# Posts Tagged proton

## Recent Postings from proton

### Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: I. Spin-independent amplitude [Cross-Listing]

We evaluate the forward Compton scattering off the proton, based on Kramers-Kronig kind of relations which express the Compton amplitudes in terms of integrals of total photoabsorption cross sections. We obtain two distinct fits to the world data on the unpolarized total photoabsorption cross section, and evaluate the various spin-independent sum rules using these fits. For the sum of proton electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities, governed by the Baldin sum rule, we obtain the following average (between the two fits): $\alpha_{E1}+\beta_{M1}=(14.0\pm 0.20)\times 10^{-4}\,\mathrm{fm}^3$. An analogous sum rule involving the quadrupole polarizabilities is evaluated here too. The spin-independent forward amplitude of proton Compton scattering is evaluated in a broad energy range. The results are compared with previous evaluations and the only experimental data point for this amplitude (at 2.2 GeV). We also remark on sum rules for the elastic component of polarizabilities.

### On the proton charge extensions

We examine how corrections to $S$-state energy levels, $E_{nS}$, in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to $E_{nS}$ are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order $r_p / a_B$ times the size of the leading order $\langle r_p^2 \rangle$ term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the outstanding discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of $r_p / a_B$ that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to $\langle r_p^3 \rangle$, rather than $\langle r_p^4 \rangle$ as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on $\langle r_p^3 \rangle$ and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a general result for any spherically symmetric proton charge distribution. A method for computing the moment expansion of the finite-size correction to arbitrary order is introduced and the results are tabulated for principal quantum numbers up to $n=7$.

### Neutrino oscillations in accelerated states

We discuss the inverse $\beta$-decay of accelerated protons in the context of neutrino oscillations. The process $p\rightarrow n \ell^+ \nu_\ell$ is kinematically allowed because the accelerating field provides the rest energy difference between initial and final states. The rate of $p\to n$ conversions can be evaluated in either the laboratory frame (where the proton is accelerating) or the co-moving frame (where the proton is at rest and interacts with an effective thermal bath of $\ell$ and $\nu_\ell$ due to the Unruh effect). By explicit calculation, we show the rates in the two frames disagree when taking into account neutrino oscillations, because the weak interaction couples to charge eigenstates whereas gravity couples to neutrino mass eigenstates. The contradiction could be resolved experimentally, potentially yielding new information on the origins of neutrino masses.

### Neutrino oscillations in accelerated states [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the inverse $\beta$-decay of accelerated protons in the context of neutrino oscillations. The process $p\rightarrow n \ell^+ \nu_\ell$ is kinematically allowed because the accelerating field provides the rest energy difference between initial and final states. The rate of $p\to n$ conversions can be evaluated in either the laboratory frame (where the proton is accelerating) or the co-moving frame (where the proton is at rest and interacts with an effective thermal bath of $\ell$ and $\nu_\ell$ due to the Unruh effect). By explicit calculation, we show the rates in the two frames disagree when taking into account neutrino oscillations, because the weak interaction couples to charge eigenstates whereas gravity couples to neutrino mass eigenstates. The contradiction could be resolved experimentally, potentially yielding new information on the origins of neutrino masses.

### Strong diquark correlations inside the proton [Cross-Listing]

Quantum Chromodynamics is thought to be the relativistic quantum field theory that describes the strong interaction of the Standard Model. This interaction produces mesons but it is also able to generate quark-quark (diquark) correlations inside baryons. In this work, we employ a continuum approach to QCD based on Dyson-Schwinger equations to calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and analyze in a deeper way the consequences of having strong diquark correlations. Comparison with the experimental data reveals that the presence of strong diquark correlations within the proton is sufficient to understand empirical extractions of the flavour-separated form factors. The explained reduction of the ratios $F_{1}^{d}/F_{1}^{u}$ and $F_{2}^{d}/F_{2}^{u}$ at high $Q^{2}$ in the quark-diquark picture are responsible of the precocious scaling of the $F_{2}^{p}/F_{1}^{p}$ observed experimentally.

### Strong diquark correlations inside the proton [Cross-Listing]

Quantum Chromodynamics is thought to be the relativistic quantum field theory that describes the strong interaction of the Standard Model. This interaction produces mesons but it is also able to generate quark-quark (diquark) correlations inside baryons. In this work, we employ a continuum approach to QCD based on Dyson-Schwinger equations to calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and analyze in a deeper way the consequences of having strong diquark correlations. Comparison with the experimental data reveals that the presence of strong diquark correlations within the proton is sufficient to understand empirical extractions of the flavour-separated form factors. The explained reduction of the ratios $F_{1}^{d}/F_{1}^{u}$ and $F_{2}^{d}/F_{2}^{u}$ at high $Q^{2}$ in the quark-diquark picture are responsible of the precocious scaling of the $F_{2}^{p}/F_{1}^{p}$ observed experimentally.

