Posts Tagged polarization measurements

Recent Postings from polarization measurements

Shape coexistence in 153Ho

The high-spin states in 153Ho, have been studied by 139 57 La(20Ne, 6n) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from gamma-gamma coincidence, directional correlation and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-gamma time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

Shape coexistence in 153Ho [Cross-Listing]

The high-spin states in 153Ho, have been studied by 139 57 La(20Ne, 6n) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from gamma-gamma coincidence, directional correlation and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-gamma time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

Diagnostics of Coronal Magnetic Fields Through the Hanle Effect in UV and IR Lines

The plasma thermodynamics in the solar upper atmosphere, particularly in the corona, are dominated by the magnetic field, which controls the flow and dissipation of energy. The relative lack of knowledge of the coronal vector magnetic field is a major handicap for progress in coronal physics. This makes the development of measurement methods of coronal magnetic fields a high priority in solar physics. The Hanle effect in the UV and IR spectral lines is a largely unexplored diagnostic. We use magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study the magnitude of the signal to be expected for typical coronal magnetic fields for selected spectral lines in the UV and IR wavelength ranges, namely the H I Ly-$\alpha$ and the He I 10830 {\AA} lines. We show that the selected lines are useful for reliable diagnosis of coronal magnetic fields. The results show that the combination of polarization measurements of spectral lines with different sensitivities to the Hanle effect may be most appropriate for deducing coronal magnetic properties from future observations.

Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions [Cross-Listing]

We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron beam ion trap with the electron beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce $K\alpha$ x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted--wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-$Z$ element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions [Replacement]

We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron beam ion trap with the electron beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce $K\alpha$ x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted--wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-$Z$ element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

Asymmetries in SN 2014J Near Maximum Light Revealed Through Spectropolarimetry

We present spectropolarimetric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2014J in M82 over six epochs: +0, +7, +23, +51, +77, +109, and +111 days with respect to B-band maximum. The strong continuum polarization, which is constant with time, shows a wavelength dependence unlike that produced by linear dichroism in Milky Way dust. The observed polarization may be due entirely to interstellar dust or include a circumstellar scattering component. We find that the polarization angle aligns with the magnetic field of the host galaxy, arguing for an interstellar origin. Additionally, we confirm a peak in polarization at short wavelengths that would imply $R_V < 2 $ along the light of sight, in agreement with earlier polarization measurements. For illustrative purposes, we include a two component fit to the continuum polarization of our +51 day epoch that combines a circumstellar scattering component with interstellar dust where scattering can account for over half of the polarization at $4000$ \AA. Upon removal of the interstellar polarization signal, SN 2014J exhibits very low levels of continuum polarization. Asymmetries in the distribution of elements within the ejecta are visible through moderate levels of time-variable polarization in accordance with the Si II 6355 \AA absorption line. At maximum light, the line polarization reaches $\sim0.6$% and decreases to $\sim0.4\%$ one week later. This feature also forms a loop on the $q_{RSP}$-$u_{RSP}$ plane illustrating that the ion does not have an axisymmetric distribution. The observed polarization properties suggest the explosion geometry of SN 2014J is generally spheroidal with a clumpy distribution of silicon.

Polarization measurements of hot dust stars and the local interstellar medium

Debris discs are typically revealed through excess emission at infrared wavelengths. Most discs exhibit excess at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths, analogous to the solar system's Asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Recently, stars with strong (1 per cent) excess at near-infrared wavelengths were identified through interferometric measurements. Using the HIgh Precision Polarimetric Instrument (HIPPI), we examined a sub-sample of these hot dust stars (and appropriate controls) at parts-per-million sensitivity in SDSS g' (green) and r' (red) filters for evidence of scattered light. No detection of strongly polarized emission from the hot dust stars is seen. We therefore rule out scattered light from a normal debris disk as the origin of this emission. A wavelength dependent contribution from multiple dust components for hot dust stars is inferred from the dispersion (difference in polarization angle in red and green) of southern stars. Contributions of 17 ppm (green) and 30 ppm (red) are calculated, with strict 3 sigma upper limits of 76 and 68 ppm, respectively. This suggests weak hot dust excesses consistent with thermal emission, although we cannot rule out contrived scenarios, e.g. dust in a spherical shell or face on discs. We also report on the nature of the local interstellar medium, obtained as a byproduct of the control measurements. Highlights include the first measurements of the polarimetric colour of the local interstellar medium and discovery of a southern sky region with a polarization per distance thrice the previous maximum. The data suggest the wavelength of maximum polarization is bluer than typical.

Radiative transfer with POLARIS: I. Analysis of magnetic fields through synthetic dust continuum polarization measurements [Replacement]

Aims: We present POLARIS (POLArized RadIation Simulator), a newly developed three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. POLARIS was designed to calculate dust temperature, polarization maps, and spectral energy distributions. It is optimized to handle data that results from sophisticated magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. The main purpose of the code is to prepare and analyze multi-wavelength continuum polarization measurements in the context of magnetic field studies in the interstellar medium. An exemplary application is the investigation of the role of magnetic fields in star formation processes. Methods: We combine currently discussed state-of-the-art grain alignment theories with existing dust heating and polarization algorithms. We test the POLARIS code on multiple scales in complex astrophysical systems that are associated with different stages of star formation. POLARIS uses the full spectrum of dust polarization mechanisms to trace the underlying magnetic field morphology. Results: Resulting temperature distributions are consistent with the density and position of radiation sources resulting from magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) - collapse simulations. The calculated layers of aligned dust grains in the considered cirumstellar disk models are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Finally, we compute unique patterns in synthetic multi-wavelength polarization maps that are dependent on applied dust-model and grain-alignment theory in analytical cloud models.

Radiative transfer with POLARIS: I. Analysis of magnetic fields through synthetic dust continuum polarization measurements

\textbf{Aims}: We present POLARIS (\textbf{POLA}rized \textbf{R}ad\textbf{I}ation \textbf{S}imulator), a newly developed three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. POLARIS was designed to calculate dust temperature, polarization maps, and spectral energy distributions. It is optimized to handle data that results from sophisticated magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. The main purpose of the code is to prepare and analyze multi-wavelength continuum polarization measurements in the context of magnetic field studies in the interstellar medium. An exemplary application is the investigation of the role of magnetic fields in star formation processes.\\ \textbf{Methods}: We combine currently discussed state-of-the-art grain alignment theories with existing dust heating and polarization algorithms. We test the POLARIS code on multiple scales in complex astrophysical systems that are associated with different stages of star formation. POLARIS uses the full spectrum of dust polarization mechanisms to trace the underlying magnetic field morphology.\\ \textbf{Results}: Resulting temperature distributions are consistent with the density and position of radiation sources resulting from magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) - collapse simulations. The calculated layers of aligned dust grains in the considered cirumstellar disk models are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Finally, we compute unique patterns in synthetic multi-wavelength polarization maps that are dependent on applied dust-model and grain-alignment theory in analytical cloud models.

