Posts Tagged nucleus

Recent Postings from nucleus

A very deep Chandra view of metals, sloshing and feedback in the Centaurus cluster of galaxies

We examine deep Chandra X-ray observations of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies, Abell 3526. Applying a gradient magnitude filter reveals a wealth of structure, from filamentary soft emission on 100pc (0.5 arcsec) scales close to the nucleus to features 10s of kpc in size at larger radii. The cluster contains multiple high-metallicity regions with sharp edges. Relative to an azimuthal average, the deviations of metallicity and surface brightness are correlated, and the temperature is inversely correlated, as expected if the larger scale asymmetries in the cluster are dominated by sloshing motions. Around the western cold front are a series of ~7 kpc 'notches', suggestive of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The cold front width varies from 4 kpc down to close to the electron mean free path. Inside the front are multiple metallicity blobs on scales of 5-10 kpc, which could have been uplifted by AGN activity, also explaining the central metallicity drop and flat inner metallicity profile. Close to the nucleus are multiple shocks, including a 1.9-kpc-radius inner shell-like structure and a weak 1.1-1.4 Mach number shock around the central cavities. Within a 10 kpc radius are 9 depressions in surface brightness, several of which appear to be associated with radio emission. The shocks and cavities imply that the nucleus has been repeatedly active on 5-10 Myr timescales, indicating a tight balance between heating and cooling. We confirm the presence of a series of linear quasi-periodic structures. If they are sound waves, the ~5 kpc spacing implies a period of 6 Myr, similar to the ages of the shocks and cavities. Alternatively, these structures may be Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, their associated turbulence or amplified magnetic field layers.

Lightening-like interactions in nuclear collisions at CERN large hadron collider

A simple basic model for describing proton-nucleus (pA) and nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions has been the intra-nuclear cascade model, where the interactions are simulated by a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon (NN) collisions. This model helped to establish many scientific concepts and also creates the foundation for more modern simulation codes, especially at low and intermediate energies. In this paper, we present a new Monte Carlo model for pA and AA collisions at high CERN Large Hadron collider energies. The model implements HIJING code with a collective cascade recipe, that induces striking light-like effect in a large nucleus. A single collision (lightening) event is shown to be a complex process:A primary interacting nucleon passes its energy to the surrounding nucleons in a large nucleus. This new simulation code is shown to be good to reproduce the Large Hadron collider (LHC) data, especially the charged particle pseudorapidity density in p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies.

Peculiarities of electron energy spectrum in Coulomb field of super heavy nucleus

Just after the Dirac equation was established, a number of physicists tried to comment on and solve the spectral problem for the Dirac Hamiltonian with the Coulomb field of arbitrarily large charge $Z$, especially with $Z$ that is more than the critical value $Z_{\mathrm{c}}=\alpha^{-1}\simeq137,04$, making sometimes contradictory conclusions and presenting doubtful solutions. It seems that there is no consesus on this problem up until now and especially on the way of using corresponding solutions of the Dirac equation in calculating physical processes. That is why in the present article, we turn once again to discussing peculiarities of electron energy spectrum in the Coulomb field of superheavy nucleus. In the beginning, we remind the reader of a long story with a wrong interpretation of the problem in the case of a point nucleus and its present correct solution. We then turn to the spectral problem in the case of a regularized Coulomb field. Under a specific regularization, we derive an exact spectrum equation determining the point spectrum in the energy interval $(-m,m)$ and present some of its numerical solutions. We also derive an exact equation for charges $Z$ providing bound states with energy $E=-m$. Its analytical and numerical analysis shows that there exists an infinite number of such charges; in this connection , we discuss the notion of supercritical charge.

