Posts Tagged presence

Recent Postings from presence

Intervening Mg II absorption systems from the SDSS DR12 quasar spectra

We present the catalogue of the Mg II absorption systems detected at a high significance level using an automated search algorithm in the spectra of quasars from the twelfth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A total of 266,433 background quasars were searched for the presence of absorption systems in their spectra. The continuum modelling for the quasar spectra was performed using a mean filter. A pseudo-continuum derived using a median filter was used to trace the emission lines. The absorption system catalogue contains 39,694 Mg II systems detected at a 6.0, 3.0$\sigma$ level respectively for the two lines of the doublet. The catalogue was constrained to an absorption line redshift of 0.35 $\le$ z$_{2796}$ $\le$ 2.3. The rest-frame equivalent width of the $\lambda$2796 line ranges between 0.2 $\le$ W$_r$ $\le$ 6.2 \AA. Using Gaussian-noise only simulations we estimate a false positive rate of 7.7 per cent in the catalogue. We measured the number density $\partial N^{2796}/\partial z$ of Mg II absorbers and find evidence for steeper evolution of the systems with W$_r \ge$ 1.2 \AA\ at low redshifts (z$_{2796}$ $\le$ 1.0), consistent with other earlier studies. A suite of null tests over the redshift range 0.5 $\le$ z$_{2796}$ $\le$ 1.5 was used to study the presence of systematics and selection effects like the dependence of the number density evolution of the absorption systems on the properties of the background quasar spectra. The null tests do not indicate the presence of any selection effects in the absorption catalogue if the quasars with spectral signal-to-noise level less than 5.0 are removed. The resultant catalogue contains 36,981 absorption systems. The Mg II absorption catalogue is publicly available.

Near-IR imaging towards a puzzling YSO precessing jet

At present there are many studies concerning jets towards low-mass young stellar objects, while equivalent studies towards massive or intermediate-mass young stellar objects are scarce. In a previous study, we found highly misaligned molecular outflows towards the infrared point source IRS. Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the JHKs-broad-bands and narrow-bands centered at the emission lines of [FeII], H2 1-0 S(1), H2 2-1 S(1), Br-gamma, and CO 2-0 (bh), we studied the circumstellar environment of IRS with an angular resolution between 0.35" and 0.45". The emission in the JHKs-broad-bands shows, with great detail, the presence of a cone-like shape nebula extending to the north/northeast of the point source, which appears to be attached to it by a jet-like structure. In the three bands the nebula is resolved in a twisted-shaped feature composed by two arc-like features and a bow shock-like structure seen mainly in the Ks-band, which strongly suggests the presence of a precessing jet. An analysis of proper motions based on our Gemini observations and UKIDSS data gives additional support to the precession scenario. We are presenting one of the best resolved cone-like nebula likely related to a precessing jet up to date. The analysis of the observed near-infrared lines shows that the H2 is collisionally excited, and the spatially coincidence of the [FeII] and H2 emissions in the closer arc-like feature suggests that this region is affected by a J-shock. The second arc-like feature presents H2 emission without [FeII] which suggests the presence of a nondisociative C-shock or a less energetic J-shock. The H2 1-0 S(1) continuum subtracted image, reveals several knots and filaments at a larger spatial scale around IRS, in perfect matching with the distribution of the red and blueshifted molecular outflows discovered in our previous work.

$\infty-\infty$: vacuum energy and virtual black-holes [Replacement]

We discuss other contributions to the vacuum energy of quantum field theories and quantum gravity, which have not been considered in literature. As is well known, the presence of virtual particles in vacuum provides the so famous and puzzling contributions to the vacuum energy. As is well known, these mainly come from loop integrations over the four-momenta space. However, we argue that these also imply the presence of a mass density of virtual particles in every volume cell of space-time. The most important contribution comes from quantum gravity $S^{2}\times S^{2}$ bubbles, corresponding to virtual black hole pairs. The presence of virtual masses could lead to another paradox: the space-time itself would have an intrinsic virtual mass density contribution leading to a disastrous contraction - as is known, no negative masses exist in general relativity. We dub this effect {\it the cosmological problem of second type}: if not other counter-terms existed, the vacuum energy would be inevitably destabilized by virtual-mass contributions. It would be conceivable that the cosmological problem of second type could solve the first one. Virtual masses renormalize the vacuum energy to an unpredicted parameter, as in the renormalization procedure of the Standard Model charges. In the limit of $M_{Pl}\rightarrow \infty$ (Pauli-Villars limit), virtual black holes have a mass density providing an infinite counter-term to the vacuum energy divergent contribution $M_{Pl} \rightarrow \infty$ (assuming $M_{UV}=M_{Pl}$). Therefore, in the same Schwinger-Feynman-Tomonaga attitude, the problem of a divergent vacuum energy could be analogous to the {\it put-by-hand} procedure used for Standard Model parameters.

$\infty-\infty$: vacuum energy and virtual black-holes [Replacement]

We discuss other contributions to the vacuum energy of quantum field theories and quantum gravity, which have not been considered in literature. As is well known, the presence of virtual particles in vacuum provides the so famous and puzzling contributions to the vacuum energy. As is well known, these mainly come from loop integrations over the four-momenta space. However, we argue that these also imply the presence of a mass density of virtual particles in every volume cell of space-time. The most important contribution comes from quantum gravity $S^{2}\times S^{2}$ bubbles, corresponding to virtual black hole pairs. The presence of virtual masses could lead to another paradox: the space-time itself would have an intrinsic virtual mass density contribution leading to a disastrous contraction - as is known, no negative masses exist in general relativity. We dub this effect {\it the cosmological problem of second type}: if not other counter-terms existed, the vacuum energy would be inevitably destabilized by virtual-mass contributions. It would be conceivable that the cosmological problem of second type could solve the first one. Virtual masses renormalize the vacuum energy to an unpredicted parameter, as in the renormalization procedure of the Standard Model charges. In the limit of $M_{Pl}\rightarrow \infty$ (Pauli-Villars limit), virtual black holes have a mass density providing an infinite counter-term to the vacuum energy divergent contribution $M_{Pl} \rightarrow \infty$ (assuming $M_{UV}=M_{Pl}$). Therefore, in the same Schwinger-Feynman-Tomonaga attitude, the problem of a divergent vacuum energy could be analogous to the {\it put-by-hand} procedure used for Standard Model parameters.

$\infty-\infty$: vacuum energy and virtual black-holes [Replacement]

We discuss other contributions to the vacuum energy of quantum field theories and quantum gravity, which have not been considered in literature. As is well known, the presence of virtual particles in vacuum provides the so famous and puzzling contributions to the vacuum energy. As is well known, these mainly come from loop integrations over the four-momenta space. However, we argue that these also imply the presence of a mass density of virtual particles in every volume cell of space-time. The most important contribution comes from quantum gravity $S^{2}\times S^{2}$ bubbles, corresponding to virtual black hole pairs. The presence of virtual masses could lead to another paradox: the space-time itself would have an intrinsic virtual mass density contribution leading to a disastrous contraction - as is known, no negative masses exist in general relativity. We dub this effect {\it the cosmological problem of second type}: if not other counter-terms existed, the vacuum energy would be inevitably destabilized by virtual-mass contributions. It would be conceivable that the cosmological problem of second type could solve the first one. Virtual masses renormalize the vacuum energy to an unpredicted parameter, as in the renormalization procedure of the Standard Model charges. In the limit of $M_{Pl}\rightarrow \infty$ (Pauli-Villars limit), virtual black holes have a mass density providing an infinite counter-term to the vacuum energy divergent contribution $M_{Pl} \rightarrow \infty$ (assuming $M_{UV}=M_{Pl}$). Therefore, in the same Schwinger-Feynman-Tomonaga attitude, the problem of a divergent vacuum energy could be analogous to the {\it put-by-hand} procedure used for Standard Model parameters.