### Strong diquark correlations inside the proton [Cross-Listing]

Quantum Chromodynamics is thought to be the relativistic quantum field theory that describes the strong interaction of the Standard Model. This interaction produces mesons but it is also able to generate quark-quark (diquark) correlations inside baryons. In this work, we employ a continuum approach to QCD based on Dyson-Schwinger equations to calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and analyze in a deeper way the consequences of having strong diquark correlations. Comparison with the experimental data reveals that the presence of strong diquark correlations within the proton is sufficient to understand empirical extractions of the flavour-separated form factors. The explained reduction of the ratios $F_{1}^{d}/F_{1}^{u}$ and $F_{2}^{d}/F_{2}^{u}$ at high $Q^{2}$ in the quark-diquark picture are responsible of the precocious scaling of the $F_{2}^{p}/F_{1}^{p}$ observed experimentally.

### Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer [Cross-Listing]

The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer $Q^2$ between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH$_2$ analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large-acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors $G_E^p/G_M^p$. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at $Q^2=$5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV$^2$, and represent the most accurate measurements of $G_E^p$ in this $Q^2$ region to date.

### Kinetic Alfv\'en waves generation by large-scale phase-mixing

One view of the solar-wind turbulence is that the observed highly anisotropic fluctuations at spatial scales near the proton inertial length $d_p$ may be considered as Kinetic Alfv\'en waves (KAWs). In the present paper, we show how phase-mixing of large-scale parallel propagating Alfv\'en waves is an efficient mechanism for the production of KAWs at wavelengths close to $d_p$ and at large propagation angle with respect to the magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall-Magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD), and hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) simulations modeling the propagation of Alfv\'en waves in inhomogeneous plasmas are performed. In linear regime, the role of dispersive effects is singled out by comparing MHD and HMHD results. Fluctuations produced by phase-mixing are identified as KAWs through a comparison of polarization of magnetic fluctuations and wave group velocity with analytical linear predictions. In the nonlinear regime, comparison of HMHD and HVM simulations allows to point out the role of kinetic effects in shaping the proton distribution function. We observe generation of temperature anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic field and production of field-aligned beams. The regions where the proton distribution function highly departs from thermal equilibrium are located inside the shear layers, where the KAWs are excited, this suggesting that the distortions of the proton distribution are driven by a resonant interaction of protons with KAW fluctuations. Our results are relevant in configurations where magnetic field inhomogeneities are present, as, for example, in the solar corona where the presence of Alfv\'en waves has been ascertained.

### Role of pentaquark components in $\phi$ meson production proton-antiproton annihilation reactions

The pentaquark component is included in the proton wave functions to study phi meson production proton-antiproton annihilation reactions. With all possible configurations of the uuds subsystem proposed for describing the strangeness spin and magnetic moment of the proton, we estimate the branching ratios of the annihilation reactions at rest proton-antiproton to phi + X (X=pi, eta, rho, omega) from atomic proton-antiproton S- and P-wave states by using effective quark line diagrams incorporating the 3P0 model. The best agreement of theoretical prediction with the experimental data is found when the pentaquark configuration of the proton wave function takes the flavor-spin symmetry, [4]_FS [22]_F [22]_S.

### Role of pentaquark components in $\phi$ meson production proton-antiproton annihilation reactions [Replacement]

The pentaquark component is included in the proton wave functions to study phi meson production proton-antiproton annihilation reactions. With all possible configurations of the uuds subsystem proposed for describing the strangeness spin and magnetic moment of the proton, we estimate the branching ratios of the annihilation reactions at rest proton-antiproton to phi + X (X=pi, eta, rho, omega) from atomic proton-antiproton S- and P-wave states by using effective quark line diagrams incorporating the 3P0 model. The best agreement of theoretical prediction with the experimental data is found when the pentaquark configuration of the proton wave function takes the flavor-spin symmetry, [4]_FS [22]_F [22]_S.

### Measurement of exclusive $\gamma\gamma\rightarrow \ell^+\ell^-$ production in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

This Letter reports a measurement of the exclusive $\gamma\gamma\rightarrow \ell^+\ell^- (\ell=e, \mu)$ cross-section in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, based on an integrated luminosity of $4.6$ fb$^{-1}$. For the electron or muon pairs satisfying exclusive selection criteria, a fit to the dilepton acoplanarity distribution is used to extract the fiducial cross-sections. The cross-section in the electron channel is determined to be $\sigma_{\gamma\gamma\rightarrow e^+e^-}^{\mathrm{excl.}} = 0.428 \pm 0.035 (\mathrm{stat.}) \pm 0.018 (\mathrm{syst.})$ pb for a phase-space region with invariant mass of the electron pairs greater than 24 GeV, in which both electrons have transverse momentum $p_\mathrm{T}>12$ GeV and pseudorapidity $|\eta|<2.4$. For muon pairs with invariant mass greater than 20 GeV, muon transverse momentum $p_\mathrm{T}>10$ GeV and pseudorapidity $|\eta|<2.4$, the cross-section is determined to be $\sigma_{\gamma\gamma\rightarrow \mu^+\mu^- }^{\mathrm{excl.}} = 0.628 \pm 0.032 (\mathrm{stat.}) \pm 0.021 (\mathrm{syst.})$ pb. When proton absorptive effects due to the finite size of the proton are taken into account in the theory calculation, the measured cross-sections are found to be consistent with the theory prediction.