Cosmic anisotropies from quasars: from polarization to structural-axis alignments

The comparison of the orientations of the optical-polarization vectors of quasars that are separated by billions of light-years has led to the discovery that they are aligned instead of pointing in random directions as expected. This discovery has been confirmed and the significance of the correlations enhanced. We devoted this doctoral thesis to an in-depth analysis of these striking observations that imply Gpc-scale correlations. We developed a new and independent statistical method which is dedicated to the study and the characterization of the distribution of the orientations of vectorial quantities that are perpendicular to the lines of sight of a set of sources spread on the celestial sphere. This allowed us to confirm independently the large-scale polarization-vector alignments and to refine the limits of the alignment regions through an unbiased characterization of the signal. We also provided a detailed analysis of a large sample of polarization measurements made at radio wavelengths in which similar polarization-vector alignments are found. The regions of alignments of the quasar-radio-polarization vectors are found to be close to these of optical alignments. This might suggest that quasar axes themselves could be aligned. Based on new observations, we further analyzed the optical-polarization vectors of quasars that belong to two large groups. Taking into account the link between the optical-polarization vectors and the morphologies of the quasars, we found that the spin axes of the quasars align with the axis of the large-quasar group to which they belong. We reinforced our findings using radio-polarization data and a large sample of large-quasar groups. We additionally found that the preferred orientations of the quasar spin axes depend on the richness of their host groups.

Magnetic field geometry of an unusual cometary cloud Gal 110-13

We carried out optical polarimetry of an isolated cloud, Gal 110-13, to map the plane-of-the-sky magnetic field geometry. The main aim of the study is to understand the most plausible mechanism responsible for the unusual cometary shape of the cloud in the context of its magnetic field geometry. When unpolarized starlight passes through the intervening interstellar dust grains that are aligned with their short axes parallel to the local magnetic field, it gets linearly polarized. The plane-of-the-sky magnetic field component can therefore be traced by doing polarization measurements of background stars projected on clouds. Because the light in the optical wavelength range is most efficiently polarized by the dust grains typically found in the outer layers of the molecular clouds, optical polarimetry enables us to trace the magnetic field geometry of the outer layers of the clouds. We made R-band polarization measurements of 207 stars in the direction of Gal 110-13. The distance of Gal 110-13 was determined as $\sim450\pm80$ pc using our polarization and 2MASS near-infrared data. The foreground interstellar contribution was removed from the observed polarization values by observing a number of stars located in the vicinity of Gal 110-13 which has Hipparcos parallax measurements. The plane-of-the-sky magnetic field lines are found to be well ordered and aligned with the elongated structure of Gal 110-13. Using structure function analysis, we estimated the strength of the plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field as $\sim25\mu$G. Based on our results and comparing them with those from simulations, we conclude that compression by the ionization fronts from 10 Lac is the most plausible cause of the comet-like morphology of Gal 110-13 and of the initiation of subsequent star formation.

J/$\psi$ polarization measurements in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 and 500 GeV with the STAR experiment [Cross-Listing]

In these proceedings, measurements of J/psi polarization in p+p collisions at 200 and 500 GeV via the dielectron decay channel at mid-rapidity with the STAR experiment are discussed. At 200 GeV the polarization parameter, $\lambda_{\theta}$, related to the polar anisotropy is obtained in the helicity frame as a function of transverse momentum, 2 < $p_{T}$ < 6 GeV/c, and compared to different model predictions. A new J/psi polarization measurement at 500 GeV extends the previous analysis to a wide transverse momentum range of 5 < $p_{T}$ < 16 GeV/c. Also, the polarization parameter related to the azimuthal anisotropy, $\lambda_{\phi}$, is extracted in addition to $\lambda_{\theta}$, in two reference frames: the helicity and Collins-Soper frames. This allows for the frame invariant parameter calculation vs $p_{T}$ in these two frames.

Broadband Linear Polarization of Jupiter Trojans

Trojan asteroids orbit in the Lagrange points of the system Sun-planet-asteroid. Their dynamical stability make their physical properties important proxies for the early evolution of our solar system. To study their origin, we want to characterize the surfaces of Jupiter Trojan asteroids and check possible similarities with objects of the main belt and of the Kuiper Belt. We have obtained high-accuracy broad-band linear polarization measurements of six Jupiter Trojans of the L4 population and tried to estimate the main features of their polarimetric behaviour. We have compared the polarimetric properties of our targets among themselves, and with those of other atmosphere-less bodies of our solar system. Our sample show approximately homogeneous polarimetric behaviour, although some distinct features are found between them. In general, the polarimetric properties of Trojan asteroids are similar to those of D- and P-type main-belt asteroids. No sign of coma activity is detected in any of the observed objects. An extended polarimetric survey may help to further investigate the origin and the surface evolution of Jupiter Trojans.

Development of a Hard X-ray focal plane Compton Polarimeter: A compact polarimetric configuration with Scintillators and Si photomultipliers

X-ray polarization measurement of cosmic sources provides two unique parameters namely degree and angle of polarization which can probe the emission mechanism and geometry at close vicinity of the compact objects. Specifically, the hard X-ray polarimetry is more rewarding because the sources are expected to be intrinsically highly polarized at higher energies. With the successful implementation of Hard X-ray optics in NuSTAR, it is now feasible to conceive Compton polarimeters as focal plane detectors. Such a configuration is likely to provide sensitive polarization measurements in hard X-rays with a broad energy band. We are developing a focal plane hard X-ray Compton polarimeter consisting of a plastic scintillator as active scatterer surrounded by a cylindrical array of CsI(Tl) scintillators. The scatterer is 5 mm diameter and 100 mm long plastic scintillator (BC404) viewed by normal PMT. The photons scattered by the plastic scatterer are collected by a cylindrical array of 16 CsI(Tl) scintillators (5 mm x 5 mm x 150 mm) which are read by Si Photomultiplier (SiPM). Use of the new generation SiPMs ensures the compactness of the instrument which is essential for the design of focal plane detectors. The expected sensitivity of such polarimetric configuration and complete characterization of the plastic scatterer, specially at lower energies have been discussed in Chattopadhyay et al. (Exp. Astron. 35, 391-412, 2013; Astrophys. J. Suppl. 212, 12, 2014). In this paper, we characterize the CsI(Tl) absorbers coupled to SiPM. We also present the experimental results from the fully assembled configuration of the Compton polarimeter.

