Posts Tagged proton

Recent Postings from proton

On the Proton charge extensions

It is shown that the recent determination of the various proton charge extensions is compatible with Standard Model expectations.

Directed Flow Indicates a Crossover Deconfinement Transition in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions [Cross-Listing]

Analysis of directed flow ($v_1$) of protons, antiprotons and pions in heavy-ion collisions is performed in the range of incident energies $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.7–27 GeV. Simulations have been done within a three-fluid model employing a purely hadronic equation of state (EoS) and two versions of the EoS involving deconfinement transitions: a first-order phase transition and a smooth crossover transition. High sensitivity of the directed flow, especially the proton one, to the EoS is found. The crossover EoS is favored by the most part of considered experimental data. A strong wiggle in the excitation function of the proton $v_1$ slope at the midrapidity obtained with the first-order-phase-transition EoS and a smooth proton $v_1$ with positive midrapidity slope, within the hadronic EoS unambiguously disagree with the data. The pion and antiproton $v_1$ also definitely testify in favor of the crossover EoS. The results obtained with deconfinement EoS’s apparently indicate that these EoS’s in the quark-gluon sector should be stiffer at high baryon densities than those used in the calculation.

Nonperturbative parton distributions and the proton spin problem

The Lorentz contracted form of the static wave functions is used to calculate the scaled parton distributions for mesons and baryons, boosting the rest frame solutions of the path integral Hamiltonian. Both unpolarized and polarized parton distributions are derived, and the proton spin problem is solved in the new setting. It is argued, that the DIS parton densities are not related to the ground state nucleon.

Nonperturbative parton distributions and the proton spin problem [Replacement]

The Lorentz contracted form of the static wave functions is used to calculate the scaled parton distributions for mesons and baryons, boosting the rest frame solutions of the path integral Hamiltonian. Both unpolarized and polarized parton distributions are derived, and the proton spin problem is solved in the new setting. It is argued, that the DIS parton densities are not related to the ground state nucleon.

Strong-Field Quantum Electrodynamics and Muonic Hydrogen

We explore the possibility of a breakdown of perturbative quantum electrodynamics in light muonic bound systems, notably, muonic hydrogen. The average electric field seen by a muon orbiting a proton is shown to be comparable to hydrogenlike Uranium and, notably, larger than the electric field achievable using even the most advanced strong-laser facilities. Following Maltman and Isgur who have shown that fundamental forces such as the meson exchange force may undergo a qualitative change in the strong-coupling regime, we investigate a concomitant possible existence of muon-proton and electron-proton contact interactions, of nonperturbative origin, and their influence on transition frequencies in light one-muon ions.

Hard Excluseive $\Phi$ and $J/\Psi$ Photoproduction off a Proton

We study the photoproduction of the vector mesons $\Phi$ and $J/\Psi$ off a proton in the kinematical regime of large energies and scattering angles within the framework of perturbative QCD. Our investigations are based on the hard scattering approach. This means that the hadrons are replaced by their valence Fock states and scattering on the partonic level is described by tree graphs in which the large transferred momentum is redistributed between the valence partons via the exchange of hard gluons. We find that the unpolarized photoproduction cross sections are dominated by Compton-scattering-like graphs in which the photon couples to the proton, whereas vector-meson-dominance-like graphs, in which the photon fluctuates into the heavy quark-antiquark pair which then exchanges two gluons with the proton, play a minor role. We give explicit predictions for unpolarized scattering cross sections and compare them with experimental data where possible.

On the role of quark orbital angular momentum in the proton spin

We study the covariant version of the quark-parton model, in which the general rules of the angular momentum composition are accurately taken into account. We demonstrate how these rules affect the relativistic interplay between the quark spins and orbital angular momenta, which collectively contribute to the proton spin. The spin structure functions $g_{1}$ and $g_{2}$ corresponding to the many-quark state $J=1/2$ are studied and it is shown they satisfy constraints and relations well compatible with the available experimental data including proton spin content $\Delta\Sigma\lesssim1/3$. The suggested Lorentz invariant 3D approach for calculation of the structure functions is compared with the approach based on the conventional collinear parton model.

