Posts Tagged pair

Recent Postings from pair

ALMACAL II: Extreme star-formation-rate densities in a pair of dusty starbursts at $z = 3.442$ revealed by ALMA 20-milliarcsec resolution imaging

We present ALMA ultra-high-spatial resolution ($\sim 20 \, {\rm mas}$) observations of dust continuum at $920 \, {\rm \mu m}$ and $1.2 \, {\rm mm}$ in a pair of submm galaxies (SMGs) at $z = 3.442$, ALMACAL-1 (A-1: $S_{\rm 870 \mu m} = 6.5 \pm 0.2 \, {\rm mJy}$) and ALMACAL-2 (A-2: $S_{\rm 870 \mu m} = 4.4 \pm 0.2 \, {\rm mJy}$). The spectroscopic redshifts of A-1 and A-2 have been confirmed via serendipitous detection of up to nine emission lines. Our ultra-high-spatial resolution data reveal that about half of the star formation in each of these starbursts is dominated by a single compact clump (FWHM size of $\sim 350 \, {\rm pc}$). This structure is confirmed by independent datasets at $920 \, {\rm \mu m}$ and $1.2 \, {\rm mm}$. The star-formation rate (SFR) surface densities of all these clumps are extremely high, $\Sigma_{\rm SFR} \sim 1200$ to $\sim 3000 \, {M_\odot \, {\rm yr}^{-1} \, {\rm kpc}^{-2}}$, the highest found in high-redshift galaxies. There is a small probability that A-1 and A-2 are the lensed components of a background source gravitationally amplified by the blazar host. If this was the case, the effective radius of the source would be $R_{\rm eff} \sim 40 \, {\rm pc}$, and the de-magnified SFR surface density would be $\Sigma_{\rm SFR} \sim 10000 \, {M_\odot \, {\rm yr}^{-1} \, {\rm kpc}^{-2}}$, comparable with the eastern nucleus of Arp 220. Despite being unable to rule out an AGN contribution, our results suggest that a significant percentage of the enormous far-IR luminosity in some dusty starbursts is concentrated in very small star-forming regions. The high $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ in our pair of SMGs could only be measured thanks to the ultra-high-resolution ALMA observations used in this work, demonstrating that long-baseline observations are essential to study and interpret the properties of dusty starbursts in the early Universe.

Cracking Down on Fake Photons - A Case of 750 GeV Diphoton Resonance -

Among various models to explain the $750$ GeV diphoton resonance hinted at the LHC Run 2, a class of models where the resonance decays not into a pair of photons but into a pair of photon-jets is gathering definite attention. In this paper, we study how well we can distinguish the di-photon-jet resonance from the diphoton resonance by examining detector responses to the photon-jets. We find that the sum of $p_T$ of the first $e^+e^-$ pair from the photon conversion provides strong discrimination power. We also discuss determination of the lifetime of the light intermediate particle by measuring the photon conversion points.

Cracking Down on Fake Photons - A Case of 750 GeV Diphoton Resonance - [Replacement]

Among various models to explain the $750$ GeV diphoton resonance hinted at the LHC Run 2, a class of models where the resonance decays not into a pair of photons but into a pair of photon-jets is gathering definite attention. In this paper, we study how well we can distinguish the di-photon-jet resonance from the diphoton resonance by examining detector responses to the photon-jets. We find that the sum of $p_T$ of the first $e^+e^-$ pair from the photon conversion provides strong discrimination power. We also discuss determination of the lifetime of the light intermediate particle by measuring the photon conversion points.

J1216+0709 : A radio galaxy with three episodes of AGN jet activity

We report the discovery of a `Triple-Double Radio Galaxy (TDRG)' J1216+0709 detected in deep low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. J1216+0709 is only the third radio galaxy, after B0925+420 and Speca, with three pairs of lobes resulting from three different episodes of AGN jet activity. The 610 MHz GMRT image clearly displays an inner pair of lobes, a nearly co-axial middle pair of lobes and a pair of outer lobes that is bent w.r.t. the axis of inner pair of lobes. The total end-to-end projected sizes of the inner, middle, and outer lobes are 40$^{{\prime}{\prime}}$ ($\sim$ 95 kpc), 1$^{\prime}$.65 ($\sim$ 235 kpc) and 5$^{\prime}$.7 ($\sim$ 814 kpc), respectively. Unlike the outer pair of lobes both the inner and middle pairs of lobes exhibit asymmetries in arm-lengths and flux densities, but in opposite sense, i.e., the eastern sides are farther and also brighter that the western sides, thus suggesting the possibility of jet being intrinsically asymmetric rather than due to relativistic beaming effect. The host galaxy is a bright elliptical (m$_{\rm r}$ $\sim$ 16.56) with M$_{\rm SMBH}$ $\sim$ 3.9 $\times$ 10$^{9}$ M$\odot$ and star-formation rate of $\sim$ 4.66$_{\rm -1.61}^{\rm +4.65}$ M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. The host galaxy resides is a small group of three galaxies (m$_{\rm r}$ $\leq$ 17.77) and is possibly going through the interaction with faint, dwarf galaxies in the neighbourhood, which may have triggered the recent episodes of AGN activity.

The $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ in the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay [Replacement]

We propose to study the $a_0(980)$ and the $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances in the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay via the final state interactions of the $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ pairs. The weak interaction part proceeds through the $c$ quark decay process: $c(ud) \to (s + u + \bar d)(ud)$, while the hadronization part takes place in two different mechanisms. In the first mechanism, the $sud$ cluster picks up a $q\bar{q}$ pair from the vacuum to form the $\eta\Lambda$ meson-baryon pair while the $u\bar{d}$ pair from the weak decay hadronizes into a $\pi^+$. In the second, the $sud$ cluster turns into a $\Lambda$, while the $u\bar{d}$ pair from the $c$ decay picks up a $q\bar{q}$ pair and hadronizes into a meson-meson pair ($\pi\eta$ or $K\bar{K}$). Because the final $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ states are in pure isospin $I = 1$ and $I=0$ combinations, the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay can be an ideal process to study the $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances. Describing the final state interaction in the chiral unitary approach, we find that the $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ invariant mass distributions, up to an arbitrary normalization, show clear cusp and peak structures, which can be associated with the $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances, respectively. The proposed mechanism can provide valuable information on the nature of these resonances and can in principle be test by facilities such as BEPCII.

