Posts Tagged proton

Recent Postings from proton

How bright is the proton? A precise determination of the photon PDF

It has become apparent in recent years that it is important, notably for a range of physics studies at the Large Hadron Collider, to have accurate knowledge on the distribution of photons in the proton. We show how the photon parton distribution function (PDF) can be determined in a model-independent manner, using electron-proton ($ep$) scattering data, in effect viewing the $ep\to e+X$ process as an electron scattering off the photon field of the proton. To this end, we consider an imaginary BSM process with a flavour changing photon-lepton vertex. We write its cross section in two ways, one in terms of proton structure functions, the other in terms of a photon distribution. Requiring their equivalence yields the photon distribution as an integral over proton structure functions. As a result of the good precision of $ep$ data, we constrain the photon PDF at the level of 1-2% over a wide range of $x$ values.

How bright is the proton? A precise determination of the photon PDF [Replacement]

It has become apparent in recent years that it is important, notably for a range of physics studies at the Large Hadron Collider, to have accurate knowledge on the distribution of photons in the proton. We show how the photon parton distribution function (PDF) can be determined in a model-independent manner, using electron-proton ($ep$) scattering data, in effect viewing the $ep\to e+X$ process as an electron scattering off the photon field of the proton. To this end, we consider an imaginary BSM process with a flavour changing photon-lepton vertex. We write its cross section in two ways, one in terms of proton structure functions, the other in terms of a photon distribution. Requiring their equivalence yields the photon distribution as an integral over proton structure functions. As a result of the good precision of $ep$ data, we constrain the photon PDF at the level of 1-2% over a wide range of $x$ values.

Revealing proton shape fluctuations with incoherent diffraction at high energy

The differential cross section of exclusive diffractive vector meson production in electron proton collisions carries important information on the geometric structure of the proton. More specifically, the coherent cross section as a function of the transferred transverse momentum is sensitive to the size of the proton, while the incoherent, or proton dissociative cross section is sensitive to fluctuations of the gluon distribution in coordinate space. We show that at high energies the experimentally measured coherent and incoherent cross sections for the production of $J/\Psi$ mesons are very well reproduced within the color glass condensate framework when strong geometric fluctuations of the gluon distribution in the proton are included. For $\rho$ meson production we also find reasonable agreement. We study in detail the dependence of our results on various model parameters, including the average proton shape, analyze the effect of saturation scale and color charge fluctuations and constrain the degree of geometric fluctuations.

Revealing proton shape fluctuations with incoherent diffraction at high energy [Cross-Listing]

The differential cross section of exclusive diffractive vector meson production in electron proton collisions carries important information on the geometric structure of the proton. More specifically, the coherent cross section as a function of the transferred transverse momentum is sensitive to the size of the proton, while the incoherent, or proton dissociative cross section is sensitive to fluctuations of the gluon distribution in coordinate space. We show that at high energies the experimentally measured coherent and incoherent cross sections for the production of $J/\Psi$ mesons are very well reproduced within the color glass condensate framework when strong geometric fluctuations of the gluon distribution in the proton are included. For $\rho$ meson production we also find reasonable agreement. We study in detail the dependence of our results on various model parameters, including the average proton shape, analyze the effect of saturation scale and color charge fluctuations and constrain the degree of geometric fluctuations.

Tomographic image of the proton

We determine, based on the latest experimental Deep Virtual Compton Scattering experimental data, the dependence of the spatial size of the proton on the quark's longitudinal momentum. This results in a three-dimensional momentum-space image and tomography of the proton.

