Posts Tagged presence

Recent Postings from presence

Gravitational Lensing in Plasmic Medium [Cross-Listing]

The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

Gravitational Lensing in Plasmic Medium

The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

Signature of the presence of a third body orbiting around XB 1916-053

The ultra-compact dipping source \object{XB 1916-053} has an orbital period of close to 50 min and a companion star with a very low mass (less than 0.1 M$_{\odot}$). The orbital period derivative of the source was estimated to be $1.5(3) \times 10^{-11}$ s/s through analysing the delays associated with the dip arrival times obtained from observations spanning 25 years, from 1978 to 2002. The known orbital period derivative is extremely large and can be explained by invoking an extreme, non-conservative mass transfer rate that is not easily justifiable. We extended the analysed data from 1978 to 2014, by spanning 37 years, to verify whether a larger sample of data can be fitted with a quadratic term or a different scenario has to be considered. We obtained 27 delays associated with the dip arrival times from data covering 37 years and used different models to fit the time delays with respect to a constant period model.We find that the quadratic form alone does not fit the data. The data are well fitted using a sinusoidal term plus a quadratic function or, alternatively, with a series of sinusoidal terms that can be associated with a modulation of the dip arrival times due to the presence of a third body that has an elliptical orbit. We infer that for a conservative mass transfer scenario the modulation of the delays can be explained by invoking the presence of a third body with mass between 0.10-0.14 M$_{\odot}$, orbital period around the X-ray binary system of close to 51 yr and an eccentricity of $0.28 \pm 0.15$. In a non-conservative mass transfer scenario we estimate that the fraction of matter yielded by the degenerate companion star and accreted onto the neutron star is $\beta = 0.08$, the neutron star mass is $\ge 2.2$ M$_{\odot}$, and the companion star mass is 0.028 M$_{\odot}$. (Abridged)

Enhancing the Cosmic Shear Power Spectrum

Applying a transformation to a non-Gaussian field can enhance the information content of the resulting power spectrum, by reducing the correlations between Fourier modes. In the context of weak gravitational lensing, it has been shown that this gain in information content is significantly compromised by the presence of shape noise. We apply clipping to mock convergence fields, a technique which is known to be robust in the presence of noise and has been successfully applied to galaxy number density fields. When analysed in isolation the resulting convergence power spectrum returns degraded constraints on cosmological parameters. However substantial gains can be achieved by performing a combined analysis of the power spectra derived from both the original and transformed fields. Even in the presence of realistic levels of shape noise, we demonstrate that this approach is capable of reducing the area of likelihood contours within the $\Omega_m – \sigma_8$ plane by more than a factor of three.

No evidence for activity correlations in the radial velocities of Kapteyn's star

Stellar activity may induce Doppler variability at the level of a few m/s which can then be confused by the Doppler signal of an exoplanet orbiting the star. To first order, linear correlations between radial velocity measurements and activity indices have been proposed to account for any such correlation. The likely presence of two super-Earths orbiting Kapteyn’s star was reported in Anglada et al. (2014, MNRAS 443L, 89A), but this claim was recently challenged by Robertson et al. (2015, ApJ 805L, 22R) arguing evidence of a rotation period (143 days) at three times the orbital period of one of the proposed planets (Kapteyn’s b, P=48.6 days), and the existence of strong linear correlations between its Doppler signal and activity data. By re-analyzing the data using global optimization methods and model comparison, we show that such claim is incorrect given that; 1) the choice of a rotation period at 143 days is unjustified, and 2) the presence of linear correlations is not supported by the data. We conclude that the radial velocity signals of Kapteyn’s star remain more simply explained by the presence of two super-Earth candidates orbiting it. We also advocate for the use of global optimization procedures and objective arguments, instead of claims lacking of a minimal statistical support.

Imprint of inflation on galaxy shape correlations [Replacement]

We show that intrinsic (not lensing-induced) correlations between galaxy shapes offer a new probe of primordial non-Gaussianity and inflationary physics which is complementary to galaxy number counts. Specifically, intrinsic alignment correlations are sensitive to an anisotropic squeezed limit bispectrum of the primordial perturbations. Such a feature arises in solid inflation, as well as more broadly in the presence of light higher spin fields during inflation (as pointed out recently by Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena). We present a derivation of the all-sky two-point correlations of intrinsic shapes and number counts in the presence of non-Gaussianity with general angular dependence, and show that a quadrupolar (spin-2) anisotropy leads to the analog in galaxy shapes of the well-known scale-dependent bias induced in number counts by isotropic (spin-0) non-Gaussianity. Moreover, in presence of non-zero anisotropic non-Gaussianity, the quadrupole of galaxy shapes becomes sensitive to far superhorizon modes. These effects come about because long-wavelength modes induce a local anisotropy in the initial power spectrum, with which galaxies will correlate. We forecast that future imaging surveys could provide constraints on the amplitude of anisotropic non-Gaussianity that are comparable to those from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). These are complementary as they probe different physical scales. The constraints, however, depend on the sensitivity of galaxy shapes to the initial conditions which we only roughly estimate from observed tidal alignments.

Imprint of inflation on galaxy shape correlations

We show that intrinsic (not lensing-induced) correlations between galaxy shapes offer a new probe of primordial non-Gaussianity and inflationary physics which is complementary to galaxy number counts. Specifically, intrinsic alignment correlations are sensitive to an anisotropic squeezed limit bispectrum of the primordial perturbations. Such a feature arises in solid inflation, as well as more broadly in the presence of light higher spin fields during inflation (as pointed out recently by Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena). We present a derivation of the all-sky two-point correlations of intrinsic shapes and number counts in the presence of non-Gaussianity with general angular dependence, and show that a quadrupolar (spin-2) anisotropy leads to the analog in galaxy shapes of the well-known scale-dependent bias induced in number counts by isotropic (spin-0) non-Gaussianity. Moreover, in presence of non-zero anisotropic non-Gaussianity, the quadrupole of galaxy shapes becomes sensitive to far superhorizon modes. These effects come about because long-wavelength modes induce a local anisotropy in the initial power spectrum, with which galaxies will correlate. We forecast that future imaging surveys could provide constraints on the amplitude of anisotropic non-Gaussianity that are comparable to those from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). These are complementary as they probe different physical scales. The constraints, however, depend on the sensitivity of galaxy shapes to the initial conditions which we only roughly estimate from observed tidal alignments.

