numerical simulations for BCD formation. The principal results are as follows. The dark matter of merging dwarf irregulars undergoes a central concentration so that the central density can become up to 6 times higher than those of the initial dwarf irregulars. However, the more compact dark matter halo alone can not reproduce the gradient differences observed between dwarf irregulars and BCDs. We provide further support that the central concentration of gas due to rapid gas-transfer to the central regions of dwarf-dwarf mergers is responsible for the observed difference in rotation curve gradients. The BCDs with central gas concentration formed from merging can thus show steeply rising rotation curves in their central regions. Such gas concentration is also responsible for central starbursts of BCDs and the high central surface brightness and is consistent with previous BCD studies. We discuss the relationship between rotational velocity gradient and surface brightness, the dependence of BCD rotation curves on star formation threshold density, progenitor initial profile, interaction type and merger mass ratio, as well as potential evolutionary links between dwarf irregulars, BCDs and compact dwarf irregulars.

The stellar mass-halo mass relation of isolated field dwarfs: a critical test of $\Lambda$CDM at the edge of galaxy formation

We fit the rotation curves of isolated dwarf galaxies to directly measure the stellar mass-halo mass relation ($M_*-M_{200}$) over the mass range $5 \times 10^5 < M_{*}/{\rm M}_\odot < 10^{8}$. By accounting for cusp-core transformations due to stellar feedback, we find a monotonic relation with remarkably little scatter. Such monotonicity implies that abundance matching should yield a similar $M_*-M_{200}$ if the cosmological model is correct. Using the 'field galaxy' stellar mass function from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the halo mass function from the $\Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter Bolshoi simulation, we find remarkable agreement between the two. This holds down to $M_{200} \sim 5 \times 10^9$ M$_\odot$, and to $M_{200} \sim 5 \times 10^8$ M$_\odot$ if we assume a power law extrapolation of the SDSS stellar mass function below $M_* \sim 10^7$ M$_\odot$. However, if instead of SDSS we use the stellar mass function of nearby galaxy groups, then the agreement is poor. This occurs because the group stellar mass function is shallower than that of the field below $M_* \sim 10^9$ M$_\odot$, recovering the familiar 'missing satellites' and 'too big to fail' problems. Our result demonstrates that both problems are confined to group environments and must, therefore, owe to 'galaxy formation physics' rather than exotic cosmology. Finally, we repeat our analysis for a $\Lambda$ Warm Dark Matter cosmology, finding that it fails at 68% confidence for a thermal relic mass of $m_{\rm WDM} < 1.25$ keV, and $m_{\rm WDM} < 2$ keV if we use the power law extrapolation of SDSS. We conclude by making a number of predictions for future surveys based on these results.

SPARC: Mass Models for 175 Disk Galaxies with Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves

We introduce SPARC (Spitzer Photometry & Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6 um and high-quality rotation curves from previous HI/Halpha studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (~5 dex), and surface brightnesses (~4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass-HI mass relation and the stellar radius-HI radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the HI mass-radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic-to-observed velocity (Vbar/Vobs) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) at [3.6]. Assuming M/L=0.5 Msun/Lsun (as suggested by stellar population models) we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity, (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly corresponds to the transition from spiral galaxies to dwarf irregulars in line with density wave theory; and (iii) Vbar/Vobs varies with luminosity and surface brightness: high-mass, high-surface-brightness galaxies are nearly maximal, while low-mass, low-surface-brightness galaxies are submaximal. These basic properties are lost for low values of M/L=0.2 Msun/Lsun as suggested by the DiskMass survey. The mean maximum-disk limit in bright galaxies is M/L=0.7 Msun/Lsun at [3.6]. The SPARC data are publicly available and represent an ideal test-bed for models of galaxy formation.

Self-gravitating fluid systems and galactic dark matter

In this work we model galaxy-like structures as self-gravitating fluids, and analyse their properties in the Newtonian framework. For isotropic fluids, we show that this leads to a generalised Hernquist profile that admits flat rotation curves at large radial distances. For two-fluid component models, we show analytically that physicality of the solutions demand that one of the fluids is necessarily exotic, i.e has negative pressure, excepting for the case where the density profile is that of the isothermal sphere. We reconcile this result with a corresponding relativistic analysis. Our work can be applied to cases where the gravitating fluids are interpreted as dark fluids, whose microscopic constituents are dark matter particles, which may accompany or cause gravitational collapse giving birth to galaxy like structures. We elaborate on such collapse processes, which might lead to naked singularities.

Self-gravitating fluid systems and galactic dark matter [Cross-Listing]

In this work we model galaxy-like structures as self-gravitating fluids, and analyse their properties in the Newtonian framework. For isotropic fluids, we show that this leads to a generalised Hernquist profile that admits flat rotation curves at large radial distances. For two-fluid component models, we show analytically that physicality of the solutions demand that one of the fluids is necessarily exotic, i.e has negative pressure, excepting for the case where the density profile is that of the isothermal sphere. We reconcile this result with a corresponding relativistic analysis. Our work can be applied to cases where the gravitating fluids are interpreted as dark fluids, whose microscopic constituents are dark matter particles, which may accompany or cause gravitational collapse giving birth to galaxy like structures. We elaborate on such collapse processes, which might lead to naked singularities.