The spin structure of the proton at low $x$ and low $Q^2$ in two-dimensional bins from COMPASS [Cross-Listing]

The longitudinal double spin asymmetries $A_1^p$ and the spin dependent structure function of the proton $g_1^p$ were extracted from COMPASS data in the region of low Bjorken scaling variable $x$ and low photon virtuality $Q^2$. The data were taken in 2007 and 2011 from scattering of polarised muons off polarised protons, resulting in a sample that is 150 times larger than the one from the previous experiment SMC that pioneered studies in this kinematic region. For the first time, $A_1^p$ and $g_1^p$ were evaluated in this region in two-dimensional bins of kinematic variables: $(x,Q^2)$, $(\nu ,Q^2)$, $(x,\nu)$ and $(Q^2,x)$. The following kinematic region was investigated: $4\times 10^{-5}<x<4\times 10^{-2}$, $0.001$~(GeV/$c$)$^2<Q^2<1$~(GeV/$c$)$^2$ and $14$~GeV$<\nu <194$~GeV. The obtained results were confronted with theoretical models.

Avoiding common pitfalls and misconceptions in extractions of the proton radius [Cross-Listing]

In a series of recent publications, different authors produce a wide range of electron radii when reanalyzing electron proton scattering data. In the light of the proton radius puzzle, this is a most unfortunate situation. However, we find flaws in most analyses that result in radii around 0.84 fm. In this paper, we explain our reasoning and try to illustrate the most common pitfalls.

Avoiding common pitfalls and misconceptions in extractions of the proton radius

In a series of recent publications, different authors produce a wide range of electron radii when reanalyzing electron proton scattering data. In the light of the proton radius puzzle, this is a most unfortunate situation. However, we find flaws in most analyses that result in radii around 0.84 fm. In this paper, we explain our reasoning and try to illustrate the most common pitfalls.

Avoiding common pitfalls and misconceptions in extractions of the proton radius [Cross-Listing]

In a series of recent publications, different authors produce a wide range of electron radii when reanalyzing electron proton scattering data. In the light of the proton radius puzzle, this is a most unfortunate situation. However, we find flaws in most analyses that result in radii around 0.84 fm. In this paper, we explain our reasoning and try to illustrate the most common pitfalls.

Hot spots and the hollowness of proton-proton interactions at high energies

We present a dynamical explanation of the hollowness effect observed in proton-proton scattering at $\sqrt s\!=\!7$ TeV. This phenomenon, not observed at lower energies, consists in a depletion of the inelasticity density at zero impact parameter of the collision. Our analysis is based on three main ingredients: we rely gluonic hot spots inside the proton as effective degrees of freedom for the description of the scattering process. Next we assume that some non-trivial correlation between the transverse positions of the hot spots inside the proton exists. Finally we build the scattering amplitude from a multiple scattering, Glauber-like series of collisions between hot spots. In our approach, the onset of the hollowness effect is naturally explained as due to the diffusion or growth of the hot spots in the transverse plane with increasing collision energy.

A Determination of the Charm Content of the Proton

We present an unbiased determination of the charm content of the proton, in which the charm parton distribution function (PDF) is parametrized on the same footing as the light quarks and the gluon in a global PDF analysis. This determination relies on the calculation of deep-inelastic structure functions in the FONLL scheme, generalized to account for massive charm-initiated contributions. In contrast to the usual situation in which the charm PDF is assumed to be generated perturbatively by pair radiation off gluons and light quarks, vanishing at a scale set by the value of the charm mass m_c, we find that the fitted charm PDF vanishes within uncertainties at a scale Q~1.5 GeV for all x<~0.1, independent of the value of m_c used in the coefficient functions. We also find some evidence that the charm PDF at large x>~0.1 and low scales does not vanish, but rather has an "intrinsic" component, very weakly scale dependent and almost independent of the value of m_c, carrying about 1% of the total momentum of the proton. The uncertainties in all other PDFs are only slightly increased by the inclusion of fitted charm, while the dependence of these PDFs on m_c is significantly reduced. When the EMC charm structure function dataset is included, it is well described by the fit, and PDF uncertainties in the fitted charm PDF are significantly reduced, though we verify that excluding the EMC data does not qualitatively modify any of our findings. The increased stability with respect to m_c persists at high scales and is the main implication of our results for LHC phenomenology. Fitting the charm PDF modifies the predictions for processes such as high p_T and large rapidity charm pair production and Z+c production, and thus we expect that future LHC data will further constrain the charm content of the proton.