Higher dimensional dilaton black holes in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics

We examine the higher dimensional action in which gravity is coupled to the exponential nonlinear electrodynamic and a scalar dilaton field. We construct a new class of $n$-dimensional static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions of this theory in the presence of the dilaton potential with two Liouville-type terms. In the presence of two Liouville-type dilaton potential, the asymptotic behavior of the obtained black holes are neither flat nor (A)dS. Due to the nonlinear nature of electrodynamic field, the electric field has finite value near the origin where $r\rightarrow0$ and goes to zero as $r\rightarrow\infty$. Interestingly enough, we find that in the absence of the dilaton field, the electric field has a finite value at $r=0$, while as soon as the dilaton field is taken into account, the electric field diverges as $r\rightarrow 0$. This implies that the presence of the dilaton field changes the behaviour of the electric field near the origin. In the limiting case where the nonlinear parameter $\beta$ goes to infinity, our solutions reduce to dilaton black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity in higher dimensions. We compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the solutions and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of black holes thermodynamics on the horizon.

Possible scenarios that the New Horizons spacecraft may find in its close encounter with Pluto

Next year, 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft will have a close encounter with Pluto. In the present study we discuss some possibilities regarding what the spacecraft may encounter during its approach to Pluto. Among them we should include: the presence of geological activity due to heat generated by tides; the unlikely presence of an intrinsic magnetic field; the possibility of a plasmasphere and a plasmapause; the position of an ionopause; the existence of an ionospheric trans-terminator flow similar to that at Venus and Mars; and the presence of a Magnus force that produces a deflection of Pluto plasma wake. This deflection oscillates up and down in its orbit around the sun.

The telegraph approximation for focused cosmic-ray transport in the presence of boundaries [Cross-Listing]

Diffusive cosmic-ray transport in nonuniform large-scale magnetic fields in the presence of boundaries is considered. Reflecting and absorbing boundary conditions are derived for a modified telegraph equation with a convective term. Analytical and numerical solutions of illustrative boundary problems are presented. The applicability and accuracy of the telegraph approximation for focused cosmic-ray transport in the presence of boundaries are discussed, and potential applications to modeling cosmic-ray transport are noted.

Peculiarities of massive vectormesons and their zero mass limits [Replacement]

Massive QED, in contrast with its massless counterpart, possesses two conserved charges; one is a screened (vanishing) Maxwell charge which is directly associated with the massive vector mesons through the identically conserved Maxwell current, while the presence of a particle-antiparticle counting charge depends on the matter . A somewhat peculiar situation arises for couplings of Hermitian matter fields to massive vector potentials; in that case the only current is the screened Maxwell current and the coupling disappears in the massless limit. In case of selfinteracting massive vector mesons the situation becomes even more peculiar in that the usually renormalizability guaranteeing validity of the first order power-counting criterion breaks down in second order and requires the compensatory presence of additional Hermitian H-fields. Some aspect of these observation have already been noticed in the BRST gauge theoretic formulation, but here we use a new setting based on string-local vector mesons which is required by Hilbert space positivity ("off-shell unitarity"). This new formulation explains why spontaneous symmetry breaking cannot occur in the presence of higher spin fields. The coupling to H-fields induces Mexican hat like selfinteractions; they are not imposed but rather consequences of the foundational causal localization properties realized in a Hilbert space setting. In case of selfinteracting massive vectormesons their presence is required in order to maintain the first order power-counting restriction of renormalizability also in second order. The presentation of the new Hilbert space setting for vector mesons which replaces gauge theory is the main motivation for this work.

Peculiarities of massive vectormesons and their zero mass limits [Replacement]

Massive QED, in contrast with its massless counterpart, possesses two conserved charges; one is a screened (vanishing) Maxwell charge which is directly associated with the massive vector mesons through the identically conserved Maxwell current, while the presence of a particle-antiparticle counting charge depends on the matter . A somewhat peculiar situation arises for couplings of Hermitian matter fields to massive vector potentials; in that case the only current is the screened Maxwell current and the coupling disappears in the massless limit. In case of selfinteracting massive vector mesons the situation becomes even more peculiar in that the usually renormalizability guaranteeing validity of the first order power-counting criterion breaks down in second order and requires the compensatory presence of additional Hermitian H-fields. Some aspect of these observation have already been noticed in the BRST gauge theoretic formulation, but here we use a new setting based on string-local vector mesons which is required by Hilbert space positivity ("off-shell unitarity"). This new formulation explains why spontaneous symmetry breaking cannot occur in the presence of higher spin fields. The coupling to H-fields induces Mexican hat like selfinteractions; they are not imposed but rather consequences of the foundational causal localization properties realized in a Hilbert space setting. In case of selfinteracting massive vectormesons their presence is required in order to maintain the first order power-counting restriction of renormalizability also in second order. The presentation of the new Hilbert space setting for vector mesons which replaces gauge theory is the main motivation for this work.

On the stability of gravity with Dirichlet walls

Dirichlet walls — timelike boundaries at finite distance from the bulk on which the induced metric is held fixed — have been used to model AdS spacetimes with a finite cutoff. In the context of gauge/gravity duality, such models are often described as dual to some novel UV-cufoff version of a corresponding CFT that maintains local Lorentz invariance. We study linearized gravity in the presence of such a wall and find it to differ significantly from the seemingly-analogous case of Dirichlet boundary conditions for fields of spins zero and one. In particular, using the Kodama-Ishibashi formalism, the boundary condition that must be imposed on scalar-sector master field with harmonic time dependence depends explicitly on their frequency. That this feature first arises for spin-2 appears to be related to the second-order nature of the equations of motion. It gives rise to a number of novel instabilities, though both global and planar Anti-de Sitter remain (linearly) stable in the presence of large-radius Dirichlet cutoffs. The instabilities arise on the outside of spherical Dirichlet walls, and also inside sufficiently large such spherical walls in de Sitter space. We analyze both inside and outside of flat and spherical walls in Minkowski, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter space, as well as in certain black hole spacetimes and find stability for cases not mentioned above. In particular, we find no linear instabilities in the presence of flat walls. We also find evidence supporting the conjecture that neutral black holes are repelled by Dirichlet walls.