The $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ in the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay

We propose to study the $a_0(980)$ and the $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances in the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay via the final state interactions of the $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ pairs. The weak interaction part proceeds through the $c$ quark decay process: $c(ud) \to (s + u + \bar d)(ud)$, while the hadronization part takes place in two different mechanisms. In the first mechanism, the $sud$ cluster picks up a $q\bar{q}$ pair from the vacuum to form the $\eta\Lambda$ meson-baryon pair while the $u\bar{d}$ pair from the weak decay hadronizes into a $\pi^+$. In the second, the $sud$ cluster turns into a $\Lambda$, while the $u\bar{d}$ pair from the $c$ decay picks up a $q\bar{q}$ pair and hadronizes into a meson-meson pair ($\pi\eta$ or $K\bar{K}$). Because the final $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ states are in pure isospin $I = 1$ and $I=0$ combinations, the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay can be an ideal process to study the $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances. Describing the final state interaction in the chiral unitary approach, we find that the $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ invariant mass distributions, up to an arbitrary normalization, show clear cusp and peak structures, which can be associated with the $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances, respectively. The proposed mechanism can provide valuable information on the nature of these resonances and can in principle be test by facilities such as BEPCII.

The $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ in the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay [Replacement]

We propose to study the $a_0(980)$ and the $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances in the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay via the final state interactions of the $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ pairs. The weak interaction part proceeds through the $c$ quark decay process: $c(ud) \to (s + u + \bar d)(ud)$, while the hadronization part takes place in two different mechanisms. In the first mechanism, the $sud$ cluster picks up a $q\bar{q}$ pair from the vacuum to form the $\eta\Lambda$ meson-baryon pair while the $u\bar{d}$ pair from the weak decay hadronizes into a $\pi^+$. In the second, the $sud$ cluster turns into a $\Lambda$, while the $u\bar{d}$ pair from the $c$ decay picks up a $q\bar{q}$ pair and hadronizes into a meson-meson pair ($\pi\eta$ or $K\bar{K}$). Because the final $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ states are in pure isospin $I = 1$ and $I=0$ combinations, the $\Lambda^+_c \to \pi^+ \eta \Lambda$ decay can be an ideal process to study the $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances. Describing the final state interaction in the chiral unitary approach, we find that the $\pi^+ \eta$ and $\eta \Lambda$ invariant mass distributions, up to an arbitrary normalization, show clear cusp and peak structures, which can be associated with the $a_0(980)$ and $\Lambda(1670)$ resonances, respectively. The proposed mechanism can provide valuable information on the nature of these resonances and can in principle be test by facilities such as BEPCII.

All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering [Replacement]

Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a $2\to4$ gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of $2\to2$ collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar ${\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large $N_c$) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the transcendental functions entering the non-MHV amplitude are finite in the same limit, at least through four loops.

All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering [Cross-Listing]

Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 to 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 to 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N_c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the non-MHV amplitude is finite in the same limit, to all loop orders.

All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering

Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 to 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 to 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N_c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the non-MHV amplitude is finite in the same limit, to all loop orders.

All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering [Replacement]

Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 to 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 to 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N_c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the transcendental functions entering the non-MHV amplitude are finite in the same limit, at least through four loops.

All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering [Replacement]

Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 to 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 to 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N_c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the transcendental functions entering the non-MHV amplitude are finite in the same limit, at least through four loops.

All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering [Replacement]

Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a $2\to4$ gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of $2\to2$ collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar ${\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large $N_c$) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the transcendental functions entering the non-MHV amplitude are finite in the same limit, at least through four loops.

Dark sector shining through 750 GeV dark Higgs boson at the LHC [Cross-Listing]

We consider a dark sector with $SU(3)_C \times U(1)_Y \times U(1)_X$ and three families of dark fermions that are chiral under dark $U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry, whereas scalar dark matter $X$ is the SM singlet. $U(1)_X$ dark symmetry is spontaneously broken by nonzero VEV of dark Higgs field $\langle \Phi \rangle$, generating the masses of dark fermions and dark photon $Z^\prime$. The resulting dark Higgs boson $\phi$ can be produced at the LHC by dark quark loop (involving 3 generation) and will decay into a pair of photon through charged dark fermion loop. Its decay width can be easily $\sim 45$ GeV due to its possible decays into a pair of dark photon, which is not strongly constrained by the current LHC searches $pp \rightarrow \phi \rightarrow Z^\prime Z^\prime$ followed by $Z^\prime$ decays into the SM fermion pairs. The scalar DM can achieve thermal relic density without conflict with direct detection bound or the invisible $\phi$ decay into a pair of DM.

Dark sector shining through 750 GeV dark Higgs boson at the LHC

We consider a dark sector with $SU(3)_C \times U(1)_Y \times U(1)_X$ and three families of dark fermions that are chiral under dark $U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry, whereas scalar dark matter $X$ is the SM singlet. $U(1)_X$ dark symmetry is spontaneously broken by nonzero VEV of dark Higgs field $\langle \Phi \rangle$, generating the masses of dark fermions and dark photon $Z^\prime$. The resulting dark Higgs boson $\phi$ can be produced at the LHC by dark quark loop (involving 3 generation) and will decay into a pair of photon through charged dark fermion loop. Its decay width can be easily $\sim 45$ GeV due to its possible decays into a pair of dark photon, which is not strongly constrained by the current LHC searches $pp \rightarrow \phi \rightarrow Z^\prime Z^\prime$ followed by $Z^\prime$ decays into the SM fermion pairs. The scalar DM can achieve thermal relic density without conflict with direct detection bound or the invisible $\phi$ decay into a pair of DM.