A Determination of the Charm Content of the Proton [Cross-Listing]

We present an unbiased determination of the charm content of the proton, in which the charm parton distribution function (PDF) is parametrized on the same footing as the light quarks and the gluon in a global PDF analysis. This determination relies on the calculation of deep-inelastic structure functions in the FONLL scheme, generalized to account for massive charm-initiated contributions. In contrast to the usual situation in which the charm PDF is assumed to be generated perturbatively by pair radiation off gluons and light quarks, vanishing at a scale set by the value of the charm mass m_c, we find that the fitted charm PDF vanishes within uncertainties at a scale Q~1.5 GeV for all x<~0.1, independent of the value of m_c used in the coefficient functions. We also find some evidence that the charm PDF at large x>~0.1 and low scales does not vanish, but rather has an "intrinsic" component, very weakly scale dependent and almost independent of the value of m_c, carrying about 1% of the total momentum of the proton. The uncertainties in all other PDFs are only slightly increased by the inclusion of fitted charm, while the dependence of these PDFs on m_c is significantly reduced. When the EMC charm structure function dataset is included, it is well described by the fit, and PDF uncertainties in the fitted charm PDF are significantly reduced, though we verify that excluding the EMC data does not qualitatively modify any of our findings. The increased stability with respect to m_c persists at high scales and is the main implication of our results for LHC phenomenology. Fitting the charm PDF modifies the predictions for processes such as high p_T and large rapidity charm pair production and Z+c production, and thus we expect that future LHC data will further constrain the charm content of the proton.

Electrophobic Scalar Boson and Muonic Puzzles

A new scalar boson which couples to the muon and proton can simultaneously solve the proton radius puzzle and the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy. Using a variety of measurements, we constrain the mass of this scalar and its couplings to the electron, muon, neutron, and proton. Making no assumptions about the underlying model, these constraints and the requirement that it solve both problems limit the mass of the scalar to between about 100 keV and 100 MeV. We identify two unexplored regions in the coupling constant-mass plane. Potential future experiments and their implications for theories with mass-weighted lepton couplings are discussed.

Electrophobic Scalar Boson and Muonic Puzzles [Cross-Listing]

A new scalar boson which couples to the muon and proton can simultaneously solve the proton radius puzzle and the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy. Using a variety of measurements, we constrain the mass of this scalar and its couplings to the electron, muon, neutron, and proton. Making no assumptions about the underlying model, these constraints and the requirement that it solve both problems limit the mass of the scalar to between about 100 keV and 100 MeV. We identify two unexplored regions in the coupling constant-mass plane. Potential future experiments and their implications for theories with mass-weighted lepton couplings are discussed.

Electrophobic Scalar Boson and Muonic Puzzles [Cross-Listing]

A new scalar boson which couples to the muon and proton can simultaneously solve the proton radius puzzle and the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy. Using a variety of measurements, we constrain the mass of this scalar and its couplings to the electron, muon, neutron, and proton. Making no assumptions about the underlying model, these constraints and the requirement that it solve both problems limit the mass of the scalar to between about 100 keV and 100 MeV. We identify two unexplored regions in the coupling constant-mass plane. Potential future experiments and their implications for theories with mass-weighted lepton couplings are discussed.

Electrophobic Scalar Boson and Muonic Puzzles [Cross-Listing]

A new scalar boson which couples to the muon and proton can simultaneously solve the proton radius puzzle and the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy. Using a variety of measurements, we constrain the mass of this scalar and its couplings to the electron, muon, neutron, and proton. Making no assumptions about the underlying model, these constraints and the requirement that it solve both problems limit the mass of the scalar to between about 100 keV and 100 MeV. We identify two unexplored regions in the coupling constant-mass plane. Potential future experiments and their implications for theories with mass-weighted lepton couplings are discussed.