Polarization of neutron star surface emission: a systematic analysis

New-generation X-ray polarimeters currently under development promise to open a new window in the study of high-energy astrophysical sources. Among them, neutron stars appear particularly suited for polarization measurements. Radiation from the (cooling) surface of a neutron star is expected to exhibit a large intrinsic polarization degree due to the star strong magnetic field ($\approx 10^{12}-10^{15}$ G), which influences the plasma opacity in the outermost stellar layers. The polarization fraction and polarization angle as measured by an instrument, however, do not necessary coincide with the intrinsic ones derived from models of surface emission. This is due to the effects of quantum electrodynamics in the highly magnetized vacuum around the star (the vacuum polarization) coupled with the rotation of the Stokes parameters in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight induced by the non-uniform magnetic field. Here we revisit the problem and present an efficient method for computing the observed polarization fraction and polarization angle in the case of radiation coming from the entire surface of a neutron star, accounting for both vacuum polarization and geometrical effects due to the extended emitting region. Our approach is fairly general and is illustrated in the case of blackbody emission from a neutron star with either a dipolar or a (globally) twisted magnetic field.

Linear and Circular polarization in ultra-relativistic synchrotron sources - implications to GRB afterglows [Replacement]

Polarization measurements from relativistic outflows are a valuable tool to probe the geometry of the emission region and the microphysics of the particle distribution. Indeed, the polarization level depends on: (i) the local magnetic field orientation, (ii) the geometry of the emitting region with respect to the line of sight, and (iii) the electron pitch-angle distribution. Here we consider optically thin synchrotron emission and we extend the theory of circular polarization from a point source to an extended radially expanding relativistic jet. We present numerical estimates for both linear and circular polarization in such systems. We consider different configurations of the magnetic field, spherical and jetted outflows, isotropic and anisotropic pitch-angle distributions, and outline the difficulty in obtaining the reported high level of circular polarization observed in the afterglow of GRB 121024A. We conclude that the origin of the observed polarization cannot be intrinsic to an optically thin synchrotron process, even when the electron pitch-angle distribution is extremely anisotropic.

Linear and Circular polarization in ultra-relativistic synchrotron sources - implications to GRB afterglows

Polarization measurements from relativistic outflows are a valuable tool to probe the geometry of the emission region and the microphysics of the particle distribution. Indeed, the polarization level depends on: (i) the local magnetic field orientation, (ii) the geometry of the emitting region with respect to the line of sight, and (iii) the electron pitch-angle distribution. Here we consider optically thin synchrotron emission and we extend the theory of circular polarization from a point source to an extended radially expanding relativistic jet. We present numerical estimates for both linear and circular polarization in such systems. We consider different configurations of the magnetic field, spherical and jetted outflows, isotropic and anisotropic pitch-angle distributions, and outline the difficulty in obtaining the reported high level of circular polarization observed in the afterglow of GRB 121024A. We conclude that the origin of the observed polarization cannot be intrinsic to an optically thin synchrotron process, even when the electron pitch-angle distribution is extremely anisotropic.

Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB [Replacement]

We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold Spot" is detected with several methods, including map kurtosis, peak statistics, and mean temperature profile. We thoroughly probe the large-scale dipolar power asymmetry, detecting it with several independent tests, and address the subject of a posteriori correction. Tests of directionality suggest the presence of angular clustering from large to small scales, but at a significance that is dependent on the details of the approach. We perform the first examination of polarization data, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB fluctuations to date.

Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold Spot" is detected with several methods, including map kurtosis, peak statistics, and mean temperature profile. We thoroughly probe the large-scale dipolar power asymmetry, detecting it with several independent tests, and address the subject of a posteriori correction. Tests of directionality suggest the presence of angular clustering from large to small scales, but at a significance that is dependent on the details of the approach. We perform the first examination of polarization data, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB fluctuations to date.

Measuring polarization of light quarks at ATLAS and CMS

Polarization of strange quarks is preserved to a high degree when they hadronize into Lambda baryons, as observed in Z decays at LEP. This opens up the possibility for ATLAS and CMS to use strange-quark polarization measurements as a characterization tool for new physics scenarios that produce such quarks. Measurements in ttbar samples would be useful for obtaining additional information about the polarization transfer from the strange quark to the Lambda baryon. Already with 100/fb in Run 2, ttbar samples in ATLAS and CMS become competitive in sensitivity with the Z samples of the LEP experiments. Moreover, while the LEP measurements were done inclusively over all quark flavors, which makes their interpretation dependent on various modeling assumptions, ttbar events at the LHC offer multiple handles for disentangling the different contributions experimentally. We also discuss the possibility of measuring polarizations of up and down quarks.

Fine pitch CdTe-based Hard-X-ray polarimeter performance for space science in the 70-300 keV energy range

X-rays astrophysical sources have been almost exclusively characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Nevertheless, more observational parameters are needed because some radiation mechanisms present in neutrons stars or black holes are still unclear. Polarization measurements will play a key role in discrimination between different X-ray emission models. Such a capability becomes a mandatory requirement for the next generation of high-energy space proposals. We have developed a CdTe-based fine-pitch imaging spectrometer, Caliste, able to respond to these new requirements. With a 580-micron pitch and 1 keV energy resolution at 60 keV, we are able to accurately reconstruct the polarization angle and polarization fraction of an impinging flux of photons which are scattered by 90{\deg} after Compton diffusion within the crystal. Thanks to its high performance in both imaging and spectrometry, Caliste turns out to be a powerful device for high-energy polarimetry. In this paper, we present the principles and the results obtained for this kind of measurements: on one hand, we describe the simulation tool we have developed to predict the polarization performances in the 50-300 keV energy range. On the other hand, we compare simulation results with experimental data taken at ESRF ID15A (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) using a mono-energetic polarized beam tuned between 35 and 300 keV. We show that it is possible with this detector to determine with high precision the polarization parameters (direction and fraction) for different irradiation conditions. Applying a judicious energy selection to our data set, we reach a remarkable sensitivity level characterized by an optimum Quality Factor of 0.78 in the 200-300 keV range. We also evaluate the sensitivity of our device at 70 keV, where hard X-ray mirrors are already available; the measured Q factor is 0.64 at 70 keV.