Dark sector shining through 750 GeV dark Higgs boson at the LHC [Replacement]

We consider a dark sector with $SU(3)_C \times U(1)_Y \times U(1)_X$ and three families of dark fermions that are chiral under dark $U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry, whereas scalar dark matter $X$ is the SM singlet. $U(1)_X$ dark symmetry is spontaneously broken by nonzero VEV of dark Higgs field $\langle \Phi \rangle$, generating the masses of dark fermions and dark photon $Z^\prime$. The resulting dark Higgs boson $\phi$ can be produced at the LHC by dark quark loop (involving 3 generation) and will decay into a pair of photon through charged dark fermion loop. Its decay width can be easily $\sim 45$ GeV due to its possible decays into a pair of dark photon, which is not strongly constrained by the current LHC searches $pp \rightarrow \phi \rightarrow Z^\prime Z^\prime$ followed by $Z^\prime$ decays into the SM fermion pairs. The scalar DM can achieve thermal relic density without conflict with direct detection bound or the invisible $\phi$ decay into a pair of DM.

Dark sector shining through 750 GeV dark Higgs boson at the LHC [Replacement]

We consider a dark sector with $SU(3)_C \times U(1)_Y \times U(1)_X$ and three families of dark fermions that are chiral under dark $U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry, whereas scalar dark matter $X$ is the SM singlet. $U(1)_X$ dark symmetry is spontaneously broken by nonzero VEV of dark Higgs field $\langle \Phi \rangle$, generating the masses of dark fermions and dark photon $Z^\prime$. The resulting dark Higgs boson $\phi$ can be produced at the LHC by dark quark loop (involving 3 generation) and will decay into a pair of photon through charged dark fermion loop. Its decay width can be easily $\sim 45$ GeV due to its possible decays into a pair of dark photon, which is not strongly constrained by the current LHC searches $pp \rightarrow \phi \rightarrow Z^\prime Z^\prime$ followed by $Z^\prime$ decays into the SM fermion pairs. The scalar DM can achieve thermal relic density without conflict with direct detection bound or the invisible $\phi$ decay into a pair of DM.

Interpreting the 750 GeV Di-photon Resonance using photon-jets in Hidden-Valley-like models [Replacement]

Motivated by the di-photon resonance recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at $\sqrt{s} =13$ TeV, we interpret the resonance as a scalar boson $X (750)$ in hidden-valley-like models. The scalar boson $X$ can mix with the standard model Higgs boson and thus can be produced via gluon fusion. It then decays into a pair of very light hidden particles $Y$ of sub-GeV, each of which in turn decays to a pair of collimated $ \pi^{0} $'s, and these two $ \pi^{0} $'s decay into photons which then form photon-jets. A photon-jet ($ \gamma $-jet) is a special feature that consists of a cluster of collinear photons from the decay of a fast moving light particle (sub-GeV). Because these photons inside the photon-jet are so collimated that it cannot be distinguished from a single photon, and so in the final state of the decay of $X(750)$ a pair of photon-jets look like a pair of single photons, which the experimentalists observed and formed the 750 GeV di-photon resonance. Prospects for the LHC Run-2 about other new and testable features are also discussed.

Interpreting the 750 GeV Di-photon Resonance using photon-jets in Hidden-Valley-like models [Replacement]

Motivated by the di-photon resonance recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at $\sqrt{s} =13$ TeV, we interpret the resonance as a scalar boson $X (750)$ in hidden-valley-like models. The scalar boson $X$ can mix with the standard model Higgs boson and thus can be produced via gluon fusion. It then decays into a pair of very light hidden particles $Y$ of sub-GeV, each of which in turn decays to a pair of collimated $ \pi^{0} $'s, and these two $ \pi^{0} $'s decay into photons which then form photon-jets. A photon-jet ($ \gamma $-jet) is a special feature that consists of a cluster of collinear photons from the decay of a fast moving light particle (sub-GeV). Because these photons inside the photon-jet are so collimated that it cannot be distinguished from a single photon, and so in the final state of the decay of $X(750)$ a pair of photon-jets look like a pair of single photons, which the experimentalists observed and formed the 750 GeV di-photon resonance. Prospects for the LHC Run-2 about other new and testable features are also discussed.

Interpreting the 750 GeV Di-photon Resonance using photon-jets in Hidden-Valley-like models

Motivated by the di-photon resonance recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at $\sqrt{s} =13$ TeV, we interpret the resonance as a scalar boson $X (750)$ in hidden-valley-like models. The scalar boson $X$ can mix with the standard model Higgs boson and thus can be produced via gluon fusion. It then decays into a pair of very light hidden particles $Y$ of sub-GeV, each of which in turn decays to a pair of collimated $ \pi^{0} $'s, and these two $ \pi^{0} $'s decay into photons which then form photon-jets. A photon-jet ($ \gamma $-jet) is a special feature that consists of a cluster of collinear photons from the decay of a fast moving light particle (sub-GeV). Because these photons inside the photon-jet are so collimated that it cannot be distinguished from a single photon, and so in the final state of the decay of $X(750)$ a pair of photon-jets look like a pair of single photons, which the experimentalists observed and formed the 750 GeV di-photon resonance. Prospects for the LHC Run-2 about other new and testable features are also discussed.