HERAFitter, Open Source QCD Fit Project [Replacement]

HERAFitter is an open-source package that provides a framework for the determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton and for many different kinds of analyses in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It encodes results from a wide range of experimental measurements in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton (proton-antiproton) collisions at hadron colliders. These are complemented with a variety of theoretical options for calculating PDF-dependent cross section predictions corresponding to the measurements. The framework covers a large number of the existing methods and schemes used for PDF determination. The data and theoretical predictions are brought together through numerous methodological options for carrying out PDF fits and plotting tools to help visualise the results. While primarily based on the approach of collinear factorisation, HERAFitter also provides facilities for fits of dipole models and transverse-momentum dependent PDFs. The package can be used to study the impact of new precise measurements from hadron colliders. This paper describes the general structure of HERAFitter and its wide choice of options.

HERAFitter, Open Source QCD Fit Project

HERAFitter is an open-source package that provides a framework for the determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton and for many different kinds of analyses in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It encodes results from a wide range of experimental measurements in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton (proton-antiproton) collisions at hadron colliders. These are complemented with a variety of theoretical options for calculating PDF-dependent cross section predictions corresponding to the measurements. The framework covers a large number of the existing methods and schemes used for PDF determination. The data and theoretical predictions are brought together through numerous methodological options for carrying out PDF fits and plotting tools to help visualise the results. While primarily based on the approach of collinear factorisation, HERAFitter also provides facilities for fits of dipole models and transverse-momentum dependent PDFs. The package can be used to study the impact of new precise measurements from hadron colliders. This paper describes the general structure of HERAFitter and its wide choice of options.

Relativistic corrections to static properties of the proton

A new method to relate the proton electromagnetic form factors in momentum space to the corresponding charge and magnetization densities with the inclusion of relativistic corrections is presented by extending the standard Breit equation to higher orders in its $1/c^2$ expansion. Applying a Lorentz boost to the relativistically corrected form factors $\tilde{G}_{E,M}({\bf q}^{2})$ in the Breit frame, moments of the charge and magnetization distributions are evaluated. The proton charge radius thus determined is found to be smaller and hence in better agreement with recent spectroscopy results.

Transverse single-spin asymmetries in $p^\uparrow p \to \gamma X$ from quark-gluon-quark correlations in the proton

We analyze the transverse single-spin asymmetry in direct photon production from proton-proton collisions, denoted $A_N^\gamma$, within collinear twist-3 factorization. We provide a calculation of the contribution due to quark-gluon-quark correlations in the unpolarized proton as well as summarize previous studies on those effects in the polarized proton. Both soft-gluon poles and soft-fermion poles are considered. From this complete result we then estimate $A_N^\gamma$, including error bands due to uncertainties in the non-perturbative inputs, at kinematics relevant for planned measurements of this observable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We find $A_N^\gamma$ can allow for a "clean" extraction of the Qiu-Sterman function, which could lead to a definitive solution to the so-called "sign mismatch" crisis. Since we use the Sivers function extracted from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering to develop our input for the Qiu-Sterman function, this reaction can also make a statement about the process dependence of the Sivers function.

Transverse single-spin asymmetries in $p^\uparrow p \to \gamma X$ from quark-gluon-quark correlations in the proton [Replacement]

We analyze the transverse single-spin asymmetry in direct photon production from proton-proton collisions, denoted $A_N^\gamma$, within collinear twist-3 factorization. We provide a calculation of the contribution due to quark-gluon-quark correlations in the unpolarized proton as well as summarize previous studies on those effects in the polarized proton. Both soft-gluon poles and soft-fermion poles are considered. From this complete result we then estimate $A_N^\gamma$, including error bands due to uncertainties in the non-perturbative inputs, at kinematics relevant for planned measurements of this observable at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We find $A_N^\gamma$ can allow for a "clean" extraction of the Qiu-Sterman function, which could lead to a definitive solution to the so-called "sign mismatch" crisis. Since we use the Sivers function extracted from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering to develop our input for the Qiu-Sterman function, this reaction can also make a statement about the process dependence of the Sivers function.

