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Spontaneous CP violating quark scattering from asymmetric $Z\left(3\right)$ interfaces in QGP [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we extend our earlier study of spontaneous CP violating scattering of quarks and anti-quarks from QCD $Z\left(3\right)$ domain walls for the situation when these walls have asymmetric profiles of the Polyakov loop order parameter $l(x)$. Dynamical quarks lead to explicit breaking of $Z(3)$ symmetry, which lifts the degeneracy of the $Z(3)$ vacua arising from spontaneous breaking of the $Z(3)$ symmetry in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase. Resulting domain walls have asymmetric profile of $l(x)$ (under reflection $x \rightarrow -x$ for a domain wall centered at the origin). We calculate the background gauge field profile $A_0$ associated with this domain wall profile. Interestingly, even with the asymmetric $l(x)$ profile, quark-antiquark scattering from the corresponding gauge field configuration does not reflect this asymmetry. We show that the expected asymmetry in scattering arises when we include the effect of asymmetric profile of $l(x)$ on the effective mass of quarks and antiquarks and calculate resultant scattering. We discuss the effects of such asymmetric Z(3) walls in generating quark and antiquark density fluctuations in cosmology, and in relativistic heavy-ion collisions e.g. event-by-event baryon fluctuations.

Spontaneous CP violating quark scattering from asymmetric $Z\left(3\right)$ interfaces in QGP

In this paper, we extend our earlier study of spontaneous CP violating scattering of quarks and anti-quarks from QCD $Z\left(3\right)$ domain walls for the situation when these walls have asymmetric profiles of the Polyakov loop order parameter $l(x)$. Dynamical quarks lead to explicit breaking of $Z(3)$ symmetry, which lifts the degeneracy of the $Z(3)$ vacua arising from spontaneous breaking of the $Z(3)$ symmetry in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase. Resulting domain walls have asymmetric profile of $l(x)$ (under reflection $x \rightarrow -x$ for a domain wall centered at the origin). We calculate the background gauge field profile $A_0$ associated with this domain wall profile. Interestingly, even with the asymmetric $l(x)$ profile, quark-antiquark scattering from the corresponding gauge field configuration does not reflect this asymmetry. We show that the expected asymmetry in scattering arises when we include the effect of asymmetric profile of $l(x)$ on the effective mass of quarks and antiquarks and calculate resultant scattering. We discuss the effects of such asymmetric Z(3) walls in generating quark and antiquark density fluctuations in cosmology, and in relativistic heavy-ion collisions e.g. event-by-event baryon fluctuations.

Spontaneous CP violating quark scattering from asymmetric $Z\left(3\right)$ interfaces in QGP [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we extend our earlier study of spontaneous CP violating scattering of quarks and anti-quarks from QCD $Z\left(3\right)$ domain walls for the situation when these walls have asymmetric profiles of the Polyakov loop order parameter $l(x)$. Dynamical quarks lead to explicit breaking of $Z(3)$ symmetry, which lifts the degeneracy of the $Z(3)$ vacua arising from spontaneous breaking of the $Z(3)$ symmetry in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase. Resulting domain walls have asymmetric profile of $l(x)$ (under reflection $x \rightarrow -x$ for a domain wall centered at the origin). We calculate the background gauge field profile $A_0$ associated with this domain wall profile. Interestingly, even with the asymmetric $l(x)$ profile, quark-antiquark scattering from the corresponding gauge field configuration does not reflect this asymmetry. We show that the expected asymmetry in scattering arises when we include the effect of asymmetric profile of $l(x)$ on the effective mass of quarks and antiquarks and calculate resultant scattering. We discuss the effects of such asymmetric Z(3) walls in generating quark and antiquark density fluctuations in cosmology, and in relativistic heavy-ion collisions e.g. event-by-event baryon fluctuations.

Flat-relative optimal extraction. A quick and efficient algorithm for stabilised spectrographs

Optimal extraction is a key step in processing the raw images of spectra as registered by two-dimensional detector arrays to a one-dimensional format. Previously reported algorithms reconstruct models for a mean one-dimensional spatial profile to assist a properly weighted extraction. We outline a simple optimal extraction algorithm including error propagation, which is very suitable for stabilised, fibre-fed spectrographs and does not model the spatial profile shape. A high signal-to-noise, master-flat image serves as reference image and is directly used as an extraction profile mask. Each extracted spectral value is the scaling factor relative to the cross-section of the unnormalised master-flat which contains all information about the spatial profile as well as pixel-to-pixel variations, fringing, and blaze. The extracted spectrum is measured relative to the flat spectrum. Using echelle spectra of the HARPS spectrograph we demonstrate a competitive extraction performance in terms of signal-to-noise and show that extracted spectra can be used for high precision radial velocity measurement. Pre- or post-flat-fielding of the data is not necessary, since all spectrograph inefficiencies inherent to the extraction mask are automatically accounted for. Also the reconstruction of the mean spatial profile by models is not needed, thereby reducing the number of operations to extract spectra. Flat-relative optimal extraction is a simple, efficient, and robust method that can be applied easily to stabilised, fibre-fed spectrographs.

Timing noise and the long-term stability of pulsar profiles

It has recently been shown that there is a close correlation between the slowdown rates and the pulse shapes of six pulsars, and between the slowdown rates and the flux density of three others. This indicates that these phenomena are related by changes in the current flows in the pulsar magnetospheres. In this paper we review the observational status of these studies, which have now been extended to a total of 16 pulsars having correlated slowdown and pulse emission properties. The changes seem to be due to sudden switching between just two discrete magnetospheric states in the well-known processes of mode-changing and pulse nulling. We also address how widespread these phenomena are in the wider pulsar population.

A CO and its isotope line survey for the possible cloud-cloud collision candidates

In the 12CO (J=1-0) survey for the 1331 cold IRAS sources, 214 sources show the multiple-peak profiles and are selected as cloud-cloud collision candidates. In January 2005, 201 sources are detected with 12CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), and C18O(1-0) emission by the 13.7m telescope of Purple Mount Observatory. This is the first CO and its isotope line survey toward the possible cloud-cloud collision regions. According to the statistics of the 201 sources in Galactic distribution, the 201 sources show the similar distribution to the parent sample (1331 cold IRAS sources). These sources are located over a wide range of the Galactocentric distances, and associated with the star formation region partly. Based on preliminary criteria which describe the spectrum properties of the possible cloud-cloud collision region, the 201 sources are classified into 4 types by the fit of the spectrum profiles between the optically thick and thin lines toward each source. The survey is focused on the possible cloud-cloud collision regions, and gives some evidences to help us with selecting the target region. Then we will carry on the mapping and multi-wavelength study for the selected region in future.