Ratio between two $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production mechanisms in $p$ scattering

We consider $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production in a wide range of proton scattering experiments. The produced $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ may or may not contain a diquark remnant of the beam proton. The ratio of these two production mechanisms is found to be a simple universal function $r = [ \kappa/(y_p - y) ]^i$ of the rapidity difference $y_p - y$ of the beam proton and the produced $\Lambda$ or $\bar{\Lambda}$, valid over four orders of magnitude, from $r \approx 0.01$ to $r \approx 100$, with $\kappa = 2.86 \pm 0.03 \pm 0.07$, and $i = 4.39 \pm 0.06 \pm 0.15$.

Ratio between two $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production mechanisms in $p$ scattering [Cross-Listing]

We consider $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production in a wide range of proton scattering experiments. The produced $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ may or may not contain a diquark remnant of the beam proton. The ratio of these two production mechanisms is found to be a simple universal function $r = [ \kappa/(y_p - y) ]^i$ of the rapidity difference $y_p - y$ of the beam proton and the produced $\Lambda$ or $\bar{\Lambda}$, valid over four orders of magnitude, from $r \approx 0.01$ to $r \approx 100$, with $\kappa = 2.86 \pm 0.03 \pm 0.07$, and $i = 4.39 \pm 0.06 \pm 0.15$.

Classical Electromagnetic Fields from Quantum Sources in Heavy-Ion Collisions [Cross-Listing]

Electromagnetic fields are generated in high energy nuclear collisions by spectator valence protons. These fields are traditionally computed by integrating the Maxwell equations with point sources. One might expect that such an approach is valid at distances much larger than the proton size and thus such a classical approach should work well for almost the entire interaction region in the case of heavy nuclei. We argue that, in fact, the contrary is true: due to the quantum diffusion of the proton wave function, the classical approximation breaks down at distances of the order of the system size. As a result, the electromagnetic field (in vacuum) is present in the interaction region in the form of a traveling wave for much longer time than it was previously anticipated. Additionally, the quantum treatment of the sources removes the short-distance divergence of the field, making it possible to compute the maximal field strength achievable at a given collision energy.

Classical Electromagnetic Fields from Quantum Sources in Heavy-Ion Collisions

Electromagnetic fields are generated in high energy nuclear collisions by spectator valence protons. These fields are traditionally computed by integrating the Maxwell equations with point sources. One might expect that such an approach is valid at distances much larger than the proton size and thus such a classical approach should work well for almost the entire interaction region in the case of heavy nuclei. We argue that, in fact, the contrary is true: due to the quantum diffusion of the proton wave function, the classical approximation breaks down at distances of the order of the system size. As a result, the electromagnetic field (in vacuum) is present in the interaction region in the form of a traveling wave for much longer time than it was previously anticipated. Additionally, the quantum treatment of the sources removes the short-distance divergence of the field, making it possible to compute the maximal field strength achievable at a given collision energy.

Azimuthal Asymmetry and Ratio $R= F_L / F_T$ as Probes of the Charm Content of the Proton

We study two experimental ways to measure the heavy-quark content of the proton: using the Callan-Gross ratio $R(x,Q^2)=F_L/F_T$ and/or azimuthal $\cos(2\varphi)$ asymmetry in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Our approach is based on the perturbative stability of the QCD predictions for these two quantities. We resume the mass logarithms of the type $\alpha_{s}\ln\left( Q^{2}/m^{2}\right)$ and conclude that heavy-quark densities in the nucleon can, in principle, be determined from data on the Callan-Gross ratio and/or azimuthal asymmetry. In particular, the charm content of the proton can be measured in future studies at the proposed Large Hadron-Electron (LHeC) and Electron-Ion (EIC) Colliders.