### Measurement of exclusive $\gamma\gamma\rightarrow \ell^+\ell^-$ production in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector [Replacement]

This Letter reports a measurement of the exclusive $\gamma\gamma\rightarrow \ell^+\ell^- (\ell=e, \mu)$ cross-section in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, based on an integrated luminosity of $4.6$ fb$^{-1}$. For the electron or muon pairs satisfying exclusive selection criteria, a fit to the dilepton acoplanarity distribution is used to extract the fiducial cross-sections. The cross-section in the electron channel is determined to be $\sigma_{\gamma\gamma\rightarrow e^+e^-}^{\mathrm{excl.}} = 0.428 \pm 0.035 (\mathrm{stat.}) \pm 0.018 (\mathrm{syst.})$ pb for a phase-space region with invariant mass of the electron pairs greater than 24 GeV, in which both electrons have transverse momentum $p_\mathrm{T}>12$ GeV and pseudorapidity $|\eta|<2.4$. For muon pairs with invariant mass greater than 20 GeV, muon transverse momentum $p_\mathrm{T}>10$ GeV and pseudorapidity $|\eta|<2.4$, the cross-section is determined to be $\sigma_{\gamma\gamma\rightarrow \mu^+\mu^- }^{\mathrm{excl.}} = 0.628 \pm 0.032 (\mathrm{stat.}) \pm 0.021 (\mathrm{syst.})$ pb. When proton absorptive effects due to the finite size of the proton are taken into account in the theory calculation, the measured cross-sections are found to be consistent with the theory prediction.

### Jet measurements in polarized p+p collisions at STAR at RHIC [Replacement]

Jet production in polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV and $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV provides a powerful probe to study gluons inside the proton. The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) has the capability, with nearly full azimuthal ($2\pi$) coverage, to reconstruct jets at mid-rapidity ($|\eta| < 1$). The latest STAR inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ measured in 200 GeV $p+p$ collisions provides better constraints on the polarized gluon distribution $\Delta g(x)$ for $0.05<x<0.2$ than previous measurements. A recent global QCD fit (DSSV 2014) which includes the 2009 RHIC results provides the first evidence of non-zero gluon contribution to the proton spin. A new inclusive jet cross section using the anti-$k_{T}$ algorithm provides potential insights into the unpolarized gluon distribution function, and the new inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ measurement in 510 GeV $p+p$ collisions shows consistent $x_{T}$ scaling with the 200 GeV result. Future measurements with continuing high energy polarized proton-proton running at $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV at RHIC and detector upgrades in the forward direction will explore the gluonic contribution to the proton spin at low $x$ region.

### Jet measurements in polarized p+p collisions at STAR at RHIC [Cross-Listing]

Jet productions in polarized p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV and $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV provide powerful probes to study gluons inside the proton. The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) has the capability, with nearly full azimuthal ($2\pi$) coverage, to reconstruct jets at mid-rapidity ($|\eta| < 1$). The latest STAR inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ measured in 200 GeV p+p collisions provides better constraints on the polarized gluon distribution $\Delta g(x)$ for $0.05<x<0.2$. A recent global QCD fit which includes the 2009 RHIC results provides the first evidence of non-zero gluon contribution to the proton spin. The new inclusive jet cross section using the anti-$k_{T}$ algorithm provides potential insights into the unpolarized gluon distribution function, and the new inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ measurement in 510 GeV p+p collisions shows consistent $x_{T}$ scaling with the 200 GeV result. Future measurements with continuing high energy polarized proton-proton running at $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV at RHIC and detector upgrades in the forward direction will explore the gluonic contribution to the proton spin at low $x$ region.

### Jet measurements in polarized p+p collisions at STAR at RHIC

Jet productions in polarized p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV and $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV provide powerful probes to study gluons inside the proton. The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) has the capability, with nearly full azimuthal ($2\pi$) coverage, to reconstruct jets at mid-rapidity ($|\eta| < 1$). The latest STAR inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ measured in 200 GeV p+p collisions provides better constraints on the polarized gluon distribution $\Delta g(x)$ for $0.05<x<0.2$. A recent global QCD fit which includes the 2009 RHIC results provides the first evidence of non-zero gluon contribution to the proton spin. The new inclusive jet cross section using the anti-$k_{T}$ algorithm provides potential insights into the unpolarized gluon distribution function, and the new inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ measurement in 510 GeV p+p collisions shows consistent $x_{T}$ scaling with the 200 GeV result. Future measurements with continuing high energy polarized proton-proton running at $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV at RHIC and detector upgrades in the forward direction will explore the gluonic contribution to the proton spin at low $x$ region.