Linear and circular polarization in GRB afterglows

A certain degree of linear polarization has been measured in several GRB afterglows. More surprisingly, circular polarization has been recently measured in GRB121024A. For synchrotron emission, the polarization level depends on: (i) the local magnetic field orientation (ii) the geometry of the emitting region with respect to the line of sight and (iii) the electron pitch-angle distribution. For this reason, polarization measurements are a valuable tool to probe afterglow micro-physics. We present numerical estimates of linear and circular polarization for different configurations (i.e., magnetic fields, geometries and pitch-angle distributions). For each different scenario, we study the conditions for reaching the maximum and minimum linear and circular polarization and provide their values. We discuss the implication of our results to the micro-physics of GRB afterglows in view of recent polarization measurements.

Polarization alignments of radio quasars in JVAS/CLASS surveys

We test the hypothesis that the polarization vectors of flat-spectrum radio sources (FSRS) in the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys are randomly oriented on the sky. The sample with robust polarization measurements is made of $4155$ objects and redshift information is known for $1531$ of them. We performed two statistical analyses: one in two dimensions and the other in three dimensions when distance is available. We find significant large-scale alignments of polarization vectors for samples containing only quasars (QSO) among the varieties of FSRS's. While these correlations prove difficult to explain either by a physical effect or by biases in the dataset, the fact that the QSO's which have significantly aligned polarization vectors are found in regions of the sky where optical polarization alignments were previously found is striking.

Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40<L<400 and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the best-fitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of the parameter combination Sigma_8 Omega_m^{0.25} = 0.591+-0.021. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the E-mode polarization also measured by Planck to generate an estimate of the lensing B-mode. We show that this lensing B-mode estimate is correlated with the B-modes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10 sigma, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the large-scale temperature anisotropies, detecting a cross-correlation at the 3 sigma level, as expected due to dark energy in the concordance LCDM model.

Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing [Replacement]

We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40<L<400 and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the best-fitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of the parameter combination $\sigma_8 \Omega_m^{0.25} = 0.591\pm 0.021$. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the E-mode polarization also measured by Planck to generate an estimate of the lensing B-mode. We show that this lensing B-mode estimate is correlated with the B-modes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10 sigma, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the large-scale temperature anisotropies, detecting a cross-correlation at the 3 sigma level, as expected due to dark energy in the concordance LCDM model.

Statistics of X-Ray Polarization Measurements [Replacement]

The polarization of an X-ray beam that produces electrons with velocity components perpendicular to the beam generates an azimuthal distribution of the ejected electrons. We present methods for simulating and for analyzing the angular dependence of electron detections which enable us to derive simple analytical expressions for useful statistical properties of observable data. The derivations are verified by simulations. While we confirm the results of previous work on this topic, we provide an extension needed for analytical treatment of the full range of possible polarization amplitudes.

Statistics of X-Ray Polarization Measurements

The polarization of an X-ray beam that produces electrons with velocity components perpendicular to the beam generates an azimuthal distribution of the ejected electrons. We present methods for simulating and for analyzing the angular dependence of electron detections which enable us to derive simple analytical expressions for useful statistical properties of observable data. The derivations are verified by simulations. While we confirm the results of previous work on this topic, we provide an extension needed for analytical treatment of the full range of possible polarization amplitudes.

The Q/U Imaging Experiment: Polarization Measurements of Radio Sources at 43 and 95 GHz

We present polarization measurements of extragalactic radio sources observed during the Cosmic Microwave Background polarization survey of the Q/U Imaging Experiment (QUIET), operating at 43 GHz (Q-band) and 95 GHz (W-band). We examine sources selected at 20 GHz from the public, $>$40 mJy catalog of the Australia Telescope (AT20G) survey. There are $\sim$480 such sources within QUIET's four low-foreground survey patches, including the nearby radio galaxies Centaurus A and Pictor A. The median error on our polarized flux density measurements is 30--40 mJy per Stokes parameter. At S/N $> 3$ significance, we detect linear polarization for seven sources in Q-band and six in W-band; only $1.3 \pm 1.1$ detections per frequency band are expected by chance. For sources without a detection of polarized emission, we find that half of the sources have polarization amplitudes below 90 mJy (Q-band) and 106 mJy (W-band), at 95% confidence. Finally, we compare our polarization measurements to intensity and polarization measurements of the same sources from the literature. For the four sources with WMAP and Planck intensity measurements $>1$ Jy, the polarization fraction are above 1% in both QUIET bands. At high significance, we compute polarization fractions as much as 10--20% for some sources, but the effects of source variability may cut that level in half for contemporaneous comparisons. Our results indicate that simple models---ones that scale a fixed polarization fraction with frequency---are inadequate to model the behavior of these sources and their contributions to polarization maps.

The Importance of the Magnetic Field from an SMA-CSO-Combined Sample of Star-Forming Regions

Submillimeter dust polarization measurements of a sample of 50 star-forming regions, observed with the SMA and the CSO covering pc-scale clouds to mpc-scale cores, are analyzed in order to quantify the magnetic field importance. The magnetic field misalignment $\delta$ -- the local angle between magnetic field and dust emission gradient -- is found to be a prime observable, revealing distinct distributions for sources where the magnetic field is preferentially aligned with or perpendicular to the source minor axis. Source-averaged misalignment angles $\langle|\delta|\rangle$ fall into systematically different ranges, reflecting the different source-magnetic field configurations. Possible bimodal $\langle|\delta|\rangle$-distributions are found for the separate SMA and CSO samples. Combining both samples broadens the distribution with a wide maximum peak at small $\langle|\delta|\rangle$-values. Assuming the 50 sources to be representative, the prevailing source-magnetic field configuration is one that statistically prefers small magnetic field misalignments $|\delta|$. When interpreting $|\delta|$ together with an MHD force equation, as developed in the framework of the polarization-intensity gradient method, a sample-based scaling fits the magnetic field tension-to-gravity force ratio $\langle\Sigma_B\rangle$ versus $\langle|\delta|\rangle$ with $\langle\Sigma_B\rangle = 0.116 \cdot \exp(0.047\cdot \langle|\delta|\rangle)\pm 0.20$ (mean error), providing a way to estimate the relative importance of the magnetic field, only based on measurable field misalignments $|\delta|$. The force ratio $\Sigma_B$ discriminates systems that are collapsible on average ($\langle \Sigma_B\rangle <1$) from other molecular clouds where the magnetic field still provides enough resistance against gravitational collapse ($\langle \Sigma_B\rangle >1$) (abridged).