Two-dimensional Hybrid Simulations of Kinetic Plasma Turbulence: Current and Vorticity vs Proton Temperature [Cross-Listing]

Proton temperature anisotropies between the directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field are usually observed in the solar wind plasma. Here, we employ a high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulation in order to investigate the relation between spatial properties of the proton temperature and the peaks in the current density and in the flow vorticity. Our results indicate that, although regions where the proton temperature is enhanced and temperature anisotropies are larger correspond approximately to regions where many thin current sheets form, no firm quantitative evidence supports the idea of a direct causality between the two phenomena. On the other hand, quite a clear correlation between the behavior of the proton temperature and the out-of-plane vorticity is obtained.

Double-polarization observable G in neutral-pion photoproduction off the proton

This paper reports on a measurement of the double-polarization observable G in $\pi^0$ photoproduction off the proton using the CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn. The observable G is determined from reactions of linearly-polarized photons with longitudinally-polarized protons. The polarized photons are produced by bremsstrahlung off a properly oriented diamond radiator. A frozen spin butanol target provides the polarized protons. The data cover the photon energy range from 617 to 1325 MeV and a wide angular range. The experimental results for G are compared to predictions by the Bonn-Gatchina (BnGa), J\"ulich-Bonn (J\"uBo), MAID and SAID partial wave analyses. Implications of the new data for the pion photoproduction multipoles are discussed.

Form factor ratio from unpolarized elastic electron proton scattering [Cross-Listing]

A reanalysis of unpolarized electron-proton elastic scattering data is done in terms of the electric to magnetic form factor squared ratio, $R^2$. The present analysis shows that $R^2$ is a useful quantity that contains reliable and coherent information. This ratio is in principle more robust against the experimental corrections. The comparison with the ratio extracted from the measurement of the longitudinal to transverse polarization of the recoil proton in polarized electron-proton scattering shows that the results are indeed compatible within the experimental errors. Limits are set on the kinematics where the physical information on the form factors can be safely extracted. The results presented in this work bring a decisive piece of information in the controversy on the deviation of the proton electromagnetic form factors from the dipole dependence.

Form factor ratio from unpolarized elastic electron proton scattering

A reanalysis of unpolarized electron-proton elastic scattering data is done in terms of the electric to magnetic form factor squared ratio, $R^2$. The present analysis shows that $R^2$ is a useful quantity that contains reliable and coherent information. This ratio is in principle more robust against the experimental corrections. The comparison with the ratio extracted from the measurement of the longitudinal to transverse polarization of the recoil proton in polarized electron-proton scattering shows that the results are indeed compatible within the experimental errors. Limits are set on the kinematics where the physical information on the form factors can be safely extracted. The results presented in this work bring a decisive piece of information in the controversy on the deviation of the proton electromagnetic form factors from the dipole dependence.

Form factor ratio from unpolarized elastic electron proton scattering [Replacement]

A reanalysis of unpolarized electron-proton elastic scattering data is done in terms of the electric to magnetic form factor squared ratio. This observable is in principle more robust against experimental correlations and global normalizations. The present analysis shows indeed that it is a useful quantity that contains reliable and coherent information. The comparison with the ratio extracted from the measurement of the longitudinal to transverse polarization of the recoil proton in polarized electron-proton scattering shows that the results are compatible within the experimental errors. Limits are set on the kinematics where the physical information on the form factors can be safely extracted. The results presented in this work bring a decisive piece of information in the controversy on the deviation of the proton form factors from the dipole dependence.

Form factor ratio from unpolarized elastic electron proton scattering [Replacement]

A reanalysis of unpolarized electron-proton elastic scattering data is done in terms of the electric to magnetic form factor squared ratio. This observable is in principle more robust against experimental correlations and global normalizations. The present analysis shows indeed that it is a useful quantity that contains reliable and coherent information. The comparison with the ratio extracted from the measurement of the longitudinal to transverse polarization of the recoil proton in polarized electron-proton scattering shows that the results are compatible within the experimental errors. Limits are set on the kinematics where the physical information on the form factors can be safely extracted. The results presented in this work bring a decisive piece of information in the controversy on the deviation of the proton form factors from the dipole dependence.

Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years [Cross-Listing]

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two {\it ups} and a {\it down}. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past forty years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95\% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years [Cross-Listing]

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two {\it ups} and a {\it down}. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past forty years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95\% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years [Cross-Listing]

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two {\it ups} and a {\it down}. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past forty years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95\% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two {\it ups} and a {\it down}. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past forty years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95\% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: II. Spin-dependent amplitude and observables [Cross-Listing]

The forward Compton scattering off the proton is determined by substituting the empirical total photoabsorption cross sections into dispersive sum rules. In addition to the spin-independent amplitude evaluated previously [Phys. Rev. D 92, 074031 (2015)], we obtain the spin-dependent amplitude over a broad energy range. The amplitudes contain the entire information about this process. We thus can reconstruct the non-vanishing observables of the proton Compton scattering in the forward kinematics. The results are compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory where available. The low-energy expansion of the spin-dependent Compton scattering amplitude yields the GDH sum rule and relations for the forward spin polarizabilities (FSPs) of the proton. Our evaluation provides an empirical verification of the GDH sum rule for the proton, and yields empirical values of the proton FSPs. For the GDH integral we obtain $204.5(9.4)$ $\mu$b, in excellent agreement with the sum rule prediction: $204.784481(4)$ $\mu$b. For the FSPs we obtain: $\gamma_0=-92.9(5.7) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^4$, and $\bar{\gamma_0}=48.4(3.8) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^6$, in good agreement with previous evaluations.

Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: II. Spin-dependent amplitude and observables

The forward Compton scattering off the proton is determined by substituting the empirical total photoabsorption cross sections into dispersive sum rules. In addition to the spin-independent amplitude evaluated previously [Phys. Rev. D 92, 074031 (2015)], we obtain the spin-dependent amplitude over a broad energy range. The amplitudes contain the entire information about this process. We thus can reconstruct the non-vanishing observables of the proton Compton scattering in the forward kinematics. The results are compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory where available. The low-energy expansion of the spin-dependent Compton scattering amplitude yields the GDH sum rule and relations for the forward spin polarizabilities (FSPs) of the proton. Our evaluation provides an empirical verification of the GDH sum rule for the proton, and yields empirical values of the proton FSPs. For the GDH integral we obtain $204.5(9.4)$ $\mu$b, in excellent agreement with the sum rule prediction: $204.784481(4)$ $\mu$b. For the FSPs we obtain: $\gamma_0=-92.9(5.7) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^4$, and $\bar{\gamma_0}=48.4(3.8) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^6$, in good agreement with previous evaluations.

Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: II. Spin-dependent amplitude and observables [Cross-Listing]

The forward Compton scattering off the proton is determined by substituting the empirical total photoabsorption cross sections into dispersive sum rules. In addition to the spin-independent amplitude evaluated previously [Phys. Rev. D 92, 074031 (2015)], we obtain the spin-dependent amplitude over a broad energy range. The amplitudes contain the entire information about this process. We thus can reconstruct the non-vanishing observables of the proton Compton scattering in the forward kinematics. The results are compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory where available. The low-energy expansion of the spin-dependent Compton scattering amplitude yields the GDH sum rule and relations for the forward spin polarizabilities (FSPs) of the proton. Our evaluation provides an empirical verification of the GDH sum rule for the proton, and yields empirical values of the proton FSPs. For the GDH integral we obtain $204.5(9.4)$ $\mu$b, in excellent agreement with the sum rule prediction: $204.784481(4)$ $\mu$b. For the FSPs we obtain: $\gamma_0=-92.9(5.7) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^4$, and $\bar{\gamma_0}=48.4(3.8) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^6$, in good agreement with previous evaluations.