Hubble and Keck Telescope Observations of Active Asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139)

We present Hubble Space Telescope and Keck 10 meter telescope observations of active asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139) taken to examine ejected dust. The nucleus is a C-type object with absolute magnitude $H_V$ = 17.0$\pm$0.1 and estimated diameter $\sim$2.6 km (for assumed visual geometric albedo $p_V$ = 0.04). Variations in the brightness of the nucleus at the 10% to 15% level are significant in both 2011 December and 2012 October but we possess too few data to distinguish variations caused by activity from those caused by rotation. The dust scattering cross-section in 2011 December is $\sim$40 km$^2$, corresponding to a dust mass $\sim$9$\times$10$^6$ kg (88 $\mu$m mean particle radius assumed). The full width at half maximum of the debris sheet varies from $\sim$100 km near the nucleus to $\sim$1000 km 30arcsec (40,000 km) east of it. Dust dynamical models indicate ejection speeds between 0.06 and 0.3 m s$^{-1}$, particle sizes between 10 and 300 $\mu$m and an inverse square-root relation between particle size and velocity. Overall, the data are most simply explained by prolonged, low velocity ejection of dust, starting in or before 2011 July and continuing until at least 2011 October. These properties are consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice aided by centrifugal forces. The high spatial resolution of our HST images (52 km per pixel) reveals details that remained hidden in previous ground-based observations, such as the extraordinarily small vertical extent of the dust sheet, ejection speeds well below the nucleus escape speed, and the possibility of a binary nucleus.

Optical and Near-Infrared Polarimetry for a Highly Dormant Comet 209P/LINEAR

We conducted an optical and near-infrared polarimetric observation of the highly dormant Jupiter-Family Comet, 209P/LINEAR. Because of its low activity, we were able to determine the linear polarization degrees of the coma dust particles and nucleus independently, that is $P_n$=30.3$^{+1.3}_{-0.9}$% at $\alpha$=92.2$^\circ$ and $P_n$=31.0$^{+1.0}_{-0.7}$% at $\alpha$=99.5$^\circ$ for the nucleus, and $P_c$=28.8$^{+0.4}_{-0.4}$% at $\alpha$=92.2$^\circ$ and 29.6$^{+0.3}_{-0.3}$% at $\alpha$=99.5$^\circ$ for the coma. We detected no significant variation in $P$ at the phase angle coverage of 92.2$^\circ$-99.5$^\circ$, which may imply that the obtained polarization degrees are nearly at maximum in the phase-polarization curves. By fitting with an empirical function, we obtained the maximum values of linear polarization degrees $P_\mathrm{max}$=30.8% for the nucleus and $P_\mathrm{max}$=29.6% for the dust coma. The $P_\mathrm{max}$ of the dust coma is consistent with those of dust-rich comets. The low geometric albedo of $P_v$=0.05 was derived from the slope-albedo relationship and was associated with high $P_\mathrm{max}$. We examined $P_\mathrm{max}$-albedo relations between asteroids and 209P, and found that the so-called Umov law seems to be applicable on this cometary surface.

Dust Impact Monitor (SESAME-DIM) Measurements at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

The Rosetta lander Philae successfully landed on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae carries the Dust Impact Monitor (DIM) on board, which is part of the Surface Electric Sounding and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment (SESAME). DIM employs piezoelectric PZT sensors to detect impacts by sub-millimeter and millimeter-sized ice and dust particles that are emitted from the nucleus and transported into the cometary coma. The DIM sensor measures dynamical data like flux and the directionality of the impacting particles. Mass and speed of the particles can be constrained assuming density and elastic particle properties. DIM was operated during three mission phases of Philae at the comet: (1) Before Philae's separation from Rosetta at distances of about 9.6 km, 11.8 km, and 25.3 km from the nucleus barycenter. In this mission phase particles released from the nucleus on radial trajectories remained undetectable because of significant obscuration by the structures of Rosetta, and no dust particles were indeed detected. (2) During Philae's descent to its nominal landing site Agilkia, DIM detected one approximately millimeter-sized particle at a distance of 5.0 km from the nucleus' barycenter, corresponding to an altitude of 2.4 km from the surface. This is the closest ever dust detection at a cometary nucleus by a dedicated in-situ dust detector. (3) At Philae's final landing site, Abydos, DIM detected no dust impact which may be due to low cometary activity in the vicinity of Philae, or due to shading by obstacles close to Philae, or both. Laboratory calibration experiments showed that the material properties of the detected particle are compatible with a porous particle having a bulk density of approximately $250\, \mathrm{kg\,m^{-3}}$. The particle could have been lifted off from the comet's surface by sublimating water ice.