Conformal Transformations, Rotating String and Effects of angular velocity on Accelerating Quark-Antiquark pair in $AdS_3$

In order to study quark and anti-quark interaction, one should consider all effects of the medium in motion of the pair. Because the pair, is not produced at rest in QGP. So the velocity of the pair, has some effects on its interactions that should be taken into account. In this paper we apply some conformal transformations for a rotat- ing string dual to a rotating heavy quark in $AdS_3$ which construct an accelerating string dual to an accelerating quark and anti-quark pair. So, we can have a comparison between when pair has angular velocity or not. Then we can study effects of angular velocity on the accelerating quark and anti-quark which are constructed by performing special con- formal transformations, conformal SO(2,2) transformation and particular $SL(2;R)_L$ and $SL(2;R)_R$ transformation. The accelerating quark and anti-quark show different behavior with increasing in angular velocity. With useful numerical solutions we show that quark and anti-quark can deccelerate to achieve each other or accelerate to get away from each other. We will see variable behaviors of the pair in different transformations. There are various behavior like, permanent behavior, increase or decrese in acceleration or we will consider uncertain behavior.

Search for dark matter produced in association with a Higgs boson decaying to two bottom quarks in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector [Replacement]

This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using data from $20.3 fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The decay of the Higgs boson is reconstructed as a high-momentum $b\bar{b}$ system with either a pair of small-radius jets, or a single large-radius jet with substructure. The observed data are found to be consistent with the expected Standard Model backgrounds. Model-independent upper limits are placed on the visible cross-sections for events with a Higgs boson decaying into $b\bar{b}$ and large missing transverse momentum with thresholds ranging from 150 GeV to 400 GeV. Results are interpreted using a simplified model with a $Z^\prime$ gauge boson decaying into different Higgs bosons predicted in a two-Higgs-doublet model, of which the heavy pseudoscalar Higgs decays into a pair of dark matter particles. Exclusion limits are also presented for the mass scales of various effective field theory operators that describe the interaction between dark matter particles and the Higgs boson.

Search for dark matter produced in association with a Higgs boson decaying to two bottom quarks in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using data from $20.3 fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The decay of the Higgs boson is reconstructed as a high-momentum $b\bar{b}$ system with either a pair of small-radius jets, or a single large-radius jet with substructure. The observed data are found to be consistent with the expected Standard Model backgrounds. Model-independent upper limits are placed on the visible cross-sections for events with a Higgs boson decaying into $b\bar{b}$ and large missing transverse momentum with thresholds ranging from 150 GeV to 400 GeV. Results are interpreted using a simplified model with a $Z^\prime$ gauge boson decaying into different Higgs bosons predicted in a two-Higgs-doublet model, of which the heavy pseudoscalar Higgs decays into a pair of dark matter particles. Exclusion limits are also presented for the mass scales of various effective field theory operators that describe the interaction between dark matter particles and the Higgs boson.

Diagrams and Parastatistical Factors for Cascade Emission of a Pair of Paraparticles [Replacement]

The empirical absence to date of particles obeying parastatistics in high energy collider experiments might be due to their large masses, weak scale couplings, and lack of gauge couplings. Paraparticles of order p=2 must be pair produced, so the lightest such particles are absolutely stable and so are excellent candidates to be associated with dark matter and/or dark energy. If there is a portal to such particles, from a new scalar A1 boson they might be cascade emitted as a pair of para-Majorana neutrinos as in A1 ---> A2 para-nu para-nu or as a pair of neutral spin-zero paraparticles such as in A1 ---> A2 para-A para-B, where para-B is the anti-paraparticle to para-A. In this paper, for an assumed supersymmetric-like "statistics portal" Lagrangian, the associated connected tree diagrams and their parastatistical factors are obtained for the case of order p=2 parastatistics. These factors are compared with the corresponding statistical factors for the analogous emission of a non-degenerate or a 2-fold degenerate pair which obey normal statistics. This shows that diagrams, and diagrammatic thinking, can be use in perturbatively analyzing paraparticle processes. The parastatistical factor associated with each diagram does require explicit calculation.

Diagrams and Parastatistical Factors for Cascade Emission of a Pair of Paraparticles

The empirical absence to date of particles obeying parastatistics in high energy collider experiments might be due to their large masses, weak scale couplings, and lack of gauge couplings. Paraparticles of order p=2 must be pair produced, so the lightest such particles are absolutely stable and so are excellent candidates to be associated with dark matter and/or dark energy. If there is a portal to such particles, from a new scalar A1 boson they might be cascade emitted as a pair of para-Majorana neutrinos as in A1 ---> A2 para-nu para-nu or as a pair of neutral spin-zero paraparticles such as in A1 ---> A2 para-A para-B, where para-B is the anti-paraparticle to para-A. In this paper, for an assumed supersymmetric-like "statistics portal" Lagrangian, the associated connected tree diagrams and their parastatistical factors are obtained for the case of order p=2 parastatistics. These factors are compared with the corresponding statistical factors for the analogous emission of a non-degenerate or a 2-fold degenerate pair which obey normal statistics. This shows that diagrams, and diagrammatic thinking, can be use in perturbatively analyzing paraparticle processes. The parastatistical factor associated with each diagram does require explicit calculation.

Diagrams and Parastatistical Factors for Cascade Emission of a Pair of Paraparticles [Replacement]

The empirical absence to date of particles obeying parastatistics in high energy collider experiments might be due to their large masses, weak scale couplings, and lack of gauge couplings. Paraparticles of order p=2 must be pair produced, so the lightest such particles are absolutely stable and so are excellent candidates to be associated with dark matter and/or dark energy. If there is a portal to such particles, from a new scalar A1 boson they might be cascade emitted as a pair of para-Majorana neutrinos as in A1 ---> A2 para-nu para-nu or as a pair of neutral spin-zero paraparticles such as in A1 ---> A2 para-A para-B, where para-B is the anti-paraparticle to para-A. In this paper, for an assumed supersymmetric-like "statistics portal" Lagrangian, the associated connected tree diagrams and their parastatistical factors are obtained for the case of order p=2 parastatistics. These factors are compared with the corresponding statistical factors for the analogous emission of a non-degenerate or a 2-fold degenerate pair which obey normal statistics. This shows that diagrams, and diagrammatic thinking, can be use in perturbatively analyzing paraparticle processes. The parastatistical factor associated with each diagram does require explicit calculation.