A note on the predictability of flat galactic rotation curves

Based on an exact solution of the Einstein field equations, it is proposed in this note that the dark-matter hypothesis could have led to the prediction of flat galactic rotation curves long before the discovery thereof by assuming that on large scales the matter in the Universe, including dark matter, is a perfect fluid.

A note on the predictability of flat galactic rotation curves [Replacement]

Based on an exact solution of the Einstein field equations, it is proposed in this note that the dark-matter hypothesis could have led to the prediction of flat galactic rotation curves long before the discovery thereof by assuming that on large scales the matter in the Universe, including dark matter, is a perfect fluid.

Extended HI disks in nearby spiral galaxies

In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a "tilted ring model" allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.

Cosmological Simulations of Dwarf Galaxies with Cosmic Ray Feedback

We perform zoom-in cosmological simulations of a suite of dwarf galaxies, examining the impact of cosmic-rays generated by supernovae, including the effect of diffusion. We first look at the effect of varying the uncertain cosmic ray parameters by repeatedly simulating a single galaxy. Then we fix the comic ray model and simulate five dwarf systems with virial masses range from 8-30 $\times 10^{10}$ Msun. We find that including cosmic ray feedback (with diffusion) consistently leads to disk dominated systems with relatively flat rotation curves and constant star formation rates. In contrast, our purely thermal feedback case results in a hot stellar system and bursty star formation. The CR simulations very well match the observed baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, but have a lower gas fraction than in real systems. We also find that the dark matter cores of the CR feedback galaxies are cuspy, while the purely thermal feedback case results in a substantial core.

Testing Feedback-Modified Dark Matter Haloes with Galaxy Rotation Curves: Estimation of Halo Parameters and Consistency with $\Lambda$CDM

Cosmological N-body simulations predict dark matter (DM) haloes with steep central cusps (e.g. NFW), which contradicts observations of gas kinematics in low mass galaxies that imply the existence of shallow DM cores. Baryonic processes such as adiabatic contraction and gas outflows can, in principle, alter the initial DM density profile, yet their relative contributions to the halo transformation remain uncertain. Recent high resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations (Di Cintio et al. 2014, DC14) predict that inner density profiles depend systematically on the ratio of stellar to DM mass (M$_*$/M$_{\rm halo}$). Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, we test the NFW and the M$_*$/M$_{\rm halo}$-dependent DC14 halo models against a sample of 147 galaxy rotation curves from the new SPARC data set. These galaxies all have extended HI rotation curves from radio interferometry as well as accurate stellar mass density profiles from near-infrared photometry. The DC14 halo profile provides markedly better fits to the data than does the NFW profile. Unlike NFW, the DC14 halo parameters found in our rotation curve fits naturally recover both the mass-concentration relation predicted by $\Lambda$CDM and the stellar mass-halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching. Halo profiles modified by baryonic processes are therefore more consistent with expectations from $\Lambda$CDM cosmology and provide better fits to galaxy rotation curves across a wide range of galaxy properties than do halo models which neglect baryonic physics. Our results reconcile observations of galaxies with $\Lambda$CDM expectations, offering a solution to the decade long cusp-core discrepancy.

Baryonic Distributions in Galaxy Dark Matter Haloes I: New Observations of Neutral and Ionized Gas Kinematics

We present a combination of new and archival neutral hydrogen (HI) observations and new ionized gas spectroscopic observations for sixteen galaxies in the statistically representative EDGES kinematic sample. HI rotation curves are derived from new and archival radio synthesis observations from the Very Large Array (VLA) as well as processed data products from the Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope (WSRT). The HI rotation curves are supplemented with optical spectroscopic integral field unit (IFU) observations using SparsePak on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope to constrain the central ionized gas kinematics in twelve galaxies. The full rotation curves of each galaxy are decomposed into baryonic and dark matter halo components using 3.6$\mu$m images from the Spitzer Space Telescope for the stellar content, the neutral hydrogen data for the atomic gas component, and, when available, CO data from the literature for the molecular gas component. Differences in the inferred distribution of mass are illustrated under fixed stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and maximum disc/bulge assumptions in the rotation curve decomposition.

Dynamics of galaxies and clusters in \textit{refracted gravity}

We investigate the proof of concept and the implications of \textit{refracted gravity}, a novel modified gravity aimed to solve the discrepancy between the luminous and the dynamical mass of cosmic structures without resorting to dark matter. Inspired by the behavior of electric fields in matter, refracted gravity introduces a gravitational permittivity that depends on the local mass density and modifies the standard Poisson equation. The resulting gravitational field can become more intense than the Newtonian field and can mimic the presence of dark matter. We show that the refracted gravitational field correctly describes (1) the rotation curves and the Tully-Fisher relation of disk galaxies; and (2) the observed temperature profile of the X-ray gas of galaxy clusters. According to these promising results, we conclude that refracted gravity deserves further investigation.