Evidence for Early Filamentary Accretion from the Andromeda Galaxy's Thin Plane of Satellites

Recently it has been shown that a large fraction of the dwarf satellite galaxies orbiting the Andromeda galaxy are surprisingly aligned in a thin, extended and kinematically coherent planar structure. The presence of such a structure seems to challenge the current Cold Dark Matter paradigm of structure formation, which predicts a more uniform distribution of satellites around central objects. We show that it is possible to obtain a thin, extended, rotating plane of satellites resembling the one in Andromeda in cosmological collisionless simulations based on the Cold Dark Matter model. Our new high resolution simulations show a correlation between the formation time of the dark matter halo and the thickness of the plane of satellites. Our simulations have a high incidence of satellite planes as thin, extended, and as rich as the one in Andromeda and with a very coherent kinematic structure when we select high concentration/early forming halos. By tracking the formation of the satellites in the plane we show that they have been mainly accreted onto the main object along thin dark matter filaments at high redshift. Our results show that the presence of a thin, extended, rotating plane of satellites is not a challenge for the Cold Dark Matter paradigm, but actually supports one of the predictions of this paradigm related to the presence of filaments of dark matter around galaxies at high redshift.

Evidence for Early Filamentary Accretion from the Andromeda Galaxy's Thin Plane of Satellites [Replacement]

Recently it has been shown that a large fraction of the dwarf satellite galaxies orbiting the Andromeda galaxy are surprisingly aligned in a thin, extended and kinematically coherent planar structure. The presence of such a structure seems to challenge the current Cold Dark Matter paradigm of structure formation, which predicts a more uniform distribution of satellites around central objects. We show that it is possible to obtain a thin, extended, rotating plane of satellites resembling the one in Andromeda in cosmological collisionless simulations based on the Cold Dark Matter model. Our new high resolution simulations show a correlation between the formation time of the dark matter halo and the thickness of the plane of satellites. Our simulations have a high incidence of satellite planes as thin, extended, and as rich as the one in Andromeda and with a very coherent kinematic structure when we select high concentration/early forming halos. By tracking the formation of the satellites in the plane we show that they have been mainly accreted onto the main object along thin dark matter filaments at high redshift. Our results show that the presence of a thin, extended, rotating plane of satellites is not a challenge for the Cold Dark Matter paradigm, but actually supports one of the predictions of this paradigm related to the presence of filaments of dark matter around galaxies at high redshift.

Discovery of blue companions to two southern Cepheids: WW Car and FN Vel

A large number of high-dispersion spectra of classical Cepheids were obtained in the region of the CaII H+K spectral lines. The analysis of these spectra allowed us to detect the presence of a strong Balmer line, H$\epsilon$, for several Cepheids, interpreted as the signature of a blue companion: the presence of a sufficiently bright blue companion to the Cepheid results in a discernible strengthening of the CaII H + Hepsilon line relative to the CaII K line. We investigated 103 Cepheids, including those with known hot companions (B5-B6 main-sequence stars) in order to test the method. We could confirm the presence of a companion to WW Car and FN Vel (the existence of the former was only suspected before) and we found that these companions are blue hot stars. The method remains efficient when the orbital velocity changes in a binary system cannot be revealed and other methods of binarity detection are not efficient.

Anisotropic Propagator for the Goldstone Modes in Color-flavor Locked Phase in the Presence of a Magnetic Field

We consider the phase diagram of QCD at very high baryon density and at zero temperature in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The state of matter at such high densities and low temperatures is believed to be a phase known as the color-flavor locked phase which breaks color and electromagnetic gauge invariance leaving a linear combination of them unbroken. Of the 9 quarks (three flavors and three colors), five are neutral under this unbroken generator and four are oppositely charged. In the presence of a magnetic field corresponding to the unbroken generator however, the properties of the condensate changes and a new phase known as the magnetic color flavor locked (MCFL)phase is realized. This phase breaks some of the color-flavor symmetry of the Lagrangian spontaneously, giving rise to 6 Goldstone modes, 5 of which are pseudo Goldstone modes. These Goldstone modes are composed of excitations that correspond to both neutral quarks and charged quarks. Hence it is natural to expect that the propagators of these Goldstone modes get affected in the presence of a magnetic field and their speed becomes considerably anisotropic. Although this anisotropy is self-evident from symmetry arguments, it has not been quantified yet. We calculate this anisotropy in the speed of the Goldstone modes using an NJL model type of interaction between the quarks and comment on the impact of such anisotropic modes on the transport properties of the MCFL phase.

Anisotropic Propagator for the Goldstone Modes in Color-flavor Locked Phase in the Presence of a Magnetic Field [Cross-Listing]

We consider the phase diagram of QCD at very high baryon density and at zero temperature in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The state of matter at such high densities and low temperatures is believed to be a phase known as the color-flavor locked phase which breaks color and electromagnetic gauge invariance leaving a linear combination of them unbroken. Of the 9 quarks (three flavors and three colors), five are neutral under this unbroken generator and four are oppositely charged. In the presence of a magnetic field corresponding to the unbroken generator however, the properties of the condensate changes and a new phase known as the magnetic color flavor locked (MCFL)phase is realized. This phase breaks some of the color-flavor symmetry of the Lagrangian spontaneously, giving rise to 6 Goldstone modes, 5 of which are pseudo Goldstone modes. These Goldstone modes are composed of excitations that correspond to both neutral quarks and charged quarks. Hence it is natural to expect that the propagators of these Goldstone modes get affected in the presence of a magnetic field and their speed becomes considerably anisotropic. Although this anisotropy is self-evident from symmetry arguments, it has not been quantified yet. We calculate this anisotropy in the speed of the Goldstone modes using an NJL model type of interaction between the quarks and comment on the impact of such anisotropic modes on the transport properties of the MCFL phase.

Four Dimensional Supersymmetric Theories in Presence of a Boundary

In this paper, we study $\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetric theories in four dimensions in presence of a boundary. We demonstrate that it is possible to preserve half the supersymmetry of the original theory by suitably modifying it in presence of a boundary. This is done by adding new boundary terms to the original action, such that the supersymmetric variation of the new terms exactly cancels the boundary terms generated by the supersymmetric transformation of the original bulk action. We also analyze the boundary projections of such supercharges used in such a theory. Finally, we study super-Yang-Mills theories in presence of a boundary using these results. We explicitly construct the action for the modified super-Yang-Mills theory, which preserves half the supersymmetry of the original theory, in presence of a boundary.