Diagrams and Parastatistical Factors for Cascade Emission of a Pair of Paraparticles [Cross-Listing]

The empirical absence to date of particles obeying parastatistics in high energy collider experiments might be due to their large masses, weak scale couplings, and lack of gauge couplings. Paraparticles of order p=2 must be pair produced, so the lightest such particles are absolutely stable and so are excellent candidates to be associated with dark matter and/or dark energy. If there is a portal to such particles, from a new scalar A1 boson they might be cascade emitted as a pair of para-Majorana neutrinos as in A1 ---> A2 para-nu para-nu or as a pair of neutral spin-zero paraparticles such as in A1 ---> A2 para-A para-B, where para-B is the anti-paraparticle to para-A. In this paper, for an assumed supersymmetric-like "statistics portal" Lagrangian, the associated connected tree diagrams and their parastatistical factors are obtained for the case of order p=2 parastatistics. These factors are compared with the corresponding statistical factors for the analogous emission of a non-degenerate or a 2-fold degenerate pair which obey normal statistics. This shows that diagrams, and diagrammatic thinking, can be use in perturbatively analyzing paraparticle processes. The parastatistical factor associated with each diagram does require explicit calculation.

Diagrams and Parastatistical Factors for Cascade Emission of a Pair of Paraparticles [Replacement]

The empirical absence to date of particles obeying parastatistics in high energy collider experiments might be due to their large masses, weak scale couplings, and lack of gauge couplings. Paraparticles of order p=2 must be pair produced, so the lightest such particles are absolutely stable and so are excellent candidates to be associated with dark matter and/or dark energy. If there is a portal to such particles, from a new scalar A1 boson they might be cascade emitted as a pair of para-Majorana neutrinos as in A1 ---> A2 para-nu para-nu or as a pair of neutral spin-zero paraparticles such as in A1 ---> A2 para-A para-B, where para-B is the anti-paraparticle to para-A. In this paper, for an assumed supersymmetric-like "statistics portal" Lagrangian, the associated connected tree diagrams and their parastatistical factors are obtained for the case of order p=2 parastatistics. These factors are compared with the corresponding statistical factors for the analogous emission of a non-degenerate or a 2-fold degenerate pair which obey normal statistics. This shows that diagrams, and diagrammatic thinking, can be use in perturbatively analyzing paraparticle processes. The parastatistical factor associated with each diagram does require explicit calculation.

Diagrams and Parastatistical Factors for Cascade Emission of a Pair of Paraparticles [Cross-Listing]

The empirical absence to date of particles obeying parastatistics in high energy collider experiments might be due to their large masses, weak scale couplings, and lack of gauge couplings. Paraparticles of order p=2 must be pair produced, so the lightest such particles are absolutely stable and so are excellent candidates to be associated with dark matter and/or dark energy. If there is a portal to such particles, from a new scalar A1 boson they might be cascade emitted as a pair of para-Majorana neutrinos as in A1 ---> A2 para-nu para-nu or as a pair of neutral spin-zero paraparticles such as in A1 ---> A2 para-A para-B, where para-B is the anti-paraparticle to para-A. In this paper, for an assumed supersymmetric-like "statistics portal" Lagrangian, the associated connected tree diagrams and their parastatistical factors are obtained for the case of order p=2 parastatistics. These factors are compared with the corresponding statistical factors for the analogous emission of a non-degenerate or a 2-fold degenerate pair which obey normal statistics. This shows that diagrams, and diagrammatic thinking, can be use in perturbatively analyzing paraparticle processes. The parastatistical factor associated with each diagram does require explicit calculation.

Neutrino masses and mixing from flavour antisymmetry

We discuss consequences of assuming ($i$) that the (Majorana) neutrino mass matrix $M_\nu$ displays flavour antisymmetry, $S_\nu^T M_\nu S_\nu=-M_\nu$ with respect to some discrete symmetry $S_\nu$ contained in $SU(3)$ and ($ii$) $S_\nu$ together with a symmetry $T_l$ of the Hermitian combination $M_lM_l^\dagger$ of the charged lepton mass matrix forms a finite discrete subgroup $G_f$ of $SU(3)$ whose breaking generates these symmetries. Assumption ($i$) leads to at least one massless neutrino and allows only four textures for the neutrino mass matrix in a basis with a diagonal $S_\nu$ if it is assumed that the other two neutrinos are massive. Two of these textures contain a degenerate pair of neutrinos.Assumption ($ii$) can be used to determine the neutrino mixing patterns. We work out these patterns for two major group series $\Delta(3 N^2)$ and $\Delta(6 N^2)$ as $G_f$. It is found that all $\Delta(6 N^2)$ and $\Delta(3 N^2)$ groups with even $N$ contain some elements which can provide appropriate $S_\nu$. Mixing patterns can be determined analytically for these groups and it is found that only one of the four allowed neutrino mass textures is consistent with the observed values of the mixing angles $\theta_{13}$ and $\theta_{23}$. This texture corresponds to one massless and a degenerate pair of neutrinos which can provide the solar pair in the presence of some perturbations. The well-known groups $A_4$ and $S_4$ provide examples of the groups in respective series allowing correct $\theta_{13}$ and $\theta_{23}$. An explicit example based on $A_4$ and displaying a massless and two quasi degenerate neutrinos is discussed.