Mid-infrared spectroscopy of the Andromeda galaxy

We present Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) 5-21 micron spectroscopic maps towards 12 regions in the Andromeda galaxy (M31). These regions include the nucleus, bulge, an active region in the star-forming ring, and 9 other regions chosen to cover a range of mid-to-far-infrared colours. In line with previous results, PAH feature ratios (6.2 micron and 7.7 micron features compared to the 11.2 micron feature) measured from our extracted M31 spectra, except the nucleus, strongly correlate. The equivalent widths of the main PAH features, as a function of metallicity and radiation hardness, are consistent with those observed for other nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. Reprocessed data from the ISOCAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory agree with the IRS data; early reports of suppressed 6-8 micron features and enhanced 11.3 micron feature intensity and FWHM apparently resulted from background-subtraction problems. The nucleus does not show any PAH emission but does show strong silicate emission at 9.7 micron. Furthermore, different spectral features (11.3 micron PAH emission, silicate emission and [NeIII] 15.5 micron line emission) have distinct spatial distributions in the nuclear region: the silicate emission is strongest towards the stellar nucleus, while the PAH emission peaks 15 arcsec north of the nucleus. The PAH feature ratios at this position are atypical with strong emission at 11.2 microns and 15-20 microns but weak emission at 6--8 microns. The nucleus itself is dominated by stellar light giving rise to a strong blue continuum and silicate emission.

Gravitational slopes, geomorphology, and material strengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations

We study the link between gravitational slopes and the surface morphology on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and provide constraints on the mechanical properties of the cometary material. We computed the gravitational slopes for five regions on the nucleus that are representative of the different morphologies observed on the surface, using two shape models computed from OSIRIS images by the stereo-photoclinometry (SPC) and stereo-photogrammetry (SPG) techniques. We estimated the tensile, shear, and compressive strengths using different surface morphologies and mechanical considerations. The different regions show a similar general pattern in terms of the relation between gravitational slopes and terrain morphology: i) low-slope terrains (0-20 deg) are covered by a fine material and contain a few large ($>$10 m) and isolated boulders, ii) intermediate-slope terrains (20-45 deg) are mainly fallen consolidated materials and debris fields, with numerous intermediate-size boulders from $<$1 m to 10 m for the majority of them, and iii) high-slope terrains (45-90 deg) are cliffs that expose a consolidated material and do not show boulders or fine materials. The best range for the tensile strength of overhangs is 3-15 Pa (upper limit of 150 Pa), 4-30 Pa for the shear strength of fine surface materials and boulders, and 30-150 Pa for the compressive strength of overhangs (upper limit of 1500 Pa). The strength-to-gravity ratio is similar for 67P and weak rocks on Earth. As a result of the low compressive strength, the interior of the nucleus may have been compressed sufficiently to initiate diagenesis, which could have contributed to the formation of layers. Our value for the tensile strength is comparable to that of dust aggregates formed by gravitational instability and tends to favor a formation of comets by the accrection of pebbles at low velocities.

Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253 [Replacement]

NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate observed at 18.3 {\mu}m (Qa) and 12.8 {\mu}m ([NeII]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Br_gamma emission line profile is blue-shifted and this emission line has also the highest equivalent width at this position. All these evidences point out TH7 as the best candidate to be the galactic nucleus of NGC 253.

Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253 [Replacement]

NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate observed at 18.3 {\mu}m (Qa) and 12.8 {\mu}m ([NeII]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Br_gamma emission line profile is blue-shifted and this emission line has also the highest equivalent width at this position. All these evidences point out TH7 as the best candidate to be the galactic nucleus of NGC 253.

Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253

NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate observed at 18.3 {\mu}m (Qa) and 12.8 {\mu}m ([NeII]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Br_gamma emission line profile is blue-shifted and this emission line has also the highest equivalent width at this position. All these evidences point out TH7 as the best candidate to be the galactic nucleus of NGC 253.