$\infty-\infty$: vacuum energy and virtual black-holes [Replacement]

We discuss other contributions to the vacuum energy of quantum field theories and quantum gravity, which have not been considered in literature. As is well known, the presence of virtual particles in vacuum provides the so famous and puzzling contributions to the vacuum energy. As is well known, these mainly come from loop integrations over the four-momenta space. However, we argue that these also imply the presence of a mass density of virtual particles in every volume cell of space-time. The most important contribution comes from quantum gravity $S^{2}\times S^{2}$ bubbles, corresponding to virtual black hole pairs. The presence of virtual masses could lead to another paradox: the space-time itself would have an intrinsic virtual mass density contribution leading to a disastrous contraction - as is known, no negative masses exist in general relativity. We dub this effect {\it the cosmological problem of second type}: if not other counter-terms existed, the vacuum energy would be inevitably destabilized by virtual-mass contributions. It would be conceivable that the cosmological problem of second type could solve the first one. Virtual masses renormalize the vacuum energy to an unpredicted parameter, as in the renormalization procedure of the Standard Model charges. In the limit of $M_{Pl}\rightarrow \infty$ (Pauli-Villars limit), virtual black holes have a mass density providing an infinite counter-term to the vacuum energy divergent contribution $M_{Pl} \rightarrow \infty$ (assuming $M_{UV}=M_{Pl}$). Therefore, in the same Schwinger-Feynman-Tomonaga attitude, the problem of a divergent vacuum energy could be analogous to the {\it put-by-hand} procedure used for Standard Model parameters.

$\infty-\infty$: vacuum energy and virtual black-holes [Replacement]

We discuss other contributions to the vacuum energy of quantum field theories and quantum gravity, which have not been considered in literature. As is well known, the presence of virtual particles in vacuum provides the so famous and puzzling contributions to the vacuum energy. As is well known, these mainly come from loop integrations over the four-momenta space. However, we argue that these also imply the presence of a mass density of virtual particles in every volume cell of space-time. The most important contribution comes from quantum gravity $S^{2}\times S^{2}$ bubbles, corresponding to virtual black hole pairs. The presence of virtual masses could lead to another paradox: the space-time itself would have an intrinsic virtual mass density contribution leading to a disastrous contraction - as is known, no negative masses exist in general relativity. We dub this effect {\it the cosmological problem of second type}: if not other counter-terms existed, the vacuum energy would be inevitably destabilized by virtual-mass contributions. It would be conceivable that the cosmological problem of second type could solve the first one. Virtual masses renormalize the vacuum energy to an unpredicted parameter, as in the renormalization procedure of the Standard Model charges. In the limit of $M_{Pl}\rightarrow \infty$ (Pauli-Villars limit), virtual black holes have a mass density providing an infinite counter-term to the vacuum energy divergent contribution $M_{Pl} \rightarrow \infty$ (assuming $M_{UV}=M_{Pl}$). Therefore, in the same Schwinger-Feynman-Tomonaga attitude, the problem of a divergent vacuum energy could be analogous to the {\it put-by-hand} procedure used for Standard Model parameters.

$\infty-\infty$: vacuum energy and virtual black-holes [Replacement]

We discuss other contributions to the vacuum energy of quantum field theories and quantum gravity, which have not been considered in literature. As is well known, the presence of virtual particles in vacuum provides the so famous and puzzling contributions to the vacuum energy. As is well known, these mainly come from loop integrations over the four-momenta space. However, we argue that these also imply the presence of a mass density of virtual particles in every volume cell of space-time. The most important contribution comes from quantum gravity $S^{2}\times S^{2}$ bubbles, corresponding to virtual black hole pairs. The presence of virtual masses could lead to another paradox: the space-time itself would have an intrinsic virtual mass density contribution leading to a disastrous contraction - as is known, no negative masses exist in general relativity. We dub this effect {\it the cosmological problem of second type}: if not other counter-terms existed, the vacuum energy would be inevitably destabilized by virtual-mass contributions. It would be conceivable that the cosmological problem of second type could solve the first one. Virtual masses renormalize the vacuum energy to an unpredicted parameter, as in the renormalization procedure of the Standard Model charges. In the limit of $M_{Pl}\rightarrow \infty$ (Pauli-Villars limit), virtual black holes have a mass density providing an infinite counter-term to the vacuum energy divergent contribution $M_{Pl} \rightarrow \infty$ (assuming $M_{UV}=M_{Pl}$). Therefore, in the same Schwinger-Feynman-Tomonaga attitude, the problem of a divergent vacuum energy could be analogous to the {\it put-by-hand} procedure used for Standard Model parameters.

$\infty-\infty$: vacuum energy and virtual black-holes [Replacement]

We discuss other contributions to the vacuum energy of quantum field theories and quantum gravity, which have not been considered in literature. As is well known, the presence of virtual particles in vacuum provides the so famous and puzzling contributions to the vacuum energy. As is well known, these mainly come from loop integrations over the four-momenta space. However, we argue that these also imply the presence of a mass density of virtual particles in every volume cell of space-time. The most important contribution comes from quantum gravity $S^{2}\times S^{2}$ bubbles, corresponding to virtual black hole pairs. The presence of virtual masses could lead to another paradox: the space-time itself would have an intrinsic virtual mass density contribution leading to a disastrous contraction - as is known, no negative masses exist in general relativity. We dub this effect {\it the cosmological problem of second type}: if not other counter-terms existed, the vacuum energy would be inevitably destabilized by virtual-mass contributions. It would be conceivable that the cosmological problem of second type could solve the first one. Virtual masses renormalize the vacuum energy to an unpredicted parameter, as in the renormalization procedure of the Standard Model charges. In the limit of $M_{Pl}\rightarrow \infty$ (Pauli-Villars limit), virtual black holes have a mass density providing an infinite counter-term to the vacuum energy divergent contribution $M_{Pl} \rightarrow \infty$ (assuming $M_{UV}=M_{Pl}$). Therefore, in the same Schwinger-Feynman-Tomonaga attitude, the problem of a divergent vacuum energy could be analogous to the {\it put-by-hand} procedure used for Standard Model parameters.