The effects of deformation parameter on thermal width of moving quarkonia in plasma [Replacement]

In general we can say that the thermal width of quarkonia corresponds to imaginary part of its potential. Gravity dual of theories give explicit form of potential as $V_{Q\bar{Q}}$ . Since there is an explicit formula for $Im V_{Q\bar{Q}}$ one can consider different gravity duals and study the results of contribution of various parameters. Variable gravity duals of moving pair in plasma have different results for potential. Our paper shows that deformation parameter c in warp factor leads to new results that we present them for arbitrary angles of the pair with respect to its velocity. We compare our results with the case that no deformation parameter is in metric background. We will see that the thermal width of the pair increases with increasing deformation parameter. Also, for nonzero values of deformation parameter the pair feels moving plasma in all distances. In addition our results indicate that contribution of deformation parameter leads to larger dissociation length for the moving pair reverse to the effect of the pairs velocity in the plasma.

A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black-hole system

Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to multiple supermassive black holes in some. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component is more distant at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence of a black hole with mass $\sim$10$^9$ M$_\odot$ (about 100 parsecs). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs. Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z=0.39, with the closest pair separated by $\sim$140 parsecs. The presence of the tight pair is imprinted onto the properties of the large-scale radio jets, as a rotationally-symmetric helical modulation, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments.

The curious case of HD41248. A pair of static signals buried behind red-noise

Gaining a better understanding of the effects of stellar induced radial velocity noise is critical for the future of exoplanet studies, since the discovery of the lowest-mass planets using this method will require us to go below the intrinsic stellar noise limit. An interesting test case in this respect is that of the southern solar analogue HD41248. The radial velocity time series of this star has been proposed to contain either a pair of signals with periods of around 18 and 25 days, that could be due to a pair of resonant super-Earths, or a single and varying 25 day signal that could arise due to a complex interplay between differential rotation and modulated activity. In this letter we build-up more evidence for the former scenario, showing that the signals are still clearly significant even after more than 10 years of observations and they likely do not change in period, amplitude, or phase as a function of time, the hallmarks of static Doppler signals. We show that over the last two observing seasons this star was more intrinsically active and the noise reddened, highlighting why better noise models are needed to find the lowest amplitude signals, in particular models that consider noise correlations. This analysis shows that there is still sufficient evidence for the existence of two super-Earths on the edge of, or locked into, a 7:5 mean motion resonance orbiting HD41248.

Non-perturbative quantum effects in stringy degenerate geometries: Vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_3$-brane by a two form [Replacement]

We obtain axionic charged primordial black holes on a vacuum created gravitational pair of $(3{\bar 3})$-brane by the Kalb-Ramond field on a $D_4$-brane in presence of a background open string metric. The new geometries on an emergent pair of $(3{\bar 3})$-brane universe is shown to be influenced by the non-perturbative quantum effects underlying a geometric torsion in a second order formalism. The presence of small extra dimensions transverse to the pair in the formalism ensures dynamical scalar fields hidden to a $3$-brane or an anti 3-brane universe. We investigate the non-perturbative quantum vacua for their characteristic properties to explain the accelerated expansion of our universe. Interestingly the emergent brane universe is shown to possess its origin in a degenerate stringy de Sitter vacua at an early epoch. A non-perturbative $D_p$-brane world volume correction for $p < 3$ is worked out to explain some of the quantum effects underlying a quintessence axion in the string-brane setup. Our analysis reveals that a $D$-instanton can be a potential candidate to source the dark energy in our brane universe.

Non-perturbative quantum effects in stringy degenerate geometries: Vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_3$-brane by a two form [Replacement]

We obtain axionic charged primordial black holes on a vacuum created gravitational pair of $(3{\bar 3})$-brane by the Kalb-Ramond field on a $D_4$-brane in presence of a background open string metric. The new geometries on an emergent pair of $(3{\bar 3})$-brane universe is shown to be influenced by the non-perturbative quantum effects underlying a geometric torsion in a second order formalism. The presence of small extra dimensions transverse to the pair in the formalism ensures dynamical scalar fields hidden to a $3$-brane or an anti 3-brane universe. We investigate the non-perturbative quantum vacua for their characteristic properties to explain the accelerated expansion of our universe. Interestingly the emergent brane universe is shown to possess its origin in a degenerate stringy de Sitter vacua at an early epoch. A non-perturbative $D_p$-brane world volume correction for $p < 3$ is worked out to explain some of the quantum effects underlying a quintessence axion in the string-brane setup. Our analysis reveals that a $D$-instanton can be a potential candidate to source the dark energy in our brane universe.

Non-perturbative quantum effects in stringy degenerate geometries: Vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_3$-brane by a two form [Replacement]

We obtain axionic charged primordial black holes on a vacuum created gravitational pair of $(3{\bar 3})$-brane by the Kalb-Ramond field on a $D_4$-brane in presence of a background open string metric. The new geometries on an emergent pair of $(3{\bar 3})$-brane universe is shown to be influenced by the non-perturbative quantum effects underlying a geometric torsion in a second order formalism. The presence of small extra dimensions transverse to the pair in the formalism ensures dynamical scalar fields hidden to a $3$-brane or an anti 3-brane universe. We investigate the non-perturbative quantum vacua for their characteristic properties to explain the accelerated expansion of our universe. Interestingly the emergent brane universe is shown to possess its origin in a degenerate stringy de Sitter vacua at an early epoch. A non-perturbative $D_p$-brane world volume correction for $p < 3$ is worked out to explain some of the quantum effects underlying a quintessence axion in the string-brane setup. Our analysis reveals that a $D$-instanton can be a potential candidate to source the dark energy in our brane universe.

