# Posts Tagged proton

## Recent Postings from proton

### Ratio between two $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production mechanisms in $p$ scattering

We consider $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production in a wide range of proton scattering experiments. The produced $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ may or may not contain a diquark remnant of the beam proton. The ratio of these two production mechanisms is found to be a simple universal function $r = [ \kappa/(y_p - y) ]^i$ of the rapidity difference $y_p - y$ of the beam proton and the produced $\Lambda$ or $\bar{\Lambda}$, valid over four orders of magnitude, from $r \approx 0.01$ to $r \approx 100$, with $\kappa = 2.86 \pm 0.03 \pm 0.07$, and $i = 4.39 \pm 0.06 \pm 0.15$.

### Ratio between two $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production mechanisms in $p$ scattering [Cross-Listing]

We consider $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ production in a wide range of proton scattering experiments. The produced $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ may or may not contain a diquark remnant of the beam proton. The ratio of these two production mechanisms is found to be a simple universal function $r = [ \kappa/(y_p - y) ]^i$ of the rapidity difference $y_p - y$ of the beam proton and the produced $\Lambda$ or $\bar{\Lambda}$, valid over four orders of magnitude, from $r \approx 0.01$ to $r \approx 100$, with $\kappa = 2.86 \pm 0.03 \pm 0.07$, and $i = 4.39 \pm 0.06 \pm 0.15$.

### Classical Electromagnetic Fields from Quantum Sources in Heavy-Ion Collisions

Electromagnetic fields are generated in high energy nuclear collisions by spectator valence protons. These fields are traditionally computed by integrating the Maxwell equations with point sources. One might expect that such an approach is valid at distances much larger than the proton size and thus such a classical approach should work well for almost the entire interaction region in the case of heavy nuclei. We argue that, in fact, the contrary is true: due to the quantum diffusion of the proton wave function, the classical approximation breaks down at distances of the order of the system size. As a result, the electromagnetic field (in vacuum) is present in the interaction region in the form of a traveling wave for much longer time than it was previously anticipated. Additionally, the quantum treatment of the sources removes the short-distance divergence of the field, making it possible to compute the maximal field strength achievable at a given collision energy.

### Classical Electromagnetic Fields from Quantum Sources in Heavy-Ion Collisions [Cross-Listing]

Electromagnetic fields are generated in high energy nuclear collisions by spectator valence protons. These fields are traditionally computed by integrating the Maxwell equations with point sources. One might expect that such an approach is valid at distances much larger than the proton size and thus such a classical approach should work well for almost the entire interaction region in the case of heavy nuclei. We argue that, in fact, the contrary is true: due to the quantum diffusion of the proton wave function, the classical approximation breaks down at distances of the order of the system size. As a result, the electromagnetic field (in vacuum) is present in the interaction region in the form of a traveling wave for much longer time than it was previously anticipated. Additionally, the quantum treatment of the sources removes the short-distance divergence of the field, making it possible to compute the maximal field strength achievable at a given collision energy.

### Azimuthal Asymmetry and Ratio $R= F_L / F_T$ as Probes of the Charm Content of the Proton

We study two experimental ways to measure the heavy-quark content of the proton: using the Callan-Gross ratio $R(x,Q^2)=F_L/F_T$ and/or azimuthal $\cos(2\varphi)$ asymmetry in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Our approach is based on the perturbative stability of the QCD predictions for these two quantities. We resume the mass logarithms of the type $\alpha_{s}\ln\left( Q^{2}/m^{2}\right)$ and conclude that heavy-quark densities in the nucleon can, in principle, be determined from data on the Callan-Gross ratio and/or azimuthal asymmetry. In particular, the charm content of the proton can be measured in future studies at the proposed Large Hadron-Electron (LHeC) and Electron-Ion (EIC) Colliders.

### Two-dimensional Hybrid Simulations of Kinetic Plasma Turbulence: Current and Vorticity vs Proton Temperature [Cross-Listing]

Proton temperature anisotropies between the directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field are usually observed in the solar wind plasma. Here, we employ a high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulation in order to investigate the relation between spatial properties of the proton temperature and the peaks in the current density and in the flow vorticity. Our results indicate that, although regions where the proton temperature is enhanced and temperature anisotropies are larger correspond approximately to regions where many thin current sheets form, no firm quantitative evidence supports the idea of a direct causality between the two phenomena. On the other hand, quite a clear correlation between the behavior of the proton temperature and the out-of-plane vorticity is obtained.