Lectures on Dark Matter Physics [Cross-Listing]

Rotation curve measurements from the 1970s provided the first strong indication that a significant fraction of matter in the Universe is non-baryonic. In the intervening years, a tremendous amount of progress has been made on both the theoretical and experimental fronts in the search for this missing matter, which we now know constitutes nearly 85% of the Universe's matter density. These series of lectures, first given at the TASI 2015 summer school, provide an introduction to the basics of dark matter physics. They are geared for the advanced undergraduate or graduate student interested in pursuing research in high-energy physics. The primary goal is to build an understanding of how observations constrain the assumptions that can be made about the astro- and particle physics properties of dark matter. The lectures begin by delineating the basic assumptions that can be inferred about dark matter from rotation curves. A detailed discussion of thermal dark matter follows, motivating Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, as well as lighter-mass alternatives. As an application of these concepts, the phenomenology of direct and indirect detection experiments is discussed in detail.

Lectures on Dark Matter Physics

Rotation curve measurements from the 1970s provided the first strong indication that a significant fraction of matter in the Universe is non-baryonic. In the intervening years, a tremendous amount of progress has been made on both the theoretical and experimental fronts in the search for this missing matter, which we now know constitutes nearly 85% of the Universe's matter density. These series of lectures, first given at the TASI 2015 summer school, provide an introduction to the basics of dark matter physics. They are geared for the advanced undergraduate or graduate student interested in pursuing research in high-energy physics. The primary goal is to build an understanding of how observations constrain the assumptions that can be made about the astro- and particle physics properties of dark matter. The lectures begin by delineating the basic assumptions that can be inferred about dark matter from rotation curves. A detailed discussion of thermal dark matter follows, motivating Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, as well as lighter-mass alternatives. As an application of these concepts, the phenomenology of direct and indirect detection experiments is discussed in detail.

Declining rotation curves of galaxies as a test of gravitational theory

Unlike Newtonian dynamics which is linear and obeys the strong equivalence principle, in any nonlinear gravitation such as Milgromian dynamics (MOND), the strong version of the equivalence principle is violated and the gravitational dynamics of a system is influenced by the external gravitational field in which it is embedded. This so called External Field Effect (EFE) is one of the important implications of MOND and provides a special context to test Milgromian dynamics. Here, we study the rotation curves (RCs) of 18 spiral galaxies and find that their shapes constrain the EFE. We show that the EFE can successfully remedy the overestimation of rotation velocities in 80\% of the sample galaxies in Milgromian dynamics fits by decreasing the velocity in the outer part of the RCs. We compare the implied external field with the gravitational field for non-negligible nearby sources of each individual galaxy and find that in many cases it is compatible with the EFE within the uncertainties. We therefore argue that in the framework of Milgromian dynamics, one can constrain the gravitational field induced from the environment of galaxies using their RCs. We finally show that taking into account the EFE yields more realistic values for the stellar mass-to-light ratio in terms of stellar population synthesis than the ones implied without the EFE.

Rotation curve fitting and its fatal attraction to cores in realistically simulated galaxy observations

We study the role of systematic effects in observational studies of the core/cusp problem under the minimum disc approximation using a suite of high-resolution (25-pc softening length) hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxies. We mimic kinematical observations in a realistic manner at different distances and inclinations, and fit the resulting rotation curves with two analytical models commonly used to differentiate cores from cusps in the dark matter distribution. We find that the cored pseudo-isothermal sphere (P-ISO) model is often strongly favoured by the reduced $\chi^2_\nu$ of the fits in spite of the fact that our simulations contain cuspy Navarro-Frenk-White profiles (NFW) by construction. We show that even idealized measurements of the gas circular motions can lead to the incorrect answer if pressure support corrections, with a typical size of order ~5 km s$^{-1}$ in the central kiloparsec, are neglected; the results are more misleading for closer galaxies because the inner region, where the effect of pressure support is most significant, is better sampled. They also tend to be worse for highly inclined galaxies as a result of projection effects. Rotation curve fits at 10 Mpc favour the P-ISO model in more than 70% of the cases. At 80 Mpc, between 40% and 78% of the galaxies indicate the fictitious presence of a dark matter core. The coefficients of our best-fit models agree well with those reported in observational studies; therefore, we conclude that NFW haloes can not be ruled out reliably from this type of rotation curve analysis.

Flat rotation curves and a non-evolving Tully-Fisher relation from KMOS galaxies at z~1

The study of the evolution of star-forming galaxies requires the determination of accurate kinematics and scaling relations out to high redshift. In this paper, we select a sample of 18 galaxies at z~1, observed in the H-alpha emission-line with KMOS, to derive accurate kinematics using a novel 3D analysis technique. We use the new code 3D-Barolo, that models the galaxy emission directly in the 3D observational space, without the need to extract kinematic maps. This technique's major advantage is that it is not affected by beam smearing and thus it enables accurate determination of rotation velocity and internal velocity dispersion, even at low spatial resolution. We find that: 1) the rotation curves of these z~1 galaxies rise very steeply within few kiloparsecs and remain flat out to the outermost radius and 2) the H-alpha velocity dispersions are low, ranging from 15 to 40 km/s, which leads to V/sigma = 3-10. These characteristics are remarkably similar to those of disc galaxies in the local Universe. Finally, we also report no evolution of the Tully-Fisher relation, as our sample lies precisely on the same relation of local spiral galaxies. These findings are more robust than those obtained with previous methods because of our 3D approach. Two-dimensional techniques with partial or absent corrections for beam smearing can systematically lead to the overestimation of velocity dispersions and underestimation of rotation velocities, which result in the inaccurate placement of galaxies in the Tully-Fisher diagram. Our results show that disc galaxies are kinematically mature and rotation-dominated already at z~1.

