Posts Tagged perturbation

Recent Postings from perturbation

Scalar Perturbation Produced at the Pre-inflationary Stage in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld Gravity

We investigate the scalar perturbation produced at the pre-inflationary stage driven by a massive scalar field in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. The scalar power spectrum exhibits a peculiar rise for low $k$-modes. The tensor-to-scalar ratio can be significantly lowered compared with that in the standard chaotic inflation model in general relativity. This result is very affirmative considering the recent dispute on the detection of the gravitational wave radiation between PLANCK and BICEP2.

Scalar Perturbation Produced at the Pre-inflationary Stage in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the scalar perturbation produced at the pre-inflationary stage driven by a massive scalar field in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. The scalar power spectrum exhibits a peculiar rise for low $k$-modes. The tensor-to-scalar ratio can be significantly lowered compared with that in the standard chaotic inflation model in general relativity. This result is very affirmative considering the recent dispute on the detection of the gravitational wave radiation between PLANCK and BICEP2.

Separable wave equations for gravitoelectromagnetic perturbations of rotating charged black strings

In this paper we develop a completely gauge and tetrad invariant perturbation approach to deal with the gravitoelectromagnetic fluctuations of rotating charged black strings. The associated background metric tensor and gauge field represent an exact four-dimensional solution of Einstein-Maxwell equations with a negative cosmological constant and a non-trivial spacetime topology. As usual, for any charged black hole, a perturbation in the background electromagnetic field induces a metric perturbation and vice versa. In spite of this coupling and the non-vanishing angular momentum, we show that, in the Newman-Penrose formalism, and in the presence of sources, the linearization of the field equations leads to a pair of second-order complex equations for suitable combinations of the spin coefficients, the Weyl and the Maxwell scalars. Then, we generalize the Chandrasekhar transformation theory by the inclusion of source terms and apply it to reduce the perturbation problem to four decoupled inhomogeneous wave equations — a pair for each sector of perturbations. The radial part of such wave equations can be put into Schrodinger-like forms after Fourier transforming them with respect to time. We find that the resulting effective potentials form two pairs of supersymmetric partner potentials and, as a consequence, the fundamental variables of one perturbation sector are related to the variables of the other sector.

Unimodular Theory of Gravity and Inflation

We study inflation and its scalar perturbations in the unimodular theory of gravity. When the unimodular parameter is $\xi=6$, the classical picture of inflation such as the slow-roll parameters, the number of $e$-foldings and the scale of the scalar field, can be reproduced in the unimodular theory because it recovers the background equations of the standard theory of general relativity. Considering the scalar perturbation, the unimodular gravity constrains the gauge degree of freedom, but the perturbation equations are similar to those in general relativity. For $\xi \neq 6$, we derived the power spectrum and the spectral index, and obtain the unimodular correction to the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Depending on the value of $\xi$, the correction can either raise or lower the value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Degeneracy between CCDM and $\Lambda$CDM cosmologies

The creation of cold dark matter cosmology model is studied beyond the linear perturbation level. The skewness is explicitly computed and the results are compared to those from the $\Lambda$CDM model. It is explicitly shown that both models have the same signature for the skewness and cannot be distinguished by using this observable.

Degeneracy between CCDM and $\Lambda$CDM cosmologies [Cross-Listing]

The creation of cold dark matter cosmology model is studied beyond the linear perturbation level. The skewness is explicitly computed and the results are compared to those from the $\Lambda$CDM model. It is explicitly shown that both models have the same signature for the skewness and cannot be distinguished by using this observable.

Degeneracy between CCDM and $\Lambda$CDM cosmologies [Cross-Listing]

The creation of cold dark matter cosmology model is studied beyond the linear perturbation level. The skewness is explicitly computed and the results are compared to those from the $\Lambda$CDM model. It is explicitly shown that both models have the same signature for the skewness and cannot be distinguished by using this observable.

RSOS Quantum Chains Associated with Off-Critical Minimal Models and $\mathbb{Z}_n$ Parafermions

We consider the $\varphi_{1,3}$ off-critical perturbation ${\cal M}(m,m’;t)$ of the general non-unitary minimal models where $2\le m\le m’$ and $m, m’$ are coprime and $t$ measures the departure from criticality corresponding to the $\varphi_{1,3}$ integrable perturbation. We view these models as the continuum scaling limit in the ferromagnetic Regime III of the Forrester-Baxter Restricted Solid-On-Solid (RSOS) models on the square lattice. We also consider the RSOS models in the antiferromagnetic Regime II related in the continuum scaling limit to $\mathbb{Z}_n$ parfermions with $n=m’-2$. Using an elliptic Yang-Baxter algebra of planar tiles encoding the allowed face configurations, we obtain the Hamiltonians of the associated quantum chains defined as the logarithmic derivative of the transfer matrices with periodic boundary conditions. The transfer matrices and Hamiltonians act on a vector space of paths on the $A_{m’-1}$ Dynkin diagram whose dimension is counted by generalized Fibonacci numbers.