### Double-polarization observable G in neutral-pion photoproduction off the proton

This paper reports on a measurement of the double-polarization observable G in $\pi^0$ photoproduction off the proton using the CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn. The observable G is determined from reactions of linearly-polarized photons with longitudinally-polarized protons. The polarized photons are produced by bremsstrahlung off a properly oriented diamond radiator. A frozen spin butanol target provides the polarized protons. The data cover the photon energy range from 617 to 1325 MeV and a wide angular range. The experimental results for G are compared to predictions by the Bonn-Gatchina (BnGa), J\"ulich-Bonn (J\"uBo), MAID and SAID partial wave analyses. Implications of the new data for the pion photoproduction multipoles are discussed.

### Form factor ratio from unpolarized elastic electron proton scattering [Cross-Listing]

A reanalysis of unpolarized electron-proton elastic scattering data is done in terms of the electric to magnetic form factor squared ratio, $R^2$. The present analysis shows that $R^2$ is a useful quantity that contains reliable and coherent information. This ratio is in principle more robust against the experimental corrections. The comparison with the ratio extracted from the measurement of the longitudinal to transverse polarization of the recoil proton in polarized electron-proton scattering shows that the results are indeed compatible within the experimental errors. Limits are set on the kinematics where the physical information on the form factors can be safely extracted. The results presented in this work bring a decisive piece of information in the controversy on the deviation of the proton electromagnetic form factors from the dipole dependence.

### Form factor ratio from unpolarized elastic electron proton scattering

A reanalysis of unpolarized electron-proton elastic scattering data is done in terms of the electric to magnetic form factor squared ratio, $R^2$. The present analysis shows that $R^2$ is a useful quantity that contains reliable and coherent information. This ratio is in principle more robust against the experimental corrections. The comparison with the ratio extracted from the measurement of the longitudinal to transverse polarization of the recoil proton in polarized electron-proton scattering shows that the results are indeed compatible within the experimental errors. Limits are set on the kinematics where the physical information on the form factors can be safely extracted. The results presented in this work bring a decisive piece of information in the controversy on the deviation of the proton electromagnetic form factors from the dipole dependence.

### Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two {\it ups} and a {\it down}. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past forty years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95\% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

### Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years [Cross-Listing]

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two {\it ups} and a {\it down}. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past forty years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95\% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

### Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years [Cross-Listing]

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two {\it ups} and a {\it down}. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past forty years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95\% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

### Evolving images of the proton: Hadron physics over the past 40 years [Cross-Listing]

Once upon a time, the world was simple: the proton contained three quarks, two {\it ups} and a {\it down}. How these give the proton its mass and its spin seemed obvious. Over the past forty years the proton has become more complicated, and how even these most obvious of its properties is explained in a universe of quarks, antiquarks and gluons remains a challenge. That this should be so should come as no surprise. Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is seemingly simple, and its consequences are straightforward in the domain of hard scattering where perturbation theory applies. However, the beauty of the hadron world is its diversity. The existence of hadrons, their properties, and their binding into nuclei do not appear in the Lagrangian of QCD. They all emerge as a result of its strong coupling. Strong coupling QCD creates complex phenomena, much richer than known 40 years ago: a richness that ensures colour confinement and accounts for more than 95\% of the mass of the visible Universe. How strong coupling QCD really works requires a synergy between experiment and theory. A very personal view of these fascinating developments in cold QCD is presented.

### Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: II. Spin-dependent amplitude and observables [Cross-Listing]

The forward Compton scattering off the proton is determined by substituting the empirical total photoabsorption cross sections into dispersive sum rules. In addition to the spin-independent amplitude evaluated previously [Phys. Rev. D 92, 074031 (2015)], we obtain the spin-dependent amplitude over a broad energy range. The amplitudes contain the entire information about this process. We thus can reconstruct the non-vanishing observables of the proton Compton scattering in the forward kinematics. The results are compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory where available. The low-energy expansion of the spin-dependent Compton scattering amplitude yields the GDH sum rule and relations for the forward spin polarizabilities (FSPs) of the proton. Our evaluation provides an empirical verification of the GDH sum rule for the proton, and yields empirical values of the proton FSPs. For the GDH integral we obtain $204.5(9.4)$ $\mu$b, in excellent agreement with the sum rule prediction: $204.784481(4)$ $\mu$b. For the FSPs we obtain: $\gamma_0=-92.9(5.7) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^4$, and $\bar{\gamma_0}=48.4(3.8) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^6$, in good agreement with previous evaluations.

### Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: II. Spin-dependent amplitude and observables

The forward Compton scattering off the proton is determined by substituting the empirical total photoabsorption cross sections into dispersive sum rules. In addition to the spin-independent amplitude evaluated previously [Phys. Rev. D 92, 074031 (2015)], we obtain the spin-dependent amplitude over a broad energy range. The amplitudes contain the entire information about this process. We thus can reconstruct the non-vanishing observables of the proton Compton scattering in the forward kinematics. The results are compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory where available. The low-energy expansion of the spin-dependent Compton scattering amplitude yields the GDH sum rule and relations for the forward spin polarizabilities (FSPs) of the proton. Our evaluation provides an empirical verification of the GDH sum rule for the proton, and yields empirical values of the proton FSPs. For the GDH integral we obtain $204.5(9.4)$ $\mu$b, in excellent agreement with the sum rule prediction: $204.784481(4)$ $\mu$b. For the FSPs we obtain: $\gamma_0=-92.9(5.7) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^4$, and $\bar{\gamma_0}=48.4(3.8) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^6$, in good agreement with previous evaluations.

### Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: II. Spin-dependent amplitude and observables [Cross-Listing]

The forward Compton scattering off the proton is determined by substituting the empirical total photoabsorption cross sections into dispersive sum rules. In addition to the spin-independent amplitude evaluated previously [Phys. Rev. D 92, 074031 (2015)], we obtain the spin-dependent amplitude over a broad energy range. The amplitudes contain the entire information about this process. We thus can reconstruct the non-vanishing observables of the proton Compton scattering in the forward kinematics. The results are compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory where available. The low-energy expansion of the spin-dependent Compton scattering amplitude yields the GDH sum rule and relations for the forward spin polarizabilities (FSPs) of the proton. Our evaluation provides an empirical verification of the GDH sum rule for the proton, and yields empirical values of the proton FSPs. For the GDH integral we obtain $204.5(9.4)$ $\mu$b, in excellent agreement with the sum rule prediction: $204.784481(4)$ $\mu$b. For the FSPs we obtain: $\gamma_0=-92.9(5.7) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^4$, and $\bar{\gamma_0}=48.4(3.8) \times 10^{-6}$ fm$^6$, in good agreement with previous evaluations.

### An explanation of the elliptic flow difference between proton and anti-proton from the UrQMD model with hadron potentials

The time evolution of both proton and anti-proton $v_2$ flows from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=7.7 GeV are examined by using both pure cascade and mean-field potential versions of the UrQMD model. Due to a stronger repulsion at the early stage introduced by the repulsive potentials and hence much less annihilation probabilities, anti-protons are frozen out earlier with smaller $v_2$ values. Therefore, the experimental data of anti-proton $v_2$ as well as the flow difference between proton and anti-proton can be reasonably described with the potential version of UrQMD.

### Rapidity distribution of protons from the potential version of UrQMD model and the traditional coalescence afterburner

Rapidity distributions of both E895 proton data at AGS energies and NA49 net proton data at SPS energies can be described reasonably well with a potential version of the UrQMD in which mean-field potentials for both pre-formed hadrons and confined baryons are considered, with the help of a traditional coalescence afterburner in which one parameter set for both relative distance $R_0$ and relative momentum $P_0$, (3.8 fm, 0.3 GeV$/$c), is used. Because of the large cancellation between the expansion in $R_0$ and the shrinkage in $P_0$ through the Lorentz transformation, the relativistic effect in clusters has little effect on the rapidity distribution of free (net) protons. Using a Woods-Saxon-like function instead of a pure logarithmic function as seen by FOPI collaboration at SIS energies, one can fit well both the data at SIS energies and the UrQMD calculation results at AGS and SPS energies. Further, it is found that for central Au+Au or Pb+Pb collisions at top SIS, SPS and RHIC energies, the proton fractions in clusters are about 33$\%$, 10$\%$, and 0.7$\%$, respectively.

### Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for $A_{LT}$ in hadron production from $pp$ collisions

We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry $A_{LT}$ in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions,i.e., $p^\uparrow \vec{p}\to h\,X$. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

### Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for $A_{LT}$ in hadron production from $pp$ collisions [Cross-Listing]

We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry $A_{LT}$ in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions,i.e., $p^\uparrow \vec{p}\to h\,X$. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

### Evidence of strong proton shape fluctuations from incoherent diffraction [Cross-Listing]

We show within the saturation framework that measurements of exclusive vector meson production at high energy provide evidence for strong geometric fluctuations of the proton. In comparison, the effect of saturation scale and color charge fluctuations is weak. This knowledge will allow detailed future measurements of the incoherent cross section to tightly constrain the fluctuating geometry of the proton as a function of the parton momentum fraction $x$.

### Evidence of strong proton shape fluctuations from incoherent diffraction

We show within the saturation framework that measurements of exclusive vector meson production at high energy provide evidence for strong geometric fluctuations of the proton. In comparison, the effect of saturation scale and color charge fluctuations is weak. This knowledge will allow detailed future measurements of the incoherent cross section to tightly constrain the fluctuating geometry of the proton as a function of the parton momentum fraction $x$.

### Study of compound nucleus formation via bremsstrahlung emission in proton $\alpha$-particle scattering [Cross-Listing]

In this paper a role of many-nucleon dynamics in formation of the compound $^{5}{\rm Li}$ nucleus in the scattering of protons off $\alpha$-particles at the proton incident energies up to 20 MeV is investigated. We propose a bremsstrahlung model allowing to extract information about probabilities of formation of such nucleus on the basis of analysis of experimental cross-sections of the bremsstrahlung photons. In order to realize this approach, the model includes elements of microscopic theory and also probabilities of formation of the short-lived compound nucleus. Results of calculations of the bremsstrahlung spectra are in good agreement with the experimental cross-sections.

### Study of compound nucleus formation via bremsstrahlung emission in proton $\alpha$-particle scattering [Cross-Listing]

In this paper a role of many-nucleon dynamics in formation of the compound $^{5}{\rm Li}$ nucleus in the scattering of protons off $\alpha$-particles at the proton incident energies up to 20 MeV is investigated. We propose a bremsstrahlung model allowing to extract information about probabilities of formation of such nucleus on the basis of analysis of experimental cross-sections of the bremsstrahlung photons. In order to realize this approach, the model includes elements of microscopic theory and also probabilities of formation of the short-lived compound nucleus. Results of calculations of the bremsstrahlung spectra are in good agreement with the experimental cross-sections.

### Study of compound nucleus formation via bremsstrahlung emission in proton $\alpha$-particle scattering

In this paper a role of many-nucleon dynamics in formation of the compound $^{5}{\rm Li}$ nucleus in the scattering of protons off $\alpha$-particles at the proton incident energies up to 20 MeV is investigated. We propose a bremsstrahlung model allowing to extract information about probabilities of formation of such nucleus on the basis of analysis of experimental cross-sections of the bremsstrahlung photons. In order to realize this approach, the model includes elements of microscopic theory and also probabilities of formation of the short-lived compound nucleus. Results of calculations of the bremsstrahlung spectra are in good agreement with the experimental cross-sections.

### Measurement of two-photon exchange effect by comparing elastic $e^\pm p$ cross sections

[Background] The electromagnetic form factors of the proton measured by unpolarized and polarized electron scattering experiments show a significant disagreement that grows with the squared four momentum transfer ($Q^{2}$). Calculations have shown that the two measurements can be largely reconciled by accounting for the contributions of two-photon exchange (TPE). TPE effects are not typically included in the standard set of radiative corrections since theoretical calculations of the TPE effects are highly model dependent, and, until recently, no direct evidence of significant TPE effects has been observed. [Purpose] We measured the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic-scattering cross sections in order to determine the TPE contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering and thereby resolve the proton electric form factor discrepancy. [Methods] We produced a mixed simultaneous electron-positron beam in Jefferson Lab's Hall B by passing the 5.6 GeV primary electron beam through a radiator to produce a bremsstrahlung photon beam and then passing the photon beam through a convertor to produce electron/positron pairs. The mixed electron-positron (lepton) beam with useful energies from approximately 0.85 to 3.5 GeV then struck a 30-cm long liquid hydrogen (LH$_2$) target located within the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). By detecting both the scattered leptons and the recoiling protons we identified and reconstructed elastic scattering events and determined the incident lepton energy. A detailed description of the experiment is presented.