### Jet measurements in polarized p+p collisions at STAR at RHIC [Replacement]

Jet production in polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV and $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV provides a powerful probe to study gluons inside the proton. The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) has the capability, with nearly full azimuthal ($2\pi$) coverage, to reconstruct jets at mid-rapidity ($|\eta| < 1$). The latest STAR inclusive jet longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ measured in 200 GeV $p+p$ collisions provides better constraints on the polarized gluon distribution $\Delta g(x)$ for $0.05<x<0.2$ than previous measurements. A recent global QCD fit (DSSV 2014) which includes the 2009 RHIC results provides the first evidence of non-zero gluon contribution to the proton spin. A new inclusive jet cross section using the anti-$k_{T}$ algorithm provides potential insights into the unpolarized gluon distribution function, and the new inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ measurement in 510 GeV $p+p$ collisions shows consistent $x_{T}$ scaling with the 200 GeV result. Future measurements with continuing high energy polarized proton-proton running at $\sqrt{s} = 500$ GeV at RHIC and detector upgrades in the forward direction will explore the gluonic contribution to the proton spin at low $x$ region.

### High-resolution hybrid simulations of kinetic plasma turbulence at proton scales

We investigate properties of plasma turbulence from magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) to sub-ion scales by means of two-dimensional, high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field, perpendicular to the simulation box, and we add a spectrum of large-scale magnetic and kinetic fluctuations, with energy equipartition and vanishing correlation. Once the turbulence is fully developed, we observe a MHD inertial range, where the spectra of the perpendicular magnetic field and the perpendicular proton bulk velocity fluctuations exhibit power-law scaling with spectral indices of -5/3 and -3/2, respectively. This behavior is extended over a full decade in wavevectors and is very stable in time. A transition is observed around proton scales. At sub-ion scales, both spectra steepen, with the former still following a power law with a spectral index of ~-3. A -2.8 slope is observed in the density and parallel magnetic fluctuations, highlighting the presence of compressive effects at kinetic scales. The spectrum of the perpendicular electric fluctuations follows that of the proton bulk velocity at MHD scales, and flattens at small scales. All these features, which we carefully tested against variations of many parameters, are in good agreement with solar wind observations. The turbulent cascade leads to on overall proton energization with similar heating rates in the parallel and perpendicular directions. While the parallel proton heating is found to be independent on the resistivity, the number of particles per cell and the resolution employed, the perpendicular proton temperature strongly depends on these parameters.

### Higher order proton lifetime estimates in grand unified theories

Since the main experimentally testable prediction of grand unified theories is the instability of the proton, precise determination of the proton lifetime for each particular model is desirable. Unfortunately, the corresponding computation usually involves theoretical uncertainties coming e.g. from ignorance of the mass spectrum or from the Planck-suppressed higher-dimensional operators, which may result in errors in the proton lifetime estimates stretching up to several orders of magnitude. On the other hand, we present a model based on SO(10) gauge group which is subsequently broken by a scalar adjoint representation, where the leading Planck-suppressed operator is absent, hence the two-loop precision may be achieved.

### High x Structure Function of the Virtually Free Neutron

The pole extrapolation method is applied for the first time to data on semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering off the deuteron with tagged spectator protons to extract the high Bjorken x structure function of the neutron. This approach is based on the extrapolation of the measured cross sections at different momenta of the detected spectator proton to the non-physical pole of the bound neutron in the deuteron. The advantage of the method is that it makes it possible to suppress nuclear effects in a maximally model independent way. The neutron structure functions obtained in this way demonstrate surprising x dependence at x> 0.6, indicating the possibility of a rise in the neutron to proton structure function ratio. Such a rise may indicate new dynamics in the generation of high x quarks in the nucleon. One such mechanism we discuss is the possible dominance of short-range isosinglet quark-quark correlations that can enhance the d-quark distribution in the proton resulting in d/u -> 1.

### High x Structure Function of the Virtually Free Neutron [Replacement]

The pole extrapolation method is applied for the first time to the data on semi-inclusive inelastic scattering off the deuteron with tagged spectator protons to extract the high Bjorken x structure function of the neutron. This approach is based on the extrapolation of the measured cross sections at different momenta of the spectator proton to the non-physical pole of the bound neutron in the deuteron. The advantage of the method is that it makes it possible to suppress nuclear effects in a maximally model independent way. The neutron structure functions obtained in this way demonstrate a surprising $x$ dependence at x\ge 0.6, indicating a possible rise of the neutron to proton structure function ratio. Such a rise may indicate new dynamics in the generation of high-x quarks in the nucleon. One such mechanism we discuss is the possible dominance of short-range isosinglet quark-quark correlations that can enhance the d-quark distribution in the proton.