Four Dimensional Supersymmetric Theories in Presence of a Boundary [Replacement]

In this paper, we study $\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetric theories in four dimensions in presence of a boundary. We demonstrate that it is possible to preserve half the supersymmetry of the original theory by suitably modifying it in presence of a boundary. This is done by adding new boundary terms to the original action, such that the supersymmetric variation of the new terms exactly cancels the boundary terms generated by the supersymmetric transformation of the original bulk action. We also analyze the boundary projections of such supercharges used in such a theory. We study super-Yang-Mills theories in presence of a boundary using these results. Finally, we study the Born-Infeld action in presence of a boundary. We analyse the boundary effects for the Born-Infeld action coupled to a background dilaton and an axion field. We also analyse the boundary effects for an non-abelian Born-Infeld action. We explicitly construct the actions for these systems in presence of a boundary. This action preserves half of the original supersymmetry.

Non pertubative effects of local structure on the Hubble parameter in presence of a cosmological constant [Replacement]

In order to estimate the effects of local structure on the Hubble parameter we calculate the low-redshift expansion for $H(z)$ and $\frac{\delta H}{H}$ for an observer at the center of a spherically symmetric matter distribution in presence of a cosmological constant. We then test the accuracy of the formulae comparing them with fully relativistic non pertubative numerical calculations for different cases for the density profile. Our analytical approach does not involve perturbation theory, and is based on the use of exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations. The formulae can be used to take into account the non linear effects on the Hubble expansion parameter due to the monopole component of the local structure. The physical implications and the relation with cosmic acceleration are discussed, both in presence and absence of the cosmological constant, respectively as non pertubative effects within the standard cosmological model or as constraints on inhomogeneous models as alternative to dark energy.

Non pertubative effects of local structure on the Hubble parameter in presence of a cosmological constant [Replacement]

In order to estimate the effects of local structure on the Hubble parameter we calculate the low-redshift expansion for $H(z)$ and $\frac{\delta H}{H}$ for an observer at the center of a spherically symmetric matter distribution in presence of a cosmological constant. We then test the accuracy of the formulae comparing them with fully relativistic non pertubative numerical calculations for different cases for the density profile. Our analytical approach does not involve perturbation theory, and is based on the use of exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations. The formulae can be used to take into account the non linear effects on the Hubble expansion parameter due to the monopole component of the local structure. The physical implications and the relation with cosmic acceleration are discussed, both in presence and absence of the cosmological constant, respectively as non pertubative effects within the standard cosmological model or as constraints on inhomogeneous models as alternative to dark energy.

Searching for signatures of planet formation in stars with circumstellar debris discs

(Abridged) Tentative correlations between the presence of dusty debris discs and low-mass planets have been presented. In parallel, detailed chemical abundance studies have reported different trends between samples of planet and non-planet hosts. We determine in a homogeneous way the metallicity, and abundances of a sample of 251 stars including stars with known debris discs, with debris discs and planets, and only with planets. Stars with debris discs and planets have the same [Fe/H] behaviour as stars hosting planets, and they also show a similar <[X/Fe]>-Tc trend. Different behaviour in the <[X/Fe]>-Tc trend is found between the samples of stars without planets and the samples of planet hosts. In particular, when considering only refractory elements, negative slopes are shown in cool giant planet hosts, whilst positive ones are shown in stars hosting low-mass planets. Stars hosting exclusively close-in giant planets show higher metallicities and positive <[X/Fe]>-Tc slope. A search for correlations between the <[X/Fe]>-Tc slopes and the stellar properties reveals a moderate but significant correlation with the stellar radius and as well as a weak correlation with the stellar age. The fact that stars with debris discs and stars with low-mass planets do not show neither metal enhancement nor a different <[X/Fe]>-Tc trend might indicate a correlation between the presence of debris discs and the presence of low-mass planets. We extend results from previous works which reported differences in the <[X/Fe]>-Tc trends between planet hosts and non hosts. However, these differences tend to be present only when the star hosts a cool distant planet and not in stars hosting exclusively low-mass planets.

Cosmology in presence of dark energy in an emergent gravity scenario

We obtain the analogues of the Friedman equations in an emergent gravity scenario in the presence of dark energy. The background metric is taken to be Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW). We show that if $\dot\phi ^{2}$ is the dark energy density (in units of the critical density) then (a) for total energy density greater than the pressure (non-relativistic scenario, matter domination) the deceleration parameter $q(t)\approx\frac {1}{2} [1 + 27 \dot\phi ^{2}+...] > \frac{1}{2}$ (b) for total energy density equal to 3 times the pressure (relativistic case, radiation domination), the deceleration parameter $q(t)\approx 1 + 18\dot\phi ^{2} +… > 1$ and (c) for total energy density equal to the negative of the pressure (dark energy scenario), the deceleration parameter $q(t)< -1$. Our results indicate that many aspects of standard cosmology can be accommodated with the presence of dark energy right from the beginning of the universe where the time parameter $t\equiv \frac{t}{t_{0}}$, $t_{0}$ being the present epoch.

Note on the Gauss-Bonnet braneworld scenario

In this work we deal with the presence of braneworld solutions in a five-dimensional space-time with a single extra spatial dimension of infinite extent. The braneworld scenario is built under the presence of a single real scalar field, and we modify the gravity sector to include generic function of the Gauss-Bonnet term. We study several specific models, and we construct exact braneworld solutions, in particular for including the Gauss-Bonnet term at first and second order power. As an interesting result, we show that the brane tends to split for a specific modification in the gravity sector, in the presence of non constant Gauss-Bonnet term.

Galaxy Zoo: the effect of bar-driven fueling on the presence of an active galactic nucleus in disc galaxies

We study the influence of the presence of a strong bar in disc galaxies which host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and morphological classifications from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we create a volume-limited sample of 19,756 disc galaxies at $0.01<z<0.05$ which have been visually examined for the presence of a bar. Within this sample, AGN host galaxies have a higher overall percentage of bars (51.8%) than inactive galaxies exhibiting central star formation (37.1%). This difference is primarily due to known effects; that the presence of both AGN and galactic bars is strongly correlated with both the stellar mass and integrated colour of the host galaxy. We control for this effect by examining the difference in AGN fraction between barred and unbarred galaxies in fixed bins of mass and colour. Once this effect is accounted for, there remains a small but statistically significant increase that represents 16% of the average barred AGN fraction. Using the $L_{\rm{[O III]}}/M_{BH} $ratio as a measure of AGN strength, we show that barred AGN do not exhibit stronger accretion than unbarred AGN at a fixed mass and colour. The data are consistent with a model in which bar-driven fueling does contribute to the probability of an actively growing black hole, but in which other dynamical mechanisms must contribute to the direct AGN fueling via smaller, non-axisymmetric perturbations.