Interpretation of an "edge" in proton-proton scattering [Replacement]

A study of proton-proton collisions at very high energy has revealed a "black disk," whose radius grows with the logarithm of the center-of-mass energy, surrounded by an edge of approximately constant width 1 fm. We interpret this behavior as the maximum length of a QCD string connecting the color triplet and antitriplet components of the proton, and propose further tests of this explanation.

Polarizability sum rule across real and virtual Compton scattering processes [Cross-Listing]

We derive a sum rule relating various electromagnetic properties of a spin-1/2 particle and consider its empirical implications for the proton. Given the measured values of the proton anomalous magnetic moment, electric and magnetic charge radii, the slope of the first moment of the spin structure function $g_1$, and the recently determined proton spin polarizability $\gamma_{E1M2}$, the sum rule yields a constraint on the low-momentum behavior of a generalized polarizability appearing in virtual Compton scattering. With the help of the presently ongoing measurements of different electromagnetic observables at the MAMI, Jefferson Lab, and HI$\gamma$S facilities, the sum rule will provide a model-independent test of the low-energy spin structure of the nucleon.

Polarizability sum rule across real and virtual Compton scattering processes [Cross-Listing]

We derive a sum rule relating various electromagnetic properties of a spin-1/2 particle and consider its empirical implications for the proton. Given the measured values of the proton anomalous magnetic moment, electric and magnetic charge radii, the slope of the first moment of the spin structure function $g_1$, and the recently determined proton spin polarizability $\gamma_{E1M2}$, the sum rule yields a constraint on the low-momentum behavior of a generalized polarizability appearing in virtual Compton scattering. With the help of the presently ongoing measurements of different electromagnetic observables at the MAMI, Jefferson Lab, and HI$\gamma$S facilities, the sum rule will provide a model-independent test of the low-energy spin structure of the nucleon.

Polarizability relations across real and virtual Compton scattering processes [Replacement]

We derive two relations involving spin polarizabilities of a spin-1/2 particle and consider their empirical implications for the proton. Using the empirical values of the proton anomalous magnetic moment, electric and magnetic charge radii, moments of the spin structure functions $g_1$, $g_2$, and of two spin polarizabilities, the present relations constrain the low-momentum behavior of generalized polarizabilities appearing in virtual Compton scattering. In the case of the proton, the dispersive model evaluations of the spin and generalized polarizabilities appear to be consistent with these relations. The ongoing measurements of different electromagnetic observables at the MAMI, Jefferson Lab, and HI$\gamma$S facilities may be able to put these relations to a test, or use them to unravel the low-energy spin structure of the nucleon.

Quark spin-orbit correlations

The proton spin puzzle issue focused the attention on the parton spin and orbital angular momentum contributions to the proton spin. However, a complete characterization of the proton spin structure requires also the knowledge of the parton spin-orbit correlation. We showed that this quantity can be expressed in terms of moments of measurable parton distributions. Using the available phenomenological information about the valence quarks, we concluded that this correlation is negative, meaning that the valence quark spin and kinetic orbital angular momentum are, in average, opposite. The quark spin-orbit correlation can also be expressed more intuitively in terms of relativistic phase-space distributions, which can be seen as the mother distributions of the standard generalized and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. We present here for the first time some examples of the general multipole decomposition of these phase-space distributions.

Nuclear Waffles [Replacement]

The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with $51200$ and $409600$ nucleons of nuclear pasta. From the output of the MD simulations we characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function $g(r)$ and the structure factor $S(q)$, for systems with proton fractions $Y_p=0.10, 0.20, 0.30$ and $0.40$ at about one third of nuclear saturation density and temperatures near $1.0$ MeV. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, $Y_p=0.10$ and $0.20$, equilibrate quickly and form liquid-like structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, $Y_p=0.30$ and $0.40$, take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solid-like periodic structures. Furthermore, the $Y_p=0.40$ system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the $Y_p=0.30$ systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions $Y_p\ge0.30$ have important consequences for the structure factors $S(q)$ of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above $1.0$ MeV and the holes in the plates form an hexagonal lattice at temperatures slightly lower than $1.0$ MeV.