### Exact solution of equations for proton localization in neutron star matter [Cross-Listing]

The rigorous treatment of proton localization phenomenon in asymmetric nuclear matter is presented. The solution of proton wave function and neutron background distribution is found by the use of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach. The minimum of energy is obtained in the Wigner- Seitz approximation of spherically symmetric cell. The analysis of three different nuclear models suggests that the proton localization is likely to take place in the interior of neutron star.

### Exact solution of equations for proton localization in neutron star matter

The rigorous treatment of proton localization phenomenon in asymmetric nuclear matter is presented. The solution of proton wave function and neutron background distribution is found by the use of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach. The minimum of energy is obtained in the Wigner- Seitz approximation of spherically symmetric cell. The analysis of three different nuclear models suggests that the proton localization is likely to take place in the interior of neutron star.

### Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory [Cross-Listing]

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using available phenomenological constraints from existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states, our formalism includes off-shell and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a finite-range regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1\$GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

### Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry of the proton in chiral effective theory [Replacement]

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using phenomenological constraints based upon existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states alone, this work includes off-shell terms and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1$GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

### Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory [Cross-Listing]

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using available phenomenological constraints from existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states, our formalism includes off-shell and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a finite-range regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1\$GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

### Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using available phenomenological constraints from existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states, our formalism includes off-shell and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a finite-range regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1\$GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

### Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry of the proton in chiral effective theory [Replacement]

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using phenomenological constraints based upon existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states alone, this work includes off-shell terms and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1$GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

### Constraints on $s-\bar s$ asymmetry of the proton in chiral effective theory [Replacement]

We compute the $s-\bar s$ asymmetry in the proton in chiral effective theory, using phenomenological constraints based upon existing data. Unlike previous meson cloud model calculations, which accounted for kaon loop contributions with on-shell intermediate states alone, this work includes off-shell terms and contact interactions, which impact the shape of the $s-\bar s$ difference. Using a regularization procedure that preserves chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance, we find that existing data limit the integrated value of the first moment of the asymmetry to the range $-0.07 \times 10^{-3} \leq \langle x(s-\bar s) \rangle \leq 1.12 \times 10^{-3}$ at a scale of $Q^2=1$GeV$^2$. In contrast to some suggestions in the literature, the magnitude of this correction is too small to account for the NuTeV anomaly.

### Polarization-transfer measurement to a large-virtuality bound proton in the deuteron

Possible differences between free and bound protons may be observed in the ratio of polarization-transfer components, $P'_x/P'_z$. We report the measurement of $P'_x/P'_z$, in the $^2\textrm{H}(\vec{e},e^{\prime}\vec{p})n$ reaction at low and high missing momenta. Observed increasing deviation of $P'_x/P'_z$ from that of a free proton as a function of the virtuality, similar to that observed in \hefour, indicates that the effect in nuclei is due to the virtuality of the knock-out proton and not due to the average nuclear density. The measured differences from calculations assuming free-proton form factors ($\sim10\%$), may indicate in-medium modifications.

### Evolution of The Proton Velocity Distribution due to Stochastic Heating in the Near-Sun Solar Wind

We investigate how the proton distribution function evolves when the protons undergo stochastic heating by strong, low-frequency, Alfv\'en-wave turbulence under the assumption that $\beta$ is small. We apply our analysis to protons undergoing stochastic heating in the supersonic fast solar wind and obtain proton distributions at heliocentric distances ranging from 4 to 30 solar radii. We find that the proton distribution develops non-Gaussian structure with a flat core and steep tail. For $r >5 \ R_{\rm S}$, the proton distribution is well approximated by a modified Moyal distribution. Comparisons with future measurements from \emph{Solar Probe Plus} could be used to test whether stochastic heating is occurring in the solar-wind acceleration region.