Constraining the growth of perturbations with lensing of supernovae

A recently proposed technique allows one to constrain both the background and perturbation cosmological parameters through the distribution function of supernova Ia apparent magnitudes. Here we extend this technique to alternative cosmological scenarios, in which the growth of structure does not follow the $\Lambda$CDM prescription. We apply the method first to the supernova data provided by the JLA catalog combined with redshift distortion data and with low-redshift cluster data and show that although the supernovae alone are not very constraining, they help in reducing the confidence regions. Then we apply our method to future data from LSST and from a survey that approximates the Euclid satellite mission. In this case we show that the combined data are nicely complementary and can constrain the normalization $\sigma_8$ and the growth rate index $\gamma$ to within $0.6\%$ and $7\%$, respectively. In particular, the LSST supernova catalog is forecast to give the constraint $\gamma (\sigma_8/0.83)^{6.7} = 0.55 \pm 0.1$. We also report on constraints relative to a step-wise parametrization of the growth rate of structures. These results show that supernova lensing serves as a good cross-check on the measurement of perturbation parameters from more standard techniques.

Constraining the growth of perturbations with lensing of supernovae [Cross-Listing]

A recently proposed technique allows one to constrain both the background and perturbation cosmological parameters through the distribution function of supernova Ia apparent magnitudes. Here we extend this technique to alternative cosmological scenarios, in which the growth of structure does not follow the $\Lambda$CDM prescription. We apply the method first to the supernova data provided by the JLA catalog combined with redshift distortion data and with low-redshift cluster data and show that although the supernovae alone are not very constraining, they help in reducing the confidence regions. Then we apply our method to future data from LSST and from a survey that approximates the Euclid satellite mission. In this case we show that the combined data are nicely complementary and can constrain the normalization $\sigma_8$ and the growth rate index $\gamma$ to within $0.6\%$ and $7\%$, respectively. In particular, the LSST supernova catalog is forecast to give the constraint $\gamma (\sigma_8/0.83)^{6.7} = 0.55 \pm 0.1$. We also report on constraints relative to a step-wise parametrization of the growth rate of structures. These results show that supernova lensing serves as a good cross-check on the measurement of perturbation parameters from more standard techniques.

Magnetohydrodynamic stability of stochastically driven accretion flows

We investigate the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic perturbations in presence of stochastic noise in rotating shear flows. The particular emphasis is the flows whose angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows, however, are Rayleigh stable, but must be turbulent in order to explain astrophysical observed data and, hence, reveal a mismatch between the linear theory and observations/experiments. The mismatch seems to have been resolved, at least in certain regimes, in presence of weak magnetic field revealing magnetorotational instability. The present work explores the effects of stochastic noise on such magnetohydrodynamic flows, in order to resolve the above mismatch generically for the hot flows. It is found that such stochastically driven flows exhibit large temporal and spatial autocorrelations and cross-correlations of perturbation and hence large energy dissipations of perturbation, which generate instability.

A Transition from Flat Space to Curved One [Replacement]

We investigate the way the fundamental strings are related to supergravity background. That means once the endpoints of the D-strings are electrified we found that the flat space becomes curved one. To prove that, we study the electrified relative and overall transverse perturbations of fuzzy funnel solutions of intersecting $(N,N_f)$-strings and D5 branes in flat and then supergravity backgrounds. We deal with the linearized equations of these perturbations. As result the perturbations have a discontinuity which corresponds to a zero phase shift realizing Polchinskis open string Neumann boundary condition. Also we get an interesting result; in flat space once the electric field $E$ is turned on these perturbations decrease and when $E$ is close to the critical value the perturbations disappear forever and the string coupling becomes strong. At this stage the space is considered curved. Also the potential associated to the perturbations on the funnel solutions goes to $+\infty$ for all $E$ in curved space but it goes to $-\infty$ for $E\approx \frac{1}{\lambda}$ in flat space. In supergravity background, the $+\infty$ potential could be a sign to the absence of the perturbation effects and in flat background the $-\infty$ potential could mean a kink to increase the $\Phi$ velocity to disappear.