An explanation of the elliptic flow difference between proton and anti-proton from the UrQMD model with hadron potentials

The time evolution of both proton and anti-proton $v_2$ flows from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=7.7 GeV are examined by using both pure cascade and mean-field potential versions of the UrQMD model. Due to a stronger repulsion at the early stage introduced by the repulsive potentials and hence much less annihilation probabilities, anti-protons are frozen out earlier with smaller $v_2$ values. Therefore, the experimental data of anti-proton $v_2$ as well as the flow difference between proton and anti-proton can be reasonably described with the potential version of UrQMD.

Rapidity distribution of protons from the potential version of UrQMD model and the traditional coalescence afterburner

Rapidity distributions of both E895 proton data at AGS energies and NA49 net proton data at SPS energies can be described reasonably well with a potential version of the UrQMD in which mean-field potentials for both pre-formed hadrons and confined baryons are considered, with the help of a traditional coalescence afterburner in which one parameter set for both relative distance $R_0$ and relative momentum $P_0$, (3.8 fm, 0.3 GeV$/$c), is used. Because of the large cancellation between the expansion in $R_0$ and the shrinkage in $P_0$ through the Lorentz transformation, the relativistic effect in clusters has little effect on the rapidity distribution of free (net) protons. Using a Woods-Saxon-like function instead of a pure logarithmic function as seen by FOPI collaboration at SIS energies, one can fit well both the data at SIS energies and the UrQMD calculation results at AGS and SPS energies. Further, it is found that for central Au+Au or Pb+Pb collisions at top SIS, SPS and RHIC energies, the proton fractions in clusters are about 33$\%$, 10$\%$, and 0.7$\%$, respectively.

Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for $A_{LT}$ in hadron production from $pp$ collisions

We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry $A_{LT}$ in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions,i.e., $p^\uparrow \vec{p}\to h\,X$. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for $A_{LT}$ in hadron production from $pp$ collisions [Cross-Listing]

We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry $A_{LT}$ in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions,i.e., $p^\uparrow \vec{p}\to h\,X$. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

Evidence of strong proton shape fluctuations from incoherent diffraction

We show within the saturation framework that measurements of exclusive vector meson production at high energy provide evidence for strong geometric fluctuations of the proton. In comparison, the effect of saturation scale and color charge fluctuations is weak. This knowledge will allow detailed future measurements of the incoherent cross section to tightly constrain the fluctuating geometry of the proton as a function of the parton momentum fraction $x$.

Evidence of strong proton shape fluctuations from incoherent diffraction [Cross-Listing]

We show within the saturation framework that measurements of exclusive vector meson production at high energy provide evidence for strong geometric fluctuations of the proton. In comparison, the effect of saturation scale and color charge fluctuations is weak. This knowledge will allow detailed future measurements of the incoherent cross section to tightly constrain the fluctuating geometry of the proton as a function of the parton momentum fraction $x$.

Study of compound nucleus formation via bremsstrahlung emission in proton $\alpha$-particle scattering [Cross-Listing]

In this paper a role of many-nucleon dynamics in formation of the compound $^{5}{\rm Li}$ nucleus in the scattering of protons off $\alpha$-particles at the proton incident energies up to 20 MeV is investigated. We propose a bremsstrahlung model allowing to extract information about probabilities of formation of such nucleus on the basis of analysis of experimental cross-sections of the bremsstrahlung photons. In order to realize this approach, the model includes elements of microscopic theory and also probabilities of formation of the short-lived compound nucleus. Results of calculations of the bremsstrahlung spectra are in good agreement with the experimental cross-sections.