$\infty-\infty$: vacuum energy and virtual black-holes [Cross-Listing]

We discuss other contributions to the vacuum energy of quantum field theories and quantum gravity, which have not been considered in literature. As is well known, the presence of virtual particles in vacuum provides the so famous and puzzling contributions to the vacuum energy. As is well known, these mainly come from loop integrations over the four-momenta space. However, we argue that these also imply the presence of a mass density of virtual particles in every volume cell of space-time. The most important contribution comes from quantum gravity $S^{2}\times S^{2}$ bubbles, corresponding to virtual black hole pairs. The presence of virtual masses could lead to another paradox: the space-time itself would have an intrinsic virtual mass density contribution leading to a disastrous contraction - as is known, no negative masses exist in general relativity. We dub this effect {\it the cosmological problem of second type}: if not other counter-terms existed, the vacuum energy would be inevitably destabilized by virtual-mass contributions. It would be conceivable that the cosmological problem of second type could solve the first one. Virtual masses renormalize the vacuum energy to an unpredicted parameter, as in the renormalization procedure of the Standard Model charges. In the limit of $M_{Pl}\rightarrow \infty$ (Pauli-Villars limit), virtual black holes have a mass density providing an infinite counter-term to the vacuum energy divergent contribution $M_{Pl} \rightarrow \infty$ (assuming $M_{UV}=M_{Pl}$). Therefore, in the same Schwinger-Feynman-Tomonaga attitude, the problem of a divergent vacuum energy could be analogous to the {\it put-by-hand} procedure used for Standard Model parameters.

Entangling Higgs production associated with a single top and a top-quark pair in the presence of anomalous top-Yukawa coupling

The ATLAS and CMS collaborations observed the excess in the associated Higgs production with a top-quark pair ($t\bar t h$) and reported the signal strengths of $ \mu_{tth}^{\rm ATLAS}=1.81\pm 0.80$ and $\mu_{tth}^{\rm CMS}=2.75\pm 0.99 $ based on the data collected at $\sqrt{s}$= 7 and 8 TeV. In this work, we attempt to interpret the excess by exploiting the strong entanglement between the associated Higgs production with a single top quark ($thX$) and $t\bar t h$ production in the presence of anomalous top-Yukawa coupling. As well known, $t\bar t h$ production only depends on the absolute value of the top-Yukawa coupling. Meanwhile, in $thX$ production, this degeneracy is lifted through the strong interference between the two main contributions which are proportional to the top-Yukawa and the gauge-Higgs couplings, respectively. Especially, when the relative sign of the top-Yukawa coupling with respect to the gauge-Higgs coupling is reversed, the $thX$ cross section can be enhanced by more than one order of magnitude. We perform a detailed study of the influence of $thX$ production on $t\bar{t}h $ production in the presence of the anomalous top-Yukawa coupling. While assuming the Standard Model (SM) value for the gauge-Higgs coupling, we vary the top-Yukawa coupling within the range allowed by the current LHC Higgs data. We consider the Higgs decay modes into multileptons, $b\bar b$ and $\gamma\gamma$ putting a particular emphasis on the same sign dilepton events. We also discuss the prospects for the LHC Run-2 on how to disentangle $thX$ production from $t\bar{t}h$ one and how to probe the anomalous top-Yukawa coupling.

Non-minimally coupled dark fluid in Schwarzschild spacetime

If one assumes a particular form of non-minimal coupling, called the conformal coupling, of a perfect fluid with gravity in the fluid-gravity Lagrangian then one gets modified Einstein field equation. In the modified Einstein equation, the effect of the non-minimal coupling does not vanish if one works with spacetimes for which the Ricci scalar vanishes. In the present work we use the Schwarzschild metric in the modified Einstein equation, in presence of non-minimal coupling with a fluid, and find out the energy-density and pressure of the fluid. In the present case the perfect fluid is part of the solution of the modified Einstein equation. We also solve the modified Einstein equation, using the flat spacetime metric and show that in presence of non-minimal coupling one can accommodate a perfect fluid of uniform energy-density and pressure in the flat spacetime. In both the cases the fluid pressure turns out to be negative. Except these non-trivial solutions it must be noted that the vacuum solutions also remain as trivial valid solutions of the modified Einstein equation in presence of non-minimal coupling.

Non-minimally coupled dark fluid in Schwarzschild spacetime [Cross-Listing]

If one assumes a particular form of non-minimal coupling, called the conformal coupling, of a perfect fluid with gravity in the fluid-gravity Lagrangian then one gets modified Einstein field equation. In the modified Einstein equation, the effect of the non-minimal coupling does not vanish if one works with spacetimes for which the Ricci scalar vanishes. In the present work we use the Schwarzschild metric in the modified Einstein equation, in presence of non-minimal coupling with a fluid, and find out the energy-density and pressure of the fluid. In the present case the perfect fluid is part of the solution of the modified Einstein equation. We also solve the modified Einstein equation, using the flat spacetime metric and show that in presence of non-minimal coupling one can accommodate a perfect fluid of uniform energy-density and pressure in the flat spacetime. In both the cases the fluid pressure turns out to be negative. Except these non-trivial solutions it must be noted that the vacuum solutions also remain as trivial valid solutions of the modified Einstein equation in presence of non-minimal coupling.

Non-minimally coupled dark fluid in Schwarzschild spacetime [Replacement]

If one assumes a particular form of non-minimal coupling, called the conformal coupling, of a perfect fluid with gravity in the fluid-gravity Lagrangian then one gets modified Einstein field equation. In the modified Einstein equation, the effect of the non-minimal coupling does not vanish if one works with spacetimes for which the Ricci scalar vanishes. In the present work we use the Schwarzschild metric in the modified Einstein equation, in presence of non-minimal coupling with a fluid, and find out the energy-density and pressure of the fluid. In the present case the perfect fluid is part of the solution of the modified Einstein equation. We also solve the modified Einstein equation, using the flat spacetime metric and show that in presence of non-minimal coupling one can accommodate a perfect fluid of uniform energy-density and pressure in the flat spacetime. In both the cases the fluid pressure turns out to be negative. Except these non-trivial solutions it must be noted that the vacuum solutions also remain as trivial valid solutions of the modified Einstein equation in presence of non-minimal coupling.

Non-minimally coupled dark fluid in Schwarzschild spacetime [Replacement]

If one assumes a particular form of non-minimal coupling, called the conformal coupling, of a perfect fluid with gravity in the fluid-gravity Lagrangian then one gets modified Einstein field equation. In the modified Einstein equation, the effect of the non-minimal coupling does not vanish if one works with spacetimes for which the Ricci scalar vanishes. In the present work we use the Schwarzschild metric in the modified Einstein equation, in presence of non-minimal coupling with a fluid, and find out the energy-density and pressure of the fluid. In the present case the perfect fluid is part of the solution of the modified Einstein equation. We also solve the modified Einstein equation, using the flat spacetime metric and show that in presence of non-minimal coupling one can accommodate a perfect fluid of uniform energy-density and pressure in the flat spacetime. In both the cases the fluid pressure turns out to be negative. Except these non-trivial solutions it must be noted that the vacuum solutions also remain as trivial valid solutions of the modified Einstein equation in presence of non-minimal coupling.

Deep LMT/AzTEC millimeter observations of Epsilon Eridani and its surroundings

Epsilon Eridani is a nearby, young Sun-like star that hosts a ring of cool debris analogous to the solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. Early observations at (sub-)mm wavelengths gave tentative evidence of the presence of inhomogeneities in the ring, which have been ascribed to the effect of a putative low eccentricity planet, orbiting close to the ring. The existence of these structures have been recently challenged by high resolution interferometric millimeter observations. Here we present the deepest single-dish image of Epsilon Eridani at millimeter wavelengths, obtained with the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT). The main goal of these LMT observations is to confirm (or refute) the presence of non-axisymmetric structure in the disk. The dusty ring is detected for the first time along its full projected elliptical shape. The radial extent of the ring is not spatially resolved and shows no evidence, to within the uncertainties, of dust density enhancements. Additional features of the 1.1 mm map are: (i) the presence of significant flux in the gap between the ring and the star, probably providing the first exo-solar evidence of Poynting-Robertson drag, (ii) an unambiguous detection of emission at the stellar position with a flux significantly above that expected from Epsilon Eridani's photosphere, and (iii) the identification of numerous unresolved sources which could correspond to background dusty star-forming galaxies.