A Transition from Flat Space to Curved One

We investigate the way the fundamental strings are related to supergravity background. That means once the endpoints of the D-strings are electrified we found that the flat space becomes curved one. To prove that, we study the electrified relative and overall transverse perturbations of fuzzy funnel solutions of intersecting $(N,N_f)$-strings and D5 branes in flat and then supergravity backgrounds. We deal with the linearized equations of these perturbations. As result the perturbations have a discontinuity which corresponds to a zero phase shift realizing Polchinskis open string Neumann boundary condition. Also we get an interesting result; in flat space once the electric field $E$ is turned on these perturbations decrease and when $E$ is close to the critical value the perturbations disappear forever and the string coupling becomes strong. At this stage the space is considered curved. Also the potential associated to the perturbations on the funnel solutions goes to $+\infty$ for all $E$ in curved space but it goes to $-\infty$ for $E\approx \frac{1}{\lambda}$ in flat space. In supergravity background, the $+\infty$ potential could be a sign to the absence of the perturbation effects and in flat background the $-\infty$ potential could mean a kink to increase the $\Phi$ velocity to disappear.

On the perturbation of the luminosity distance by peculiar motions

We consider some aspects of the perturbation to the luminosity distance $d(z)$ that are of relevance for SN1a cosmology and for future peculiar velocity surveys at non-negligible redshifts. 1) Previous work has shown that the correction to the lowest order perturbation $\delta d / d = -\delta v / c z$ has the peculiar characteristic that it appears to depend on the absolute state of motion of sources, rather than on their motion relative to that of the observer. The resolution of this apparent violation of the equivalence principle is that it is necessary to allow for evolution of the velocities with time, and also, when considering perturbations on the scale of the observer-source separation, to include the gravitational redshift effect. We provide an expression for $\delta d / d$ that provides a physically consistent way to compute the impact of peculiar motions for SN1a cosmology and peculiar velocity surveys. 2) We then calculate the perturbation to the redshift as a function of source flux density, which has been proposed as an alternative probe of large-scale motions. We show how the inclusion of surface brightness modulation modifies the relation between $\delta z(m)$ and the peculiar velocity, and that, while the noise properties of this method might appear promising, the velocity signal is swamped by the effect of galaxy clustering for most scales of interest. 3) We show how, in linear theory, peculiar velocity measurements are biased downwards by the effect of smaller scale motions or by measurement errors (such as in photometric redshifts). Our results nicely explain the effects seen in simulations by Koda et al.\ 2013. We critically examine the prospects for extending peculiar velocity studies to larger scales with near-term future surveys.

Michel Henon's first research article: An improved calculation of the perturbation of stellar velocities

Fifteen years after the discovery of dynamical friction by Chandrasekhar, Michel Henon attempts to solve the longstanding problem of the divergence of the friction suffered by the perturber and caused by the most distant cluster stars. His solution laid the foundation to the current understanding of dynamical friction as a non-local transitory force.

The long-short wavelength mode coupling tightens primordial black hole constraints

The effects of non-gaussianity on the constraints on the primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum from primordial black holes (PBHs) are considered. We extend previous analyses to include the effects of coupling between the modes of the horizon scale at the time the PBH forms and super-horizon modes. We consider terms of up to third order in the Gaussian perturbation. For the weakest constraints on the abundance of PBHs in the early universe (corresponding to a fractional energy density of PBHs of $10^{-5}$ at the time of formation), in the case of gaussian perturbations, constraints on the power spectrum are $\mathcal{P}_{\zeta}<0.05$ but can significantly tighter when even a small amount of non-gaussianity is considered, to $\mathcal{P}_{\zeta}<0.01$, and become approximately $\mathcal{P}_{\zeta}<0.003$ in more special cases. Surprisingly, even when there is negative skew (which naively would suggest fewer areas of high density, leading to weaker constraints), we find that the constraints on the power spectrum become tighter than the purely gaussian case – in strong contrast with previous results. We find that the constraints are highly sensitive to both the non-gaussianity parameters as well as the amplitude of super-horizon perturbations.