Radio-frequency Attenuation Length, Basal-Reflectivity, Depth, and Polarization Measurements from Moore's Bay in the Ross Ice-Shelf

Radio-glaciological parameters from Moore's Bay, in the Ross Ice Shelf, have been measured. The thickness of the ice shelf in Moore's Bay was measured from reflection times of radio-frequency pulses propagating vertically through the shelf and reflecting from the ocean. The average depth obtained is $576\pm8$ m. The temperature-averaged attenuation length of the ice column, $\langle L \rangle$, is derived from the returned power assuming 100\% reflection. A linear fit to the data yields $\langle L(\nu) \rangle = (460\pm20)-(180\pm40)\nu$, for the frequencies $\nu=$[0.100-0.850] GHz, at 95% confidence. Introducing a baseline of 543$\pm$7 m between radio transmitter and receiver allowed the computation of the basal reflection coefficient, $R$, separately from attenuation. The electric-field reflection coefficient is $\sqrt{R}=0.82\pm0.07$ across [0.100-0.850] GHz. Finally, the reflected power rotated into the orthogonal antenna polarization is less than 5% below 0.400 GHz, compatible with air propagation. These results suggest that Moore's Bay will serve as an appropriate medium for the ARIANNA high energy neutrino telescope.

Radar Absorption, Basal Reflection, Thickness, and Polarization Measurements from the Ross Ice Shelf [Replacement]

Radio-glaciological parameters from Moore's Bay, in the Ross Ice Shelf, have been measured. The thickness of the ice shelf in Moore's Bay was measured from reflection times of radio-frequency pulses propagating vertically through the shelf and reflecting from the ocean, and is found to be $576\pm8$ m. Introducing a baseline of 543$\pm$7 m between radio transmitter and receiver allowed the computation of the basal reflection coefficient, $R$, separately from englacial loss. The depth-averaged attenuation length of the ice column, $<L >$ is shown to depend linearly on frequency. The best fit (95% confidence level) is $<L(\nu) >= (460\pm20)-(180\pm40)\nu$ m (20 dB/km), for the frequencies $\nu=$[0.100-0.850] GHz, assuming no reflection loss. The mean electric-field reflection coefficient is $\sqrt{R}=0.82\pm0.07$ (-1.7 dB reflection loss) across [0.100-0.850] GHz, and is used to correct the attenuation length. Finally, the reflected power rotated into the orthogonal antenna polarization is less than 5% below 0.400 GHz, compatible with air propagation. The results imply that Moore's Bay serves as an appropriate medium for the ARIANNA high energy neutrino detector.

PILOT: a balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarized FIR emission of dust grains in the interstellar medium

Future cosmology space missions will concentrate on measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which potentially carries invaluable information about the earliest phases of the evolution of our universe. Such ambitious projects will ultimately be limited by the sensitivity of the instrument and by the accuracy at which polarized foreground emission from our own Galaxy can be subtracted out. We present the PILOT balloon project which will aim at characterizing one of these foreground sources, the polarization of the dust continuum emission in the diffuse interstellar medium. The PILOT experiment will also constitute a test-bed for using multiplexed bolometer arrays for polarization measurements. We present the results of ground tests obtained just before the first flight of the instrument.

Connecting the interstellar magnetic field at the heliosphere to the Loop I superbubble

The local interstellar magnetic field affects both the heliosphere and the surrounding cluster of interstellar clouds (CLIC). Measurements of linearly polarized starlight provide the only test of the magnetic field threading the CLIC. Polarization measurements of the CLIC magnetic field show multiple local magnetic structures, one of which is aligned with the magnetic field traced by the center of the "ribbon" of energetic neutral atoms discovered by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Comparisons between the bulk motion of the CLIC through the local standard of rest, the magnetic field direction, the geometric center of Loop I, and the polarized dust bridge extending from the heliosphere toward the North Polar Spur direction all suggest that the CLIC is part of the rim region of the Loop I superbubble.

Naturally large tensor-to-scalar ratio in inflation [Replacement]

Recently, BICEP2 measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) $B$-mode polarization at degree angular scales has indicated the presence of tensor modes with a high tensor-to-scalar ratio of $r=0.2$ when assuming nearly scale-invariant tensor and scalar spectra, although the signal may be contaminated by dust emission as implied by the recent {\em Planck} polarization data. This result is in conflict with the {\em Planck} best-fit Lambda Cold Dark Model with $r<0.11$. Due to the fact that inflaton has to be interacting with other fields so as to convert its potential energy into radiation to reheat the Universe, the interacting inflaton may result in a suppression of the scalar spectrum at large scales. This suppression has been used to explain the observed low quadrupole in the CMB anisotropy. In this paper, we show that a combination of the tensor modes measured by BICEP2 and the large-scale suppressed scalar modes contributes to the CMB anisotropy in such a way that the resultant CMB anisotropy and polarization power spectra are consistent with both {\em Planck} and BICEP2 data. We also project our findings to cases in which $r$ may become reduced in future CMB polarization measurements.

Naturally large tensor-to-scalar ratio in inflation [Replacement]

Recently, BICEP2 measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) $B$-mode polarization at degree angular scales has indicated the presence of tensor modes with a high tensor-to-scalar ratio of $r=0.2$ when assuming nearly scale-invariant tensor and scalar spectra, although the signal may be contaminated by dust emission as implied by the recent {\em Planck} polarization data. This result is in conflict with the {\em Planck} best-fit Lambda Cold Dark Model with $r<0.11$. Due to the fact that inflaton has to be interacting with other fields so as to convert its potential energy into radiation to reheat the Universe, the interacting inflaton may result in a suppression of the scalar spectrum at large scales. This suppression has been used to explain the observed low quadrupole in the CMB anisotropy. In this paper, we show that a combination of the tensor modes measured by BICEP2 and the large-scale suppressed scalar modes contributes to the CMB anisotropy in such a way that the resultant CMB anisotropy and polarization power spectra are consistent with both {\em Planck} and BICEP2 data. We also project our findings to cases in which $r$ may become reduced in future CMB polarization measurements.