Non-perturbative quantum effects in stringy degenerate geometries: Vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_3$-brane by a two form [Replacement]

We obtain axionic charged primordial black holes on a vacuum created gravitational pair of $(3{\bar 3})$-brane by the Kalb-Ramond field on a $D_4$-brane in presence of a background open string metric. The new geometries on an emergent pair of $(3{\bar 3})$-brane universe is shown to be influenced by the non-perturbative quantum effects underlying a geometric torsion in a second order formalism. The presence of small extra dimensions transverse to the pair in the formalism ensures dynamical scalar fields hidden to a $3$-brane or an anti 3-brane universe. We investigate the non-perturbative quantum vacua for their characteristic properties to explain the accelerated expansion of our universe. Interestingly the emergent brane universe is shown to possess its origin in a degenerate stringy de Sitter vacua at an early epoch. A non-perturbative $D_p$-brane world volume correction for $p < 3$ is worked out to explain some of the quantum effects underlying a quintessence axion in the string-brane setup. Our analysis reveals that a $D$-instanton can be a potential candidate to source the dark energy in our brane universe.

Quintessence and effective AdS brane geometries [Cross-Listing]

A geometric torsion dynamics leading to an effective curvature in a second order formalism on a D4-brane is revisited with a renewed interest. We obtain two effective $AdS_4$ brane geometries on a vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_3$-brane. One of them is shown to describe an AdS Schwarzschild spinning black hole and the other is shown to describe a spinning black hole bound state. It is argued that a D-instanton in a vacuum created anti D3-brane within a pair may describe a quintessence. It may seen to incorporate a varying vacuum energy density in a brane universe. We consider the effective curvature scalar on $S^1\times S^1$ to analyze torsion-less geometries on a vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_2$-brane. The emergent $AdS_3$ brane is shown to describe a Schwarzschild and a Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) geometries in presence of extra dimension(s).

Quintessence and effective AdS brane geometries

A geometric torsion dynamics leading to an effective curvature in a second order formalism on a D4-brane is revisited with a renewed interest. We obtain two effective $AdS_4$ brane geometries on a vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_3$-brane. One of them is shown to describe an AdS Schwarzschild spinning black hole and the other is shown to describe a spinning black hole bound state. It is argued that a D-instanton in a vacuum created anti D3-brane within a pair may describe a quintessence. It may seen to incorporate a varying vacuum energy density in a brane universe. We consider the effective curvature scalar on $S^1\times S^1$ to analyze torsion-less geometries on a vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_2$-brane. The emergent $AdS_3$ brane is shown to describe a Schwarzschild and a Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) geometries in presence of extra dimension(s).

Quintessence and effective AdS brane geometries [Replacement]

A geometric torsion dynamics leading to an effective curvature in a second order formalism on a D4-brane is revisited with a renewed interest. We obtain two effective $AdS_4$ brane geometries on a vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_3$-brane. One of them is shown to describe an AdS Schwarzschild spinning black hole and the other is shown to describe a spinning black hole bound state. It is argued that a D-instanton in a vacuum created anti D3-brane within a pair may describe a quintessence. It may seen to incorporate a varying vacuum energy density in a brane universe. We consider the effective curvature scalar on $S^1\times S^1$ to analyze torsion-less geometries on a vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_2$-brane. The emergent $AdS_3$ brane is shown to describe a Schwarzschild and a Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) geometries in presence of extra dimension(s).

Quintessence and effective AdS brane geometries [Replacement]

A geometric torsion dynamics leading to an effective curvature in a second order formalism on a D4-brane is revisited with a renewed interest. We obtain two effective $AdS_4$ brane geometries on a vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_3$-brane. One of them is shown to describe an AdS Schwarzschild spinning black hole and the other is shown to describe a spinning black hole bound state. It is argued that a D-instanton in a vacuum created anti D3-brane within a pair may describe a quintessence. It may seen to incorporate a varying vacuum energy density in a brane universe. We consider the effective curvature scalar on $S^1\times S^1$ to analyze torsion-less geometries on a vacuum created pair of $(D{\bar D})_2$-brane. The emergent $AdS_3$ brane is shown to describe a Schwarzschild and a Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) geometries in presence of extra dimension(s).

Binary Satellite Galaxies

Suggestions have appeared in the literature that the following five pairs of Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies are gravitationally bound: Draco and Ursa Minor, Leo IV and V, Andromeda I and III, NGC 147 and 185, and the Magellanic clouds. Under the assumption that a given pair is gravitationally bound, the Virial theorem provides an estimate of its total mass and so its instantaneous tidal radius. For all of these pairs except for the Magellanic clouds the resulting total mass is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that within the half light radius. Furthermore in the case of each pair except for Leo IV and Leo V, the estimated tidal radius is inferior to the separation between the two satellites. Therefore all or almost all of these systems are not gravitationally bound. We note several possible explanations for the proximities and similar radial velocities of the satellites in each pair, for example they may have condensed from the same infalling structure or they may be bound by a nongravitational interaction between dark matter and an extremely light particle.

An investigation of star formation and dust attenuation in major mergers using ultraviolet and infrared data

Merger processes play an important role in galaxy formation and evolution. To study the influence of merger processes on the evolution of dust properties and cosmic star formation rate, we investigate a local sample of major merger galaxies and a control sample of isolated galaxies using GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and Spitzer infrared (IR) images. Through a statistical study, we find that dust attenuation in merger galaxies is enhanced with respect to isolated galaxies. We find this enhancement is contributed mainly by spiral galaxies in spiral-spiral (S-S) pairs, and increases with the increasing stellar mass of a galaxy. Combining the IR and UV parts of star formation rates (SFRs), we then calculated the total SFRs and specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We find the SSFRs to be enhanced in merger galaxies. This enhancement depends on galaxy stellar mass and the companion's morphology, but depends little on whether the galaxy is a primary or secondary component or on the separation between two components. These results are consistent with a previous study based only on IR images. In addition, we investigate the nuclear contributions to SFRs. SFRs in paired galaxies are more concentrated in the central part of the galaxies than in isolate galaxies. Our studies of dust attenuation show that the nuclear parts of pairs most resemble ULIRGs. Including UV data in the present work not only provides reliable information on dust attenuation, but also refines analyses of SFRs.