Nuclear magnetic polarizability and the slope of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn-Levinger-Bethe sum rule [Cross-Listing]

Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn-Levinger-Bethe sum rule that relates the strength of the photoexcitation of the giant dipole resonance in a nucleus to the number of elementary scatterers-protons within that nucleus by means of a subtracted forward dispersion relation. I extend this dispersion relation consideration to the case of virtual photons and show that the size of the magnetic polarizability of a nucleus, under the assumption of a separation between the nuclear and hadronic scales, may be related to the slope of the transverse virtual photoabsorption cross section integrated over the energy. I check this approximate sum rule for the deuteron where necessary data is available, discuss possible applications and connection with other sum rules postulated in the literature.

New sum rule for the nuclear magnetic polarizability [Replacement]

I extend the well-known photonuclear sum rule that relates the strength of the photoexcitation of the giant dipole resonance in a nucleus to the number of elementary scatterers-nucleons to the case of virtual photons. The new sum rule relates the size of the magnetic polarizability of a nucleus to the slope of the transverse virtual photoabsorption cross section integrated over the energy in the nuclear range. I check this sum rule for the deuteron where necessary data is available, discuss possible applications and connection with other sum rules postulated in the literature.

What drives the dust activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko?

We use the gravitational instability formation scenario of cometesimals to derive the aggregate size that can be released by the gas pressure from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for different heliocentric distances and different volatile ices. To derive the ejected aggregate sizes, we developed a model based on the assumption that the entire heat absorbed by the surface is consumed by the sublimation process of one volatile species. The calculations were performed for the three most prominent volatile materials in comets, namely, H_20 ice, CO_2 ice, and CO ice. We find that the size range of the dust aggregates able to escape from the nucleus into space widens when the comet approaches the Sun and narrows with increasing heliocentric distance, because the tensile strength of the aggregates decreases with increasing aggregate size. The activity of CO ice in comparison to H_20 ice is capable to detach aggregates smaller by approximately one order of magnitude from the surface. As a result of the higher sublimation rate of CO ice, larger aggregates are additionally able to escape from the gravity field of the nucleus. Our model can explain the large grains (ranging from 2 cm to 1 m in radius) in the inner coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko that have been observed by the OSIRIS camera at heliocentric distances between 3.4 AU and 3.7 AU. Furthermore, the model predicts the release of decimeter-sized aggregates (trail particles) close to the heliocentric distance at which the gas-driven dust activity vanishes. However, the gas-driven dust activity cannot explain the presence of particles smaller than ~1 mm in the coma because the high tensile strength required to detach these particles from the surface cannot be provided by evaporation of volatile ices. These smaller particles can be produced for instance by spin-up and centrifugal mass loss of ejected larger aggregates.

Measurements of the Near-Nucleus Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Alice Far-Ultraviolet Spectrograph on Rosetta

Aims. The Alice far-ultraviolet spectrograph onboard Rosetta is designed to observe emissions from various atomic and molecular species from within the coma of comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko and to determine their spatial distribution and evolution with time and heliocentric distance. Methods. Following orbit insertion in August 2014, Alice made observations of the inner coma above the limbs of the nucleus of the comet from cometocentric distances varying between 10 and 80 km. Depending on the position and orientation of the slit relative to the nucleus, emissions of atomic hydrogen and oxygen were initially detected. These emissions are spatially localized close to the nucleus and spatially variable with a strong enhancement above the comet's neck at northern latitudes. Weaker emission from atomic carbon and CO were subsequently detected. Results. Analysis of the relative line intensities suggests photoelectron impact dissociation of H2O vapor as the source of the observed H I and O I emissions. The electrons are produced by photoionization of H2O. The observed C I emissions are also attributed to electron impact dissociation, of CO2, and their relative brightness to H I reflects the variation of CO2 to H2O column abundance in the coma.