Shell instability of a collapsing dense core

Understanding the formation of binary and multiple stellar systems largely comes down to studying the circumstances for the fragmentation of a condensing core during the first stages of the collapse. However, the probability of fragmentation and the number of fragments seem to be determined to a large degree by the initial conditions. In this work we study the fate of the linear perturbations of a homogeneous gas sphere both analytically and numerically. In particular, we investigate the stability of the well-known homologous solution that describes the collapse of a uniform spherical cloud. The difficulty of the mathematical singularity in the perturbation equations is surpassed here by explicitly introducing a weak shock next to the sonic point. In parallel, we perform adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) numerical simulations of the linear stages of the collapse and compared the growth rates obtained by each method. With this combination of analytical and numerical tools, we explore the behavior of both spherically symmetric and non-axisymmetric perturbations. The numerical experiments provide the linear growth rates as a function of the core’s initial virial parameter and as a function of the azimuthal wave number of the perturbation. The overlapping regime of the numerical experiments and the analytical predictions is the situation of a cold and large cloud, and in this regime the analytically calculated growth rates agree very well with the ones obtained from the simulations. The use of a weak shock as part of the perturbation allows us to find a physically acceptable solution to the equations for a continuous range of growth rates. The numerical simulations agree very well with the analytical prediction for the most unstable cores, while they impose a limit of a virial parameter of 0.1 for core fragmentation in the absence of rotation.

Stability and Anti-evaporation of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter Black Holes in Bigravity [Replacement]

We study the stability under the perturbation and the related anti-evaporation of the Nariai space-time in bigravity. If we impose specific condition for the solutions and parameters, we obtain asymptotically de Sitter space-time, and show the existence of the Nariai space-time as a background solution. Considering the perturbation around the Nariai space-time up to first order, we investigate the behavior of black hole horizon. We show that the anti-evaporation does not occur on the classical level in the bigravity.

Stability and Anti-evaporation of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter Black Holes in Bigravity [Replacement]

We study the stability under the perturbation and the related anti-evaporation of the Nariai space-time in bigravity. If we impose specific condition for the solutions and parameters, we obtain asymptotically de Sitter space-time, and show the existence of the Nariai space-time as a background solution. Considering the perturbation around the Nariai space-time up to first order, we investigate the behavior of black hole horizon. We show that the anti-evaporation does not occur on the classical level in the bigravity.

Stability and Anti-evaporation of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter Balck Holes in Bigravity [Cross-Listing]

We study the stability under the perturbation and the related anti-evaporation of the Nariai space-time in bigravity. If we impose specific condition for the solutions and parameters, we obtain asymptotically de Sitter space-time, and show the existence of the Nariai space-time as a background solution. Considering the perturbation around the Nariai space-time up to first order, we investigate the behavior of black hole horizon. We show that the anti-evaporation does not occur on the classical level in the bigravity.

Stability and Anti-evaporation of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter Balck Holes in Bigravity

We study the stability under the perturbation and the related anti-evaporation of the Nariai space-time in bigravity. If we impose specific condition for the solutions and parameters, we obtain asymptotically de Sitter space-time, and show the existence of the Nariai space-time as a background solution. Considering the perturbation around the Nariai space-time up to first order, we investigate the behavior of black hole horizon. We show that the anti-evaporation does not occur on the classical level in the bigravity.

Perturbing a quantum gravity condensate

In a recent proposal using the group field theory (GFT) approach, a spatially homogeneous (generally anisotropic) universe is described as a quantum gravity condensate of ‘atoms of space’, which allows the derivation of an effective cosmological Friedmann equation from the microscopic quantum gravity dynamics. Here we take a first step towards the study of cosmological perturbations over the homogeneous background. We consider a state in which a single ‘atom’ is added to an otherwise homogeneous condensate. Backreaction of the perturbation on the background is negligible and the background dynamics can be solved separately. The dynamics for the perturbation takes the form of a quantum cosmology Hamiltonian for a ‘wavefunction’, depending on background and perturbations, of the product form usually assumed in a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The perturbation we consider can then be interpreted as a spatially homogeneous metric perturbation. For this case, our results show how perturbations can be added to condensate states in quantum gravity, deriving the usual procedures in quantum cosmology from fundamental quantum gravity.

Perturbing a quantum gravity condensate [Cross-Listing]

In a recent proposal using the group field theory (GFT) approach, a spatially homogeneous (generally anisotropic) universe is described as a quantum gravity condensate of ‘atoms of space’, which allows the derivation of an effective cosmological Friedmann equation from the microscopic quantum gravity dynamics. Here we take a first step towards the study of cosmological perturbations over the homogeneous background. We consider a state in which a single ‘atom’ is added to an otherwise homogeneous condensate. Backreaction of the perturbation on the background is negligible and the background dynamics can be solved separately. The dynamics for the perturbation takes the form of a quantum cosmology Hamiltonian for a ‘wavefunction’, depending on background and perturbations, of the product form usually assumed in a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The perturbation we consider can then be interpreted as a spatially homogeneous metric perturbation. For this case, our results show how perturbations can be added to condensate states in quantum gravity, deriving the usual procedures in quantum cosmology from fundamental quantum gravity.