Returning magnetic flux in sunspot penumbrae

We study the presence of reversed polarity magnetic flux in sunspot penumbra. We applied a new regularized method to deconvolve spectropolarimetric data observed with the spectropolarimeter SP onboard Hinode. The new regularization is based on a principal component decomposition of the Stokes profiles. The resulting Stokes profiles were inverted to infer the magnetic field vector using SIR. We find, for the first time, reversed polarity fields at the border of many bright penumbral filaments in the whole penumbra.

On the shear estimation bias induced by the spatial variation of colour across galaxy profiles

The spatial variation of the colour of a galaxy may introduce a bias in the measurement of its shape if the PSF profile depends on wavelength. We study how this bias depends on the properties of the PSF and the galaxies themselves. The bias depends on the scales used to estimate the shape, which may be used to optimise methods to reduce the bias. Here we develop a general approach to quantify the bias. Although applicable to any weak lensing survey, we focus on the implications for the ESA Euclid mission. Based on our study of synthetic galaxies we find that the bias is a few times 10^-3 for a typical galaxy observed by Euclid. Consequently, it cannot be neglected and needs to be accounted for. We demonstrate how one can do so using spatially resolved observations of galaxies in two filters. We show that HST observations in the F606W and F814W filters allow us to model and reduce the bias by an order of magnitude, sufficient to meet Euclid’s scientific requirements. The precision of the correction is ultimately determined by the number of galaxies for which spatially-resolved observations in at least two filters are available. We use results from the Millennium Simulation to demonstrate that archival HST data will be sufficient for the tomographic cosmic shear analysis with the Euclid dataset.

CO J=2-1 and CO J=3-2 observations toward the high-mass protostellar candidate IRAS 20188+3928

We have carried out 12CO J=2-1 and 12CO J=3-2 observations toward the high-mass protostellar candidate IRAS 20188+3928. Compared with previous observations, the 12CO J=2-1 and 12CO J=3-2 lines both have asymmetric profiles with an absorption dip. The velocity of the absorption dip is 1.0 km/s. The spectral shape may be caused by rotation. The velocity-integrated intensity map and position-velocity diagram of the 12CO J=2-1 line present an obvious bipolar component, further verifying that this region has an outflow motion. This region is also associated with an HII region, an IRAS source, and an H2O maser. The H2O maser has the velocity of 1.1 km/s. Compared with the components of the outflow, we find that the H2O maser is not associated with the outflow. Using the large velocity gradient model, we concluded that possible averaged gas densities of the blueshifted lobe and redshifted lobe are 1.0*10^{5}$ cm^{-3} and 2.0*10$^{4} cm^{-3}, while kinetic temperatures are 26.9 K and 52.9 K, respectively. Additionally, the outflow has {a} higher integrated intensity ratio (I_{CO J=3-2}/I_{CO J=2-1}).

Measuring vector magnetic fields in solar prominences

We present spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet of a quiescent, hedgerow solar prominence. The data were taken with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife; Canary Islands; Spain). The observed He I circular and linear polarization signals are dominated by the Zeeman effect and by atomic level polarization and the Hanle effect, respectively. These observables are sensitive to the strength and orientation of the magnetic field vector at each spatial point of the field of view. We determine the magnetic field vector of the prominence by applying the HAZEL inversion code to the observed Stokes profiles. We briefly discuss the retrieved magnetic field vector configuration.

Optimized boundary driven flows for dynamos in a sphere [Cross-Listing]

We perform numerical optimization of the axisymmetric flows in a sphere to minimize the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_cr required for dynamo onset. The optimization is done for the class of laminar incompressible flows of von Karman type satisfying the steady-state Navier-Stokes equation. Such flows are determined by equatorially antisymmetric profiles of driving azimuthal (toroidal) velocity specified at the spherical boundary. The model is relevant to the Madison plasma dynamo experiment (MPDX), whose spherical boundary is capable of differential driving of plasma in the azimuthal direction. We show that the dynamo onset in this system depends strongly on details of the driving velocity profile and the fluid Reynolds number Re. It is found that the overall lowest Rm_cr~200 is achieved at Re~240 for the flow, which is hydrodynamically marginally stable. We also show that the optimized flows can sustain dynamos only in the range Rm_cr<Rm<Rm_cr2, where Rm_cr2 is the second critical magnetic Reynolds number, above which the dynamo is quenched. Samples of the optimized flows and the corresponding dynamo fields are presented.

XMM-Newton Observations of Three Interacting Luminous Infrared Galaxies

We investigate the X-ray properties of three interacting luminous infrared galaxy systems. In one of these systems, IRAS 18329+5950, we resolve two separate sources. A second, IRAS 20550+1656, and third, IRAS 19354+4559, have only a single X-ray source detected. We compare the observed emission to PSF profiles and determine that three are extended in emission. One is compact, which is suggestive of an AGN, although all of our profiles have large uncertainties. We then model the spectra to determine soft (0.5–2 keV) and hard (2–10 keV) luminosities for the resolved sources and then compare these to relationships found in the literature between infrared and X-ray luminosities for starburst galaxies. We obtain luminosities of $\log(L_{\textrm{soft}}/\lsol) = 7.32,\:7.06,\:7.68$ and $\log(L_{\textrm{hard}}/\lsol) = 7.33,\: 7.07,\: 7.88$ for IRAS 18329+5950, IRAS 19354+4559, and IRAS 20550+1656, respectively. These are intermediate to two separate predictions in the literature for star-formation-dominated sources. Our highest quality spectrum of IRAS 20550+1656 suggests super-solar abundance of alpha elements at $2\sigma$ significance, with $\log(\frac{\alpha}{\alpha_{\odot}}) = [\alpha] = 0.4\pm0.2$. This is suggestive of recent enrichment with Type II supernovae, consistent with a starburst environment. The X-ray properties of the target galaxies are most likely due to starbursts, but we cannot conclusively rule out AGN.