Homogeneous dust emission and jet structure near active cometary nuclei: the case of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko [Replacement]

We compute trajectories of dust grains starting from a homogeneous surface activity-profile on a irregularly shaped cometary nucleus. Despite the initially homogeneous dust distribution a collimation in jet-like structures becomes visible. The fine structure is caused by concave topographical features with similar bundles of normal vectors. The model incorporates accurately determined gravitational forces, rotation of the nucleus, and gas-dust interaction. Jet-like dust structures are obtained for a wide range of gas-dust interactions. For the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, we derive the global dust distribution around the nucleus and find several areas of agreement between the homogeneous dust emission model and the Rosetta observation of dust jets, including velocity-dependent bending of trajectories.

Herschel spectroscopic observations of the compact obscured nucleus in Zw 049.057

Context. The LIRG Zw 049.057 contains a compact obscured nucleus where a considerable amount of the galaxy's luminosity is generated. This nucleus contains a dusty environment that is rich in molecular gas. One approach to probing this kind of environment and to revealing what is hidden behind the dust is to study the rotational lines of molecules that couple well with the IR radiation emitted by the dust. Methods. We observed Zw 049.057 with PACS and SPIRE onboard the Herschel Space Observatory in rotational lines of H2O, H218O, OH, 18OH, and [O I]. We modeled the unresolved core of the galaxy using a spherically symmetric radiative transfer code. Results. We present the full SPIRE FTS spectrum of Zw 049.057, along with relevant spectral scans in the PACS range. We find that a minimum of two different components (nuclear and extended) are required in order to account for the rich molecular line spectrum. The nuclear component has a radius of 10-30 pc, a very high infrared surface brightness (1e14 Lsun/kpc2), warm dust (Td > 100 K), and a very large H2 column density (NH2 = 1e24-1e25 cm-2). The modeling also indicates high nuclear H2O (5e-6) and OH (4e-6) abundances relative to H2 as well as a low 16O/18O-ratio of 50-100. We also find a prominent infall signature in the [O I] line. We tentatively detect a 500 km/s outflow in the H2O 313->202 line. Conclusions. The high surface brightness of the core indicates the presence of either a buried active galactic nucleus or a very dense nuclear starburst.nThe H2O abundance is comparable to that of other compact (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies such as NGC 4418 and Arp 220 - and also to hot cores in the Milky Way. The enhancement of 18O is a possible indicator that the nucleus of Zw 049.057 is in a similar evolutionary stage as the nuclei of Arp 220 - and more advanced than NGC 4418.

Spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft

The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency has been orbiting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) since August 2014 and is now in its escort phase. A large complement of scientific experiments designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted are onboard Rosetta. We present results for the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of 67P derived from the OSIRIS imaging system, which consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The disk-averaged phase function of the nucleus of 67P shows a strong opposition surge with a G parameter value of -0.13$\pm$0.01 in the HG system formalism and an absolute magnitude $H_v(1,1,0)$ = 15.74$\pm$0.02 mag. The integrated spectrophotometry in 20 filters covering the 250-1000 nm wavelength range shows a red spectral behavior, without clear absorption bands except for a potential absorption centered at $\sim$ 290 nm that is possibly due to SO$_2$ ice. The nucleus shows strong phase reddening, with disk-averaged spectral slopes increasing from 11\%/(100 nm) to 16\%/(100 nm) in the 1.3$^{\circ}$--54$^{\circ}$ phase angle range. The geometric albedo of the comet is 6.5$\pm$0.2\% at 649 nm, with local variations of up to $\sim$ 16\% in the Hapi region. From the disk-resolved images we computed the spectral slope together with local spectrophotometry and identified three distinct groups of regions (blue, moderately red, and red). The Hapi region is the brightest, the bluest in term of spectral slope, and the most active surface on the comet. Local spectrophotometry shows an enhancement of the flux in the 700-750 nm that is associated with coma emissions.

Effects of the variability of the nucleus of NGC1275 on X-ray observations of the surrounding intracluster medium

The active galaxy NGC1275 lies at the centre of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, which is the X-ray brightest cluster in the Sky. The nucleus shows large variability over the past few decades. We compile a lightcurve of its X-ray emission covering about 40 years and show that the bright phase around 1980 explains why the inner X-ray bubbles were not seen in the images taken with the Einstein Observatory. The flux had dropped considerably by 1992 when images with the ROSAT HRI led to their discovery. The nucleus is showing a slow X-ray rise since the first Chandra images in 2000. If it brightens back to the pre-1990 level, then X-ray absorption spectroscopy by ASTRO-H can reveal the velocity structure of the shocked gas surrounding the inner bubbles.