Emergent gravity and chiral anomaly in Dirac semimetals in the presence of dislocations [Replacement]

We consider the recently discovered Dirac semimetals with two Dirac points $\pm{\bf K}$. In the presence of elastic deformations each fermion propagates in a curved space, whose metric is defined by the expansion of the effective Hamiltonian near the Dirac point. Besides, there is the emergent electromagnetic field that is defined by the shift of the Dirac point. We consider the case, when the deformations are caused by the dislocations. The dislocation carries singular torsion and the quantized flux of emergent magnetic field. Both torsion singularity and emergent magnetic flux may be observed in the scattering of quasiparticles on the dislocation due to Stodolsky and Aharonov – Bohm effects. We discuss quantum anomalies in the quasiparticle currents in the presence of emergent gauge and gravitational fields and the external electromagnetic field. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in the presence of external electric field the quasiparticles/holes are pumped from vacuum along the dislocation. The appeared chiral imbalance along the dislocation drives the analogue of chiral magnetic effect, that is the appearance of electric current along the dislocation.

Emergent gravity and chiral anomaly in Dirac semimetals in the presence of dislocations [Replacement]

We consider the recently discovered Dirac semimetals with two Dirac points $\pm{\bf K}$. In the presence of elastic deformations each fermion propagates in a curved space, whose metric is defined by the expansion of the effective Hamiltonian near the Dirac point. Besides, there is the emergent electromagnetic field that is defined by the shift of the Dirac point. We consider the case, when the deformations are caused by the dislocations. The dislocation carries singular torsion and the quantized flux of emergent magnetic field. Both torsion singularity and emergent magnetic flux may be observed in the scattering of quasiparticles on the dislocation due to Stodolsky and Aharonov – Bohm effects. We discuss quantum anomalies in the quasiparticle currents in the presence of emergent gauge and gravitational fields and the external electromagnetic field. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in the presence of external electric field the quasiparticles/holes are pumped from vacuum along the dislocation. The appeared chiral imbalance along the dislocation drives the analogue of chiral magnetic effect, that is the appearance of electric current along the dislocation.

Does the presence of planets affect the frequency and properties of extrasolar Kuiper Belts? Results from the Herschel DEBRIS and DUNES surveys [Replacement]

The study of the planet-debris disk connection can shed light on the formation and evolution of planetary systems, and may help predict the presence of planets around stars with certain disk characteristics. In preliminary analyses of the Herschel DEBRIS and DUNES surveys, Wyatt et al. (2012) and Marshall et al. (2014) identified a tentative correlation between debris and low-mass planets. Here we use the cleanest possible sample out these surveys to assess the presence of such a correlation, discarding stars without known ages, with ages < 1 Gyr and with binary companions <100 AU, to rule out possible correlations due to effects other than planet presence. In our sample of 204 FGK stars, we do not find evidence that debris disks are more common or more dusty around stars harboring high-mass or low-mass planets compared to a control sample without identified planets, nor that debris disks are more or less common (or more or less dusty) around stars harboring multiple planets compared to single-planet systems. Diverse dynamical histories may account for the lack of correlations. The data show the correlation between the presence of high-mass planets and stellar metallicity, but no correlation between the presence of low-mass planets or debris and stellar metallicity. Comparing the observed cumulative distribution of fractional luminosity to those expected from a Gaussian distribution, we find that a distribution centered on the Solar system’s value fits well the data, while one centered at 10 times this value can be rejected. This is of interest in the context of future terrestrial planet characterization because it indicates that there are good prospects for finding a large number of debris disk systems (i.e. with evidence of harboring the building blocks of planets) with exozodiacal emission low enough to be appropriate targets for an ATLAST-type mission to search for biosignatures.

Does the presence of planets affect the frequency and properties of extrasolar Kuiper Belts? Results from the Herschel DEBRIS and DUNES surveys

The study of the planet-debris disk connection can shed light on the formation and evolution of planetary systems, and may help predict the presence of planets around stars with certain disk characteristics. In preliminary analyses of the Herschel DEBRIS and DUNES surveys, Wyatt et al. (2012) and Marshall et al. (2014) identified a tentative correlation between debris and low-mass planets. Here we use the cleanest possible sample out these surveys to assess the presence of such a correlation, discarding stars without known ages, with ages < 1 Gyr and with binary companions <100 AU, to rule out possible correlations due to effects other than planet presence. In our sample of 204 FGK stars, we do not find evidence that debris disks are more common or more dusty around stars harboring high-mass or low-mass planets compared to a control sample without identified planets, nor that debris disks are more or less common (or more or less dusty) around stars harboring multiple planets compared to single-planet systems. Diverse dynamical histories may account for the lack of correlations. The data show the correlation between the presence of high-mass planets and stellar metallicity, but no correlation between the presence of low-mass planets or debris and stellar metallicity. Comparing the observed cumulative distribution of fractional luminosity to those expected from a Gaussian distribution, we find that a distribution centered on the Solar system’s value fits well the data, while one centered at 10 times this value can be rejected. This is of interest in the context of future terrestrial planet characterization because it indicates that there are good prospects for finding a large number of debris disk systems (i.e. with evidence of harboring the building blocks of planets) with exozodiacal emission low enough to be appropriate targets for an ATLAST-type mission to search for biosignatures.

Anti-FFBRST Transformations for the BLG Theory in Presence of a Boundary

In this paper we will analyse the anti-BRST symmetries of Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson (BLG) theory in presence of a boundary. We will analyses these symmetries in both linear and non-linear gauges. We will also derive the finite field version of the anti-BRST transformations for the BLG theory in presence of a boundary. These finite field transformations will be used to relate generating functional in linear gauge to the generating functional in the non-linear gauge.