Estimation of Inflation parameters for Perturbed Power Law model using recent CMB measurements

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an important probe for understanding the inflationary era of the Universe. We consider the Perturbed Power Law (PPL) model of inflation which is a soft deviation from Power Law (PL) inflationary model. This model captures the effect of higher order derivative of Hubble parameter during inflation, which in turn leads to a non-zero effective mass $m_{\rm eff}$ for the inflaton field. The higher order derivatives of Hubble parameter at leading order sources constant difference in the spectral index for scalar and tensor perturbation going beyond PL model of inflation. PPL model have two observable independent parameters, namely spectral index for tensor perturbation $\nu_t$ and change in spectral index for scalar perturbation $\nu_{st}$ to explain the observed features in the scalar and tensor power spectrum of perturbation. From the recent measurements of CMB power spectra by WMAP, Planck and BICEP-2 for temperature and polarization, we estimate the feasibility of PPL model with standard $\Lambda$CDM model. With this model, we estimate a non-zero value of tensor spectral index at significance of $5.36$ and a non-zero value of effective mass $\frac{m^2_{\rm eff}}{H^2} = -0.0237 \pm 0.0045$, of the inflaton field.

Estimation of Inflation parameters for Perturbed Power Law model using recent CMB measurements [Cross-Listing]

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an important probe for understanding the inflationary era of the Universe. We consider the Perturbed Power Law (PPL) model of inflation which is a soft deviation from Power Law (PL) inflationary model. This model captures the effect of higher order derivative of Hubble parameter during inflation, which in turn leads to a non-zero effective mass $m_{\rm eff}$ for the inflaton field. The higher order derivatives of Hubble parameter at leading order sources constant difference in the spectral index for scalar and tensor perturbation going beyond PL model of inflation. PPL model have two observable independent parameters, namely spectral index for tensor perturbation $\nu_t$ and change in spectral index for scalar perturbation $\nu_{st}$ to explain the observed features in the scalar and tensor power spectrum of perturbation. From the recent measurements of CMB power spectra by WMAP, Planck and BICEP-2 for temperature and polarization, we estimate the feasibility of PPL model with standard $\Lambda$CDM model. With this model, we estimate a non-zero value of tensor spectral index at significance of $5.36$ and a non-zero value of effective mass $\frac{m^2_{\rm eff}}{H^2} = -0.0237 \pm 0.0045$, of the inflaton field.

Super-inflation and generation of first order vector perturbations in ELKO

In this work we construct a model where first order vector perturbations can be generated during inflationary expansion. For the non-standard spinors, known as ELKO, we show that the ($\eta-i$) component of the first order perturbed energy-momentum tensor of the ELKO is non-zero for pure vector part of the metric perturbation ($B_{i}$). We show that vector perturbations do not decay in the super-horizon scale and for a specific super-inflation background model we show that the vector perturbations are nearly scale invariant, while its amplitude is smaller than the primordial scalar perturbations. We also comment on the generation of vorticity.

Super-inflation and generation of first order vector perturbations in ELKO [Cross-Listing]

In this work we construct a model where first order vector perturbations can be generated during inflationary expansion. For the non-standard spinors, known as ELKO, we show that the ($\eta-i$) component of the first order perturbed energy-momentum tensor of the ELKO is non-zero for pure vector part of the metric perturbation ($B_{i}$). We show that vector perturbations do not decay in the super-horizon scale and for a specific super-inflation background model we show that the vector perturbations are nearly scale invariant, while its amplitude is smaller than the primordial scalar perturbations. We also comment on the generation of vorticity.

Super-inflation and generation of first order vector perturbations in ELKO [Cross-Listing]

In this work we construct a model where first order vector perturbations can be generated during inflationary expansion. For the non-standard spinors, known as ELKO, we show that the ($\eta-i$) component of the first order perturbed energy-momentum tensor of the ELKO is non-zero for pure vector part of the metric perturbation ($B_{i}$). We show that vector perturbations do not decay in the super-horizon scale and for a specific super-inflation background model we show that the vector perturbations are nearly scale invariant, while its amplitude is smaller than the primordial scalar perturbations. We also comment on the generation of vorticity.

Multi-field inflation from holography [Cross-Listing]

We initiate the study of multi-field inflation using holography. Bulk light scalar fields correspond to nearly marginal operators in the boundary theory and the dual quantum field theory is a deformation of a CFT by such operators. We compute the power spectra of adiabatic and entropy perturbations in a simple model and find that the adiabatic curvature perturbation is not conserved in the presence of entropy perturbations but becomes conserved when the entropy perturbations are set to zero or the model is effectively a single scalar model, in agreement with expectations from cosmological perturbation theory.