Nuclear Waffles [Cross-Listing]

The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with $51200$ and $409600$ nucleons of nuclear pasta. From the output of the MD simulations we characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function $g(r)$ and the structure factor $S(q)$, for systems with proton fractions $Y_p=0.10, 0.20, 0.30$ and $0.40$ at about one third of nuclear saturation density and temperatures near $1.0$ MeV. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, $Y_p=0.10$ and $0.20$, equilibrate quickly and form liquid-like structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, $Y_p=0.30$ and $0.40$, take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solid-like periodic structures. Furthermore, the $Y_p=0.40$ system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the $Y_p=0.30$ systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions $Y_p\ge0.30$ have important consequences for the structure factors $S(q)$ of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above $1.0$ MeV and the holes in the plates form an hexagonal lattice at temperatures slightly lower than $1.0$ MeV.

TMD parton densities in associated real and virtual photon and jet production at LHC [Replacement]

We study the associated production of real (isolated) or virtual photons (with their subsequent leptonic decay) and hadronic jets in proton-proton collisions at the LHC using the $k_T$-factorization approach of QCD. The consideration is based on the off-shell quark-gluon QCD Compton scattering subprocesses. In the case of virtual photon production, the contributions from Z boson exchange as well as gamma*-Z interference with the full spin correlations are included. The transverse momentum dependent (TMD) quark and gluon densities in a proton are determined from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription or Catani-Ciafoloni-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) equation. In the latter, we restricted to the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the sea quark density as a convolution of the CCFM-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. Our numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the ATLAS Collaboration. We discuss the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and argue that further studies are capable of constraining the TMD parton densities in a proton.

Statistical description of the proton spin with a large gluon helicity distribution

The quantum statistical parton distributions approach proposed more than one decade ago is revisited by considering a larger set of recent and accurate Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experimental results. It enables us to improve the description of the data by means of a new determination of the parton distributions. We will see that a large gluon polarization emerges, giving a significant contribution to the proton spin.

Particle rapidity distribution in proton-nucleus collisions using the proton-contributor reference frame

I define the proton-contributor reference frame in proton nucleus (p–A) collisions as the center of mass of the system formed by the proton and the participant nucleons of the nucleus. Assuming that the rapidity distribution of produced particles is symmetric in the proton-contributor reference frame, several measurements in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02 {\rm TeV}$ can be described qualitatively. These include rapidity distributions of charged particles, $J/\psi$ and Z bosons.

Baseline for the cumulants of net-proton distributions at STAR [Cross-Listing]

We present a systematic comparison between the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions by STAR for 0-5$\%$ central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=7.7-200 GeV and two kinds of possible baseline measures, the Poisson and Binomial baselines. These baseline measures are assuming that the proton and anti-proton distributions independently follow Poisson statistics or Binomial statistics. The higher order cumulant net-proton data are observed to deviate from all the baseline measures studied at 19.6 and 27 GeV. We also compare the net-proton with net-baryon fluctuations in UrQMD and AMPT model, and convert the net-proton fluctuations to net-baryon fluctuations in AMPT model by using a set of formula.

Baseline for the cumulants of net-proton distributions at STAR [Replacement]

We present a systematic comparison between the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions by STAR for 0-5% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=7.7-200 GeV and two kinds of possible baseline measures, the Poisson and Binomial baselines. These baseline measures are assuming that the proton and anti-proton distributions independently follow Poisson statistics or Binomial statistics. The higher order cumulant net-proton data are observed to deviate from all the baseline measures studied at 19.6 and 27 GeV. We also compare the net-proton with net-baryon fluctuations in UrQMD and AMPT model, and convert the net-proton fluctuations to net-baryon fluctuations in AMPT model by using a set of formula.