Extended Supersymmetry in Gapped and Superconducting Graphene [Replacement]

In view of the many quantum field theoretical descriptions of graphene in $2+1$ dimensions, we present another field theoretical feature of graphene, in the presence of defects. Particularly, we shall be interested in gapped graphene in the presence of a domain wall and also for superconducting graphene in the presence of a vortex. As we explicitly demonstrate, the gapped graphene electrons that are localized on the domain wall are associated with four $N=2$ one dimensional supersymmetries, with each pair combining to form an extended $N=4$ supersymmetry with non-trivial topological charges. The case of superconducting graphene is more involved, with the electrons localized on the vortex being associated with $n$ one dimensional supersymmetries, which in turn combine to form an $N=2n$ extended supersymmetry with no-trivial topological charges. As we shall prove, all supersymmetries are unbroken, a feature closely related to the number of the localized fermions and also to the exact form of the associated operators. In addition, the corresponding Witten index is invariant under compact and odd perturbations.

Extended Supersymmetry in Gapped and Superconducting Graphene

In view of the many quantum field theoretical descriptions of graphene in $2+1$ dimensions, we present another field theoretical feature of graphene, in the presence of defects. Particularly, we shall be interested in gapped graphene in the presence of a domain wall and also for superconducting graphene in the presence of a vortex. As we explicitly demonstrate, the gapped graphene electrons that are localized on the domain wall are associated with four $N=2$ one dimensional supersymmetries, with each pair combining to form an extended $N=4$ supersymmetry with non-trivial topological charges. The case of superconducting graphene is more involved, with the electrons localized on the vortex being associated with $n$ one dimensional supersymmetries, which in turn combine to form an $N=2n$ extended supersymmetry with no-trivial topological charges. As we shall prove, all supersymmetries are unbroken, a feature closely related to the number of the localized fermions and also to the exact form of the associated operators. In addition, the corresponding Witten index is invariant under compact and odd perturbations.

New braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields

We study braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields. We use the first-order framework to investigate several distinct possibilities, where the standard braneworld scenario changes under the presence of the parameter that controls the auxiliary fields introduced to modify Einstein’s equation. The results add to previous ones, to show that the minimal modification that we investigate contributes to change quantitatively the thick braneworld profile, although no new qualitative effect is capable of being induced by the minimal modification here considered.

New braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields [Replacement]

We study braneworld models in the presence of auxiliary fields. We use the first-order framework to investigate several distinct possibilities, where the standard braneworld scenario changes under the presence of the parameter that controls the auxiliary fields introduced to modify Einstein’s equation. The results add to previous ones, to show that the minimal modification that we investigate contributes to change quantitatively the thick braneworld profile, although no new qualitative effect is capable of being induced by the minimal modification here considered.

Study of quantum mechanical scattering in presence of an extra compact space dimension [Cross-Listing]

It is well known that string theory generates the idea of higher dimensional spacetime instead of the (3+1) dimensions, in which we seem to live. It indicates that the extra space dimensions may remain curled up into very small space. In this paper, we study quantum mechanical scattering in presence of extra compact space dimension in the hope of devising a method to get a clue to the presence of extra space dimension. We consider a simplified model of scattering, in which a beam of free particles is scattered due to a one dimensional Dirac-delta potential in presence of an extra compact space dimension. We find that the incident, reflected and transmitted probability current densities of the particles contain the information of the extra dimension. Thus, by measuring experimentally the reflected and transmitted probability current densities of the particles, we may confirm the presence of extra dimension. We also show that the idea of compactification of the extra dimensions gives rise to the quantization of the energy values of the free particles. So, by measuring the quantized energy values of the scattered free particles, we may again confirm the presence of extra dimensions. We also discuss briefly, how the extra compact space dimensions can be detected if the scattering process is performed in (9+1) dimensions, in which six space dimensions are compact.

Short time-scale frequency and amplitude variations in the pulsations of an roAp star: HD 217522

Photometric observations of HD~217522 in 1981 revealed only one pulsation frequency $\nu_1=1.21529$~mHz. Subsequent observations in 1989 showed the presence of an additional frequency $\nu_2=2.0174$~mHz. New observations in 2008 confirm the presence of the mode with $\nu_2=2.0174$~mHz. Examination of the 1989 data shows amplitude modulation over a time scale of the order of a day, much shorter than what has been observed in other roAp stars. High spectral and time resolution data obtained using the VLT in 2008 confirm the presence of $\nu_2$ and short term modulations in the radial velocity amplitudes of rare earth elements. This suggests growth and decay times shorter than a day, more typical of solar-like oscillations. The driving mechanism of roAp stars and the Sun are different, and the growth and decay seen in the Sun are due to stochastic nature of the driving mechanism. The driving mechanism in roAp stars usually leads to mode stability on a longer time-scale than in the Sun. We interpret the reported change in $\nu_1$ between the 1982 and 1989 data as part of the general frequency variability observed in this star on many time scales.

Cycles of interactions in multi-gravity theories [Cross-Listing]

In this paper we study multi-gravity (multi-metric and multi-vielbein) theories in the presence of cycles of interactions (cycles in the so-called `theory graph’). It has been conjectured that in multi-metric theories such cycles lead to the introduction of a ghost-like instability, which, however, is absent in the multi-vielbein version of such theories. In this paper we answer this question in the affirmative by explicitly demonstrating the presence of the ghost in such multi-metric theories in the form of dangerous higher derivative terms in the decoupling limit Lagrangian; we also explain why these terms are absent in the vielbein version of these theories. Finally we discuss the ramifications of our result on the dimensional deconstruction paradigm, which would seek an equivalence between such theories and a truncated Kaluza-Klein theory, and find that the impediment to taking the continuum limit due to a low strong-coupling scale is exacerbated by the presence of the ghost, when these theories are constructed using metrics.

Cycles of interactions in multi-gravity theories [Replacement]

In this paper we study multi-gravity (multi-metric and multi-vielbein) theories in the presence of cycles of interactions (cycles in the so-called `theory graph’). It has been conjectured that in multi-metric theories such cycles lead to the introduction of a ghost-like instability, which, however, is absent in the multi-vielbein version of such theories. In this paper we answer this question in the affirmative by explicitly demonstrating the presence of the ghost in such multi-metric theories in the form of dangerous higher derivative terms in the decoupling limit Lagrangian; we also explain why these terms are absent in the vielbein version of these theories. Finally we discuss the ramifications of our result on the dimensional deconstruction paradigm, which would seek an equivalence between such theories and a truncated Kaluza-Klein theory, and find that the impediment to taking the continuum limit due to a low strong-coupling scale is exacerbated by the presence of the ghost, when these theories are constructed using metrics.