Stellar mass versus velocity dispersion as tracer of the lensing signal around bulge-dominated galaxies

We present the results of a weak gravitational lensing analysis to determine whether the stellar mass or the velocity dispersion is more closely related to the amplitude of the lensing signal around galaxies – and hence to the projected distribution of dark matter. The lensing signal on scales smaller than the virial radius corresponds most closely to the lensing velocity dispersion in the case of a singular isothermal profile, but is on larger scales also sensitive to the clustering of the haloes. We select over 4000 lens galaxies at a redshift z<0.2 with concentrated (or bulge-dominated) surface brightness profiles from the ~300 square degree overlap between the Red-sequence Cluster Survey 2 (RCS2) and the data release 7 (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We consider both the spectroscopic velocity dispersion and a model velocity dispersion (a combination of the stellar mass, the size and the Sersic index of a galaxy). Comparing the model and spectroscopic velocity dispersion we find that they correlate well for galaxies with concentrated brightness profiles. We find that the stellar mass and the spectroscopic velocity dispersion trace the amplitude of the lensing signal on small scales equally well. The model velocity dispersion, however, does significantly worse. A possible explanation is that the halo properties that determine the small-scale lensing signal – mainly the total mass – also depend on the structural parameters of galaxies, such as the effective radius and Sersic index, but we lack data for a definitive conclusion.

The ATLAS3D project - XVII. Linking photometric and kinematic signatures of stellar discs in early-type galaxies [Replacement]

[Abridged] We analyse the morphological structures in galaxies of the ATLAS3D sample by fitting a single Sersic profile and decomposing all non-barred objects (180 of 260 objects) in two components parameterised by an exponential and a general Sersic function. The aim of this analysis is to look for signatures of discs in light distributions of nearby early-type galaxies and compare them to kinematic properties. Using Sersic index from single component fits for a distinction between slow and fast rotators, or even late- and early-type galaxies, is not recommended. Assuming that objects with n>3 are slow rotators (or ellipticals), there is only a 22 per cent probability to correctly classify objects as slow rotators (or 37 per cent of previously classified as ellipticals). We show that exponential sub-components, as well as light profiles fitted with only a single component of a low Sersic index, can be linked with the kinematic evidence for discs in early-type galaxies. The median disk-to-total light ratio for fast and slow rotators is 0.41 and 0.0, respectively. Similarly, the median Sersic indices of the bulge (general Sersic component) are 1.7 and 4.8 for fast and slow rotators, respectively. Overall, discs or disc-like structures, are present in 83 per cent of early-type galaxies which do not have bars, and they show a full range of disk-to-total light ratios. Discs in early-type galaxies contribute with about 40 per cent to the total mass of the analysed (non-barred) objects. The decomposition into discs and bulges can be used as a rough approximation for the separation between fast and slow rotators, but it is not a substitute, as there is only a 59 per cent probability to correctly recognise slow rotators. Kinematics (i.e. projected angular momentum) remains the best approach to mitigate the influence of the inclination effects.

The ATLAS3D project - XVII. Linking photometric and kinematic signatures of stellar discs in early-type galaxies

[Abridged] We analyse the morphological structures in galaxies of the ATLAS3D sample by fitting a single Sersic profile and decomposing all non-barred objects (180 of 260 objects) in two components parameterised by an exponential and a general Sersic function. The aim of this analysis is to look for signatures of discs in light distributions of nearby early-type galaxies and compare them to kinematic properties. Using Sersic index from single component fits for a distinction between slow and fast rotators, or even late- and early-type galaxies, is not recommended. Assuming that objects with n>3 are slow rotators (or ellipticals), there is only a 22 per cent probability to correctly classify objects as slow rotators (or 37 per cent of previously classified as ellipticals). We show that exponential sub-components, as well as light profiles fitted with only a single component of a low Sersic index, can be linked with the kinematic evidence for discs in early-type galaxies. The median disk-to-total light ratio for fast and slow rotators is 0.41 and 0.0, respectively. Similarly, the median Sersic indices of the bulge (general Sersic component) are 1.7 and 4.8 for fast and slow rotators, respectively. Overall, discs or disc-like structures, are present in 83 per cent of early-type galaxies which do not have bars, and they show a full range of disk-to-total light ratios. Discs in early-type galaxies contribute with about 40 per cent to the total mass of the analysed (non-barred) objects. The decomposition into discs and bulges can be used as a rough approximation for the separation between fast and slow rotators, but it is not a substitute, as there is only a 59 per cent probability to correctly recognise slow rotators. Kinematics (i.e. projected angular momentum) remains the best approach to mitigate the influence of the inclination effects.

New results from LOFAR

The LOw Frequency Array, LOFAR, is a next generation radio telescope with its core in the Netherlands and elements distributed throughout Europe. It has exceptional collecting area and wide bandwidths at frequencies from 10 MHz up to 250 MHz. It is in exactly this frequency range where pulsars are brightest and also where they exhibit rapid changes in their emission profiles. Although LOFAR is still in the commissioning phase it is already collecting data of high quality. I will present highlights from our commissioning observations which will include: unique constraints on the site of pulsar emission, individual pulse studies, observations of millisecond pulsars, using pulsars to constrain the properties of the magneto-ionic medium and pilot pulsars surveys. I will also discuss future science projects and advances in the observing capabilities.

On the possibility of neutrino flavor identification at the highest energies [Replacement]

High energy astrophysical neutrinos carry relevant information about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. They can be created as a by-product of the interactions of cosmic rays in the sources and during propagation of these high energy particles through the intergalactic medium. The determination of flavor composition in this high energy flux is important because it presents a unique chance to probe our understanding of neutrino flavor oscillations at gamma factors >10^21. In this work we develop a new statistical technique to study the flavor composition of the incident neutrino flux, which is based on the multipeak structure of the longitudinal profiles of very deep electron and tau neutrino horizontal air showers. Although these longitudinal profiles can be observed by means of fluorescence telescopes placed over the Earth’s surface, orbital detectors are more suitable for neutrino observations owing to their much larger aperture. Therefore, we focus on the high energy region of the neutrino spectrum relevant for observations with orbital detectors like the planned JEM-EUSO telescope.

On the possibility of neutrino flavor identification at the highest energies [Replacement]

High energy astrophysical neutrinos carry relevant information about the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. They can be created as a by-product of the interactions of cosmic rays in the sources and during propagation of these high energy particles through the intergalactic medium. The determination of flavor composition in this high energy flux is important because it presents a unique chance to probe our understanding of neutrino flavor oscillations at gamma factors >10^21. In this work we develop a new statistical technique to study the flavor composition of the incident neutrino flux, which is based on the multipeak structure of the longitudinal profiles of very deep electron and tau neutrino horizontal air showers. Although these longitudinal profiles can be observed by means of fluorescence telescopes placed over the Earth’s surface, orbital detectors are more suitable for neutrino observations owing to their much larger aperture. Therefore, we focus on the high energy region of the neutrino spectrum relevant for observations with orbital detectors like the planned JEM-EUSO telescope.