Analysis of four-zero textures in $3+1$ framework

The presence of a zero texture in the neutrino mass matrix can indicate the presence of an underlying symmetry which can generate neutrino mass and mixing. In this paper, for the first time we study the four-zero textures of the low energy neutrino mass matrix in the presence of an extra light-sterile neutrino i.e., the 3+1 neutrino scheme. In our analysis we find that out of the 210 possible four-zero textures only 15 textures are allowed. We divide the allowed four-zero textures into two classes -- class $A$ in which the value of mass matrix element $M_{ee}$ is zero and class $B$ in which $M_{ee}$ is non-zero. In this way we obtain ten possible four-zero textures in class $A$ and five possible four-zero textures in class $B$. In our analysis we find that, for normal hierarchy the allowed number of textures in class $A$ ($B$) is nine (three). For the case of inverted hierarchy we find that, two textures in class $A$ are disallowed and these textures are different from the disallowed textures for normal hierarchy in class $A$. However, we find that all the five textures in class $B$ are allowed for the inverted hierarchy. Based on analytic expressions for the elements $M_{\alpha\beta}$, we discuss the reasons for certain textures being disallowed. We also discuss the correlations between the different parameters of the allowed textures. Finally, we present the implications of our study on experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay.

Three supernova shells around a young star cluster in M33

Using a specialized technique sensitive to the presence of expanding ionized gas we have detected a set of three concentric expanding shells in an HII region in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. After mapping the kinematics in H{\alpha} with Fabry-Perot spectroscopy we used slit spectra to measure the intensities of the [SII] doublet at {\lambda}{\lambda} 671.9, 673.1 nm and the [NII] doublet at {\lambda}{\lambda} 645.8, 658.3 nm to corroborate the kinematics and apply diagnostic tests using line ratios. These showed that the expanding shells are shock dominated as would be the case if they had originated with supernova explosions. Estimating their kinetic energies we find fairly low values, indicating a fairly advanced stage of evolution. We obtain density, mass and parent star mass estimates, which, along with the kinetic energies, are inconsistent with the simplest models of shock-interstellar medium interaction. We propose that the presence and properties of an inhomogeneous medium offer a scenario which can account for these observations, and discuss the implications. Comparing our results with data from the literature supports the combined presence of an HII region and supernova remnant material at the observed position.

Large Non-Gaussianity in Non-Minimally Coupled Derivative Inflation with Gauss-Bonnet Correction

We study a nonminimal derivative inflationary model in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. To have a complete treatment of the model, we consider a general form of the nonminimal derivative function and also the Gauss-Bonnet coupling term. By following the ADM formalism, expanding the action up to the third order in the perturbations and using the correlation functions, we study the perturbation and its non-Gaussian feature in details. We also study the consistency relation that gets modified in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term in the action. We compare the results of our consideration in confrontation with Planck2015 observational data and find some constraints on the model's parameters. Our treatment shows that this model in some ranges of the parameters is consistent with the observational data. Also, in some ranges of model's parameters, the model predicts blue-tilted power spectrum. Finally, we show that nonminimal derivative model in the presence of the GB term has capability to have large non-Gaussianity.

Large Non-Gaussianity in Non-Minimally Coupled Derivative Inflation with Gauss-Bonnet Correction [Cross-Listing]

We study a nonminimal derivative inflationary model in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. To have a complete treatment of the model, we consider a general form of the nonminimal derivative function and also the Gauss-Bonnet coupling term. By following the ADM formalism, expanding the action up to the third order in the perturbations and using the correlation functions, we study the perturbation and its non-Gaussian feature in details. We also study the consistency relation that gets modified in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term in the action. We compare the results of our consideration in confrontation with Planck2015 observational data and find some constraints on the model's parameters. Our treatment shows that this model in some ranges of the parameters is consistent with the observational data. Also, in some ranges of model's parameters, the model predicts blue-tilted power spectrum. Finally, we show that nonminimal derivative model in the presence of the GB term has capability to have large non-Gaussianity.

Large Non-Gaussianity in Non-Minimally Coupled Derivative Inflation with Gauss-Bonnet Correction [Cross-Listing]

We study a nonminimal derivative inflationary model in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. To have a complete treatment of the model, we consider a general form of the nonminimal derivative function and also the Gauss-Bonnet coupling term. By following the ADM formalism, expanding the action up to the third order in the perturbations and using the correlation functions, we study the perturbation and its non-Gaussian feature in details. We also study the consistency relation that gets modified in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term in the action. We compare the results of our consideration in confrontation with Planck2015 observational data and find some constraints on the model's parameters. Our treatment shows that this model in some ranges of the parameters is consistent with the observational data. Also, in some ranges of model's parameters, the model predicts blue-tilted power spectrum. Finally, we show that nonminimal derivative model in the presence of the GB term has capability to have large non-Gaussianity.

The connection between the host halo and the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way

Many properties of the Milky Way's dark matter halo, including its mass assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the Milky Way and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the Milky Way halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of Milky Way-mass halos, we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that Milky Way-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different mass-assembly histories and concentrations can lead to different best-fit models for galaxy-formation physics, especially for the strength of feedback. These biases arise because the presence of the Magellanic Clouds boosts the overall population of high-mass subhalos, thus requiring a different stellar-mass-to-halo-mass ratio to match the data. These biases also lead to significant differences in the mass--metallicity relation, the kinematics of low-mass satellites, and the number counts of small satellites associated with the Magellanic Clouds. Observations of these satellite properties can thus provide useful constraints on the properties of the Milky Way halo.

The connection between the host halo and the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way [Replacement]

Many properties of the Milky Way's dark matter halo, including its mass assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the Milky Way and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the Milky Way halo. Using a suite of high-resolution $N$-body simulations of Milky Way-mass halos with a fixed final Mvir ~ 10^{12.1}Msun, we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that Milky Way-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different mass-assembly histories and concentrations can lead to different best-fit models for galaxy-formation physics, especially for the strength of feedback. These biases arise because the presence of the Magellanic Clouds boosts the overall population of high-mass subhalos, thus requiring a different stellar-mass-to-halo-mass ratio to match the data. These biases also lead to significant differences in the mass--metallicity relation, the kinematics of low-mass satellites, the number counts of small satellites associated with the Magellanic Clouds, and the stellar mass of Milky Way itself. Observations of these galaxy properties can thus provide useful constraints on the properties of the Milky Way halo.