The shape of the proton at high energies

We present first calculations of the fluctuating gluon distribution in a proton as a function of impact parameter and rapidity employing the functional Langevin form of the JIMWLK renormalization group equation. We demonstrate that when including effects of confinement by screening the long range Coulomb field of the color charges, the evolution is unitary. The large-x structure of the proton, characterized by the position of three valence quarks, retains an effect on the proton shape down to very small values of x. We determine the dipole scattering amplitude as a function of impact parameter and dipole size and extract the rapidity evolution of the saturation scale and the proton radius.

Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from electron scattering

We combine constraints from analyticity with experimental electron-proton scattering data to determine the proton magnetic radius without model-dependent assumptions on the shape of the form factor. We also study the impact of including electron-neutron scattering data, and $\pi\pi\to N\bar{N}$ data. Using representative datasets we find for a cut of $Q^2\leq0.5$ GeV$^2$, $r_M^p=0.91^{+0.03}_{-0.06}\pm0.02$ fm using just proton scattering data; $r_M^p=0.87^{+0.04}_{-0.05}\pm0.01$ fm adding neutron data; and $r_M^p=0.87^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$ fm adding $\pi\pi$ data. We also extract the neutron magnetic radius from these data sets obtaining $r_M^n=0.89^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$ fm from the combined proton, neutron, and $\pi\pi$ data.

Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from electron scattering [Replacement]

We combine constraints from analyticity with experimental electron-proton scattering data to determine the proton magnetic radius without model-dependent assumptions on the shape of the form factor. We also study the impact of including electron-neutron scattering data, and $\pi\pi\to N\bar{N}$ data. Using representative datasets we find for a cut of $Q^2\leq0.5$ GeV$^2$, $r_M^p=0.91^{+0.03}_{-0.06}\pm0.02$ fm using just proton scattering data; $r_M^p=0.87^{+0.04}_{-0.05}\pm0.01$ fm adding neutron data; and $r_M^p=0.87^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$ fm adding $\pi\pi$ data. We also extract the neutron magnetic radius from these data sets obtaining $r_M^n=0.89^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$ fm from the combined proton, neutron, and $\pi\pi$ data.

Photoproduction of the omega meson off the proton near threshold [Cross-Listing]

An experimental study of omega photoproduction off the proton has been conducted by using the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. The gp–>omega p differential cross sections are measured from threshold to the incident-photon energy Eg=1.4 GeV with ~15 MeV binning and full production-angle coverage. The quality of the present data near threshold gives access to a variety of interesting physics, including an estimation of the omegaN scattering length alpha_{omega p}.

Hadronic supercriticality as a trigger for GRB emission

We explore a one-zone hadronic model that may be able to reproduce $\gamma$-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission with a minimum of free parameters. Assuming only that GRBs are efficient high-energy proton accelerators and without the presence of an ab initio photon field, we investigate the conditions under which the system becomes supercritical, i.e. there is a fast, non-linear transfer of energy from protons to secondary particles initiated by the spontaneous quenching of proton-produced $\gamma$-rays. We first show analytically that the transition to supercriticality occurs whenever the proton injection compactness exceeds a critical value, which favours high proton injection luminosities and a wide range of bulk Lorentz factors. The properties of supercriticality are then studied with a time-dependent numerical code that solves concurrently the coupled equations of proton, photon, electron, neutron and neutrino distributions. For conditions that drive the system deep into the supercriticality we find that the photon spectra obtain a Band-like shape due to Comptonization by cooled pairs and that the energy transfer efficiency from protons to $\gamma$-rays and neutrinos is high reaching $\sim 0.3$. Although some questions concerning its full adaptability to the GRB prompt emission remain open, supercriticality is found to be a promising process in that regard.

Reduction of the proton radius discrepancy by 3 sigma

We show that in previous analyses of electron-proton scattering, the uncertainties in the proton charge radius extraction are underestimated. Using a fit function based on a conformal mapping, we can describe the scattering data with high precision and extract a radius value in agreement with the one obtained from muonic hydrogen.

Reduction of the proton radius discrepancy by 3 sigma [Replacement]

We show that in previous analyses of electron-proton scattering, the uncertainties in the statistical procedure to extract the proton charge radius are underestimated. Using a fit function based on a conformal mapping, we can describe the scattering data with high precision and extract a radius value in agreement with the one obtained from muonic hydrogen.