Cycles of interactions in multi-gravity theories

In this paper we study multi-gravity (multi-metric and multi-vielbein) theories in the presence of cycles of interactions (cycles in the so-called `theory graph’). It has been conjectured that in multi-metric theories such cycles lead to the introduction of a ghost-like instability, which, however, is absent in the multi-vielbein version of such theories. In this paper we answer this question in the affirmative by explicitly demonstrating the presence of the ghost in such multi-metric theories in the form of dangerous higher derivative terms in the decoupling limit Lagrangian; we also explain why these terms are absent in the vielbein version of these theories. Finally we discuss the ramifications of our result on the dimensional deconstruction paradigm, which would seek an equivalence between such theories and a truncated Kaluza-Klein theory, and find that the impediment to taking the continuum limit due to a low strong-coupling scale is exacerbated by the presence of the ghost, when these theories are constructed using metrics.

Cycles of interactions in multi-gravity theories [Replacement]

In this paper we study multi-gravity (multi-metric and multi-vielbein) theories in the presence of cycles of interactions (cycles in the so-called `theory graph’). It has been conjectured that in multi-metric theories such cycles lead to the introduction of a ghost-like instability, which, however, is absent in the multi-vielbein version of such theories. In this paper we answer this question in the affirmative by explicitly demonstrating the presence of the ghost in such multi-metric theories in the form of dangerous higher derivative terms in the decoupling limit Lagrangian; we also explain why these terms are absent in the vielbein version of these theories. Finally we discuss the ramifications of our result on the dimensional deconstruction paradigm, which would seek an equivalence between such theories and a truncated Kaluza-Klein theory, and find that the impediment to taking the continuum limit due to a low strong-coupling scale is exacerbated by the presence of the ghost, when these theories are constructed using metrics.

First detection of surface magnetic fields in Post-AGB stars : the cases of U Monocerotis and R Scuti

While several observational investigations have revealed the presence of magnetic fields in the circumstellar envelopes, jets and outflows of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch stars (PAGBs) and planetary nebulae (PNe), none has clearly demonstrated their presence at the stellar surface. The lack of information on the strength of the surface magnetic fields prevents us from performing any thorough assessment of their dynamic capability (i.e. material mixing, envelope shaping, etc). We present new high resolution spectropolarimetric (Stokes V ) observations of a sample of PAGB stars, realised with the instruments ESPaDOnS and Narval, where we searched for the presence of photospheric magnetic fields. Out of the seven targets investigated the RV Tauri stars U Mon and R Sct display a clear Zeeman signature and return a definite detection after performing a least squares deconvolution (LSD) analysis. The remaining five PAGBs show no significant detection. We derived longitudinal magnetic fields of 10.2 +/- 1.7 G for U Mon and 0.6 +/- 0.6 G for R Sct. In both cases the Stokes profiles point towards an interaction of the magnetic field with the atmosphere dynamics. This first discovery of weak magnetic fields (i.e. ~10 gauss level) at the stellar surface of PAGB stars opens the door to a better understanding of magnetism in evolved stars.

Searching for faint companions with VLTI/PIONIER. II. 92 main sequence stars from the Exozodi survey

The Exozodi survey aims to determine the occurrence rate of bright exozodiacal discs around nearby main sequence stars using infrared interferometry. Although the Exozodi survey targets have been carefully selected to avoid the presence of binary stars, the results of this survey can still be biased by the presence of unidentified stellar companions. Using the PIONIER data set collected within the Exozodi survey, we aim to search for the signature of point-like companions around the Exozodi target stars. We use both the closure phases and squared visibilities collected by PIONIER to search for companions within the ~100 mas interferometric field of view. The presence of a companion is assessed by computing the goodness of fit to the data for a series of binary models with various separations and contrasts. Five stellar companions are resolved for the first time around five A-type stars: HD 4150, HD 16555, HD 29388, HD 202730, and HD 224392 (although the companion to HD 16555 was independently resolved by speckle interferometry while we were carrying out the survey). In the most likely case of main sequence companions, their spectral types range from A5V to K4V. Three of these stars were already suspected to be binaries from Hipparcos astrometric measurements, although no information was available on the companions themselves so far. In addition to debiasing the statistics of the Exozodi survey, these results can also be used to revise the fraction of visual binaries among A-type stars, suggesting that an extra ~13% A-type stars are visual binaries in addition to the ones detected in previous direct imaging surveys. We estimate that about half the population of nearby A-type stars could be resolved as visual binaries using a combination of state-of-the-art interferometry and single-aperture imaging, and we suggest that a significant fraction of these binaries remains undetected to date.

X-shooter reveals powerful outflows in z~1.5 X-ray selected obscured QSOs

We present X-shooter@VLT observations of a sample of 10 luminous, X-ray obscured QSOs at z$\sim1.5$ from the XMM-COSMOS survey, expected to be caught in the transitioning phase from starburst to AGN dominated systems. The main selection criterion is X-ray detection at bright fluxes (L$>=10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$) coupled to red optical-to-NIR-to-MIR colors. Thanks to its large wavelength coverage, X-shooter allowed us to determine accurate redshifts from the presence of multiple emission lines for five out of six targets for which we had only a photometric redshift estimate, with a 80\% success rate, significantly larger than what is observed in similar programs of spectroscopic follow-up of red QSOs. We report the detection of broad and shifted components in the [OIII]$\lambda\lambda$5007,4959 complexes for 6 out of 8 sources with these lines observable in regions free from strong atmospheric absorptions. The FWHM associated to the broad components are in the range FWHM$\sim900-1600$ km s$^{-1}$, larger than the average value observed in SDSS Type 2 AGN samples at similar observed [OIII] luminosity, but comparable to those observed for QSO/ULIRGs systems for which the presence of kpc scale outflows have been revealed through IFU spectroscopy. Although the total outflow energetics (inferred under reasonable assumptions) may be consistent with winds accelerated by stellar processes, we favour an AGN origin for the outflows given the high outflow velocities oberved (v$>1000$ km s$^{-1}$) and the presence of strong winds also in objects undetected in the far infrared.