Replacing standard galaxy profiles with mixtures of Gaussians

Exponential, de Vaucouleurs, and S\’ersic profiles are simple and successful models for fitting two-dimensional images of galaxies. One numerical issue encountered in this kind of fitting is the pixel rendering and convolution (or correlation) of the models with the telescope point-spread function (PSF); these operations are slow, and easy to get slightly wrong at small radii. Here we exploit the realization that these models can be approximated to arbitrary accuracy with a mixture (linear superposition) of two-dimensional Gaussians (MoGs). MoGs are fast to render and fast to affine-transform. Most importantly, if you have a MoG model for the pixel-convolved PSF, the PSF-convolved, affine-transformed galaxy models are themselves MoGs and therefore very fast to compute, integrate, and render precisely. We present worked examples that can be directly used in image fitting; we are using them ourselves. The MoG profiles we provide can be swapped in to replace the standard models in any image-fitting code; they sped up model fitting in our projects by an order of magnitude; they ought to make any code faster at essentially no cost in precision.

Two-dimensional MHD models of solar magnetogranulation. Testing of the models and methods of Stokes diagnostics

We carried out the Stokes diagnostics of new two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models with a continuous evolution of magnetogranulation in the course of two hours of the hydrodynamic (solar) time. Our results agree satisfactorily with the results of Stokes diagnostics of the solar small-scale flux tubes observed in quiet network elements and active plages. The straightforward methods often used in the Stokes diagnostics of solar small-scale magnetic elements were tested by means of the magnetohydrodynamic models. We conclude that the most reliable methods are the determination of magnetic field strength from the separation of the peaks in the Stokes V profiles of the infrared Fe I line 1564.8 nm and the determination of the magnetic inclination angle from the ratio tan^2 gamma approx (Q^2 + U^2)^{1/2}/V^2. The lower limits for such determinations are about 20 mT and 10 degree, respectively. We also conclude that the 2D MHD models of solar magnetogranulation are in accord with observations and may be successfully used to study magnetoconvection in the solar photosphere.

Jet Launching Structure Resolved Near the Supermassive Black Hole in M87

Approximately 10% of active galactic nuclei exhibit relativistic jets, which are powered by accretion of matter onto super massive black holes. While the measured width profiles of such jets on large scales agree with theories of magnetic collimation, predicted structure on accretion disk scales at the jet launch point has not been detected. We report radio interferometry observations at 1.3mm wavelength of the elliptical galaxy M87 that spatially resolve the base of the jet in this source. The derived size of 5.5 +/- 0.4 Schwarzschild radii is significantly smaller than the innermost edge of a retrograde accretion disk, suggesting that the M87 jet is powered by an accretion disk in a prograde orbit around a spinning black hole.

Solar prominences with Na and Mg emissions and centrally reversed Balmer line

We study spectral lines in exceptionally bright solar limb prominences with pronounced sodium and magnesium emission. We find that most prominences with significant NaD2 and Mgb2 emission show centrally reversed profiles of H-alpha and occasionally even of H-beta, which are are well reproduced by semi-infinite models. The maximum H-alpha source function corresponds to an excitation temperature of 3950 K, for pronounced central reversions 4000 K; the related optical thickness exceeds 10.0. The narrow widths of the NaD2 and Mgb2 profiles yield a non-thermal broadening of 5 km/s.

Atmospheric turbulence profiling using multiple laser star wavefront sensors

This paper describes the data preprocessing and reduction methods together with SLODAR analysis and wind profiling techniques for GeMS: the Gemini MCAO System. The wavefront gradient measurements of the five GeMS’s Shack-Hartmann sensors, each one pointing to a laser guide star, are combined with the DM commands sent to three deformable mirrors optically conjugated at 0, 4.5 and 9 km in order to reconstruct pseudo-open loop slopes. These pseudo-open loop slopes are then used to reconstruct atmospheric turbulence profiles, based on the SLODAR and wind-profiling methods. We introduce the SLODAR method, and how it has been adapted to work in a close-loop, multi Laser Guide Star system. We show that our method allows characterizing the turbulence of up to 16 layers for altitudes spanning from 0 to 19 km. The data preprocessing and reduction methods are described, and results obtained from observations made in 2011 are presented. The wind profiling analysis is shown to be a powerful technique not only for characterizing the turbulence intensity, wind direction and speed, but also as it can provide a verification tool for SLODAR results. Finally, problems such as fratricide effect in multiple laser system due to Rayleigh scattering, centroid gain variations, and limitations of the method are also addressed.

Discovery of superhumps during a normal outburst of SU Ursae Majoris

We report on time-resolved photometry during a 2012 January normaloutburst of SU UMa. The light curve shows hump-like modulations with a period of 0.07903(11) d, which coincides with the known superhump period of SU UMa during superoutbursts. We interpret this as superhump, based on the observed periodicity, profiles of the averaged light curve, and the $g’-I_{\rm c}$ variation during the normal outburst. This is the first case that superhumps are detected during an isolated normal outburst of SU UMa-type dwarf novae. The present result strongly suggests that the radius of the accretion disk already reaches the 3:1 resonance even in the midst of the supercycle.

Producing baryons from neutralinos in small H2 clumps over cosmological ages

Extreme scattering events in quasars suggest the existence of dark H2 clumps of mass $\rm \sim 10^{-3} sim M_\odot$ and size $\rm \sim 10 AU$. Such H2 clumps are extremely dense compared to WIMPs clumps of the same mass obtained by N-body simulations. A WIMP clump seeded by an H2 clump experiences a first infall during which its density increases by $\rm 10^6$ in $\rm \sim 1 Myr$. In this poster I begin to explore the phenomenology of mixed clumps made with H2 and WIMPs. Molecular clouds built with clumps are efficient machines to transform smooth distributions of WIMPs into concentrated networks. If WIMPs are neutralinos trapped in such moleular clouds, they may either enrich the baryon sector over cosmological ages, or remain mixed with cold H2 clouds until the clumps evaporate either by collision or by stellar UV heating. One of the main drawbacks of CDM profiles, their overly dense cores, is briefly revisited in this context.