Flat rotation curves and a non-evolving Tully-Fisher relation from KMOS galaxies at z~1 [Replacement]

The study of the evolution of star-forming galaxies requires the determination of accurate kinematics and scaling relations out to high redshift. In this paper, we select a sample of 18 galaxies at z~1, observed in the H-alpha emission-line with KMOS, to derive accurate kinematics using a novel 3D analysis technique. We use the new code 3D-Barolo, that models the galaxy emission directly in the 3D observational space, without the need to extract kinematic maps. This technique's major advantage is that it is not affected by beam smearing and thus it enables accurate determination of rotation velocity and internal velocity dispersion, even at low spatial resolution. We find that: 1) the rotation curves of these z~1 galaxies rise very steeply within few kiloparsecs and remain flat out to the outermost radius and 2) the H-alpha velocity dispersions are low, ranging from 15 to 40 km/s, which leads to V/sigma = 3-10. These characteristics are remarkably similar to those of disc galaxies in the local Universe. Finally, we also report no evolution of the Tully-Fisher relation, as our sample lies precisely on the same relation of local spiral galaxies. These findings are more robust than those obtained with previous methods because of our 3D approach. Two-dimensional techniques with partial or absent corrections for beam smearing can systematically lead to the overestimation of velocity dispersions and underestimation of rotation velocities, which result in the inaccurate placement of galaxies in the Tully-Fisher diagram. Our results show that disc galaxies are kinematically mature and rotation-dominated already at z~1.

On possible tachyonic state of neutrino dark matter [Cross-Listing]

We revive the historically first dark matter model based on neutrinos, but with an additional assumption that neutrinos might exist in tachyonic almost sterile states. To this end, we propose a group-theoretical algorithm for the description of tachyons. The key point is that we employ a distinct tachyon Lorentz group with new (superluminal) parametrization which does not lead to violation of causality and unitarity. Our dark matter model represents effectively scalar tachyonic neutrino-antineutrino conglomerate. Distributed all over the universe, such fluid behaves as stable isothermal/stiff medium which produces somewhat denser regions (`halos') around galaxies and clusters. To avoid the central singularity inherent to the isothermal profile, we apply a special smoothing algorithm which yields density distributions and rotation curves consistent with observational data.

On possible tachyonic state of neutrino dark matter [Cross-Listing]

We revive the historically first dark matter model based on neutrinos, but with an additional assumption that neutrinos might exist in tachyonic almost sterile states. To this end, we propose a group-theoretical algorithm for the description of tachyons. The key point is that we employ a distinct tachyon Lorentz group with new (superluminal) parametrization which does not lead to violation of causality and unitarity. Our dark matter model represents effectively scalar tachyonic neutrino-antineutrino conglomerate. Distributed all over the universe, such fluid behaves as stable isothermal/stiff medium which produces somewhat denser regions (`halos') around galaxies and clusters. To avoid the central singularity inherent to the isothermal profile, we apply a special smoothing algorithm which yields density distributions and rotation curves consistent with observational data.

Halpha Kinematics of S4G Spiral Galaxies - III. Inner rotation curves

We present a detailed study of the shape of the innermost part of the rotation curves of a sample of 29 nearby spiral galaxies, based on high angular and spectral resolution kinematic Halpha Fabry-Perot observations. In particular, we quantify the steepness of the rotation curve by measuring its slope dRvc(0). We explore the relationship between the inner slope and several galaxy parameters, such as stellar mass, maximum rotational velocity, central surface brightness ({\mu}0), bar strength and bulge-to-total ratio. Even with our limited dynamical range, we find a trend for low-mass galaxies to exhibit shallower rotation curve inner slopes than high-mass galaxies, whereas steep inner slopes are found exclusively in high-mass galaxies. This trend may arise from the relationship between the total stellar mass and the mass of the bulge, which are correlated among them. We find a correlation between the inner slope of the rotation curve and the morphological T-type, complementary to the scaling relation between dRvc(0) and {\mu}0 previously reported in the literature. Although we find that the inner slope increases with the Fourier amplitude A2 and decreases with the bar torque Qb, this may arise from the presence of the bulge implicit in both A2 and Qb. As previously noted in the literature, the more compact the mass in the central parts of a galaxy (more concretely, the presence of a bulge), the steeper the inner slopes. We conclude that the baryonic matter dominates the dynamics in the central parts of our sample galaxies.

Dark matter as a condensate: Deduction of microscopic properties

In the present work we model dark matter as a Bose-Einstein condensate and the main goal is the deduction of the microscopic properties, namely, mass, number of particles, and scattering length, related to the particles comprised in the corresponding condensate. This task is done introducing in the corresponding model the effects of the thermal cloud of the system. Three physical conditions are imposed, i.e., mechanical equilibrium of the condensate, explanation of the rotation curves of stars belonging to dwarf galaxies, and, finally, the deflection of light due to the presence of dark matter. These three aforementioned expressions allow us to cast the features of the particles in terms of detectable astrophysical variables. Finally, the model is contrasted against observational data and in this manner we obtain values for the involved microscopic parameters of the condensate. The deduced results are compared with previous results in which dark matter has not been considered a condensate. The main conclusion is that they do not coincide.