Multi-field inflation from holography [Cross-Listing]

We initiate the study of multi-field inflation using holography. Bulk light scalar fields correspond to nearly marginal operators in the boundary theory and the dual quantum field theory is a deformation of a CFT by such operators. We compute the power spectra of adiabatic and entropy perturbations in a simple model and find that the adiabatic curvature perturbation is not conserved in the presence of entropy perturbations but becomes conserved when the entropy perturbations are set to zero or the model is effectively a single scalar model, in agreement with expectations from cosmological perturbation theory.

Multi-field inflation from holography

We initiate the study of multi-field inflation using holography. Bulk light scalar fields correspond to nearly marginal operators in the boundary theory and the dual quantum field theory is a deformation of a CFT by such operators. We compute the power spectra of adiabatic and entropy perturbations in a simple model and find that the adiabatic curvature perturbation is not conserved in the presence of entropy perturbations but becomes conserved when the entropy perturbations are set to zero or the model is effectively a single scalar model, in agreement with expectations from cosmological perturbation theory.

A short note on the curvature perturbation at second order

Working with perturbations about an FLRW spacetime, we compute the gauge-invariant curvature perturbation to second order solely in terms of scalar field fluctuations. Using the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces as our starting point, we give our results in terms of field fluctuations in the flat gauge, incorporating both large and small scale behaviour. For ease of future numerical implementation we give our result in terms of the scalar field fluctuations and their time derivatives.

A short note on the curvature perturbation at second order [Cross-Listing]

Working with perturbations about an FLRW spacetime, we compute the gauge-invariant curvature perturbation to second order solely in terms of scalar field fluctuations. Using the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces as our starting point, we give our results in terms of field fluctuations in the flat gauge, incorporating both large and small scale behaviour. For ease of future numerical implementation we give our result in terms of the scalar field fluctuations and their time derivatives.

Constraining dark sector perturbations II: ISW and CMB lensing tomography

Any Dark Energy (DE) or Modified Gravity (MG) model that deviates from a cosmological constant requires a consistent treatment of its perturbations, which can be described in terms of an entropy perturbation and an anisotropic stress. We have considered a recently proposed generic parameterisation of DE/MG perturbations and compared it to data from the Planck satellite and six galaxy catalogues, including temperature-galaxy (Tg), CMB lensing-galaxy and galaxy-galaxy (gg) correlations. Combining these observables of structure formation with tests of the background expansion allows us to investigate the properties of DE/MG both at the background and the perturbative level. Our constraints on DE/MG are mostly in agreement with the cosmological constant paradigm, while we also find that the constraint on the equation of state w (assumed to be constant) depends on the model assumed for the perturbation evolution. We obtain $w=-0.92^{+0.20}_{-0.16}$ (95% CL; CMB+gg+Tg) in the entropy perturbation scenario; in the anisotropic stress case the result is $w=-0.86^{+0.17}_{-0.16}$. Including the lensing correlations shifts the results towards higher values of w. If we include a prior on the expansion history from recent Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) measurements, we find that the constraints tighten closely around $w=-1$, making it impossible to measure any DE/MG perturbation evolution parameters. If, however, upcoming observations from surveys like DES, Euclid or LSST show indications for a deviation from a cosmological constant, our formalism will be a useful tool towards model selection in the dark sector.

Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar-tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar-tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (non)conservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.

Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar-tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar-tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (non)conservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.

Gravitational Collapse of Inhomogenous Perfect Fluid

We study the complete gravitational collapse of a class of inhomogeneous perfect fluid models obtained by introducing small radial perturbations in an otherwise homogeneous matter cloud. The key feature that we assume for the perturbation profile is that of a mass profile that is separable in radial and temporal coordinates. The known models of dust and homogeneous perfect fluid collapse can be obtained from this choice of the mass profile as special cases. This choice is very general and physically well motivated and we show that this class of collapse models can lead to the formation of a naked singularity as the final state.

Temperature fluctuations in an inhomogeneous diffusive fluid [Replacement]

We discuss metric perturbations of the relativistic diffusion equation around the homogeneous Juttner equilibrium of massless particles in a homogeneous expanding universe. The metric perturbation describes matter distribution and the gravitational wave background in an inhomogeneous universe. We show that the lowest order perturbation can be treated as a variation of temperature. We derive a formula expressing temperature fluctuations in terms of the diffusion and tensor power spectrum. We discuss the multipole expansion of the fluctuations in the presence of diffusion.