Producing baryons from neutralinos in small H2 clumps over cosmological ages [Replacement]

Extreme scattering events in quasars suggest the existence of dark $\rm H_2 $ clumps of mass $\rm \sim 10^{-3} M_\odot$ and size $\rm \sim 10 AU$. Such clumps are extremely dense compared to WIMPs clumps of the same mass obtained by N-body simulations. A WIMP clump gravitationally attracted by a central $\rm H_2 $ clump would experience a first infall during which its density increases by $\rm 10^6$ in $\rm \sim 1 Myr$. In this poster I begin to explore the phenomenology of mixed clumps made with $\rm H_2 $ and WIMPs. Molecular clouds built with clumps are efficient machines to transform smooth distributions of WIMPs into concentrated networks. If WIMPs are neutralinos gravitationally attracted in clumps of such molecular clouds, they may either enrich the baryon sector over cosmological ages, or remain mixed with cold $\rm H_2 $ clouds until the clumps evaporate either by collision or by stellar UV heating. A phenomenological model based on an hypothetic dark baryonic component (DBC) that was invoked in the past to explain one of the main drawbacks of CDM profiles, their overly dense cores, is briefly revisited in this context. The DBC is replaced by a mix of $\rm H_2 $ and WIMPs, with a small fraction of HI produced by internal $\rm H_2 $ collisions, in slightly dispersive clumpy clouds that may migrate from the halo towards inner parts of a galaxy and disk.

Spectroscopic Pulsational Frequency Identification and Mode Determination of {\gamma} Doradus Star HD 12901

Using multi-site spectroscopic data collected from three sites, the frequencies and pulsational modes of the {\gamma} Doradus star HD 12901 were identified. A total of six frequencies in the range 1-2 c/d were observed, their identifications supported by multiple line-profile measurement techniques and previously-published photometry. Five frequencies were of sufficient signal-to-noise for mode identification and all five displayed similar three-bump standard deviation profiles which were fitted well with (l,m)=(1,1) modes. These fits had reduced chi-squared values of less than 18. We propose that this star is an excellent candidate to test models of non-radially pulsating {\gamma} Doradus stars as a result of the presence of multiple (1,1) modes.

Sensitivity to primary composition and hadronic models from average shape of high energy cosmic ray shower profiles [Cross-Listing]

The concept of Universal Shower Profile is used to characterize the average behavior of high energy cosmic rays. The shape variables contain important information about composition. They are independent of the primary cross-section by construction, but affected by other hadronic parameters, like multiplicity. The two variables give access to the average nuclear mass of the sample and their compatibility serves as a test of hadronic models.

Probing the cool ISM in galaxies via 21cm HI absorption

Recent targeted studies of associated HI absorption in radio galaxies are starting to map out the location, and potential cosmological evolution, of the cold gas in the host galaxies of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The observed 21 cm absorption profiles often show two distinct spectral-line components: narrow, deep lines arising from cold gas in the extended disc of the galaxy, and broad, shallow lines from cold gas close to the AGN (e.g. Morganti et al. 2011). Here, we present results from a targeted search for associated HI absorption in the youngest and most recently-triggered radio AGN in the local universe (Allison et al. 2012b). So far, by using the recently commissioned Australia Telescope Compact Array Broadband Backend (CABB; Wilson et al. 2011), we have detected two new absorbers and one previously-known system. While two of these show both a broad, shallow component and a narrow, deep component (see Fig. 1), one of the new detections has only a single broad, shallow component. Interestingly, the host galaxies of the first two detections are classified as gas-rich spirals, while the latter is an early-type galaxy. These detections were obtained using a spectral-line finding method, based on Bayesian inference, developed for future large-scale absorption surveys (Allison et al. 2012a).

Inferring the magnetic field vector in the quiet Sun. II. Interpreting results from the inversion of Stokes profiles

In a previous paper, we argued that the inversion of Stokes profiles applied to spectropolarimetric observations of the solar internetwork yield unrealistically large values of the inclination of the magnetic field vector ($\gamma$). This is because photon noise in Stokes $Q$ and $U$ are interpreted by the inversion code as valid signals, that leads to an overestimation of the transverse component $B_\perp$, thus the inclination $\gamma$. However, our study was based on the analysis of linear polarization signals that featured only uncorrelated noise. In this paper, we develop this idea further and study this effect in Stokes $Q$ and $U$ profiles that also show correlated noise. In addition, we extend our study to the three components of the magnetic field vector, as well as the magnetic filling factor $\alpha$. With this, we confirm the tendency to overestimate $\gamma$ when inverting linear polarization profiles that, although non-zero, are still below the noise level. We also establish that the overestimation occurs mainly for magnetic fields that are nearly vertical $\gamma \lesssim 20\deg$. This indicates that a reliable inference of the inclination of the magnetic field vector cannot be achieved by analyzing only Stokes $I$ and $V$. In addition, when inverting Stokes $Q$ and $U$ profiles below the noise, the inversion code retrieves a randomly uniform distribution of the azimuth of the magnetic field vector $\phi$. To avoid these problems, we propose only inverting Stokes profiles for which the linear polarization signals are sufficiently above the noise level. However, this approach is also biased because, in spite of allowing for a very accurate retrieval of the magnetic field vector from the selected Stokes profiles, it selects only profiles arising from highly inclined magnetic fields.

Global Gravitationally-Organized Spiral Waves and the Structure of NGC 5247

Using observational data, we build numerical N-body, hydrodynamical and combined equilibrium models for the spiral galaxy NGC 5247. The models turn out to be unstable towards spiral structure formation. We simulate scenarios of spiral structure formation for different sets of equilibrium rotation curves, radial velocity dispersion profiles and disk thickness and demonstrate that in all cases a simulated spiral pattern qualitatively agrees with the observed morphology of NGC 5247. We also demonstrate that an admixture of a gaseous component with mass of about a few percent of the total mass of the disk increases a lifetime of a spiral pattern by approximately 30%. The simulated spiral pattern in this case lasts for about 3 Gyr from the beginning of the growth of perturbations.

Anomalous circular polarization profiles in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet from solar spicules

We report Stokes vector observations of solar spicules and a prominence in the He I 1083 nm multiplet carried out with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter. The observations show linear polarization profiles that are produced by scattering processes in the presence of a magnetic field. After a careful data reduction, we demonstrate the existence of extremely asymmetric Stokes V profiles in the spicular material that we are able to model with two magnetic components along the line of sight, and under the presence of atomic orientation in the energy levels that give rise to the multiplet. We discuss some possible scenarios that can generate the atomic orientation in spicules. We stress the importance of spectropolarimetric observations across the limb to distinguish such signals from observational artifacts.