### Evaluation of the proton charge radius from e-p scattering [Cross-Listing]

In light of the proton radius puzzle, the discrepancy between measurements of the proton charge radius from muonic hydrogen and those from electronic hydrogen and electron-proton scattering measurements, we reexamine the charge radius extractions from electron scattering measurements. We provide a recommended value for the proton RMS charge radius, $r_E = 0.879 \pm 0.011$ fm, based on a global examination of elastic e-p scattering data. The uncertainties include contributions to account for tension between different data sets and inconsistencies between radii using different extraction procedures.

### Extraction of the proton radius from electron-proton scattering data [Replacement]

We perform a new analysis of electron-proton scattering data to determine the proton electric and magnetic radii, enforcing model-independent constraints from form factor analyticity. A wide-ranging study of possible systematic effects is performed. An improved analysis is developed that rebins data taken at identical kinematic settings, and avoids a scaling assumption of systematic errors with statistical errors. Employing standard models for radiative corrections, our improved analysis of the 2010 Mainz A1 Collaboration data yields a proton electric radius $r_E = 0.895(20)$ fm and magnetic radius $r_M = 0.776(38)$ fm. A similar analysis applied to world data (excluding Mainz data) implies $r_E = 0.916(24)$ fm and $r_M = 0.914(35)$ fm. The Mainz and world values of the charge radius are consistent, and a simple combination yields a value $r_E = 0.904(15)$ fm that is $4\sigma$ larger than the CREMA Collaboration muonic hydrogen determination. The Mainz and world values of the magnetic radius differ by $2.7\sigma$, and a simple average yields $r_M= 0.851(26)$ fm. The circumstances under which published muonic hydrogen and electron scattering data could be reconciled are discussed, including a possible deficiency in the standard radiative correction model which requires further analysis.

### Extraction of the proton radius from electron-proton scattering data [Replacement]

We perform a new analysis of electron-proton scattering data to determine the proton electric and magnetic radii, enforcing model-independent constraints from form factor analyticity. A wide-ranging study of possible systematic effects is performed. An improved analysis is developed that rebins data taken at identical kinematic settings, and avoids a scaling assumption of systematic errors with statistical errors. Employing standard models for radiative corrections, our improved analysis of the 2010 Mainz A1 Collaboration data yields a proton electric radius $r_E = 0.895(20)$ fm and magnetic radius $r_M = 0.776(38)$ fm. A similar analysis applied to world data (excluding Mainz data) implies $r_E = 0.916(24)$ fm and $r_M = 0.914(35)$ fm. The Mainz and world values of the charge radius are consistent, and a simple combination yields a value $r_E = 0.904(15)$ fm that is $4\sigma$ larger than the CREMA Collaboration muonic hydrogen determination. The Mainz and world values of the magnetic radius differ by $2.7\sigma$, and a simple average yields $r_M= 0.851(26)$ fm. The circumstances under which published muonic hydrogen and electron scattering data could be reconciled are discussed, including a possible deficiency in the standard radiative correction model which requires further analysis.

### Extraction of the proton radius from electron-proton scattering data

We perform a new analysis of electron-proton scattering data to determine the proton electric and magnetic radii, enforcing model-independent QCD-based constraints of form factor analyticity. A wide-ranging study of possible systematic effects is performed. An improved analysis is developed that rebins data taken at identical kinematic settings, and avoids a scaling assumption of systematic errors with statistical errors. Employing standard models for radiative corrections, our improved analysis of 2010 Mainz A1 collaboration data yields a proton electric radius $r_E = 0.895(20)$ fm and magnetic radius $r_M = 0.777(38)$ fm. A similar analysis applied to world data (excluding Mainz data) implies $r_E = 0.918(24)$ fm and $r_M = 0.913(37)$ fm. The Mainz and world values of the charge radius are consistent, and a simple combination yields a value $r_E = 0.904(15)$ fm that is $4\sigma$ larger than the CREMA muonic hydrogen determination. The Mainz and world values of the magnetic radius differ by $2.5\sigma$, and a simple average yields $r_M= 0.847(27)$ fm. The circumstances under which published muonic hydrogen and electron scattering data could be reconciled are discussed, including a possible deficiency in the standard radiative correction model which requires further analysis.

### Extraction of the proton radius from electron-proton scattering data [Replacement]

We perform a new analysis of electron-proton scattering data to determine the proton electric and magnetic radii, enforcing model-independent constraints from form factor analyticity. A wide-ranging study of possible systematic effects is performed. An improved analysis is developed that rebins data taken at identical kinematic settings, and avoids a scaling assumption of systematic errors with statistical errors. Employing standard models for radiative corrections, our improved analysis of the 2010 Mainz A1 Collaboration data yields a proton electric radius $r_E = 0.895(20)$ fm and magnetic radius $r_M = 0.776(38)$ fm. A similar analysis applied to world data (excluding Mainz data) implies $r_E = 0.916(24)$ fm and $r_M = 0.914(35)$ fm. The Mainz and world values of the charge radius are consistent, and a simple combination yields a value $r_E = 0.904(15)$ fm that is $4\sigma$ larger than the CREMA Collaboration muonic hydrogen determination. The Mainz and world values of the magnetic radius differ by $2.7\sigma$, and a simple average yields $r_M= 0.851(26)$ fm. The circumstances under which published muonic hydrogen and electron scattering data could be reconciled are discussed, including a possible deficiency in the standard radiative correction model which requires further analysis.