Dark matter as a condensate: Deduction of microscopic properties [Replacement]

In the present work we model dark matter as a Bose-Einstein condensate and the main goal is the deduction of the microscopic properties, namely, mass, number of particles, and scattering length, related to the particles comprised in the corresponding condensate. This task is done introducing in the corresponding model the effects of the thermal cloud of the system. Three physical conditions are imposed, i.e., mechanical equilibrium of the condensate, explanation of the rotation curves of stars belonging to dwarf galaxies, and, finally, the deflection of light due to the presence of dark matter. These three aforementioned expressions allow us to cast the features of the particles in terms of detectable astrophysical variables. Finally, the model is contrasted against observational data and in this manner we obtain values for the involved microscopic parameters of the condensate. The statistical errors are seven and eighteen percent for the scattering length and mass of the dark matter particle, respectively.

Modified Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

Modified dark matter (MDM, formerly known as MoNDian dark matter) is a phenomenological model of dark matter, inspired by quantum gravity. We review the construction of MDM by generalizing entropic gravity to de-Sitter space as is appropriate for an accelerating universe (in accordance with the Lambda-CDM model). Unlike cold dark matter models, the MDM mass profile depends on the baryonic mass. We successfully fit the rotation curves to a sample of 30 local spiral galaxies with a single free parameter (viz., the mass-to-light ratio for each galaxy). We show that dynamical and observed masses agree in a sample of 93 galactic clusters. We also comment on strong gravitational lensing in the context of MDM.

Modified Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

Modified dark matter (MDM, formerly known as MoNDian dark matter) is a phenomenological model of dark matter, inspired by quantum gravity. We review the construction of MDM by generalizing entropic gravity to de-Sitter space as is appropriate for an accelerating universe (in accordance with the Lambda-CDM model). Unlike cold dark matter models, the MDM mass profile depends on the baryonic mass. We successfully fit the rotation curves to a sample of 30 local spiral galaxies with a single free parameter (viz., the mass-to-light ratio for each galaxy). We show that dynamical and observed masses agree in a sample of 93 galactic clusters. We also comment on strong gravitational lensing in the context of MDM.

Modified Dark Matter

Modified dark matter (MDM, formerly known as MoNDian dark matter) is a phenomenological model of dark matter, inspired by quantum gravity. We review the construction of MDM by generalizing entropic gravity to de-Sitter space as is appropriate for an accelerating universe (in accordance with the Lambda-CDM model). Unlike cold dark matter models, the MDM mass profile depends on the baryonic mass. We successfully fit the rotation curves to a sample of 30 local spiral galaxies with a single free parameter (viz., the mass-to-light ratio for each galaxy). We show that dynamical and observed masses agree in a sample of 93 galactic clusters. We also comment on strong gravitational lensing in the context of MDM.

Conformal Gravity Rotation Curves with a Conformal Higgs Halo [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's 4-th order Poisson equation only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r)=S_0 a/(r+a), decreasing from S_0 at r=0 with radial scale length a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S_0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric g_{\mu\nu}, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric \tilde{g}_{\mu\nu}=\Omega^2 g_{\mu\nu}, with the conformal factor \Omega(r)=S(r)/S_0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo $(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.

Conformal Gravity Rotation Curves with a Conformal Higgs Halo [Replacement]

We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's 4-th order Poisson equation only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r)=S_0 a/(r+a), decreasing from S_0 at r=0 with radial scale length a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S_0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric g_ab, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric Omega^2 g_ab, with the conformal factor Omega(r)=S(r)/S_0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo S(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.

Conformal Gravity Rotation Curves with a Conformal Higgs Halo [Replacement]

We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's 4-th order Poisson equation only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r)=S_0 a/(r+a), decreasing from S_0 at r=0 with radial scale length a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S_0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric g_ab, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric Omega^2 g_ab, with the conformal factor Omega(r)=S(r)/S_0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo S(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.

Conformal Gravity Rotation Curves with a Conformal Higgs Halo

We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's 4-th order Poisson equation only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r)=S_0 a/(r+a), decreasing from S_0 at r=0 with radial scale length a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S_0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric g_{\mu\nu}, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric \tilde{g}_{\mu\nu}=\Omega^2 g_{\mu\nu}, with the conformal factor \Omega(r)=S(r)/S_0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo $(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.

Tachyonic models of dark matter

We consider a spherically symmetric stationary problem in General Relativity, including a black hole, inflow of normal and tachyonic matter and outflow of tachyonic matter. Computations in a weak field limit show that the resulting concentration of matter around the black hole leads to gravitational effects equivalent to those associated with dark matter halo. In particular, the model reproduces asymptotically constant galactic rotation curves, if the tachyonic flows of the central supermassive black hole in the galaxy are considered as a main contribution.

Tachyonic models of dark matter [Cross-Listing]

We consider a spherically symmetric stationary problem in General Relativity, including a black hole, inflow of normal and tachyonic matter and outflow of tachyonic matter. Computations in a weak field limit show that the resulting concentration of matter around the black hole leads to gravitational effects equivalent to those associated with dark matter halo. In particular, the model reproduces asymptotically constant galactic rotation curves, if the tachyonic flows of the central supermassive black hole in the galaxy are considered as a main contribution.