DEMNUni: ISW, Rees-Sciama, and weak-lensing in the presence of massive neutrinos

We present, for the first time in the literature, a full reconstruction of the total (linear and non-linear) ISW/Rees-Sciama effect in the presence of massive neutrinos, together with its cross-correlations with CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals. The present analyses make use of all-sky maps extracted via ray-tracing across the gravitational potential distribution provided by the "Dark Energy and Massive Neutrino Universe" (DEMNUni) project, a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as separate collisionless particles. We correctly recover, at $1-2\%$ accuracy, the linear predictions from CAMB. Concerning the CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals, we also recover, with similar accuracy, the signal predicted by Boltzmann codes, once non-linear neutrino corrections to Halofit are accounted for. Interestingly, in the ISW/Rees-Sciama signal, and its cross correlation with lensing, we find an excess of power with respect to the massless case, due to free streaming neutrinos, roughly at the transition scale between the linear and non-linear regimes. The excess is $\sim 5-10\%$ at $l\sim 100$ for the ISW/Rees-Sciama auto power spectrum, depending on the total neutrino mass $M_\nu$, and becomes a factor of $\sim 4$ for $M_\nu=0.3$ eV, at $l\sim 600$, for the ISW/Rees-Sciama cross power with CMB-lensing. This effect should be taken into account for the correct estimation of the CMB temperature bispectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos.

DEMNUni: ISW, Rees-Sciama, and weak-lensing in the presence of massive neutrinos [Replacement]

We present, for the first time in the literature, a full reconstruction of the total (linear and non-linear) ISW/Rees-Sciama effect in the presence of massive neutrinos, together with its cross-correlations with CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals. The present analyses make use of all-sky maps extracted via ray-tracing across the gravitational potential distribution provided by the "Dark Energy and Massive Neutrino Universe" (DEMNUni) project, a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as separate collisionless particles. We correctly recover, at $1-2\%$ accuracy, the linear predictions from CAMB. Concerning the CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals, we also recover, with similar accuracy, the signal predicted by Boltzmann codes, once non-linear neutrino corrections to Halofit are accounted for. Interestingly, in the ISW/Rees-Sciama signal, and its cross correlation with lensing, we find an excess of power with respect to the massless case, due to free streaming neutrinos, roughly at the transition scale between the linear and non-linear regimes. The excess is $\sim 5-10\%$ at $l\sim 100$ for the ISW/Rees-Sciama auto power spectrum, depending on the total neutrino mass $M_\nu$, and becomes a factor of $\sim 4$ for $M_\nu=0.3$ eV, at $l\sim 600$, for the ISW/Rees-Sciama cross power with CMB-lensing. This effect should be taken into account for the correct estimation of the CMB temperature bispectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos.

$\zeta^2$ Ret, its debris disk, and its lonely stellar companion $\zeta^1$ Ret. Different $T_{\mathrm{c}}$ trends for different spectra

Several studies have reported a correlation between the chemical abundances of stars and condensation temperature (known as Tc trend). Very recently, a strong Tc trend was reported for the $\zeta$ Reticuli binary system, which consists of two solar analogs. The observed trend in $\zeta^2$ Ret relative to its companion was explained by the presence of a debris disk around $\zeta^2$ Ret. Our goal is to re-evaluate the presence and variability of the Tc trend in the $\zeta$ Reticuli system and to understand the impact of the presence of the debris disk on a star. We used very high-quality spectra of the two stars retrieved from the HARPS archive to derive very precise stellar parameters and chemical abundances. We derived the stellar parameters with the classical (nondifferential) method, while we applied a differential line-by-line analysis to achieve the highest possible precision in abundances, which are fundamental to explore for very tiny differences in the abundances between the stars. We confirm that the abundance difference between $\zeta^2$ Ret and $\zeta^1$ Ret shows a significant ($\sim$ 2 $\sigma$) correlation with Tc. However, we also find that the Tc trends depend on the individual spectrum used (even if always of very high quality). In particular, we find significant but varying differences in the abundances of the same star from different individual high-quality spectra. Our results for the $\zeta$ Reticuli system show, for example, that nonphysical factors, such as the quality of spectra employed and errors that are not accounted for, can be at the root of the Tc trends for the case of individual spectra.

Cosmology in massive gravity with effective composite metric [Cross-Listing]

This paper is dedicated to scrutinizing the cosmology in massive gravity. A matter field of the dark sector is coupled to an effective composite metric while a standard matter field couples to the dynamical metric in the usual way. For this purpose, we study the dynamical system of cosmological solutions by using phase analysis, which provides an overview of the class of cosmological solutions in this setup. This also permits us to study the critical points of the cosmological equations together with their stability. We show the presence of stable attractor de Sitter critical points relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. Furthermore, we study the tensor, vector and scalar perturbations in the presence of standard matter fields and obtain the conditions for the absence of ghost and gradient instabilities. Hence, massive gravity in the presence of the effective composite metric can accommodate interesting dark energy phenomenology, that can be observationally distinguished from the standard model according to the expansion history and cosmic growth.

Cosmology in massive gravity with effective composite metric

This paper is dedicated to scrutinizing the cosmology in massive gravity. A matter field of the dark sector is coupled to an effective composite metric while a standard matter field couples to the dynamical metric in the usual way. For this purpose, we study the dynamical system of cosmological solutions by using phase analysis, which provides an overview of the class of cosmological solutions in this setup. This also permits us to study the critical points of the cosmological equations together with their stability. We show the presence of stable attractor de Sitter critical points relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. Furthermore, we study the tensor, vector and scalar perturbations in the presence of standard matter fields and obtain the conditions for the absence of ghost and gradient instabilities. Hence, massive gravity in the presence of the effective composite metric can accommodate interesting dark energy phenomenology, that can be observationally distinguished from the standard model according to the expansion history and cosmic growth.

Cosmology in massive gravity with effective composite metric [Cross-Listing]

This paper is dedicated to scrutinizing the cosmology in massive gravity. A matter field of the dark sector is coupled to an effective composite metric while a standard matter field couples to the dynamical metric in the usual way. For this purpose, we study the dynamical system of cosmological solutions by using phase analysis, which provides an overview of the class of cosmological solutions in this setup. This also permits us to study the critical points of the cosmological equations together with their stability. We show the presence of stable attractor de Sitter critical points relevant to the late-time cosmic acceleration. Furthermore, we study the tensor, vector and scalar perturbations in the presence of standard matter fields and obtain the conditions for the absence of ghost and gradient instabilities. Hence, massive gravity in the presence of the effective composite metric can accommodate interesting dark energy phenomenology, that can be observationally distinguished from the standard model according to the expansion history and cosmic growth.

Dynamically flavored description of holographic QCD in the presence of a magnetic field [Cross-Listing]

We construct the gravitational solution of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model by taking into account the backreaction from flavor branes in the presence of a magnetic field. We study the dual field theory at the leading order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors, also in the Veneziano limit. It shows the gravitational solutions are analytic with small magnetic field both in the confined and deconfined case. Some physical properties related to the hadronic physics in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed by our confined backreaction solution holographically. And after renormalizing the Euclidean (bulk plus flavor) action by employing the covariant counterterms for this model, we compare the free energy of both phases and obtain the holographic phase diagram with the contributions from the flavors and the magnetic field. Our holographic phase diagram is in agreement with lattice QCD result qualitatively, which thus can be interpreted as the inhibition of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking by the magnetic field.