The photon PDF of the proton

We show how the photon input parton distribution function (PDF) may be calculated with good accuracy, and used in an extended DGLAP global parton analysis in which the photon is treated as an additional point-like parton. The uncertainty of the input photon PDF is relatively small, since the major part of the distribution (which is produced by the coherent emission of the photon from a proton that remains intact) is well known. We present the expected photon PDFs, and compare the predictions with ZEUS data for isolated photon electroproduction at negative rapidities.

Ensemble Simulations of Proton Heating in the Solar Wind via Turbulence and Ion Cyclotron Resonance

Protons in the solar corona and heliosphere exhibit anisotropic velocity distributions, violation of magnetic moment conservation, and a general lack of thermal equilibrium with the other particle species. There is no agreement about the identity of the physical processes that energize non-Maxwellian protons in the solar wind, but a traditional favorite has been the dissipation of ion cyclotron resonant Alfven waves. This paper presents kinetic models of how ion cyclotron waves heat protons on their journey from the corona to interplanetary space. It also derives a wide range of new solutions for the relevant dispersion relations, marginal stability boundaries, and nonresonant velocity-space diffusion rates. A phenomenological model containing both cyclotron damping and turbulent cascade is constructed to explain the suppression of proton heating at low alpha-proton differential flow speeds. These effects are implemented in a large-scale model of proton thermal evolution from the corona to 1 AU. A Monte Carlo ensemble of realistic wind speeds, densities, magnetic field strengths, and heating rates produces a filled region of parameter space (in a plane described by the parallel plasma beta and the proton temperature anisotropy ratio) similar to what is measured. The high-beta edges of this filled region are governed by plasma instabilities and strong heating rates. The low-beta edges correspond to weaker proton heating and a range of relative contributions from cyclotron resonance. On balance, the models are consistent with other studies that find only a small fraction of the turbulent power spectrum needs to consist of ion cyclotron waves.

Probing the transverse dynamics and polarization of gluons inside the proton at the LHC

Transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions encode fundamental information on the structure of the proton. Here we show how they can be accessed in heavy quarkonium production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. In particular, their first determination could come from the study of an isolated J/psi or Upsilon particle, produced back to back with a photon.

The role of hadronic cascades in GRB models of efficient neutrino production

We investigate the effects of hadronic cascades on the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission spectra in scenarios of efficient neutrino production. By assuming a fiducial GRB spectrum and a power-law proton distribution extending to ultra-high energies, we calculate the proton cooling rate and the neutrino emission produced through photopion processes. For this, we employ a numerical code that follows the formation of the hadronic cascade by taking into account non-linear feedback effects, such as the evolution of the target photon field itself due to the contribution of secondary particles. We show that in cases of efficient proton cooling and subsequently efficient high-energy neutrino production, the emission from the hadronic cascade distorts and may even dominate the GRB spectrum. Taking this into account, we constrain the allowable values of the ratio $\eta_p=L_p/L_{\gamma}$, where $L_{p}$ and $L_{\gamma}$ are the isotropic equivalent proton and prompt gamma-ray luminosities. For the highest value of $\eta_{p}$ that does not lead to the dominance of the cascading emission, we then calculate the maximum neutrino luminosity from a single burst and show that it ranges between $(0.01- 0.6)L_{p}$ and $(0.5-1.4)L_{\gamma}$ for various parameter sets. We discuss possible implications of other parameters, such as the magnetic field strength and the shape of the initial gamma-ray spectrum, on our results. Finally, we compare the upper limit on $\eta_p$ derived here with various studies in the field, and we point out the necessity of a self-consistent treatment of the hadronic emission in order to avoid erroneously high neutrino fluxes from GRB models.