Asymmetric mass models of disk galaxies - I. Messier 99

Mass models of galactic disks traditionnally rely on axisymmetric density and rotation curves, paradoxically acting as if their most remarkable asymmetric features, like e.g. lopsidedness or spiral arms, were not important. In this article, we relax the axisymmetry approximation and introduce a methodology that derives 3D gravitational potentials of disk-like objects and robustly estimates the impacts of asymmetries on circular velocities in the disk mid-plane. Mass distribution models can then be directly fitted to asymmetric line-of-sight velocity fields. Applied to the grand-design spiral M99, the new strategy shows that circular velocities are highly non-uniform, particularly in the inner disk of the galaxy, as a natural response to the perturbed gravitational potential of luminous matter. A cuspy inner density profile of dark matter is found in M99, in the usual case where luminous and dark matter share the same centre. The impact of the velocity non-uniformity is to make the inner profile less steep, though the density remains cuspy. On another hand, a model where the halo is core-dominated and shifted by 2.2-2.5 kpc from the luminous mass centre is more appropriate to account for most of the kinematical lopsidedness evidenced in the velocity field of M99. However, the gravitational potential of luminous baryons is not asymmetric enough to explain the kinematical lopsidedness of the innermost regions, irrespective of the density shape of dark matter. This discrepancy points out the necessity of an additional dynamical process in these regions, maybe a lopsided distribution of dark matter.

Asymmetric mass models of disk galaxies - I. Messier 99 [Replacement]

Mass models of galactic disks traditionally rely on axisymmetric density and rotation curves, paradoxically acting as if their most remarkable asymmetric features, such as lopsidedness or spiral arms, were not important. In this article, we relax the axisymmetry approximation and introduce a methodology that derives 3D gravitational potentials of disk-like objects and robustly estimates the impacts of asymmetries on circular velocities in the disk midplane. Mass distribution models can then be directly fitted to asymmetric line-of-sight velocity fields. Applied to the grand-design spiral M99, the new strategy shows that circular velocities are highly nonuniform, particularly in the inner disk of the galaxy, as a natural response to the perturbed gravitational potential of luminous matter. A cuspy inner density profile of dark matter is found in M99, in the usual case where luminous and dark matter share the same center. The impact of the velocity nonuniformity is to make the inner profile less steep, although the density remains cuspy. On another hand, a model where the halo is core dominated and shifted by 2.2-2.5 kpc from the luminous mass center is more appropriate to explain most of the kinematical lopsidedness evidenced in the velocity field of M99. However, the gravitational potential of luminous baryons is not asymmetric enough to explain the kinematical lopsidedness of the innermost regions, irrespective of the density shape of dark matter. This discrepancy points out the necessity of an additional dynamical process in these regions: possibly a lopsided distribution of dark matter.

Scale dynamical origin of modification or addition of potential in mechanics. A possible framework for the MOND theory and the dark matter [Cross-Listing]

Using our mathematical framework developed in \cite{cresson-pierret_scale} called \emph{scale dynamics}, we propose in this paper a new way of interpreting the problem of adding or modifying potentials in mechanics and specifically in galactic dynamics. An application is done for the two-body problem with a Keplerian potential showing that the velocity of the orbiting body is constant. This would explain the observed phenomenon in the flat rotation curves of galaxies without adding \emph{dark matter} or modifying Newton's law of dynamics.

Dark Matter in a single-metric universe [Replacement]

A few years ago Baker proposed a metric, implementing the Bona-Stela construction, which interpolates smoothly between the Schwarzschild metric at small scales and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric at large scales. As it stands, by enforcing a homogeneous isotropic stress energy tensor the predictions are incompatible with solar system data. We show that permitting small radial inhomogeneity and anisotropy avoids the problem while introducing an effective dark matter (eDM) term that can go some way to explain flattened galactic rotation curves, the growth rate of the baryonic matter density perturbation and the enhancement of the higher CMB acoustic peak anisotropies.

The Impact of Molecular Gas on Mass Models of Nearby Galaxies

We present CO velocity fields and rotation curves for a sample of nearby galaxies, based on data from the HERACLES survey. We combine our data with literature THINGS, SINGS and KINGFISH results to provide a comprehensive sample of mass models of disk galaxies inclusive of molecular gas. We compare the kinematics of the molecular (CO from HERACLES) and atomic (${\rm H{\scriptstyle I}}$ from THINGS) gas distributions to determine the extent to which CO may be used to probe the dynamics in the inner part of galaxies. In general, we find good agreement between the CO and ${\rm H{\scriptstyle I}}$ kinematics with small differences in the inner part of some galaxies. We add the contribution of the molecular gas to the mass models in our galaxies by using two different conversion factors $\mathrm{\alpha_{CO}}$ to convert CO luminosity to molecular gas mass surface density - the constant Milky Way value and the radially varying profiles determined in recent work based on THINGS, HERACLES and KINGFISH data. We study the relative effect that the addition of the molecular gas has upon the halo rotation curves for Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and the observationally motivated pseudo-isothermal halos. The contribution of the molecular gas varies for galaxies in our sample - for those galaxies where there is a substantial molecular gas content, using different values of $\mathrm{\alpha_{CO}}$ can result in significant differences to the relative contribution of the molecular gas and, hence, the shape of the dark matter halo rotation curves in the central regions of galaxies.