Fast Rotation and Trailing Fragments of the Active Asteroid P/2012 F5 (Gibbs)

While having a comet-like appearance, P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) has an orbit native to the Main Asteroid Belt, and physically is a km-sized asteroid which recently (mid 2011) experienced an impulsive mass ejection event. Here we report new observations of this object obtained with the Keck II telescope on UT 2014 August 26. The data show previously undetected 200-m scale fragments of the main nucleus, and reveal a rapid nucleus spin with a rotation period of 3.24 $\pm$ 0.01 hr. The existence of large fragments and the fast nucleus spin are both consistent with rotational instability and partial disruption of the object. To date, many fast rotators have been identified among the minor bodies, which, however, do not eject detectable fragments at the present-day epoch, and also fragmentation events have been observed, but with no rotation period measured. P/2012 F5 is unique in that for the first time we detected fragments and quantified the rotation rate of one and the same object. The rapid spin rate of P/2012 F5 is very close to the spin rates of two other active asteroids in the Main Belt, 133P/Elst-Pizarro and (62412), confirming the existence of a population of fast rotators among these objects. But while P/2012 F5 shows impulsive ejection of dust and fragments, the mass loss from 133P is prolonged and recurrent. We believe that these two types of activity observed in the rapidly rotating active asteroids have a common origin in the rotational instability of the nucleus.

A radio jet drives a molecular and atomic gas outflow in multiple regions within one square kiloparsec of the nucleus of the nearby galaxy IC5063 [Replacement]

We analyzed near-infrared data of the nearby galaxy IC5063 taken with the Very Large Telescope SINFONI instrument. IC5063 is an elliptical galaxy that has a radio jet nearly aligned with the major axis of a gas disk in its center. The data reveal multiple signatures of molecular and atomic gas that has been kinematically distorted by the passage of the jet plasma or cocoon within an area of ~1 kpc^2. Concrete evidence that the interaction of the jet with the gas causes the gas to accelerate comes from the detection of outflows in four different regions along the jet trail: near the two radio lobes, between the radio emission tip and the optical narrow-line-region cone, and at a region with diffuse 17.8 GHz emission midway between the nucleus and the north radio lobe. The outflow in the latter region is biconical, centered 240 pc away from the nucleus, and oriented perpendicularly to the jet trail. The diffuse emission that is observed as a result of the gas entrainment or scattering unfolds around the trail and away from the nucleus with increasing velocity. It overall extends for >700 pc parallel and perpendicular to the trail. Near the outflow starting points, the gas has a velocity excess of 600 km/s to 1200 km/s with respect to ordered motions, as seen in [FeII], Pa alpha, or H2 lines. High H2 (1-0) S(3)/S(1) flux ratios indicate non-thermal excitation of gas in the diffuse outflow.

A radio jet drives a molecular & atomic gas outflow in multiple regions within one square kiloparsec of the nucleus of the nearby galaxy IC5063

We analyzed near-infrared data of the nearby galaxy IC5063 taken with the Very Large Telescope SINFONI instrument. IC5063 is an elliptical galaxy that has a radio jet nearly aligned with the major axis of a gas disk in its center. The data reveal multiple signatures of molecular and atomic gas that has been kinematically distorted by the jet passage within an area of ~1 kpc^2. Concrete evidence that the impact of jet plasma upon gas causes the gas to accelerate comes from outflows detected near four different bending points of the jet: at the two bright radio lobes, near a diverted plasma stream close to the north lobe, and near the tip of a plasma stream in the narrow-line region. Gas moving with a velocity excess of 600 km/s to 1200 km/s with respect to ordered motions is detected in [FeII], Paa, and H2 lines. Around these regions, gas is scattered in different directions. Near the north lobe, the highly blueshifted and the highly redshifted [FeII] emission is offset by 240 pc. The (scattered or not) plasma and its cocoon drive a diffuse outflow that extends >700 pc parallel and perpendicular to the jet trail. This diffuse outflow has two main observational signatures: its emission unfolds around the jet trail and away from the nucleus with increasing velocity, and it forms a biconical shape that is centered 220 pc away from the nucleus and that is oriented perpendicularly to the jet trail. Overall, the highest gas line-of-sight velocities are attained near the jet trail and bending points. High H2 (1-0) S(1)/S(3) flux ratios indicate non-thermal excitation of gas in the diffuse outflow.