Breaks in thin and thick discs of edge-on galaxies imaged in the Spitzer Survey Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)

Breaks in the radial luminosity profiles of galaxies have been until now mostly studied averaged over discs. Here we study separately breaks in thin and thick discs in 70 edge-on galaxies using imaging from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We built luminosity profiles of the thin and the thick discs parallel to midplanes and we found that thin discs often truncate (77%). Thick discs truncate less often (31%), but when they do, their break radius is comparable with that in the thin disc. This suggests either two different truncation mechanisms – one of dynamical origin affecting both discs simultaneously and another one only affecting the thin disc – or a single mechanism that creates a truncation in one disc or in both depending on some galaxy property. Thin discs apparently antitruncate in around 40% of galaxies. However, in many cases, these antitruncations are an artifact caused by the superposition of a thin disc and a thick disc with the latter having a longer scale length. We estimate the real thin disc antitruncation fraction to be less than 15%. We found that the ratio of the thick and thin stellar disc mass is roughly constant (0.2<M_T/M_t<0.7) for circular velocities v_c>120 km/s, but becomes much larger at smaller velocities. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of a high efficiency of supernova feedback and a slower dynamical evolution in lower-mass galaxies causing stellar thin discs to be younger and less massive than in higher-mass galaxies.

Breaks in thin and thick discs of edge-on galaxies imaged in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) [Replacement]

Breaks in the radial luminosity profiles of galaxies have been until now mostly studied averaged over discs. Here we study separately breaks in thin and thick discs in 70 edge-on galaxies using imaging from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We built luminosity profiles of the thin and the thick discs parallel to midplanes and we found that thin discs often truncate (77%). Thick discs truncate less often (31%), but when they do, their break radius is comparable with that in the thin disc. This suggests either two different truncation mechanisms – one of dynamical origin affecting both discs simultaneously and another one only affecting the thin disc – or a single mechanism that creates a truncation in one disc or in both depending on some galaxy property. Thin discs apparently antitruncate in around 40% of galaxies. However, in many cases, these antitruncations are an artifact caused by the superposition of a thin disc and a thick disc with the latter having a longer scale length. We estimate the real thin disc antitruncation fraction to be less than 15%. We found that the ratio of the thick and thin stellar disc mass is roughly constant (0.2<M_T/M_t<0.7) for circular velocities v_c>120 km/s, but becomes much larger at smaller velocities. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of a high efficiency of supernova feedback and a slower dynamical evolution in lower-mass galaxies causing stellar thin discs to be younger and less massive than in higher-mass galaxies.

Unusual Stokes V profiles during flaring activity of a delta sunspot

We analyze a set of full Stokes profile observations of the flaring active region NOAA 10808 recorded with the Vector-Spectromagnetograph (VSM) of the SOLIS facility. We aim to quantify transient and permanent changes in the magnetic field and velocity field. The results are put in context with MDI magnetograms and reconstructed RHESSI X-ray images. We find signs of restructuring of the photospheric magnetic field during the flare close to the polarity inversion line (PIL) at the flaring site. At two locations in the umbra we encounter strong fields (approx. 3 kG), as inferred from the Stokes I profiles which, however, exhibit a low polarization signal. During the flare we observe in addition asymmetric Stokes V profiles at one of these sites. The asymmetric Stokes V profiles appear co-spatial and co-temporal with a strong apparent polarity reversal observed in MDI-magnetograms and a chromospheric hard X-ray source. The two-component atmosphere fits of the asymmetric Stokes profiles result in line-of-sight velocity differences in the range of approx. 12km/s to 14 km/s between the two components in the photosphere. Another possibility is that local atmospheric heating is causing the observed asymmetric Stokes V profile shape. In either case our analysis shows that a very localized patch of approx. 5 arcsec in the photospheric umbra, co-spatial with a flare footpoint, exhibits a sub-resolution fine structure.

Disk and elliptical galaxies within renormalization group improved gravity

The paper is about possible effects of infrared quantum contributions to General Relativity on disk and elliptical galaxies. The Renormalization Group corrected General Relativity (RGGR model) is used to parametrize these quantum effects. The new RGGR results presented here concern the elliptical galaxy NGC 4374 and the dwarf disk galaxy DDO 47. Using the effective approach to Quantum Field Theory in curved background, one can argue that the proper RG energy scale, in the weak field limit, should be related to the Newtonian potential. In the context of galaxies, this led to a remarkably small variation of the gravitational coupling G, while also capable of generating galaxy rotation and dispersion curves of similar quality to the the best dark matter profiles (i.e., the profiles that have a core).

Galaxy cluster outskirts: a universal entropy profile for relaxed clusters?

We fit a functional form for a universal ICM entropy profile to the scaled entropy profiles of a catalogue of X-ray galaxy cluster outskirts results, which are all relaxed cool core clusters at redshift below 0.25. We also investigate the functional form suggested by Lapi et al. and Cavaliere et al. for the behaviour of the entropy profile in the outskirts and find it to fit the data well outside 0.3r200 . We highlight the discrepancy in the entropy profile behaviour in the outskirts between observations and the numerical simulations of Burns et al., and show that the entropy profile flattening due to gas clumping calculated by Nagai & Lau is insufficient to match observations, suggesting that gas clumping alone cannot be responsible for all of the entropy profile flattening in the cluster outskirts. The entropy profiles found with Suzaku are found to be consistent with ROSAT, XMM-Newton and Planck results.

Lyman alpha dominance of the Classical T Tauri FUV Radiation Field

Far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation plays an important role in determining chemical abundances in protoplanetary disks. HI Lyman alpha is suspected to be the dominant component of the FUV emission from Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), but is difficult to measure directly due to circumstellar and interstellar HI absorption. To better characterize the intrinsic Lyman alpha radiation, we present FUV spectra of 14 CTTSs taken with the Hubble Space Telescope COS and STIS instruments. H2 fluorescence, commonly seen in the spectra of CTTSs, is excited by Lyman alpha photons, providing an indirect measure of the Lyman alpha flux incident upon the warm disk surface. We use observed H2 progression fluxes to reconstruct the CTTS Lyman alpha profiles. The Lyman alpha flux correlates with total measured FUV flux, in agreement with an accretion-related source of FUV emission. With a geometry-independent analysis, we confirm that in accreting T Tauri systems Lyman alpha radiation dominates the FUV flux (~1150 – 1700 Angstroms). In the systems surveyed this one line comprises 70 – 90 % of the total FUV flux.