Three-Dimensional Distribution of the ISM in the Milky Way Galaxy: III. The Total Neutral Gas Disk

We present newly obtained three-dimensional gaseous maps of the Milky Way Galaxy; HI, H$_2$ and total-gas (HI plus H$_2$) maps, which were derived from the HI and $^{12}$CO($J=1$--0) survey data and rotation curves based on the kinematic distance. The HI and H$_2$ face-on maps show that the HI disk is extended to the radius of 15--20 kpc and its outskirt is asymmetric to the Galactic center, while most of the H$_2$ gas is distributed inside the solar circle. The total gas mass within radius 30 kpc amounts to $8.0\times 10^9$ M$_\odot$, 89\% and 11\% of which are HI and H$_2$, {respectively}. The vertical slices show that the outer HI disk is strongly warped and the inner HI and H$_2$ disks are corrugated. The total gas map is advantageous to trace spiral structure from the inner to outer disk. Spiral structures such as the Norma-Cygnus, the Perseus, the Sagittarius-Carina, the Scutum-Crux, and the Orion arms are more clearly traced in the total gas map than ever. All the spiral arms are well explained with logarithmic spiral arms with pitch angle of $11\degree$ -- $15\degree$. The molecular fraction to the total gas is high near the Galactic center and decreases with the Galactocentric distance. The molecular fraction also locally enhanced at the spiral arms compared with the inter-arm regions.

Probing noncommutativity with astrophysical data [Replacement]

It is well known that noncommutativity is commonly used in theories of grand unifications like strings or loops, however its consequences in standard astrophysics it is not well understood. For those reasons, this paper is devoted to study the astrophysical consequences of noncommutativity, focusing in stellar dynamics and rotational curves of galaxies. We start exploring stars with incompressible and polytropic fluids respectively, with the addition of a noncommutative matter. In both cases, we propose an appropriate constriction based in the difference between a traditional and an anomalous behavior. As a complement, we explore the rotation curves of galaxies assuming that the dark matter halo is a noncommutative fluid, obtaining a value of the free parameter through the analysis of twelve LSB galaxies; in this sense our results are compared with traditional models like Pseudoisothermal, Navarro-Frenk-White and Burkert.

Kinematics of dwarf galaxies in gas-rich groups, and the survival and detectability of tidal dwarf galaxies

We present DEIMOS multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) of 22 star-forming dwarf galaxies located in four gas-rich groups, including six newly-discovered dwarfs. Two of the galaxies are strong tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates based on our luminosity-metallicity relation definition. We model the rotation curves of these galaxies. Our sample shows low mass-to-light ratios (M/L=0.73$\pm0.39M_\odot/L_\odot$) as expected for young, star-forming dwarfs. One of the galaxies in our sample has an apparently strongly-falling rotation curve, reaching zero rotational velocity outside the turnover radius of $r_{turn}=1.2r_e$. This may be 1) a polar ring galaxy, with a tilted bar within a face-on disk; 2) a kinematic warp. These scenarios are indistinguishable with our current data due to limitations of slit alignment inherent to MOS-mode observations. We consider whether TDGs can be detected based on their tidal radius, beyond which tidal stripping removes kinematic tracers such as H$\alpha$ emission. When the tidal radius is less than about twice the turnover radius, the expected falling rotation curve cannot be reliably measured. This is problematic for as much as half of our sample, and indeed more generally, galaxies in groups like these. Further to this, the H$\alpha$ light that remains must be sufficiently bright to be detected; this is only the case for three (14%) galaxies in our sample. We conclude that the falling rotation curves expected of tidal dwarf galaxies are intrinsically difficult to detect.

Rotation Curve Decomposition for Size-Mass Relations of Bulge, Disk, and Dark Halo in Spiral Galaxies

Rotation curves of more than one hundred spiral galaxies were compiled from the literature, and deconvolved into bulge, disk, and dark halo using $\chi^2$ fitting in order to determine their scale radii and masses. Correlation analyses were obtained of the fitting parameters for galaxies that satisfied selection and accuracy criteria. Size-mass relations indicate that the sizes and masses are positively correlated among different components in such a way that the larger or more massive is the dark halo, the larger or more massive are the disk and bulge. Empirical size-mass relations were obtained for bulge, disk and dark halo by the least-squares fitting. The disk-to-halo mass ratio was found to be systematically greater by a factor of three than that predicted by cosmological simulations combined with photometry. A preliminary mass function for dark halo was obtained, which is represented by the Schechter function followed by a power law.