### Exploring the proton spin structure

Understanding the spin structure of the proton is one of the main challenges in hadronic physics. While the concepts of spin and orbital angular momentum are pretty clear in the context of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the generalization of these concepts to quantum field theory encounters serious difficulties. It is however possible to define meaningful decompositions of the proton spin that are (in principle) measurable. We propose a summary of the present situation including recent developments and prospects of future developments.

### AMS-02 antiprotons, at last! Secondary astrophysical component and immediate implications for Dark Matter [Replacement]

Using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the AMS-02 experiment we reevaluate the secondary astrophysical antiproton to proton ratio and its uncertainties, and compare it with the ratio preliminarly reported by AMS-02. We find no unambiguous evidence for a significant excess with respect to expectations. Yet, some preference for a flatter energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient starts to emerge. Also, we provide a first assessment of the room left for exotic components such as Galactic Dark Matter annihilation or decay, deriving new stringent constraints.

### AMS-02 antiprotons, at last! Secondary astrophysical component and immediate implications for Dark Matter [Replacement]

Using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the AMS-02 experiment we reevaluate the secondary astrophysical antiproton to proton ratio and its uncertainties, and compare it with the ratio preliminarly reported by AMS-02. We find no unambiguous evidence for a significant excess with respect to expectations. Yet, some preference for a flatter energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient starts to emerge. Also, we provide a first assessment of the room left for exotic components such as Galactic Dark Matter annihilation or decay, deriving new stringent constraints.

### AMS-02 antiprotons, at last! Secondary astrophysical component and immediate implications for Dark Matter

Using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the AMS-02 experiment we reevaluate the secondary astrophysical antiproton to proton ratio and its uncertainties, and compare it with the ratio preliminarly reported by AMS-02. We find no unambiguous evidence for a significant excess with respect to expectations. Yet, some preference for thicker halos and a flatter energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient starts to emerge. Also, we provide an assessment of the room left for exotic components such as Galactic Dark Matter annihilation or decay, deriving new stringent constraints.

### AMS-02 antiprotons, at last! Secondary astrophysical component and immediate implications for Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

Using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the AMS-02 experiment we reevaluate the secondary astrophysical antiproton to proton ratio and its uncertainties, and compare it with the ratio preliminarly reported by AMS-02. We find no unambiguous evidence for a significant excess with respect to expectations. Yet, some preference for thicker halos and a flatter energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient starts to emerge. Also, we provide an assessment of the room left for exotic components such as Galactic Dark Matter annihilation or decay, deriving new stringent constraints.

### Role of gluons and the quark sea in the proton spin [Replacement]

The real, interacting elementary particle always consits of a 'bare' particle and a cloud of virtual particles mediating a self-interaction and/or the binding inside a composite object. In this note we discuss the question of spin content of the virtual cloud in two different cases: electron and quark. Further, the quark spin is discussed in the context of proton spin, which is generated by the interplay of quarks and virtual gluons.

### Hard Diffraction with Proton Tagging at the LHC [Replacement]

The main parts of the LHC diffractive physics programme possible to be measured using a proton tagging technique are presented. The geometric acceptance of the ATLAS forward proton detectors: ALFA and AFP for various LHC optics settings are shown. The probabilities of observing a proton originating from a minimum-bias event in ALFA and AFP stations are given. The main properties of single diffractive and double Pomeron exchange production of dijets, photon+jet, jet-gap-jet and W/Z bosons are discussed. The possibility of measuring the jet production in exclusive (double proton tag) and semi-exclusive (single tag) mode is evaluated.

### Hard Diffraction with Proton Tagging at the LHC [Replacement]

The main parts of the LHC diffractive physics programme possible to be measured using a proton tagging technique are presented. The geometric acceptance of the ATLAS forward proton detectors: ALFA and AFP for various LHC optics settings are shown. The probabilities of observing a proton originating from a minimum-bias event in ALFA and AFP stations are given. The main properties of single diffractive and double Pomeron exchange production of dijets, photon+jet, jet-gap-jet and W/Z bosons are discussed. The possibility of measuring the jet production in exclusive (double proton tag) and semi-exclusive (single tag) mode is evaluated.

### Hard Diffraction with Proton Tagging at the LHC [Cross-Listing]

The main parts of the LHC diffractive physics programme possible to be measured using a proton tagging technique are presented. The geometric acceptance of the ATLAS forward proton detectors: ALFA and AFP for various LHC optics settings are shown. The probabilities of observing a proton originating from a minimum-bias event in ALFA and AFP stations are given. The main properties of single diffractive and double Pomeron exchange production of dijets, photon+jet, jet-gap-jet and W/Z bosons are discussed. The possibility of measuring the jet production in exclusive (double proton tag) and semi-exclusive (single tag) mode is evaluated.