Dynamically flavored description of holographic QCD in the presence of a magnetic field

We construct the gravitational solution of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model by taking into account the backreaction from flavor branes in the presence of a magnetic field. We study the dual field theory at the leading order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors, also in the Veneziano limit. It shows the gravitational solutions are analytic with small magnetic field both in the confined and deconfined case. Some physical properties related to the hadronic physics in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed by our confined backreaction solution holographically. And after renormalizing the Euclidean (bulk plus flavor) action by employing the covariant counterterms for this model, we compare the free energy of both phases and obtain the holographic phase diagram with the contributions from the flavors and the magnetic field. Our holographic phase diagram is in agreement with lattice QCD result qualitatively, which thus can be interpreted as the inhibition of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking by the magnetic field.

Dynamically flavored description of holographic QCD in the presence of a magnetic field [Replacement]

We construct the gravitational solution of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model by introducing a magnetic field on the flavor brane. By taking into account their backreaction, we re-solve the type IIA supergravity in the presence of the magnetic field. Our calculations show the gravitational solutions are magnetic-dependent and analytic both in the confined and deconfined case. We study the dual field theory at the leading order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors, also in the Veneziano limit. And some physical properties related to the hadronic physics in an external magnetic field are discussed by using our confined backreaction solution holographically. We also study the thermodynamics and holographic renormalization of this model in both phases by our magnetic-dependent solution. Since the backreaction of the magnetic field is considered in our gravitational solution, it allows us to study the Hawking-Page transition with flavors and colors of this model in the presence of the magnetic field. And we therefore obtain the holographic phase diagram with the contributions from the flavors and the magnetic field. Our holographic phase diagram is in agreement with lattice QCD result qualitatively, which thus can be interpreted as the inhibition of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking by the magnetic field.

Dynamically flavored description of holographic QCD in the presence of a magnetic field [Replacement]

We construct the gravitational solution of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model by re-solving the type IIA supergravity with the backreaction from flavor branes in the presence of a magnetic field. We study the dual field theory at the leading order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors, also in the Veneziano limit. It shows the gravitational solutions are analytic with small magnetic field both in the confined and deconfined case. Some physical properties related to the hadronic physics in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed by our confined backreaction solution holographically. And after renormalizing the Euclidean (bulk plus flavor) action by employing the covariant counterterms for this model, we compare the free energy of both phases and obtain the holographic phase diagram with the contributions from the flavors and the magnetic field. Our holographic phase diagram is in agreement with lattice QCD result qualitatively, which thus can be interpreted as the inhibition of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking by the magnetic field.

Dynamically flavored description of holographic QCD in the presence of a magnetic field [Replacement]

We construct the gravitational solution of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model by introducing a magnetic field on the flavor brane. By taking into account their backreaction, we re-solve the type IIA supergravity in the presence of the magnetic field. Our calculations show the gravitational solutions are magnetic-dependent and analytic both in the confined and deconfined case. We study the dual field theory at the leading order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors, also in the Veneziano limit. And some physical properties related to the hadronic physics in an external magnetic field are discussed by using our confined backreaction solution holographically. We also study the thermodynamics and holographic renormalization of this model in both phases by our magnetic-dependent solution. Since the backreaction of the magnetic field is considered in our gravitational solution, it allows us to study the Hawking-Page transition with flavors and colors of this model in the presence of the magnetic field. And we therefore obtain the holographic phase diagram with the contributions from the flavors and the magnetic field. Our holographic phase diagram is in agreement with lattice QCD result qualitatively, which thus can be interpreted as the inhibition of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking by the magnetic field.

Dynamically flavored description of holographic QCD in the presence of a magnetic field [Replacement]

We construct the gravitational solution of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model by re-solving the type IIA supergravity with the backreaction from flavor branes in the presence of a magnetic field. We study the dual field theory at the leading order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors, also in the Veneziano limit. It shows the gravitational solutions are analytic with small magnetic field both in the confined and deconfined case. Some physical properties related to the hadronic physics in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed by our confined backreaction solution holographically. And after renormalizing the Euclidean (bulk plus flavor) action by employing the covariant counterterms for this model, we compare the free energy of both phases and obtain the holographic phase diagram with the contributions from the flavors and the magnetic field. Our holographic phase diagram is in agreement with lattice QCD result qualitatively, which thus can be interpreted as the inhibition of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking by the magnetic field.

Vector dark energy models with quadratic terms in the Maxwell tensor derivatives [Replacement]

We consider a vector-tensor gravitational model in which the action for the minimally coupled vector field also contains additional terms quadratic in the Maxwell tensor derivatives, and corresponds to the covariant form of the so-called Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics. A term describing the non-minimal coupling between the cosmological mass current and the four-potential of the vector field as well as the self-interaction potential of the vector field is also included in the action. From a cosmological point of view we interpret the vector field as describing dark energy, which is responsible for the late acceleration of the Universe. The gravitational field equations of the model and the equations describing the evolution of the vector field are obtained and their Newtonian limit is investigated. The cosmological implications of a Bopp-Podolsky type dark energy term are investigated for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker homogeneous and isotropic geometry for two models, corresponding to the absence and presence of the self-interaction potential of the field, respectively. The redshift evolution of the scale factor, the matter energy density, the Hubble function, the deceleration parameter and the field potential are obtained for both cases. In the presence of the vector type dark energy with quadratic terms in the Maxwell tensor derivatives the Universe ends its evolution in an exponentially accelerating vacuum de Sitter state, independently of the presence or absence of the self-interaction potential.

Vector dark energy models with quadratic terms in the Maxwell tensor derivatives [Replacement]

We consider a vector-tensor gravitational model in which the action for the minimally coupled vector field also contains additional terms quadratic in the Maxwell tensor derivatives, and corresponds to the covariant form of the so-called Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics. A term describing the non-minimal coupling between the cosmological mass current and the four-potential of the vector field as well as the self-interaction potential of the vector field is also included in the action. From a cosmological point of view we interpret the vector field as describing dark energy, which is responsible for the late acceleration of the Universe. The gravitational field equations of the model and the equations describing the evolution of the vector field are obtained and their Newtonian limit is investigated. The cosmological implications of a Bopp-Podolsky type dark energy term are investigated for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker homogeneous and isotropic geometry for two models, corresponding to the absence and presence of the self-interaction potential of the field, respectively. The redshift evolution of the scale factor, the matter energy density, the Hubble function, the deceleration parameter and the field potential are obtained for both cases. In the presence of the vector type dark energy with quadratic terms in the Maxwell tensor derivatives the Universe ends its evolution in an exponentially accelerating vacuum de Sitter state, independently of the presence or absence of the self-interaction potential.

Vector dark energy models with quadratic terms in the Maxwell tensor derivatives [Replacement]

We consider a vector-tensor gravitational model in which the action for the minimally coupled vector field also contains additional terms quadratic in the Maxwell tensor derivatives, and corresponds to the covariant form of the so-called Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics. A term describing the non-minimal coupling between the cosmological mass current and the four-potential of the vector field as well as the self-interaction potential of the vector field is also included in the action. From a cosmological point of view we interpret the vector field as describing dark energy, which is responsible for the late acceleration of the Universe. The gravitational field equations of the model and the equations describing the evolution of the vector field are obtained and their Newtonian limit is investigated. The cosmological implications of a Bopp-Podolsky type dark energy term are investigated for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker homogeneous and isotropic geometry for two models, corresponding to the absence and presence of the self-interaction potential of the field, respectively. The redshift evolution of the scale factor, the matter energy density, the Hubble function, the deceleration parameter and the field potential are obtained for both cases. In the presence of the vector type dark energy with quadratic terms in the Maxwell tensor derivatives the Universe ends its evolution in an exponentially accelerating vacuum de Sitter state, independently of the presence or absence of the self-interaction potential.