On The Relative Sizes of Planets Within Kepler Multiple Candidate Systems

We present a study of the relative sizes of planets within the multiple candidate systems discovered with the $Kepler$ mission. We have compared the size of each planet to the size of every other planet within a given planetary system after correcting the sample for detection and geometric biases. We find that for planet-pairs for which one or both objects is approximately Neptune-sized or larger, the larger planet is most often the planet with the longer period. No such size--location correlation is seen for pairs of planets when both planets are smaller than Neptune. Specifically, if at least one planet in a planet-pair has a radius of $\gtrsim 3R_\oplus$, $68\pm 6%$ of the planet pairs have the inner planet smaller than the outer planet, while no preferred sequential ordering of the planets is observed if both planets in a pair are smaller than $\lesssim3 R_\oplus$.

The intriguing life of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1 < z < 2 using MASSIV

MASSIV (Massiv Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS) is an ESO large program which consists of 84 star-forming galaxies, spanning in a wide range of stellar masses, observed with the IFU SINFONI on the VLT, in the redshift range 1 < z < 2. To be representative of the normal galaxy population, the sample has been selected from a well-defined, complete and representative parent sample. The kinematics of individual galaxies reveals that 58% of the galaxies are slow rotators, which means that a high fraction of these galaxies should probably be formed through major merger processes which might have produced gaseous thick or spheroidal structures supported by velocity dispersion rather than by rotation. Computations on the major merger rate from close pairs indicate that a typical star-forming galaxy underwent ~0.4 major mergers since ~9.5 Gyr, showing that merging is a major process driving mass assembly into the red sequence galaxies. These objects are also intriguing due to the fact that more than one galaxy over four is more metal-rich in its outskirts than in its center.

Non-perturbative QCD effects in $\eta_c$ and $\eta_b$ decays into baryons and WIMP scattering off nuclei [Cross-Listing]

In this work we estimate the helicity suppressed decay rates of $\eta_b$ resonances into baryon pairs due to instanton-induced effects by rescaling the corresponding partial widths of the experimentally measured branching ratios for the $\eta_c(1S) \to p\bar{p}$ and $\eta_c(1S) \to \Lambda\bar(\Lambda)$ decay modes. Thus we point out that both $\eta_b(1S) \to p\bar{p}$ and $\eta_b(1S) \to \Lambda\bar(\Lambda)$ channels could be detected at a Super B factory and LHC experiments. Furthermore, we examine related instanton-induced effects on WIMP scattering off nuclei concluding, albeit with large uncertainties, that they might enhance the spin-dependent cross section for a light pseudoscalar Higgs boson mediator, thereby inducing a dependence on the momentum transfer to the recoling nucleus.

Multipolar Planetary Nebulae: Not as Geometrically Diversified as Thought

Planetary nebulae (PNe) have diverse morphological shapes, including point-symmetric and multipolar structures. Many PNe also have complicated internal structures such as torus, lobes, knots, and ansae. A complete accounting of all the morphological structures through physical models is difficult. A first step toward such an understanding is to derive the true three-dimensional structure of the nebulae. In this paper, we show that a multipolar nebula with three pairs of lobes can explain many of such features, if orientation and sensitivity effects are taken into account. Using only six parameters - the inclination and position angles of each pair - we are able to simulate the observed images of 20 PNe with complex structures. We suggest that the multipolar structure is an intrinsic structure of PNe and the statistics of multipolar PNe has been severely underestimated in the past.

Collaborating with "professional" amateurs: low-mass stars in fragile multiple system

The boundary between professional and amateur astronomers gets narrower and narrower. We present several real examples, most of them published in refereed journals, of works resulting from fruitful collaborations between key amateur astronomers in Spain and professional colleagues. The common denominator of these works is the search for binaries, mostly nearby, wide, common proper-motion pairs with low-mass stellar components, including some of the most fragile systems ever found.

Afterglow emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts: I. Pair-enriched ambient medium and radiative blast waves

Forward shocks caused by the interaction between a relativistic blast wave and the circum-burst medium are thought to be responsible for the afterglow emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). We consider the hydrodynamics of a spherical relativistic blast wave expanding into the surrounding medium and we generalize the standard theory in order to account for several effects that are generally ignored. In particular, we consider the role of adiabatic and radiative losses on the hydrodynamical evolution of the shock, under the assumption that the cooling losses are fast. Our model can describe adiabatic, fully radiative and semi-radiative blast waves, and can describe the effects of a time-varying radiative efficiency. The equations we present are valid for arbitrary density profiles, and also for a circum-burst medium enriched with electron-positron pairs. The presence of pairs enhances the fraction of shock energy gained by the leptons, thus increasing the importance of radiative losses. Our model allows to study whether the high-energy (>0.1 GeV) emission in GRBs may originate from afterglow radiation. In particular, it is suitable to test whether the fast decay of the high-energy light curve observed in several Fermi LAT GRBs can be ascribed to an initial radiative phase, followed by the standard adiabatic evolution.

Analysis of defect formation in semiconductor cryogenic bolometric detectors created by heavy dark matter

The cryogenic detectors in the form of bolometers are presently used for different applications, in particular for very rare or hypothetical events associated with new forms of matter, specifically related to the existence of Dark Matter. In the detection of particles with a semiconductor as target and detector, usually two signals are measured: ionization and heat. The amplification of the thermal signal is obtained with the prescriptions from Luke-Neganov effect. The energy deposited in the semiconductor lattice as stable defects in the form of Frenkel pairs at cryogenic temperatures, following the interaction of a dark matter particle, is evaluated and consequences for measured quantities are discussed. This contribution is included in the energy balance of the Luke effect. Applying the present model to germanium and silicon, we found that for the same incident weakly interacting massive particle the energy deposited in defects in germanium is about twice the value for silicon.

 

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