### Rapidity dependence of elliptic and triangular flow in proton-nucleus collisions from collective dynamics

The rapidity dependence of elliptic, $v_2$, and triangular, $v_3$, flow coefficients in proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions is predicted in hydrodynamics and in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT). We find that $v_n$ ($n=2,3$) on a nucleus side is significantly larger than on a proton side and the ratio between the two, $v_n^{\rm Pb}/v_n^{\rm p}$, weekly depends on the transverse momentum of produced particles.

### Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR [Cross-Listing]

We present the energy dependence of moments of net-proton and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). By using the time of flight detector for particle identification, the upper transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) limit for proton and anti-proton is extended from 0.8 GeV/c up to 2 GeV/c. The $p_{T}$ and rapidity acceptance dependence study for the moments of net-proton distribution show that the larger the acceptance is, the greater the deviation from unity. The most pronounced structure is found in the energy dependence of {\KV} of net-proton distributions from the $0\sim5%$ most central collisions within $0.4<p_{T}<2$ GeV/c and at mid-rapidity $|y|<0.5$. At energies above 39 GeV, the values of {\KV} are close to unity and for energies below 39 GeV, it shows significant deviation below unity around 19.6 and 27 GeV, then a large increase above unity is observed at 7.7 GeV.

### Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR [Replacement]

We present the energy dependence of moments of net-proton and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). By using the time of flight detector for particle identification, the upper transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) limit for proton and anti-proton is extended from 0.8 GeV/c up to 2 GeV/c. The $p_{T}$ and rapidity acceptance dependence study for the moments of net-proton distribution show that the larger the acceptance is, the greater the deviation from unity. The most pronounced structure is found in the energy dependence of {\KV} of net-proton distributions from the $0\sim5%$ most central collisions within $0.4<p_{T}<2$ GeV/c and at mid-rapidity $|y|<0.5$. At energies above 39 GeV, the values of {\KV} are close to unity and for energies below 39 GeV, it shows significant deviation below unity around 19.6 and 27 GeV, then a large increase above unity is observed at 7.7 GeV.

### Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR [Replacement]

We present the energy dependence of moments of net-proton and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). By using the time of flight detector for particle identification, the upper transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) limit for proton and anti-proton is extended from 0.8 GeV/c up to 2 GeV/c. The $p_{T}$ and rapidity acceptance dependence study for the moments of net-proton distribution show that the larger the acceptance is, the greater the deviation from unity. The most pronounced structure is found in the energy dependence of {\KV} of net-proton distributions from the $0\sim5%$ most central collisions within $0.4<p_{T}<2$ GeV/c and at mid-rapidity $|y|<0.5$. At energies above 39 GeV, the values of {\KV} are close to unity and for energies below 39 GeV, it shows significant deviation below unity around 19.6 and 27 GeV, then a large increase above unity is observed at 7.7 GeV.

### Nucleon spin structure III: Origins of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule

The generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule is understood based on the polarized parton distributions of the proton with the higher twist contributions. A simple parameterized formula is proposed to clearly present the contributions of different components in proton to $\Gamma_1^p(Q^2)$. We find that the contribution of quark helicity to $\Gamma_1^p(Q^2)$ is almost constant ($\sim 0.123$); the twist-4 effect dominates the suppression of $\Gamma_1^p(Q^2)$ at $Q^2<3GeV^2$, while the twist-6 effect arises a dramatic change of $\Gamma_1^p(Q^2)$ at $Q^2<0.3 GeV^2$, it implies a possible extended objects with size $0.2-0.3~ fm$ inside the proton.

### Periodic interference structures in the time-like proton form factor [Cross-Listing]

An intriguing and elusive feature of the timelike hadron form factor is the possible presence of an imaginary part associated to rescattering processes. We find evidence of that in the recent and precise data on the proton timelike form factor measured by the BABAR collaboration. By plotting these data as a function of the 3-momentum of the relative motion of the final proton and antiproton, a systematic sinusoidal modulation is highlighted in the near-threshold region. Our analysis attributes this pattern to rescattering processes at a relative distance of 0.7-1.5 fm between the centers of the forming hadrons. This distance implies a large fraction of inelastic processes in $\bar{p}p$ interactions, and a large imaginary part in the related $e^+e^- \rightarrow \bar{p}p$ reaction because of unitarity.

### Periodic interference structures in the time-like proton form factor [Replacement]

An intriguing and elusive feature of the timelike hadron form factor is the possible presence of an imaginary part associated to rescattering processes. We find evidence of that in the recent and precise data on the proton timelike form factor measured by the BABAR collaboration. By plotting these data as a function of the 3-momentum of the relative motion of the final proton and antiproton, a systematic sinusoidal modulation is highlighted in the near-threshold region. Our analysis attributes this pattern to rescattering processes at a relative distance of 0.7-1.5 fm between the centers of the forming hadrons. This distance implies a large fraction of inelastic processes in $\bar{p}p$ interactions, and a large imaginary part in the related $e^+e^- \rightarrow \bar{p}p$ reaction because of unitarity.