Faraday Rotation Measure Synthesis of intermediate redshift quasars as a probe of intervening matter

There is evidence that magnetized material along the line of sight to distant quasars is detectable in the polarization properties of the background sources, which appear to be correlated with the presence of intervening MgII absorption, which is itself thought to arise in outflowing material from star forming galaxies. In order to investigate this further, we have obtained high spectral resolution polarization measurements, with the VLA and ATCA, of a set of 49 unresolved quasars for which we have high quality optical spectra. These enable us to produce a Faraday Depth spectrum for each source, using Rotation Measure Synthesis. We characterize the complexity of the Faraday Depth spectrum using a number of parameters and show how these are related, or not, to the overall depolarization and to the presence of MgII absorption along the line of sight. Our new independent radio data confirms that interveners are strongly associated with depolarization and also, at lower significance, with the mean Rotation Measure. We argue that complexity and structure in the Faraday Depth distribution likely arise from both intervening material and intrinsically to the background source. The presence of multiple distinct components in many of the observed Faraday Depth distributions appears to be intrinsic to the sources. In contrast, the Gaussian width of the main component correlates well with the presence of intervening MgII absorption and we show that it is this Gaussian width that is the primary contributor to the depolarization rather than the presence of multiple components. We conclude that the strong radio depolarization effects associated with intervening material at redshifts out to $z \approx 1$ arise from inhomogeneous Faraday screens producing a dispersion in Rotation Measure across individual sources of around 10 rad/m$^2$.

Stationary Axisymmetric Configuration of the Resistive Thick Accretion Tori around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

We examine a thick accretion disc in the presence of external gravity and intrinsic dipolar magnetic field due to a non-rotating central object. In this paper, we generalize the Newtonian theory of stationary axisymmetric resistive tori of Tripathy, Prasanna $\&$ Das (1990) by including the fully general relativistic features. If we are to obtain the steady state configuration, we have to take into account the finite resistivity for the magnetofluid in order to avoid the piling up of the field lines anywhere in the accretion discs. The efficient value of conductivity must be much smaller than the classical conductivity to be astrophysically interesting. The accreting plasma in the presence of an external dipole magnetic field gives rise to a current in the azimuthal direction. The azimuthal current produced due to the motion of the magnetofluid modifies the magnetic field structure inside the disc and generates a poloidal magnetic field for the disc. The solutions we have found show that the radial inflow, pressure and density distributions are strongly modified by the electrical conductivity both in relativistic and Newtonian regimes. However, the range of conductivity coefficient is different for both regimes, as well as that of the angular momentum parameter and the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit. Furthermore, it is shown that the azimuthal velocity of the disc which is not dependent on conductivity is sub-Keplerian in all radial distances for both regimes. Owing to the presence of pressure gradient and magnetic forces. This work may also be important for the general relativistic computational magnetohydrodynamics that suffers from the lack of exact analytic solutions that are needed to test computer codes.

28 SiO v=0 J=1-0 emission from evolved stars

Observations of 28SiO v=0 J=1-0 line emission (7-mm wavelength) from AGB stars show in some cases peculiar profiles, composed of a central intense component plus a wider plateau. Very similar profiles have been observed in CO lines from some AGB stars and most post-AGB nebulae and, in these cases, they are clearly associated with the presence of conspicuous axial symmetry and bipolar dynamics. We present systematic observations of 28SiO v=0 J=1-0 emission in 28 evolved stars, performed with the 40~m radio telescope of the IGN in Yebes, Spain. We find that the composite core plus plateau profiles are almost always present in O-rich Miras, OH/IR stars, and red supergiants. They are also found in one S-type Mira ($\chi$ Cyg), as well as in two semiregular variables (X Her and RS Cnc) that are known to show axial symmetry. In the other objects, the profiles are simpler and similar to those of other molecular lines. The composite structure appears in the objects in which SiO emission is thought to come from the very inner circumstellar layers, prior to dust formation. The central spectral feature is found to be systematically composed of a number of narrow spikes, except for X Her and RS Cnc, in which it shows a smooth shape that is very similar to that observed in CO emission. These spikes show a significant (and mostly chaotic) time variation, while in all cases the smooth components remain constant within the uncertainties. The profile shape could come from the superposition of standard wide profiles and a group of weak maser spikes. Alternatively, we speculate that the very similar profiles detected in objects that are axisymmetric may be indicative of the systematic presence of a significant axial symmetry in the very inner circumstellar shells around AGB stars; the presence of such symmetry would be independent of the probable weak maser effects in the central spikes.

On the Detection of Non-Transiting Hot Jupiters in Multiple-Planet Systems

We outline a photometric method for detecting the presence of a non-transiting short-period giant planet in a planetary system harboring one or more longer period transiting planets. Within a prospective system of the type that we consider, a hot Jupiter on an interior orbit inclined to the line-of-sight signals its presence through approximately sinusoidal full-phase photometric variations in the stellar light curve, correlated with astrometrically induced transit timing variations for exterior transiting planets. Systems containing a hot Jupiter along with a low-mass outer planet or planets on inclined orbits are a predicted hallmark of in situ accretion for hot Jupiters, and their presence can thus be used to test planetary formation theories. We outline the prospects for detecting non-transiting hot Jupiters using photometric data from typical Kepler objects of interest (KOIs). As a demonstration of the technique, we perform a brief assessment of Kepler candidates and identify a potential non-transiting hot Jupiter in the KOI-1858 system. Candidate non-transiting hot Jupiters can be readily confirmed with a small number of Doppler velocity observations, even for stars with $V\gtrsim14$.

On the Detection of Non-Transiting Hot Jupiters in Multiple-Planet Systems [Replacement]

We outline a photometric method for detecting the presence of a non-transiting short-period giant planet in a planetary system harboring one or more longer period transiting planets. Within a prospective system of the type that we consider, a hot Jupiter on an interior orbit inclined to the line-of-sight signals its presence through approximately sinusoidal full-phase photometric variations in the stellar light curve, correlated with astrometrically induced transit timing variations for exterior transiting planets. Systems containing a hot Jupiter along with a low-mass outer planet or planets on inclined orbits are a predicted hallmark of in situ accretion for hot Jupiters, and their presence can thus be used to test planetary formation theories. We outline the prospects for detecting non-transiting hot Jupiters using photometric data from typical \textit{Kepler} objects of interest (KOIs). As a demonstration of the technique, we perform a brief assessment of \textit{Kepler} candidates and identify a potential non-transiting hot Jupiter in the KOI-1822 system. Candidate non-transiting hot Jupiters can be readily confirmed with a small number of Doppler velocity observations, even for stars with $V\gtrsim14$.