Photoproduction of $J/\psi$ and $\psi(2S)$ in proton-proton ultraperipheral collisions at the LHC

Using the framework of leading order perturbative QCD along with the CTEQ6L1 gluon distribution of the proton and high-energy HERA data on the $\gamma p \to J/\psi p$ and $\gamma p \to \psi(2S) p$ cross sections along with the corresponding H1 fit, we obtain a good description of the rapidity dependence of the cross sections of photoproduction of $J/\psi$ or $\psi(2S)$ mesons in proton–proton ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs) measured by the LHCb collaboration at the LHC. Within the same framework we also make predictions for the $pp \to pp J/\psi$ and $pp \to pp \psi(2S)$ UPC cross sections at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=8$ and 14 TeV. We show that the possible contribution of the $p \to \Delta \gamma$ transition to the photon flux discernibly increases the $pp \to ppV$ UPC cross section and thus can affect the theoretical interpretation of results.

Diffractive photoproduction of $J/\Psi$ in hadronic collisions: A closer look

In this work we study the diffractive photoproduction of $J/\Psi$ in proton-proton, proton – nucleus and nucleus – nucleus collisions at LHC energies using the color dipole formalism and different models for the forward dipole – target scattering amplitude. Our goal is to estimate the theoretical uncertainty present in the current predictions in the literature. Our results are compared with the experimental data and predictions for higher energies are presented.

Investigation of diffractive photoproduction of $J/\Psi$ in hadronic collisions [Replacement]

In this work we study the diffractive photoproduction of $J/\Psi$ in proton-proton, proton – nucleus and nucleus – nucleus collisions at LHC energies using the color dipole formalism and different models for the forward dipole – target scattering amplitude. Our goal is to estimate the theoretical uncertainty present in the current predictions in the literature. Our results are compared with the experimental data and predictions for higher energies are presented.

Model-independent determination of the magnetic radius of the proton from spectroscopy of ordinary and muonic hydrogen

To date the magnetic radius of the proton has been determined only by means of electron-proton scattering, which is not free of controversies. Any existing atomic determinations are irrelevant because they are strongly model-dependent. We consider a so-called Zemach contribution to the hyperfine interval in ordinary and muonic hydrogen and derive a self-consistent model-independent value of the magnetic radius of the proton. More accurately, we constrain not a value of the magnetic radius by itself, but its certain combination with the electric-charge radius of the proton, namely, R_E^2+R_M^2. The result from the ordinary hydrogen is found to be R_E^2+R_M^2=1.35(12) fm^2, while the derived muonic value is 1.49(18) fm^2. That allows us to constrain the value of the magnetic radius of proton R_M=0.78(8) fm at the 10% level.

A self-consistent value of the electric radius of the proton from the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

Recently a high-precision measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen has been performed. An accurate value of the proton charge radius can be extracted from this datum with a high accuracy. To do that a sufficient accuracy should be achieved also on the theoretical side, including an appropriate treatment of higher-order proton-structure effects. Here we consider a higher-order contribution of the finite size of the proton to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. Only model-dependent results for this correction have been known up to date. Meantime, the involved models are not consistent either with the existing experimental data on the electron-proton scattering or with the value for the electric charge radius of the proton extracted from the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. We consider the higher-order contribution of the proton finite size in a model-independent way and eventually derive a self-consistent value of the electric radius of the proton. The re-evaluated value of the proton charge radius is found to be R_E=0.84022(56) fm.

Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5\% central Au+Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to assuming that the proton and anti-proton distributions, follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data corresponding to the center of mass energies ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from all the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies points to the need for a proper comparison of the experimental measurements to QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5\% central Au+Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to assuming that the proton and anti-proton distributions, follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data corresponding to the center of mass energies ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from all the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies points to the need for a proper comparison of the experimental measurements to QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions [Replacement]

We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5\% central Au+Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to assuming that the proton and anti-proton distributions, follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data corresponding to the center of mass energies ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from all the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies points to the need for a proper comparison of the experimental measurements to QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic muon-proton scattering [Replacement]

We extend the general formalism of two-photon exchange to elastic lepton-nucleon scattering by accounting for all lepton mass terms. We then perform a numerical estimate of the muon-proton scattering at low momentum transfer in view of the future MUSE experiment. For this purpose, we estimate the two-photon exchange corrections to muon-proton scattering observables by considering the contribution of the proton intermediate state, which is expected to dominate at very low momentum transfers. We find that the two-photon exchange effect to the unpolarized muon- proton scattering cross section in the MUSE kinematical region is of the order of 0.5%.

Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic muon-proton scattering

We extend the general formalism of two-photon exchange to elastic lepton-nucleon scattering, by accounting for all lepton mass terms. We then perform a numerical estimate of the muon-proton scattering at low momentum transfer, in view of the future MUSE experiment. For this purpose, we estimate the two-photon exchange corrections to muon-proton scattering observables by considering the contribution of the proton intermediate state, which is expected to dominate at very low momentum transfers. We find that the two-photon exchange effect to the unpolarized muon- proton scattering cross section in the MUSE kinematical region is of the order of 0.5 %.

Proton polarizabilities from polarized Compton scattering: low-energy expansion [Cross-Listing]

We reexamine the low-energy expansion of polarized Compton scattering off the proton and show that the leading non-Born contribution to the beam asymmetry of low-energy Compton scattering is given by the magnetic polarizability alone, the electric polarizability cancels out. Based on this fact we propose to determine the magnetic dipole polarizability of the proton from the beam asymmetry. We also present the low-energy expansion of doubly-polarized observables, from which the spin polarizabilities can be extracted.

Evidence for polarization of gluons in the proton

We discuss the impact of recent high-statistics RHIC data on the determination of the gluon polarization in the proton in the context of a global QCD analysis of polarized parton distributions. We find clear evidence for a non-vanishing polarization of gluons in the region of momentum fraction and at the scales mostly probed by the data. Although information from low momentum fractions is presently lacking, this finding is suggestive of a significant contribution of gluon spin to the proton spin, thereby limiting the amount of orbital angular momentum required to balance the proton spin budget.

Pion transverse charge density and the edge of hadrons [Replacement]

We use the world data on the pion form factor for space-like kinematics and a technique previously used to extract the proton transverse densities to extract the transverse pion charge density and its uncertainty due the incomplete knowledge of the pion form factor at large values of Q2 and the experimental uncertainties. The pion charge density at small values of impact parameter b<0.1 fm is dominated by this incompleteness error while the range between 0.1-0.3 fm is relatively well constrained. A comparison of pion and proton transverse charge densities shows that the pion is denser than the proton for values of b<0.2 fm. The pion and proton transverse charge densities seem to be the same for values of b=0.3-0.6 fm. Future data from Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) 12 GeV and the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) will increase the dynamic extent of the form factor data to higher values of Q2 and thus reduce the uncertainties in the extracted pion transverse charge density.

A determination of the parton distributions for flavor asymmetric light sea in the proton

Using the DGLAP equation with corrections of parton recombination, it is the first time that the distributions of the flavor asymmetric sea in the proton are extracted from the available experimental data in a model-independent way. We find that the distribution shape of the asymmetric sea quark is similar to that of the corresponding valence quark. Based on the separation of the flavor symmetric and asymmetric sea, the possible relations between the strange quark distribution and symmetric light quark distribution in the proton are discussed. The results are used to explain the recent HERMES results for the strange quark distribution. The comparisons of our results with the predictions of the CTEQ-, MRS-, GRV- databases and some models for flavor asymmetric sea are also presented.

Upper critical field and absence of superconductivity in magnetars

We study the upper critical field for quenching of the proton superconductivity in neutron stars, $H_{c2}$, within a Ginzburg-Landau theory which includes the entrainment between the proton and neutron condensates. We construct models of compact stars for a (realistic) nucleonic equations of state and deduce the volume occupied by the superconducting regions from microscopic calculations of proton pairing gaps in dense matter. We argue that magnetars with surface fields $B \ge 10^{15}$ G are either partially or completely non-superconducting, the precise outcome being dependent on the relation between the surface dipolar field and the field intensity at the crust-core boundary. We discuss the implications of the absence of superconductivity in magnetars on their cooling evolution and superfluid dynamics.

 

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