The Case Against Dark Matter and Modified Gravity: Flat Rotation Curves Are a Rigorous Requirement in Rotating Self-Gravitating Newtonian Gaseous Disks

By solving analytically the various types of Lane-Emden equations with rotation, we have discovered two new coupled fundamental properties of rotating, self-gravitating, gaseous disks in equilibrium: Isothermal disks must, on average, exhibit strict power-law density profiles in radius $x$ on their equatorial planes of the form $A x^{k-1}$, where $A$ and $k-1$ are the integration constants; and ``flat'' rotation curves precisely such as those observed in spiral galaxy disks. Polytropic disks must, on average, exhibit strict density profiles of the form $\left[\ln(A x^k)\right]^n$, where $n$ is the polytropic index; and ``flat'' rotation curves described by square roots of upper incomplete gamma functions. By ``on average,'' we mean that, irrespective of the chosen boundary conditions, the actual profiles must oscillate around and remain close to the strict mean profiles of the analytic singular equilibrium solutions. We call such singular solutions the ``intrinsic'' solutions of the differential equations because they are demanded by the second-order equations themselves with no regard to the Cauchy problem. The results are directly applicable to gaseous galaxy disks that have long been known to be isothermal and to protoplanetary disks during the extended isothermal and adiabatic phases of their evolution. In galactic gas dynamics, they have the potential to resolve the dark matter--modified gravity controversy in a sweeping manner, as they render both of these hypotheses unnecessary. In protoplanetary disk research, they provide observers with powerful new probing tool, as they predict a clear and simple connection between the radial density profiles and the rotation curves of self-gravitating disks in their very early (pre-Class 0 and perhaps the youngest Class Young Stellar Objects) phases of evolution.

The Case Against Dark Matter and Modified Gravity: Flat Rotation Curves Are a Rigorous Requirement in Rotating Self-Gravitating Newtonian Gaseous Disks [Replacement]

By solving analytically the various types of Lane-Emden equations with rotation, we have discovered two new coupled fundamental properties of rotating, self-gravitating, gaseous disks in equilibrium: Isothermal disks must, on average, exhibit strict power-law density profiles in radius $x$ on their equatorial planes of the form $A x^{k-1}$, where $A$ and $k-1$ are the integration constants, and "flat" rotation curves precisely such as those observed in spiral galaxy disks. Polytropic disks must, on average, exhibit strict density profiles of the form $\left[\ln(A x^k)\right]^n$, where $n$ is the polytropic index, and "flat" rotation curves described by square roots of upper incomplete gamma functions. By "on average," we mean that, irrespective of the chosen boundary conditions, the actual profiles must oscillate around and remain close to the strict mean profiles of the analytic singular equilibrium solutions. We call such singular solutions the "intrinsic" solutions of the differential equations because they are demanded by the second-order equations themselves with no regard to the Cauchy problem. The results are directly applicable to gaseous galaxy disks that have long been known to be isothermal and to protoplanetary disks during the extended isothermal and adiabatic phases of their evolution. In galactic gas dynamics, they have the potential to resolve the dark matter--modified gravity controversy in a sweeping manner, as they render both of these hypotheses unnecessary. In protoplanetary disk research, they provide observers with powerful new probing tool, as they predict a clear and simple connection between the radial density profiles and the rotation curves of self-gravitating disks in their very early (pre-Class 0 and perhaps the youngest Class Young Stellar Objects) phases of evolution.

Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves & wormholes [Replacement]

In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering in addition a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild spacetime. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter.

Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves & wormholes [Replacement]

In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering in addition a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild spacetime. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter.

Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves & wormholes [Replacement]

In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering in addition a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild spacetime. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter.

Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves & wormholes [Replacement]

In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering in addition a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild spacetime. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter.

Combined Solar System and rotation curve constraints on MOND

The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm generically predicts that the external gravitational field in which a system is embedded can produce effects on its internal dynamics. In this communication, we first show that this External Field Effect can significantly improve some galactic rotation curves fits by decreasing the predicted velocities of the external part of the rotation curves. In modified gravity versions of MOND, this External Field Effect also appears in the Solar System and leads to a very good way to constrain the transition function of the theory. A combined analysis of the galactic rotation curves and Solar System constraints (provided by the Cassini spacecraft) rules out several classes of popular MOND transition functions, but leaves others viable. Moreover, we show that LISA Pathfinder will not be able to improve the current constraints on these still viable transition functions.

Galactic mapping with general relativity and the observed rotation curves

Typically, stars in galaxies have higher velocities than predicted by Newtonian gravity in conjunction with observable galactic matter. To account for the phenomenon, some researchers modified Newtonian gravitation; others introduced dark matter in the context of Newtonian gravity. We employed general relativity successfully to describe the galactic velocity profiles of four galaxies: NGC 2403, NGC 2903, NGC 5055 and the Milky Way. Here we map the density contours of the galaxies, achieving good concordance with observational data. In our Solar neighbourhood, we found a mass density and density fall-off fitting observational data satisfactorily. From our GR results, using the threshold density related to the observed optical zone of a galaxy, we had found that the Milky Way was indicated to be considerably larger than had been believed to be the case. To our knowledge, this was the only such existing theoretical prediction ever presented. Very recent observational results by Xu et al. have confirmed our prediction. As in our previous studies, galactic masses are consistently seen to be higher than the baryonic mass determined from observations but still notably lower than those deduced from the approaches relying upon dark matter in a Newtonian context. In this work, we calculate the non-luminous fraction of matter for our sample of galaxies that is derived from applying general relativity to the dynamics of the galaxies. The evidence points to general relativity playing a key role in the explanation of the stars' high velocities in galaxies. Mapping galactic density contours directly from the dynamics opens a new window for predicting galactic structure.

 

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