Evolution of the Population of Very Strong MgII Absorbers

We present a study of the evolution of several classes of MgII absorbers, and their corresponding FeII absorption, over a large fraction of cosmic history: 2.3 to 8.7 Gyrs from the Big Bang. Our sample consists of 87 strong (Wr(MgII)>0.3 A) MgII absorbers, with redshifts 0.2<z<2.5, measured in 81 quasar spectra obtained from the Very Large Telescope(VLT)/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph(UVES) archives of high-resolution spectra (R \sim 45,000). No evolutionary trend in Wr(FeII)/Wr(MgII) is found for moderately strong MgII absorbers (0.3<Wr(MgII)<1.0 A). However, at lower z we find an absence of very strong MgII absorbers (those with Wr(MgII)>1 A) with small ratios of equivalent widths of FeII to MgII. At high z, very strong MgII absorbers with both small and large Wr(FeII)/Wr(MgII) values are present. We compare our findings to a sample of 100 weak MgII absorbers (Wr(MgII)<0.3 A) found in the same quasar spectra by Narayanan et al. (2007). The main effect driving the evolution of very strong MgII systems is the difference between the kinematic profiles at low and high redshifts. At high z, we observe that, among the very strong MgII absorbers, all of the systems with small ratios of Wr(FeII)/Wr(MgII) have relatively large velocity spreads, resulting in less saturated profiles. At low z, such kinematically spread systems are absent, and both FeII and MgII are saturated, leading to Wr(FeII)/Wr(MgII) values that are all close to 1. The high redshift, small Wr(FeII)/Wr(MgII) systems could correspond to sub-DLA systems, many of which have large velocity spreads and are possibly linked to superwinds in star forming galaxies. In addition to the change in saturation due to kinematic evolution, the smaller Wr(FeII)/Wr(MgII) values could be due to a lower abundance of Fe at high z, which would indicate relatively early stages of star formation in those environments.

Origin of the X-ray disc-reflection steep radial emissivity

X-ray reflection off the accretion disc surrounding a black hole, together with the associated broad iron K$\alpha$ line, has been widely used to constrain the innermost accretion-flow geometry and black hole spin. Some recent measurements have revealed steep reflection emissivity profiles in a number of active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries. We explore the physically motivated conditions that give rise to the observed steep disc-reflection emissivity profiles. We perform a set of simulations based on the configuration of a possible future high-resolution X-ray mission. Computations are carried out for typical X-ray bright Seyfert-1 galaxies. We find that steep emissivity profiles with $q\sim 4-5$ (where the emissivity is $\epsilon (r) \propto r^{-q}$) are produced considering either i) a lamp-post scenario where a primary compact X-ray source is located close to the black hole, or ii) the radial dependence of the disc ionisation state. We also highlight the role of the reflection angular emissivity: the radial emissivity index $q$ is overestimated when the standard limb-darkening law is used to describe the data. Very steep emissivity profiles with $q \geq 7$ are naturally obtained by applying reflection models that take into account radial profile $\xi (r)$ of the disc ionisation induced by a compact X-ray source located close to the central black hole.

Near-Equipartition Magnetic Fields Measured in the Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters

Tangential discontinuities, seen as X-ray edges known as cold fronts (CFs), are ubiquitous in cool-core galaxy clusters. We analyze all 18 deprojected CF thermal profiles found in the literature, including three new CFs we identify (in clusters A2204 and 2A0335). We discover small but significant thermal pressure drops below all non-merger CFs, and argue that they arise from strong, near-equipartition (10-20%) magnetic fields below and parallel to the discontinuity. Such magnetization can stabilize the CF against Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and explain the connection between CFs and radio minihalos.

Tensorial depolarization of alkali atoms by isotropic collisions with neutral hydrogen

Results. We consider the problem of isotropic collisions between an alkali atom and neutral hydrogen. We calculate the collisional tensorial components of general p and s-states, characterized by their effective principal quantum number $n^{*}$. It is found that the behaviour of the tensorial components obey simple power laws allowing quick calculations of the depolarizing collisional rates. As application, our results should allow a rigorous treatment of the atomic polarization profiles of the D1 -D2 lines of alkali atoms. Conclusions. Close coupling treatments of atomic collisions are needed to decipher the information encoded in the polarized radiation from the Sun. Important problems remain unresolved like the role of collisions in the Paschen-Back conditions.

Accurate measurement of Cn2 profile with Shack-Hartmann data

The precise reconstruction of the turbulent volume is a key point in the development of new-generation Adaptive Optics systems. We propose a new Cn2 profilometry method named CO-SLIDAR (COupled Slope and scIntillation Detection And Ranging), that uses correlations of slopes and scintillation indexes recorded on a Shack-Hartmann from two separated stars. CO-SLIDAR leads to an accurate Cn2 retrieval for both low and high altitude layers. Here, we present an end-to-end simulation of the Cn2 profile measurement. Two Shack-Hartmann geometries are considered. The detection noises are taken into account and a method to subtract the bias is proposed. Results are compared to Cn2 profiles obtained from correlations of slopes only or correlations of scintillation indexes only.

Effect of the stellar spin history on the tidal evolution of close-in planets

We investigate how the evolution of the stellar spin rate affects, and is affected by, planets in close orbits, via star-planet tidal interactions. To do this, we used a standard equilibrium tidal model to compute the orbital evolution of single planets orbiting both Sun-like stars and 0.1 M\odot M-dwarfs. We tested two stellar spin evolution profiles, one with fast initial rotation (P=1.2 day) and one with slow initial rotation (P=8 day). We tested the effect of varying the stellar and planetary dissipation and the planet’s mass and initial orbital radius. Conclusions: Tidal evolution allows to differentiate the early behaviors of extremely close-in planets orbiting either a rapidly rotating star or a slowly rotating star. The early spin-up of the star allows the close-in planets around fast rotators to survive the early evolution. For planets around M-dwarfs, surviving the early evolution means surviving on Gyr timescales whereas for Sun-like stars the spin-down brings about late mergers of Jupiter planets. In light of this study, we can say that differentiating between one spin evolution from another given the present position of planets can be very tricky. Unless we can observe some markers of former evolution it is nearly impossible to distinguish the two very different spin profiles, let alone intermediate spin profiles. Though some conclusions can still be drawn from statistical distributions of planets around fully convective M-dwarfs. However, if the tidal evolution brings about a merger late in its history it can also entail a noticeable acceleration of the star in late ages, so that it is possible to have old stars that spin rapidly. This raises the question of better constraining the age of stars.