HST observations of the limb polarization of Titan

Titan is an excellent test case for detailed studies of the scattering polarization from thick hazy atmospheres. We present the first limb polarization measurements of Titan, which are compared as a test to our limb polarization models. Previously unpublished imaging polarimetry from the HST archive is presented which resolves the disk of Titan. We determine flux-weighted averages of the limb polarization and radial limb polarization profiles, and investigate the degradation and cancelation effects in the polarization signal due to the limited spatial resolution of our observations. Taking this into account we derive corrected values for the limb polarization in Titan. The results are compared with limb polarization models, using atmosphere and haze scattering parameters from the literature. In the wavelength bands between 250 nm and 2000 nm a strong limb polarization of about 2-7 % is detected with a position angle perpendicular to the limb. The fractional polarization is highest around 1 micron. As a first approximation, the polarization seems to be equally strong along the entire limb. The detected polarization is compatible with expectations from previous polarimetric observations taken with Voyager 2, Pioneer 11, and the Huygens probe. Our results indicate that ground-based monitoring measurements of the limb-polarization of Titan could be useful for investigating local haze properties and the impact of short-term and seasonal variations of the hazy atmosphere of Titan. Planets with hazy atmospheres similar to Titan are particularly good candidates for detection with the polarimetric mode of the upcoming planet finder instrument at the VLT. Therefore, a good knowledge of the polarization properties of Titan is also important for the search and investigation of extra-solar planets.

Quarkonia production and polarization at the hadron colliders [Cross-Listing]

This talk presents a review of recent results for quarkonium production at the LHC from ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and ALICE. Production cross sections for $J/\psi$, $\psi(2S)$, and $\Upsilon(mS)$, and production ratios for $\chi_{c,bJ}$ are found to be in good agreement with predictions from non-relativistic QCD. In contrast, spin-alignment (polarization) measurements seem to disagree with all theoretical predictions. Some other production channels useful for investigating quarkonium hadroproduction mechanisms are also considered.

GRB 140206A: the most distant polarized Gamma-Ray Burst

The nature of the prompt gamma-ray emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) is still far from being completely elucidated. The measure of linear polarization is a powerful tool that can be used to put further constraints on the content and magnetization of the GRB relativistic outflows, as well as on the radiation processes at work. To date only a handful of polarization measurements are available for the prompt emission of GRBs. Here we present the analysis of the prompt emission of GRB 140206A, obtained with INTEGRAL/IBIS, Swift/BAT, and Fermi/GBM. Using INTEGRAL/IBIS as a Compton polarimeter we were able to constrain the linear polarization level of the second peak of this GRB as being larger than 28% at 90% c.l. We also present the GRB afterglow optical spectroscopy obtained at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), which allowed us the measure the distance of this GRB, z=2.739. This distance value together with the polarization measure obtained with IBIS, allowed us to derive the deepest and most reliable limit to date (xi <1x10-16) on the possibility of Lorentz Invariance Violation, measured through the vacuum birefringence effect on a cosmological source.

Evidence of a Mira-like tail and bow shock about the semi-regular variable V CVn from four decades of polarization measurements

Polarization is a powerful tool for understanding stellar atmospheres and circumstellar environments. Mira and semi-regular variable stars have been observed for decades and some are known to be polarimetrically variable, however, the semi-regular variable V Canes Venatici displays an unusually large, unexplained amount of polarization. We present ten years of optical polarization observations obtained with the HPOL instrument, supplemented by published observations spanning a total interval of about forty years for V CVn. We find that V CVn shows large polarization variations ranging from 1 - 6%. We also find that for the past forty years the position angle measured for V CVn has been virtually constant suggesting a long-term, stable, asymmetric structure about the star. We suggest that this asymmetry is caused by the presence of a stellar wind bow shock and tail, consistent with the star's large space velocity.

Polarization measurements analysis II. Best estimators of polarization fraction and angle

With the forthcoming release of high precision polarization measurements, such as from the Planck satellite, it becomes critical to evaluate the performance of estimators for the polarization fraction and angle. These two physical quantities suffer from a well-known bias in the presence of measurement noise, as has been described in part I of this series. In this paper, part II of the series, we explore the extent to which various estimators may correct the bias. Traditional frequentist estimators of the polarization fraction are compared with two recent estimators: one inspired by a Bayesian analysis and a second following an asymptotic method. We investigate the sensitivity of these estimators to the asymmetry of the covariance matrix which may vary over large datasets. We present for the first time a comparison among polarization angle estimators, and evaluate the statistical bias on the angle that appears when the covariance matrix exhibits effective ellipticity. We also address the question of the accuracy of the polarization fraction and angle uncertainty estimators. The methods linked to the credible intervals and to the variance estimates are tested against the robust confidence interval method. From this pool of estimators, we build recipes adapted to different use-cases: build a mask, compute large maps, and deal with low S/N data. More generally, we show that the traditional estimators suffer from discontinuous distributions at low S/N, while the asymptotic and Bayesian methods do not. Attention is given to the shape of the output distribution of the estimators, and is compared with a Gaussian. In this regard, the new asymptotic method presents the best performance, while the Bayesian output distribution is shown to be strongly asymmetric with a sharp cut at low S/N.Finally, we present an optimization of the estimator derived from the Bayesian analysis using adapted priors.

Polarization measurements analysis I. Impact of the full covariance matrix on polarization fraction and angle measurements

With the forthcoming release of high precision polarization measurements, such as from the Planck satellite, the metrology of polarization needs to improve. In particular, it is crucial to take into account full knowledge of the noise properties when estimating polarization fraction and angle, which suffer from well-known biases. While strong simplifying assumptions have usually been made in polarization analysis, we present a method for including the full covariance matrix of the Stokes parameters in estimates for the distributions of the polarization fraction and angle. We thereby quantify the impact of the noise properties on the biases in the observational quantities. We derive analytical expressions for the pdf of these quantities, taking into account the full complexity of the covariance matrix, including the Stokes I intensity components. We perform simulations to explore the impact of the noise properties on the statistical variance and bias of the polarization fraction and angle. We show that for low variations of the effective ellipticity between the Q and U components around the symmetrical case the covariance matrix may be simplified as is usually done, with negligible impact on the bias. For S/N on intensity lower than 10 the uncertainty on the total intensity is shown to drastically increase the uncertainty of the polarization fraction but not the relative bias, while a 10\% correlation between the intensity and the polarized components does not significantly affect the bias of the polarization fraction. We compare estimates of the uncertainties affecting polarization measurements, addressing limitations of estimates of the S/N, and we show how to build conservative confidence intervals for polarization fraction and angle simultaneously. This study is the first of a set of papers dedicated to the analysis of polarization measurements.