### Fundamental Constants as Monitors of the Universe

Astronomical observations have a unique ability to determine the laws of physics at distant times in the universe. They, therefore, have particular relevance in answering the basic question as to whether the laws of physics are invariant with time. The dimesionless fundamental constants, such as the proton to electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant are key elements in the investigation. If they vary with time then the answer is clearly that the laws of physics are not invariant with time and significant new physics must be developed to describe the universe. Limits on their variance, on the other hand, constrains the parameter space available to new physics that requires a variation with time of basic physical law. There are now observational constraints on the time variation of the proton to electron mass ratio mu at the 1.E-7 level. Constraints on the variation of the fine structure constant alpha are less rigorous, 1E-5, but are imposed at higher redshift. The implications of these limits on new cosmologies that require rolling scalar fields has already had its first investigations. Here we address the implications on basic particle physics. The proton to electron mass ratio is obviously dependent on the particle physics parameters that set the mass of the proton and the electron. To first order the ratio is dependent on a combination of the Quantum Chromodynamic scale, the Yukawa couplings, and the Higgs Vacuum Expectation Value. Here that relationship is quantitative defined for the first time. When coupled with previous determinations of the relation of the fine structure constant to the same parameters two constraints exist on the fractional variation of these parameters with time. A third independent constraint involving only the three parameters could set the stage for constraints on their individual fractional variation.

### Fundamental Constants as Monitors of the Universe [Cross-Listing]

Astronomical observations have a unique ability to determine the laws of physics at distant times in the universe. They, therefore, have particular relevance in answering the basic question as to whether the laws of physics are invariant with time. The dimesionless fundamental constants, such as the proton to electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant are key elements in the investigation. If they vary with time then the answer is clearly that the laws of physics are not invariant with time and significant new physics must be developed to describe the universe. Limits on their variance, on the other hand, constrains the parameter space available to new physics that requires a variation with time of basic physical law. There are now observational constraints on the time variation of the proton to electron mass ratio mu at the 1.E-7 level. Constraints on the variation of the fine structure constant alpha are less rigorous, 1E-5, but are imposed at higher redshift. The implications of these limits on new cosmologies that require rolling scalar fields has already had its first investigations. Here we address the implications on basic particle physics. The proton to electron mass ratio is obviously dependent on the particle physics parameters that set the mass of the proton and the electron. To first order the ratio is dependent on a combination of the Quantum Chromodynamic scale, the Yukawa couplings, and the Higgs Vacuum Expectation Value. Here that relationship is quantitative defined for the first time. When coupled with previous determinations of the relation of the fine structure constant to the same parameters two constraints exist on the fractional variation of these parameters with time. A third independent constraint involving only the three parameters could set the stage for constraints on their individual fractional variation.

### Photon from the annihilation process with CGC in the $pA$ collision

We discuss the photon production in the $pA$ collision in a framework of the color glass condensate (CGC). We work in a regime where the color density $\rho_A$ of the nucleus is large enough to justify the CGC treatment, while soft gluons in the proton are dominant over quarks but do not yet belong to the CGC regime. In this semi-CGC regime for the proton, we can still perform a systematic expansion in powers of the color density $\rho_p$ of the proton. The leading-order contributions to the photon production appear from the Bremsstrahlung and the annihilation processes involving quarks from a gluon sourced by $\rho_p$. We analytically derive an expression for the annihilation contribution to the photon production rate and numerically find that a thermal exponential form gives the best fit with an effective temperature $\sim 0.5Q_s$ where $Q_s$ is the saturation momentum of the nucleus.

### Twist Three Generalized Parton Distributions for Orbital Angular Momentum

We study the orbital angular momentum contribution to the spin structure of the proton. It is well known that the quark and gluon spin contributions do not add up to the proton spin. We motivate the connection between the Generalized Transverse Momentum Distribution (GTMD) $F_{14}$, and orbital angular momentum by exploring the underlying quark proton helicity amplitude structure. The twist three Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) $\tilde{E}_{2T}$, was shown to connect to OAM. We study these functions using a diquark model calculation. The GTMD $F_{14}$ is unique in that it can describe both Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAM depending on choice of gauge link, i.e. whether final state interactions are included or not. We perform a calculation of $F_{14}$ in both scenarios.