Temperature fluctuations in an inhomogeneous diffusive fluid

We discuss metric perturbations of the relativistic diffusion equation around the homogeneous Juttner equilibrium of massless particles in a homogeneous expanding universe. The metric perturbation describes matter distribution and the gravitational wave background in an inhomogeneous universe. We show that the lowest order perturbation can be treated as a variation of temperature. We derive a formula expressing temperature fluctuations in terms of the diffusion and tensor power spectrum. We discuss the multipole expansion of the fluctuations in the presence of diffusion.

Scalar perturbation in warm tachyon inflation in LQC in light of Plank and BICEP2 [Cross-Listing]

We study warm-tachyon inflationary universe model in the context of the effective field theory of loop quantum cosmology. In slow-roll approximation the primordial perturbation spectrums for this model are calculated. We also obtain the general expressions of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index. We develop this model by using exponential potential, the characteristics of this model is calculated in great details. The parameters of the model are restricted by recent observational data from Planck, WMAP9 and BICEP2.

Dynamical evolution of a vector field perturbation coupling to Einstein tensor [Replacement]

We have investigated the wave dynamics of a vector field perturbation coupling to Einstein tensor in the four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m black hole spacetime. Our results show that besides the dependence on the coupling between the vector field and Einstein tensor, the wave dynamic equation of the vector field perturbation strongly depends on the parity of the perturbation itself, which is quite different from that of the usual vector field perturbation without the coupling in the four-dimensional spacetime. Moreover, we also find that the vector field perturbation with odd parity grows with exponential rate if the coupling strength is stronger than certain a critical value. However, the vector field perturbation with even parity always decays in the Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m black hole spacetime.

Dynamical evolution of the electromagnetic perturbation coupling to Einstein tensor

We have investigated the wave dynamics of an electromagnetic perturbation coupling to Einstein tensor in the four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m black hole spacetime. Our results show that besides the dependence on the coupling between electromagnetic field and Einstein tensor, the wave dynamic equation of the perturbation strongly depends on the parity of the electromagnetic field itself, which is quite different from that of the usual electromagnetic perturbation without the coupling in the four-dimensional spacetime. Moreover, we also find that the electromagnetic perturbation with odd parity grows with exponential rate and the instability happens if the coupling strength is stronger than certain a critical value. However, the electromagnetic perturbation with even parity always decays in the Reissner-Nordstr\"{o}m black hole spacetime.

Perturbations to $\mu-\tau$ Symmetry, Leptogenesis and Lepton Flavour Violation with Type II Seesaw

We study the possibility of generating non-zero reactor mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ by perturbing the $\mu-\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix. The leading order $\mu-\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix originates from type I seesaw mechanism whereas the perturbations to $\mu-\tau$ symmetry originate from type II seesaw term. We consider four different realizations of $\mu-\tau$ symmetry: Bimaximal Mixing(BM), Tri-bimaximal Mixing (TBM), Hexagonal Mixing (HM) and Golden Ratio Mixing (GRM) all giving rise to $\theta_{13} = 0, \theta_{23} = \frac{\pi}{4}$ but different non-zero values of solar mixing angle $\theta_{12}$. We assume a minimal $\mu-\tau$ symmetry breaking type II seesaw mass matrix as a perturbation and calculate the neutrino oscillation parameters as a function of type II seesaw strength. We then consider the origin of non-trivial leptonic CP phase in the charged lepton sector and calculate the lepton asymmetry arising from the lightest right handed neutrino decay by incorporating the presence of both type I and type II seesaw. We constrain the type II seesaw strength as well as leptonic CP phase (and hence the charged lepton sector) by comparing our results with experimental neutrino oscillation parameters as well as Planck bound on baryon to photon ratio. Finally, we extend our analysis on lepton flavour violating decays like $\mu \to e \gamma$ and $\mu \to eee$ due to exchange of TeV scale Higgs triplet scalar within the low scale type II seesaw framework. The branching ratios for these lepton flavour processes are examined with the small type II perturbation term $\omega$ and the estimated values are very close to the experimental bound coming from current search experiments.