EMMI - Electric Solar Wind Sail Facilitated Manned Mars Initiative [Replacement]

The novel propellantless electric solar wind sail concept promises efficient low thrust transportation in the Solar System outside Earth’s magnetosphere. Combined with asteroid mining to provide water and synthetic cryogenic rocket fuel in orbits of Earth and Mars, possibilities for affordable continuous manned presence on Mars open up. Orbital fuel and water enable reusable bidirectional Earth-Mars vehicles for continuous manned presence on Mars and allow smaller fuel fraction of spacecraft than what is achievable by traditional means. Water can also be used as radiation shielding of the manned compartment, thus reducing the launch mass further. In addition, the presence of fuel in the orbit of Mars provides the option for an all-propulsive landing, thus potentially eliminating issues of heavy heat shields and augmenting the capability of pinpoint landing. With this E-sail enabled scheme, the recurrent cost of continuous bidirectional traffic between Earth and Mars might ultimately approach the recurrent cost of running the International Space Station, ISS.

EMMI - Electric Solar Wind Sail Facilitated Manned Mars Initiative

The novel propellantless electric solar wind sail (E-sail) concept promises efficient low thrust transportation in the solar system outside Earth’s magnetosphere. Combined with asteroid mining to provide water and synthetic cryogenic rocket fuel in orbits of Earth and Mars, possibilities for affordable continuous manned presence on Mars open up. Orbital fuel and water eliminate the exponential nature of the rocket equation and also enable reusable bidirectional Earth-Mars vehicles for continuous manned presence on Mars. Water can also be used as radiation shielding of the manned compartment, thus reducing the launch mass further. In addition, the presence of fuel in Mars orbit provides the option for an all-propulsive landing, thus potentially eliminating issues of heavy heat shields and augmenting the capability of pinpoint landing. With this E-sail enabled scheme, the recurrent cost of continuous bidirectional traffic between Earth and Mars might ultimately approach the recurrent cost of running the International Space Station, ISS.

Ionized gas kinematics of galaxies in the CALIFA survey I: Velocity fields, kinematic parameters of the dominant component, and presence of kinematically distinct gaseous systems

This work provides an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of this survey for including kinematical criteria for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA, we present the 2D kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfying a gas detection threshold. After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component. The main kinematic parameters were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [OIII] profiles. Most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. 35% of the objects present evidence of a displacement between the photometric and kinematic centers larger than the original spaxel radii. Only 17% of the objects in the sample exhibit kinematic lopsidedness when comparing receding and approaching sides of the velocity fields, but most of them are interacting galaxies exhibiting nuclear activity. Early-type galaxies in the sample present clear photometric-kinematic misaligments. There is evidence of asymmetries in the emission line profiles suggesting the presence of kinematically distinct gaseous components at different distances from the nucleus. This work constitutes the first determination of the ionized gas kinematics of the galaxies observed in the CALIFA survey. The derived velocity fields, the reported kinematic peculiarities and the identification of the presence of several gaseous components might be used as additional criteria for selecting galaxies for specific studies.

Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and the Chiral Magnetic Effect for interacting Dirac fermions with chiral imbalance

We report on a mean-field study of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry for Dirac fermions with contact interactions in the presence of chiral imbalance, which is modelled by nonzero chiral chemical potential. We point out that chiral imbalance lowers the vacuum energy of Dirac fermions, which leads to the increase of the renormalized chiral chemical potential upon chiral symmetry breaking. The critical coupling strength for the transition to the broken phase is slightly lowered as the chiral chemical potential is increased, and the transition itself becomes milder. Furthermore, we study the chiral magnetic conductivity in different phases and find that it grows both in the perturbative weak-coupling regime and in the strongly coupled phase with broken chiral symmetry. In the strong coupling regime the chiral magnetic effect is saturated by vector-like bound states (vector mesons) with mixed transverse polarizations. General pattern of meson mixing in the presence of chiral imbalance is also considered. We discuss the relevance of our study for Weyl semimetals and strongly interacting QCD matter. Finally, we comment on the ambiguity of the regularization of the vacuum energy of Dirac fermions in the presence of chirality imbalance.

Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and the Chiral Magnetic Effect for interacting Dirac fermions with chiral imbalance [Replacement]

We report on a mean-field study of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry for Dirac fermions with contact interactions in the presence of chiral imbalance, which is modelled by nonzero chiral chemical potential. We point out that chiral imbalance lowers the vacuum energy of Dirac fermions, which leads to the increase of the renormalized chiral chemical potential upon chiral symmetry breaking. The critical coupling strength for the transition to the broken phase is slightly lowered as the chiral chemical potential is increased, and the transition itself becomes milder. Furthermore, we study the chiral magnetic conductivity in different phases and find that it grows both in the perturbative weak-coupling regime and in the strongly coupled phase with broken chiral symmetry. In the strong coupling regime the chiral magnetic effect is saturated by vector-like bound states (vector mesons) with mixed transverse polarizations. General pattern of meson mixing in the presence of chiral imbalance is also considered. We discuss the relevance of our study for Weyl semimetals and strongly interacting QCD matter. Finally, we comment on the ambiguity of the regularization of the vacuum energy of Dirac fermions in the presence of chirality imbalance.

Neutron stars with hyperon cores: stellar radii and EOS near nuclear density

The existence of 2 Msun pulsars puts very strong constraints on the equation of state (EOS) of neutron stars (NSs) with hyperon cores, which can be satisfied only by special models of hadronic matter. The radius-mass relation for these models is so specific that it could be submitted to an observational test with forthcoming X-ray observatories. We want to study the impact of the presence of hyperon cores on the radius-mass relation for NS. We aim at finding how, and for which particular stellar mass range, a specific relation R(M), where M is gravitational mass, and R is radius, is associated with the presence of an hyperon core. We consider a large set of theoretical EOSs of dense matter, based on the relativistic mean-field (RMF) approximation, allowing for the presence of hyperons in NSs. We seek for correlations between R(M) and the stiffness of the EOS below the hyperon threshold, needed to pass the 2 Msun test. For NS masses 1.0<M/Msun<1.6, we get R>13km, which is due to a very stiff pre-hyperon segment of the EOS. At nuclear density, the pressure is significantly larger than a robust upper bound obtained recently by Hebeler et al. If massive NS do have a sizable hyperon core, the radii for M=1.0-1.6 Msun are necessarily >13 km. If, on the contrary, in this mass domain, a NS with a radius R<12 km is observed, sizable hyperon cores in NSs, as we model them now using RMF models, are ruled out. Future X-ray missions with <5% precision for a simultaneous M and R measurement will have the potential to solve the problem by observations of NSs. Irrespectively of this observational test, RMF EOSs that fulfill condition M_max>2Msun give a pressure at nuclear density which is too large compared with up-to-date microscopic calculations of this quantity. This casts doubt on these RMF models.

 

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