### Measuring the Weak Charge of the Proton via Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

The Qweak experiment which ran at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, measured the weak charge of the proton $Q_W^p$ via elastic electron-proton scattering. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The Standard Model predicts a small parity-violating asymmetry of scattering rates between electron right and left helicity states due to the weak interaction. An initial result using 4% of the data was published in October 2013 with a measured parity-violating asymmetry of $-279\pm 35(\text{stat})\pm 31$ (syst) parts per billion (ppb). This asymmetry, along with other data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments, provided the world's first determination of the weak charge of the proton. The weak charge of the proton was found to be $Q_W^p=0.064\pm0.012$, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction of $Q_W^p(SM)=0.0708\pm0.0003$. The results of the full dataset are expected to decrease the statistical error from the initial publication by a factor of 4-5. The level of precision of the final result makes it a useful test of Standard Model predictions and particularly of the "running" of $\sin^2\theta_W$ from the Z-mass to low energies. This thesis focuses on reduction of systematic error in two key systematics for the Qweak experiment. First, techniques for measuring and removing false asymmetries arising from helicity-correlated electron beam properties at the few ppb level are discussed. Second, as a parity-violating experiment, Qweak relies on accurate knowledge of electron beam polarimetry. To help address the requirement of accurate polarimetry, a Compton polarimeter built specifically for Qweak. Compton polarimetry requires accurate knowledge of laser polarization inside a Fabry-Perot cavity enclosed in the electron beam pipe. A new technique was developed for Qweak that nearly eliminates this systematic error.

### Wigner distribution and orbital angular momentum of a proton

The Wigner distributions for u and d quarks in a proton are calculated using the light front wave functions (LFWFs) of the scalar quark-diquark model for nucleon constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD correspondence. We present a detail study of the quark orbital angular momentum(OAM) and its correlation with quark spin and proton spin. The quark density distributions, considering the different polarizations of quarks and proton, in transverse momentum plane as well as in transverse impact parameter plane are presented for both u and d quarks.

### Beam-Energy and Centrality Dependence of Directed Flow of Identified Particles

These proceedings present directed flow ($v_1$) measurements in Au+Au collisions from STAR's Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, for $p$, $\bar{p}$, $\Lambda$, $\bar\Lambda$, $K^\pm$, $K^0_S$ and $\pi^\pm$. At intermediate centrality, protons show a minimum in directed flow slope, $dv_1/dy\,|_{y\leq0.8}$, as a function of beam energy. Proton $dv_1/dy$ changes sign near 10 GeV, and the directed flow for $\Lambda$ is consistent with the proton result. The directed flow slope for net protons shows a clear minimum at 14.5 GeV and becomes positive at beam energies below 10 GeV and above 30 GeV. New results for net-kaon directed flow slope resemble net protons from high energy down to 14.5 GeV, but remain negative at lower energies. The slope $dv_1/dy$ shows a strong centrality dependence, especially for $p$ and $\Lambda$ at the lower beam energies. Available model calculations are in poor agreement.

### Beam-Energy and Centrality Dependence of Directed Flow of Identified Particles [Cross-Listing]

These proceedings present directed flow ($v_1$) measurements in Au+Au collisions from STAR's Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, for $p$, $\bar{p}$, $\Lambda$, $\bar\Lambda$, $K^\pm$, $K^0_S$ and $\pi^\pm$. At intermediate centrality, protons show a minimum in directed flow slope, $dv_1/dy\,|_{y\leq0.8}$, as a function of beam energy. Proton $dv_1/dy$ changes sign near 10 GeV, and the directed flow for $\Lambda$ is consistent with the proton result. The directed flow slope for net protons shows a clear minimum at 14.5 GeV and becomes positive at beam energies below 10 GeV and above 30 GeV. New results for net-kaon directed flow slope resemble net protons from high energy down to 14.5 GeV, but remain negative at lower energies. The slope $dv_1/dy$ shows a strong centrality dependence, especially for $p$ and $\Lambda$ at the lower beam energies. Available model calculations are in poor agreement.

### A direct probe of the intrinsic charm content of the proton [Replacement]

Measurement of $Z$ bosons produced in association with charm jets $(Zc)$ in proton-proton collisions in the forward region provides a direct probe of a potential non-perturbative (intrinsic) charm component in the proton wave function. We provide a detailed study of the potential to measure $Zc$ production at the LHCb experiment in Runs 2 and 3 of the LHC. The sensitivity to valence-like (sea-like) intrinsic charm is predicted to be $\langle x \rangle_{\rm IC} \gtrsim 0.3\%(1\%)$. The impact of intrinsic charm on Higgs production at the LHC, including $Hc$, is also discussed in detail.