Compatibility of Planck and BICEP2 in the Light of Inflation [Replacement]

We investigate the implications for inflation of the detection of B-modes polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by BICEP2. We show that the hypothesis of primordial origin of the measurement is only favored by the first four bandpowers, while the others would prefer unreasonably large values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Using only those four bandpowers, we carry out a complete analysis in the cosmological and inflationary slow-roll parameter space using the BICEP2 polarization measurements alone and extract the Bayesian evidences and complexities for all the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris models. This allows us to determine the most probable and simplest BICEP2 inflationary scenarios. Although this list contains the simplest monomial potentials, it also includes many other scenarios, suggesting that focusing model building efforts on large field models only is unjustified at this stage. We demonstrate that the sets of inflationary models preferred by Planck alone and BICEP2 alone are almost disjoint, indicating a clear tension between the two data sets. We address this tension with a Bayesian measure of compatibility between BICEP2 and Planck. We find that for models favored by Planck the two data sets tend to be incompatible, whereas there is a moderate evidence of compatibility for the BICEP2 preferred models. As a result, it would be premature to draw any conclusion on the best Planck models, such as Starobinsky and/or Kahler moduli inflation. For the subset of scenarios not exhibiting data sets incompatibility, we update the evidences and complexities using both data sets together.

Compatibility of Planck and BICEP2 in the Light of Inflation [Replacement]

We investigate the implications for inflation of the detection of B-modes polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by BICEP2. We show that the hypothesis of primordial origin of the measurement is only favored by the first four bandpowers, while the others would prefer unreasonably large values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Using only those four bandpowers, we carry out a complete analysis in the cosmological and inflationary slow-roll parameter space using the BICEP2 polarization measurements alone and extract the Bayesian evidences and complexities for all the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris models. This allows us to determine the most probable and simplest BICEP2 inflationary scenarios. Although this list contains the simplest monomial potentials, it also includes many other scenarios, suggesting that focusing model building efforts on large field models only is unjustified at this stage. We demonstrate that the sets of inflationary models preferred by Planck alone and BICEP2 alone are almost disjoint, indicating a clear tension between the two data sets. We address this tension with a Bayesian measure of compatibility between BICEP2 and Planck. We find that for models favored by Planck the two data sets tend to be incompatible, whereas there is a moderate evidence of compatibility for the BICEP2 preferred models. As a result, it would be premature to draw any conclusion on the best Planck models, such as Starobinsky and/or Kahler moduli inflation. For the subset of scenarios not exhibiting data sets incompatibility, we update the evidences and complexities using both data sets together.

Compatibility of Planck and BICEP2 in the Light of Inflation [Replacement]

We investigate the implications for inflation of the detection of B-modes polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by BICEP2. We show that the hypothesis of primordial origin of the measurement is only favored by the first four bandpowers, while the others would prefer unreasonably large values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Using only those four bandpowers, we carry out a complete analysis in the cosmological and inflationary slow-roll parameter space using the BICEP2 polarization measurements alone and extract the Bayesian evidences and complexities for all the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris models. This allows us to determine the most probable and simplest BICEP2 inflationary scenarios. Although this list contains the simplest monomial potentials, it also includes many other scenarios, suggesting that focusing model building efforts on large field models only is unjustified at this stage. We demonstrate that the sets of inflationary models preferred by Planck alone and BICEP2 alone are almost disjoint, indicating a clear tension between the two data sets. We address this tension with a Bayesian measure of compatibility between BICEP2 and Planck. We find that for models favored by Planck the two data sets tend to be incompatible, whereas there is a moderate evidence of compatibility for the BICEP2 preferred models. As a result, it would be premature to draw any conclusion on the best Planck models, such as Starobinsky and/or Kahler moduli inflation. For the subset of scenarios not exhibiting data sets incompatibility, we update the evidences and complexities using both data sets together.

Compatibility of Planck and BICEP2 in the Light of Inflation [Replacement]

We investigate the implications for inflation of the detection of B-modes polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by BICEP2. We show that the hypothesis of primordial origin of the measurement is only favored by the first four bandpowers, while the others would prefer unreasonably large values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Using only those four bandpowers, we carry out a complete analysis in the cosmological and inflationary slow-roll parameter space using the BICEP2 polarization measurements alone and extract the Bayesian evidences and complexities for all the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris models. This allows us to determine the most probable and simplest BICEP2 inflationary scenarios. Although this list contains the simplest monomial potentials, it also includes many other scenarios, suggesting that focusing model building efforts on large field models only is unjustified at this stage. We demonstrate that the sets of inflationary models preferred by Planck alone and BICEP2 alone are almost disjoint, indicating a clear tension between the two data sets. We address this tension with a Bayesian measure of compatibility between BICEP2 and Planck. We find that for models favored by Planck the two data sets tend to be incompatible, whereas there is a moderate evidence of compatibility for the BICEP2 preferred models. As a result, it would be premature to draw any conclusion on the best Planck models, such as Starobinsky and/or Kahler moduli inflation. For the subset of scenarios not exhibiting data sets incompatibility, we update the evidences and complexities using both data sets together.

Compatibility of Planck and BICEP2 in the Light of Inflation

We investigate the implications for inflation of the detection of B-modes polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by BICEP2. We show that the hypothesis of primordial origin of the measurement is only favored by the first four bandpowers, while the others would prefer unreasonably large values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Using only those four bandpowers, we carry out a complete analysis in the cosmological and inflationary slow-roll parameter space using the BICEP2 polarization measurements alone and extract the Bayesian evidences and complexities for all the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris models. This allows us to determine the most probable and simplest BICEP2 inflationary scenarios. Although this list contains the simplest monomial potentials, it also includes many other scenarios, suggesting that focusing model building efforts on large field models only is unjustified at this stage. We demonstrate that the sets of inflationary models preferred by Planck alone and BICEP2 alone are almost disjoint, indicating a clear tension between the two data sets. We address this tension with a Bayesian measure of compatibility between BICEP2 and Planck. We find that for models favored by Planck the two data sets tend to be incompatible, whereas there is a moderate evidence of compatibility for the BICEP2 preferred models. As a result, it would be premature to draw any conclusion on the best Planck models, such as Starobinsky and/or Kahler moduli inflation. For the subset of scenarios not exhibiting data sets incompatibility, we update the evidences and complexities using both data sets together.