Perturbations to $\mu-\tau$ Symmetry, Leptogenesis and Lepton Flavour Violation with Type II Seesaw [Replacement]

We study the possibility of generating non-zero reactor mixing angle $\theta_{13}$ by perturbing the $\mu-\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix. The leading order $\mu-\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix originates from type I seesaw mechanism whereas the perturbations to $\mu-\tau$ symmetry originate from type II seesaw term. We consider four different realizations of $\mu-\tau$ symmetry: Bimaximal Mixing(BM), Tri-bimaximal Mixing (TBM), Hexagonal Mixing (HM) and Golden Ratio Mixing (GRM) all giving rise to $\theta_{13} = 0, \theta_{23} = \frac{\pi}{4}$ but different non-zero values of solar mixing angle $\theta_{12}$. We assume a minimal $\mu-\tau$ symmetry breaking type II seesaw mass matrix as a perturbation and calculate the neutrino oscillation parameters as a function of type II seesaw strength. We then consider the origin of non-trivial leptonic CP phase in the charged lepton sector and calculate the lepton asymmetry arising from the lightest right handed neutrino decay by incorporating the presence of both type I and type II seesaw. We constrain the type II seesaw strength as well as leptonic CP phase (and hence the charged lepton sector) by comparing our results with experimental neutrino oscillation parameters as well as Planck bound on baryon to photon ratio. Finally, we extend our analysis on lepton flavour violating decays like $\mu \to e \gamma$ and $\mu \to eee$ due to exchange of TeV scale Higgs triplet scalar within the low scale type II seesaw framework. The branching ratios for these lepton flavour processes are examined with the small type II perturbation term $\omega$ and the estimated values are very close to the experimental bound coming from current search experiments.

Tensor-to-Scalar Ratio in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld Inflation [Replacement]

We investigate the scalar perturbation of the inflation model driven by a massive-scalar field in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. We focus on the perturbation at the attractor stage in which the first and the second slow-roll conditions are satisfied. The scalar perturbation exhibits the corrections to the chaotic inflation model in general relativity. We find that the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes smaller than that of the usual chaotic inflation.

Tensor-to-Scalar Ratio in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld Inflation [Replacement]

We investigate the scalar perturbation of the inflation model driven by a massive-scalar field in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. We focus on the perturbation at the attractor stage in which the first and the second slow-roll conditions are satisfied. The scalar perturbation exhibits the corrections to the chaotic inflation model in general relativity. We find that the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes smaller than that of the usual chaotic inflation.

Tensor-to-Scalar Ratio in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld Inflation

We investigate the scalar perturbation of the inflation model driven by a massive-scalar field in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. We focus on the perturbation at the attractor stage in which the first and the second slow-roll conditions are satisfied. The scalar perturbation exhibits the corrections to the chaotic inflation model in general relativity. We find that the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes smaller than that of the usual chaotic inflation.

Tensor-to-Scalar Ratio in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the scalar perturbation of the inflation model driven by a massive-scalar field in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. We focus on the perturbation at the attractor stage in which the first and the second slow-roll conditions are satisfied. The scalar perturbation exhibits the corrections to the chaotic inflation model in general relativity. We find that the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes smaller than that of the usual chaotic inflation.

Axial gravitational perturbations of an infinite static line source

In this paper we study axial gravitational perturbations of an infinite static line source, represented by a form of the Levi-Civita metric. The perturbations are restricted to axial symmetry but break the cylindrical symmetry of the background metric. We analyze the gauge issues that arise in setting up the appropriate form of the perturbed metric and show that it is possible to restrict to diagonal terms, but that this does not fix the gauge completely. We derive the perturbation equations and show that they can be solved by solving a third order ordinary differential equation for an appropriately chosen function of the perturbed metric coefficients. The set of solutions of this equation contains gauge trivial parts, and we show how to extract the gauge non trivial components. We introduce appropriate boundary conditions on the solutions and show that these lead to a boundary value problem that determines the allowed functional forms of the perturbation modes. The associated eigenvalues determine a sort of "dispersion relation" for the frequencies and corresponding "wave vector" components. The central result of this analysis is that the spectrum of allowed frequencies contains one unstable (imaginary frequency) mode for every possible choice of the background metric. The completeness of the mode expansion in relation to the initial value problem and to the gauge problem is discussed in detail, and we show that the perturbations contain an unstable component for generic initial data, and, therefore, that the Levi-Civita space times are gravitationally unstable. We also include, for completeness, a set of approximate eigenvalues, and examples of the functional form of the solutions.

Higher derivatives and power spectrum in effective single field inflation [Cross-Listing]

We study next-to-leading corrections to the effective action of the curvature perturbation obtained by integrating out the coupled heavy isocurvature perturbation. These corrections result from applying higher order derivative operators of the effective theory expansion with respect to the mass scale of the heavy modes. We find that the correction terms are suppressed by the ratio of the Hubble parameter to the heavy mass scale. The corresponding corrections to the power spectrum of the curvature perturbation are presented for a simple illustrative example.

 

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