U Sco 2010 outburst: a new understanding of the binary accretion disk and the secondary star

We present optical and NIR spectroscopic observations of U Sco 2010 outburst. From the analysis of lines profiles we identify a broad and a narrow component and show that the latter originates from the reforming accretion disk. We show that the accretion resumes shortly after the outburst, on day +8, roughly when the super-soft (SSS) X-ray phase starts. Consequently U Sco SSS phase is fueled (in part or fully) by accretion and should not be used to estimate $m_{\mathrm{rem}}$, the mass of accreted material which has not been ejected during the outburst. In addition, most of the He emission lines, and the HeII lies in particular, form in the accretion flow/disk within the binary and are optically thick, thus preventing an accurate abundance determination. A late spectrum taken in quiescence and during eclipse shows CaII H&K, the G-band and MgI b absorption from the secondary star. However, no other significant secondary star features have been observed at longer wavelengths and in the NIR band.

A derivation of (half) the dark matter distribution function

All dark matter structures appear to follow a set of universalities, such as phase-space density or velocity anisotropy profiles, however, the origin of these universalities remains a mystery. Any equilibrated dark matter structure can be fully described by two functions, namely the radial and the tangential velocity distribution functions (VDF), and when we will understand these two then we will understand all the observed universalities. Here we demonstrate that if we know the radial VDF, then we can derive and understand the tangential VDF. This is based on simple dynamical arguments about properties of collisionless systems. We use a range of controlled numerical simulations to demonstrate the accuracy of this result. We therefore boil the question of the dark matter structural properties down to understanding the radial VDF.

Numerical Simulation of Hot Accretion Flows (I): A Large Radial Dynamical Range and the Density Profile of Accretion Flow

Numerical simulations of hot accretion flow have shown that the mass accretion rate decreases with decreasing radius; consequently the density profile of accretion flow becomes flatter compared to the case of a constant accretion rate. This result has important theoretical and observational implications. However, because of technical difficulties, the radial dynamic range in almost all previous simulations usually spans at most two orders of magnitude. This small dynamical range, combined with the effects of boundary conditions, makes the simulation results suspectable. Especially, the radial profiles of density and accretion rate may not be precise enough to be used to compare with observations. In this paper we present a "two-zone" approach to expand the radial dynamical range from two to four orders of magnitude. We confirm previous results and find that from $r_s$ to $ 10^4r_s$ the radial profiles of accretion rate and density can be well described by $\dot{M}(r)\propto r^s$ and $\rho\propto r^{-p}$. The values of (s, p) are (0.48, 0.65) and (0.4, 0.85), for viscous parameter $\alpha=0.001$ and 0.01, respectively. We have looked up numerical simulation works in the literature and found that the values of $s$ and $p$ are all similar, no matter a magnetic field is included or not and what kind of initial conditions are adopted. The density profile we obtain is in good quantitative agreement with that obtained from the detailed observations and modeling to Sgr A* and NGC 3115. The origin of such a accretion rate profile will be investigated in a subsequent paper.

Heavily Obscured Quasar Host Galaxies at z~2 are Disks, Not Major Mergers

We explore the nature of heavily obscured quasar host galaxies at z~2 using deep Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR imaging of 28 Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) to investigate the role of major mergers in driving black hole growth. The high levels of obscuration of the quasars selected for this study act as a natural coronagraph, blocking the quasar light and allowing a clear view of the underlying host galaxy. The sample of heavily obscured quasars represents a significant fraction of the cosmic mass accretion on supermassive black holes as the quasars have inferred bolometric luminosities around the break of the quasar luminosity function. We find that only a small fraction (4%, at most 11-25%) of the quasar host galaxies are major mergers. Fits to their surface brightness profiles indicate that 90% of the host galaxies are either disk dominated, or have a significant disk. This disk-like host morphology, and the corresponding weakness of bulges, is evidence against major mergers and suggests that secular processes are the predominant driver of massive black hole growth. Finally, we suggest that the co-incidence of mergers and AGN activity is luminosity dependent, with only the most luminous quasars being triggered mostly by major mergers.

Sizing up Partially-Depleted Galaxy Cores

We have modelled the inner surface brightness profiles of 39 alleged `core’ galaxies with the core-Sersic model, and provide new physical parameters for the largest ever sample of `core’ galaxies fit with this model. When present, additional nuclear components were simultaneously modelled and the typical rms scatter of the fits (out to ~10 arcsec) is 0.02 mag/arcsec^2. Model-independent estimates of each core’s break radius are shown to agree with those from the core-Sersic model, and a comparison with the Nuker model is provided. We found an absence of cores in what amounts to 18% of the sample which are reclassified here as Sersic galaxies with low values of n (< ~ 4) and thus shallow inner profile slopes. In general, galaxies with n<3 and sigma < 183 km/s do not have depleted cores. We derive updated relations between core-Sersic break radii, their associated surface brightness, bulge luminosity, central velocity dispersion, and predicted black hole mass for galaxies with depleted cores. With the possible exception of NGC 584, we confirm that the inner negative logarithmic profile slopes gamma are < ~ 0.3 for the `core’ galaxies, and 0 > gamma > -0.1 for six of these. Finally, the central stellar mass deficits are found to have values typically within a factor of 4 of the expected central black hole mass.

Strong Evidence for Gamma-ray Line Emission from the Inner Galaxy [Replacement]

Using 3.7 years of \Fermi-LAT data, we examine the diffuse 80-200 GeV emission in the inner Galaxy and find a resolved gamma-ray feature at $\sim 110-140$ GeV. We model the spatial distribution of this emission with a $\sim3\degree$ FWHM Gaussian, finding a best fit position $1.5\degree$ West of the Galactic Center. Even better fits are obtained for off-center Einasto and power-law profiles, which are preferred over the null (no line) hypothesis by $6.5\sigma$ ($5.0\sigma/5.4\sigma$ after trials factor correction for one/two line case) assuming an NFW density profile centered at $(\ell, b)=(-1.5\degree,0\degree)$ with a power index $\alpha=1.2$ . The energy spectrum of this structure is consistent with a single spectral line (at energy $127.0\pm 2.0$ GeV with $\chi^2=4.48$ for 4 d.o.f.). A pair of lines at $110.8\pm 4.4$ GeV and $128.8\pm 2.7$ GeV provides a marginally better fit (with $\chi^2=1.25$ for 2 d.o.f.). The total luminosity of the structure is $(3.2\pm0.6)\times 10^{35}$ erg/s, or $(1.7\pm0.4)\times 10^{36}$ photons/sec. The energies in the two-line case are compatible with a $127.3 \pm 2.7$ GeV WIMP annihilating through $\gamma \gamma$ and $\gamma Z$ (with $\chi^2=1.67$ for 3 d.o.f.). We describe a possible change to the \Fermi\ scan strategy that would accumulate S/N on spectral lines in the Galactic center 4 times as fast as the current survey strategy.

 

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