Compatibility of Planck and BICEP2 in the Light of Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the implications for inflation of the detection of B-modes polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by BICEP2. We show that the hypothesis of primordial origin of the measurement is only favored by the first four bandpowers, while the others would prefer unreasonably large values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Using only those four bandpowers, we carry out a complete analysis in the cosmological and inflationary slow-roll parameter space using the BICEP2 polarization measurements alone and extract the Bayesian evidences and complexities for all the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris models. This allows us to determine the most probable and simplest BICEP2 inflationary scenarios. Although this list contains the simplest monomial potentials, it also includes many other scenarios, suggesting that focusing model building efforts on large field models only is unjustified at this stage. We demonstrate that the sets of inflationary models preferred by Planck alone and BICEP2 alone are almost disjoint, indicating a clear tension between the two data sets. We address this tension with a Bayesian measure of compatibility between BICEP2 and Planck. We find that for models favored by Planck the two data sets tend to be incompatible, whereas there is a moderate evidence of compatibility for the BICEP2 preferred models. As a result, it would be premature to draw any conclusion on the best Planck models, such as Starobinsky and/or Kahler moduli inflation. For the subset of scenarios not exhibiting data sets incompatibility, we update the evidences and complexities using both data sets together.

Compatibility of Planck and BICEP2 in the Light of Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the implications for inflation of the detection of B-modes polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by BICEP2. We show that the hypothesis of primordial origin of the measurement is only favored by the first four bandpowers, while the others would prefer unreasonably large values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Using only those four bandpowers, we carry out a complete analysis in the cosmological and inflationary slow-roll parameter space using the BICEP2 polarization measurements alone and extract the Bayesian evidences and complexities for all the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris models. This allows us to determine the most probable and simplest BICEP2 inflationary scenarios. Although this list contains the simplest monomial potentials, it also includes many other scenarios, suggesting that focusing model building efforts on large field models only is unjustified at this stage. We demonstrate that the sets of inflationary models preferred by Planck alone and BICEP2 alone are almost disjoint, indicating a clear tension between the two data sets. We address this tension with a Bayesian measure of compatibility between BICEP2 and Planck. We find that for models favored by Planck the two data sets tend to be incompatible, whereas there is a moderate evidence of compatibility for the BICEP2 preferred models. As a result, it would be premature to draw any conclusion on the best Planck models, such as Starobinsky and/or Kahler moduli inflation. For the subset of scenarios not exhibiting data sets incompatibility, we update the evidences and complexities using both data sets together.

A joint analysis of Planck and BICEP2 B modes including dust polarization uncertainty [Replacement]

We analyze BICEP2 and Planck data using a model that includes CMB lensing, gravity waves, and polarized dust. Planck dust polarization maps have highlighted the difficulty of estimating the dust polarization in low intensity regions, suggesting that the polarization fractions have considerable uncertainties and may be significantly higher than previous predictions. In this paper, we start by assuming nothing about the dust polarization except for the power spectrum shape, which we take to be $C_{l}^{BB} \propto l^{-2.42}$. The resulting joint BICEP2+Planck analysis favors solutions without gravity waves, and the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r<0.11$, a slight improvement relative to the Planck analysis alone which gives $r<0.13$ (95% c.l.). The estimated amplitude of the dust polarization power spectrum agrees with expectations for this field based on both HI column density and Planck polarization measurements at 353 GHz in the BICEP2 field. Including the latter constraint in our analysis improves the limit further to $r < 0.09$, placing strong constraints on inflation (e.g., models with $r>0.14$ are excluded with 99.5% confidence). We address the cross-correlation analysis of BICEP2 at 150 GHz with BICEP1 at 100 GHz as a test of foreground contamination. We find that the null hypothesis of dust and lensing with $r=0$ gives $\Delta \chi^2<2$ relative to the hypothesis of no dust, so the frequency analysis does not strongly favor either model over the other. We also discuss how more accurate dust polarization maps may improve our constraints. If the dust polarization is measured perfectly, the limit can reach $r<0.05$, but this degrades quickly to almost no improvement if the dust calibration error is 20% or larger or if the dust maps are not processed through the BICEP2 pipeline, inducing sampling variance noise. (Abridged.)

A joint analysis of Planck and BICEP2 B modes including dust polarization uncertainty [Replacement]

We analyze BICEP2 and Planck data using a model that includes CMB lensing, gravity waves, and polarized dust. Planck dust polarization maps have highlighted the difficulty of estimating the dust polarization in low intensity regions, suggesting that the polarization fractions have considerable uncertainties and may be significantly higher than previous predictions. In this paper, we start by assuming nothing about the dust polarization except for the power spectrum shape, which we take to be $C_{l}^{BB} \propto l^{-2.42}$. The resulting joint BICEP2+Planck analysis favors solutions without gravity waves, and the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r<0.11$, a slight improvement relative to the Planck analysis alone which gives $r<0.13$ (95% c.l.). The estimated amplitude of the dust polarization power spectrum agrees with expectations for this field based on both HI column density and Planck polarization measurements at 353 GHz in the BICEP2 field. Including the latter constraint in our analysis improves the limit further to $r < 0.09$, placing strong constraints on inflation (e.g., models with $r>0.14$ are excluded with 99.5% confidence). We address the cross-correlation analysis of BICEP2 at 150 GHz with BICEP1 at 100 GHz as a test of foreground contamination. We find that the null hypothesis of dust and lensing with $r=0$ gives $\Delta \chi^2<2$ relative to the hypothesis of no dust, so the frequency analysis does not strongly favor either model over the other. We also discuss how more accurate dust polarization maps may improve our constraints. If the dust polarization is measured perfectly, the limit can reach $r<0.05$, but this degrades quickly to almost no improvement if the dust calibration error is 20% or larger or if the dust maps are not processed through the BICEP2 pipeline, inducing sampling variance noise. (Abridged.)

 

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