### A direct probe of the intrinsic charm content of the proton [Replacement]

Measurement of $Z$ bosons produced in association with charm jets $(Zc)$ in proton-proton collisions in the forward region provides a direct probe of a potential non-perturbative (intrinsic) charm component in the proton wave function. We provide a detailed study of the potential to measure $Zc$ production at the LHCb experiment in Runs 2 and 3 of the LHC. The sensitivity to valence-like (sea-like) intrinsic charm is predicted to be $\langle x \rangle_{\rm IC} \gtrsim 0.3\%(1\%)$. The impact of intrinsic charm on Higgs production at the LHC, including $Hc$, is also discussed in detail.

### A direct probe of the intrinsic charm content of the proton

Measurement of $Z$ bosons produced in association with charm jets $(Zc)$ in proton-proton collisions in the forward region provides a direct probe of a potential non-perturbative (intrinsic) charm component in the proton wave function. We provide a detailed study of the potential to measure $Zc$ production at the LHCb experiment in Runs 2 and 3 of the LHC. The sensitivity to valence-like (sea-like) intrinsic charm is predicted to be $\langle x \rangle_{\rm IC} \gtrsim 0.3\%(1\%)$. The impact of intrinsic charm on Higgs production at the LHC, including $Hc$, is also discussed in detail.

### Photon and dilepton production at the Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research and the beam energy scan program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider using coarse-grained microscopic transport simulations [Replacement]

We present calculations of dilepton and photon spectra for the energy range $E_{\text{lab}}=2-35$ $A$GeV which will be available for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research (FAIR). The same energy regime will also be covered by phase II of the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC-BES). Coarse-grained dynamics from microscopic transport calculations of the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is used to determine temperature and chemical potentials, which allows for the use of dilepton and photon-emission rates from equilibrium quantum-field theory calculations. The results indicate that non-equilibrium effects, the presence of baryonic matter and the creation of a deconfined phase might show up in specific manners in the measurable dilepton invariant mass spectra and in the photon transverse momentum spectra. However, as the many influences are difficult to disentangle, we argue that the challenge for future measurements of electromagnetic probes will be to provide a high precision with uncertainties much lower than in previous experiments. Furthermore, a systematic study of the whole energy range covered by CBM at FAIR and RHIC-BES is necessary to discriminate between different effects, which influence the spectra, and to identify possible signatures of a phase transition.

### Photon and dilepton production at the Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research and the beam energy scan program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider using coarse-grained microscopic transport simulations [Replacement]

We present calculations of dilepton and photon spectra for the energy range $E_{\text{lab}}=2-35$ $A$GeV which will be available for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research (FAIR). The same energy regime will also be covered by phase II of the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC-BES). Coarse-grained dynamics from microscopic transport calculations of the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is used to determine temperature and chemical potentials, which allows for the use of dilepton and photon-emission rates from equilibrium quantum-field theory calculations. The results indicate that non-equilibrium effects, the presence of baryonic matter and the creation of a deconfined phase might show up in specific manners in the measurable dilepton invariant mass spectra and in the photon transverse momentum spectra. However, as the many influences are difficult to disentangle, we argue that the challenge for future measurements of electromagnetic probes will be to provide a high precision with uncertainties much lower than in previous experiments. Furthermore, a systematic study of the whole energy range covered by CBM at FAIR and RHIC-BES is necessary to discriminate between different effects, which influence the spectra, and to identify possible signatures of a phase transition.

### Gluon Polarization in Longitudinally Polarized $pp$ Collisions at STAR [Cross-Listing]

The STAR Collaboration is performing a wide range of measurements to determine the gluon helicity distribution in the proton. Gluon-gluon and quark-gluon scattering dominate jet production in proton-proton collisions at RHIC, so the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, for jet production places significant constraints on the gluon polarization in the proton. In recent years STAR has recorded large longitudinally polarized $pp$ data sets at both $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV and $510$ GeV. The 2009 STAR inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ measurements at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV show the first experimental evidence of non-zero gluon polarization over the Bjorken-$x$ range, $x > 0.05$. Furthermore, data collected at $\sqrt{s} = 510$ GeV during the 2012 and 2013 RHIC runs allow access to the gluon polarization at lower $x$. In this talk, I will present the final results of the 2009 inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ measurement at $200$ GeV, the analysis status of the 2012 inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ measurement at $510$ GeV, and the status of di-jet and other STAR measurements that are sensitive to gluon polarization.