Study of compound nucleus formation via bremsstrahlung emission in proton $\alpha$-particle scattering [Cross-Listing]

In this paper a role of many-nucleon dynamics in formation of the compound $^{5}{\rm Li}$ nucleus in the scattering of protons off $\alpha$-particles at the proton incident energies up to 20 MeV is investigated. We propose a bremsstrahlung model allowing to extract information about probabilities of formation of such nucleus on the basis of analysis of experimental cross-sections of the bremsstrahlung photons. In order to realize this approach, the model includes elements of microscopic theory and also probabilities of formation of the short-lived compound nucleus. Results of calculations of the bremsstrahlung spectra are in good agreement with the experimental cross-sections.

Study of compound nucleus formation via bremsstrahlung emission in proton $\alpha$-particle scattering

In this paper a role of many-nucleon dynamics in formation of the compound $^{5}{\rm Li}$ nucleus in the scattering of protons off $\alpha$-particles at the proton incident energies up to 20 MeV is investigated. We propose a bremsstrahlung model allowing to extract information about probabilities of formation of such nucleus on the basis of analysis of experimental cross-sections of the bremsstrahlung photons. In order to realize this approach, the model includes elements of microscopic theory and also probabilities of formation of the short-lived compound nucleus. Results of calculations of the bremsstrahlung spectra are in good agreement with the experimental cross-sections.

Measurement of two-photon exchange effect by comparing elastic $e^\pm p$ cross sections

[Background] The electromagnetic form factors of the proton measured by unpolarized and polarized electron scattering experiments show a significant disagreement that grows with the squared four momentum transfer ($Q^{2}$). Calculations have shown that the two measurements can be largely reconciled by accounting for the contributions of two-photon exchange (TPE). TPE effects are not typically included in the standard set of radiative corrections since theoretical calculations of the TPE effects are highly model dependent, and, until recently, no direct evidence of significant TPE effects has been observed. [Purpose] We measured the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic-scattering cross sections in order to determine the TPE contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering and thereby resolve the proton electric form factor discrepancy. [Methods] We produced a mixed simultaneous electron-positron beam in Jefferson Lab's Hall B by passing the 5.6 GeV primary electron beam through a radiator to produce a bremsstrahlung photon beam and then passing the photon beam through a convertor to produce electron/positron pairs. The mixed electron-positron (lepton) beam with useful energies from approximately 0.85 to 3.5 GeV then struck a 30-cm long liquid hydrogen (LH$_2$) target located within the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). By detecting both the scattered leptons and the recoiling protons we identified and reconstructed elastic scattering events and determined the incident lepton energy. A detailed description of the experiment is presented.

Exact solution of equations for proton localization in neutron star matter [Cross-Listing]

The rigorous treatment of proton localization phenomenon in asymmetric nuclear matter is presented. The solution of proton wave function and neutron background distribution is found by the use of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach. The minimum of energy is obtained in the Wigner- Seitz approximation of spherically symmetric cell. The analysis of three different nuclear models suggests that the proton localization is likely to take place in the interior of neutron star.

Exact solution of equations for proton localization in neutron star matter

The rigorous treatment of proton localization phenomenon in asymmetric nuclear matter is presented. The solution of proton wave function and neutron background distribution is found by the use of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach. The minimum of energy is obtained in the Wigner- Seitz approximation of spherically symmetric cell. The analysis of three different nuclear models suggests that the proton localization is likely to take place in the interior of neutron star.

Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using available phenomenological constraints from existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states, our formalism includes off-shell and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a finite-range regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1\ $GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry of the proton in chiral effective theory [Replacement]

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using phenomenological constraints based upon existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states alone, this work includes off-shell terms and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1 $GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry of the proton in chiral effective theory [Replacement]

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using phenomenological constraints based upon existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states alone, this work includes off-shell terms and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1 $GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory [Cross-Listing]

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using available phenomenological constraints from existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states, our formalism includes off-shell and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a finite-range regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1\ $GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

 

You need to log in to vote

The blog owner requires users to be logged in to be able to vote for this post.

Alternatively, if you do not have an account yet you can create one here.

Powered by Vote It Up

^ Return to the top of page ^