### Charge Symmetry Violation in the Electromagnetic Form Factors of the Proton [Cross-Listing]

Experimental tests of QCD through its predictions for the strange-quark content of the proton have been drastically restricted by our lack of knowledge of the violation of charge symmetry (CSV). We find unexpectedly tiny CSV in the proton's electromagnetic form factors by performing the first extraction of these quantities based on an analysis of lattice QCD data. The resulting values are an order of magnitude smaller than current bounds on proton strangeness from parity violating electron-proton scattering experiments. This result paves the way for a new generation of experimental measurements of the proton's strange form factors to challenge the predictions of QCD.

### On the Possibility of Measuring the Single-tagged Exclusive Jets at the LHC

The feasibility studies of the measurement of the central exclusive jet production at the LHC using the proton tagging technique are presented. In order to reach the low jet-mass region, single tagged events were considered. The studies were performed at the c.m. energy of 14 TeV and the ATLAS detector, but are also applicable for the CMS-TOTEM experiments. Four data-taking scenarios were considered: AFP and ALFA detectors as forward proton taggers and $\beta^*$ = 0.55 m and $\beta^*$ = 90 m optics. After the event selection, the signal-to-background ratio ranges between 5 and $10^4$. Finally, the expected precision of the central exclusive dijet cross-section measurement for data collection period of 100 h is estimated.

### Lorentz Coherence and the Proton Form Factor

The dipole cutoff behavior for the proton form factor has been and still is one of the major issues in high-energy physics. It is shown that this dipole behavior comes from the coherence between the Lorentz contraction of the proton size and the decreasing wavelength of the incoming photon signal. The contraction rates are the same for both cases. This form of coherence is studied also in the momentum-energy space. The coherence effect in this space can be explained in terms of two overlapping wave functions.

The proton size, specifically its charge radius, was thought known to about 1% accuracy. Now a new method probing the proton with muons instead of electrons finds a radius about 4% smaller, and to boot gives an uncertainty limit of about 0.1%. We review the different measurements, some of the calculations that underlie them, some of the suggestions that have been made to resolve the conflict, and give a brief overview new related experimental initiatives. At present, however, the resolution to the problem remains unknown.

### Back-to-back isolated photon-quarkonium production at the LHC and the transverse-momentum-dependent distributions of the gluons in the proton

The study of a quasi back-to-back isolated pair made of a heavy quarkonium, such as a J/psi or a Upsilon, and a photon produced in proton-proton collisions at the LHC, is probably the optimal way to get right away a first experimental determination of two gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) in an unpolarized proton, f1^g and h1^perp,g the latter giving the distribution of linearly polarized gluons. To substantiate this, we calculate the transverse-momentum-dependent effects that arise in the process under study and discuss the feasibility of their measurements.

### SU(5) Grand Unification in Pure Gravity Mediation

We discuss the proton lifetime in pure gravity mediation models with non-universal Higgs soft masses. Pure gravity mediation offers a simple framework for studying SU(5) grand unified theories with a split supersymmetry like spectra. We find that for much of the parameter space gauge coupling unification is quite good leading to rather long lifetimes for the proton. However, for $m_{3/2}\sim 60$ TeV and $\tan\beta\sim 4$, for which gauge coupling unification is also good, the proton lifetime is short enough that it could be in reach of future experiments.

### SU(5) Grand Unification in Pure Gravity Mediation [Replacement]

We discuss the proton lifetime in pure gravity mediation models with non-universal Higgs soft masses. Pure gravity mediation offers a simple framework for studying SU(5) grand unified theories with a split supersymmetry like spectra. We find that for much of the parameter space gauge coupling unification is quite good leading to rather long lifetimes for the proton. However, for $m_{3/2}\sim 60$ TeV and $\tan\beta\sim 4$, for which gauge coupling unification is also good, the proton lifetime is short enough that it could be in reach of future experiments.

### The recoil correction to the proton-finite-size contribution to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

The Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen was measured some time ago to a high accuracy. The theoretical prediction of this value is very sensitive to the proton-finite-size effects. The proton radius extracted from muonic hydrogen is in contradiction with the results extracted from elastic electron-proton scattering. That creates a certain problem for the interpretation of the results from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift. For the latter we need also to take into account the two-photon-exchange contribution with the proton finite size involved. The only way to describe it relies on the data from the scattering, which may produce an internal inconsistency of theory. Recently the leading proton-finite-size contribution to the two-photon exchange was found within the external field approximation. The recoil part of the two-photon-exchange has not been considered. Here we revisit calculation of the external-field part and take the recoil correction to the finite-size effects into account.