The Effects of Lyman-Limit Systems on the Evolution and Observability of the Epoch of Reionization

We present the first large-scale, full radiative transfer simulations of the reionization of the intergalactic medium in the presence of Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). To illustrate the impact of LLS opacity, possibly missed by previous simulations, we add either a uniform or spatially-varying hydrogen bound-free opacity. This opacity, implemented as the mean free path (mfp) of the ionizing photons, extrapolates the observed, post-reionization redshift dependence into the epoch of reionization. In qualitative agreement with previous studies, we find that at late times the presence of LLSs slows down the ionization fronts, and alters the size distribution of H II regions. We quantitatively characterize the size distribution and morphological evolution of H II regions and examine the effects of the LLSs on the redshifted 21-cm signal from the patchy reionization. The presence of LLSs extends the ionization history by $\Delta z \sim 0.8$. The LLS absorbers significantly impede the late-time growth of the H II regions. The position dependent LLS distribution slows reionization further and additionally limits the late growth of the ionized regions. However, there is no "freeze out" of the H II regions and the largest regions grow to the size of the simulation volume. The 21-cm power spectra show that at large scales the power drops by a factor of 2 for 50% and 75% ionization stages (at $k = 0.1$ $\text{h} \, \text{Mpc}^{-1} $) reflecting the limiting effect of the LLSs on the growth of ionized patches. The statistical observables such as the RMS of the brightness temperature fluctuations and the peak amplitudes of the 21-cm power spectra at large-scales ($k = 0.05 - 0.1$ $\text{h} \, \text{Mpc}^{-1} $) are diminished by the presence of LLS.

A pragmatic Bayesian perspective on correlation analysis: The exoplanetary gravity - stellar activity case

We apply the Bayesian framework to assess the presence of a correlation between two quantities. To do so, we estimate the probability distribution of the parameter of interest, $\rho$, characterizing the strength of the correlation. We provide an implementation of these ideas and concepts using python programming language and the pyMC module in a very short ($\sim$130 lines of code, heavily commented) and user-friendly program. We used this tool to assess the presence and properties of the correlation between planetary surface gravity and stellar activity level as measured by the log($R'_{\mathrm{HK}}$) indicator. The results of the Bayesian analysis are qualitatively similar to those obtained via p-value analysis, and support the presence of a correlation in the data. The results are more robust in their derivation and more informative, revealing interesting features such as asymmetric posterior distributions or markedly different credible intervals, and allowing for a deeper exploration. We encourage the reader interested in this kind of problem to apply our code to his/her own scientific problems. The full understanding of what the Bayesian framework is can only be gained through the insight that comes by handling priors, assessing the convergence of Monte Carlo runs, and a multitude of other practical problems. We hope to contribute so that Bayesian analysis becomes a tool in the toolkit of researchers, and they understand by experience its advantages and limitations.

Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment

Context. Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are rare massive stars with very high luminosity. They are characterized by strong photo-metric and spectroscopic variability related to transient eruptions. The mechanisms at the origin of these eruptions is not well known. In addition, their formation is still problematic and the presence of a companion could help to explain how they form. Aims. This article presents a study of seven LBVs (about 20% of the known Galactic population), some Wolf-Rayet stars, and massive binaries. We probe the environments that surround these massive stars with near-, mid-, and far-infrared images, investigating potential nebula/shells and the companion stars. Methods. To investigate large spatial scales, we used seeing-limited and near diffraction-limited adaptive optics images to obtain a differential diagnostic on the presence of circumstellar matter and to determine their extent. From those images, we also looked for the presence of binary companions on a wide orbit. Once a companion was detected, its gravitational binding to the central star was tested. Tests include the chance projection probability, the proper motion estimates with multi-epoch observations, flux ratio, and star separations. Results. We find that two out of seven of LBVs may have a wide orbit companion. Most of the LBVs display a large circumstellar envelope or several shells. In particular, HD168625, known for its rings, possesses several shells with possibly a large cold shell at the edge of which the rings are formed. For the first time, we have directly imaged the companion of LBV stars.

Landau Levels in graphene in the presence of emergent gravity [Replacement]

We consider graphene in the presence of external magnetic field and elastic deformations that cause emergent magnetic field. The total magnetic field results in the appearance of Landau levels in the spectrum of quasiparticles. In addition, the quasiparticles in graphene experience the emergent gravity. We consider the particular choice of elastic deformation, which gives constant emergent magnetic field and vanishing torsion. Emergent gravity may be considered as perturbation. We demonstrate that the corresponding first order approximation affects the energies of the Landau levels only through the constant renormalization of Fermi velocity. The degeneracy of each Landau level receives correction, which depends essentially on the geometry of the sample. There is the limiting case of the considered elastic deformation, that corresponds to the uniformly stretched graphene. In this case in the presence of the external magnetic field the degeneracies of the Landau levels remain unchanged.

Shadow of the rotating black hole with quintessential energy in the presence of the plasma

We study the shadow of the rotating black hole with quintessential energy i) in vacuum and ii) in the presence of plasma with radial power-law density. For vacuum case the quintessential field parameter of the rotating black hole sufficiently changes the shape of the shadow. With the increasing the quintessential field parameter the radius of the shadow also increases. With the increase of the radius of the shadow of the rotating black hole the quintessential field parameter causes decrease of the distortion of the shadow shape: In the presence of the quintessential field parameter the shadow of fast rotating black hole starting to become more close to circle. The shape and size of shadow of quintessential rotating black hole surrounded by plasma depends on i) plasma parameters, ii) black hole spin and iii) quintessential field parameter. With the increase of the plasma refraction index the apparent radius of the shadow increases. However, for the big values of the quintessential field parameter the change of the black hole shadow's shape due to the presence of plasma is not sufficient. In other words: the effect of the quintessential field parameter becomes more dominant with compare to the effect of plasma.

Shadow of the rotating black hole with quintessential energy in the presence of the plasma [Replacement]

We study the shadow of the rotating black hole with quintessential energy i) in vacuum and ii) in the presence of plasma with radial power-law density. For vacuum case the quintessential field parameter of the rotating black hole sufficiently changes the shape of the shadow. With the increasing the quintessential field parameter the radius of the shadow also increases. With the increase of the radius of the shadow of the rotating black hole the quintessential field parameter causes decrease of the distortion of the shadow shape: In the presence of the quintessential field parameter the shadow of fast rotating black hole starting to become more close to circle. The shape and size of shadow of quintessential rotating black hole surrounded by plasma depends on i) plasma parameters, ii) black hole spin and iii) quintessential field parameter. With the increase of the plasma refraction index the apparent radius of the shadow increases. However, for the big values of the quintessential field parameter the change of the black hole shadow's shape due to the presence of plasma is not sufficient. In other words: the effect of the quintessential field parameter becomes more dominant with compare to the effect of plasma.

Molecular jet emission and a spectroscopic survey of S235AB

Context. The S235AB star forming region houses a massive young stellar object which has recently been reported to exhibit possible evidence of jet rotation - an illusive yet crucial component of disk aided star formation theories. Aims. To confirm the presence of a molecular counterpart to the jet and to further study the molecular environment in in S235AB. Methods. We search for velocity wings in the line emission of thermal SiO (J=2-1, v=0), a tracer of shocked gas, which would indicate the presence of jet activity. Utilising other lines detected in our survey we use the relative intensities of intra species transitions, isotopes and hyperfine transitions to derive opacities, temperatures, column densities and abundances of various molecular species in S235AB. Results. The SiO (J=2-1, v=0) emission exhibits velocity wing of up to 75 km/s above and below the velocity of the star, indicating the presence of a jet. The molecular environment describes an evolutionary stage resemblant of a hot molecular core.

 

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