The silicate absorption profile in the ISM towards the heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418

The 9.7-micron silicate absorption profile in the interstellar medium provides important information on the physical and chemical composition of interstellar dust grains. Measurements in the Milky Way have shown that the profile in the diffuse interstellar medium is very similar to the amorphous silicate profiles found in circumstellar dust shells around late M stars, and narrower than the silicate profile in denser star-forming regions. Here, we investigate the silicate absorption profile towards the very heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418, the galaxy with the deepest known silicate absorption feature, and compare it to the profiles seen in the Milky Way. Comparison between the 8-13 micron spectrum obtained with TReCS on Gemini and the larger aperture spectrum obtained from the Spitzer archive indicates that the former isolates the nuclear emission, while Spitzer detects low surface brightness circumnuclear diffuse emission in addition. The silicate absorption profile towards the nucleus is very similar to that in the diffuse ISM in the Milky Way with no evidence of spectral structure from crystalline silicates or silicon carbide grains.

How does the mass transport in disk galaxy models influence the character of orbits?

We explore the regular or chaotic nature of orbits of stars moving in the meridional (R,z) plane of an axially symmetric time-dependent disk galaxy model with a central, spherically symmetric nucleus. In particular, mass is linearly transported from the disk to the galactic nucleus, in order to mimic, in a way, the case of self-consistent interactions of an actual N-body simulation. We thus try to unveil the influence of this mass transportation on the different families of orbits of stars by monitoring how the percentage of chaotic orbits, as well as the percentages of orbits of the main regular resonant families, evolve as the galaxy develops a dense and massive nucleus in its core. The SALI method is applied to samples of orbits in order to distinguish safely between ordered and chaotic motion. In addition, a method based on the concept of spectral dynamics is used for identifying the various families of regular orbits and also for recognizing the secondary resonances that bifurcate from them. Our computations strongly suggest that the amount of the observed chaos is substantially increased as the nucleus becomes more massive. Furthermore, extensive numerical calculations indicate that there are orbits which change their nature from regular to chaotic and vice versa and also orbits which maintain their orbital character during the galactic evolution. The present outcomes are compared to earlier related work.

A radial velocity survey for post-common-envelope Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae: First results and discovery of the close binary nucleus of NGC 5189

The formation of Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae ([WR] CSPNe) whose spectroscopic appearance mimics massive WR stars remains poorly understood. Least understood is the nature and frequency of binary companions to [WR] CSPNe that may explain their H-deficiency. We have conducted a systematic radial velocity (RV) study of 6 [WR] CSPNe to search for post-common-envelope (post-CE) [WR] binaries. We used a cross-correlation method to construct the RV time-series as successfully done for massive close binary WR stars. No significant RV variability was detected for the late-[WC] type nuclei of Hen 2-113, Hen 3-1333, PMR~2 and Hen 2-99. Significant, large-amplitude variability was found in the [WC4] nucleus of NGC 5315. In the [WO1] nucleus of NGC 5189 we discovered significant periodic variability that reveals a close binary with $P_\mathrm{orb}=4.04\pm0.1$ d. We measured a semi-amplitude of $62.3\pm1.3$ km s$^{-1}$ that gives a companion mass of $m_2\ge0.5$ $M_\odot$ or $m_2=0.84$ $M_\odot$ (assuming $i=45^\circ$). The most plausible companion type is a massive WD as found in Fleming 1. The spectacular nebular morphology of NGC 5189 fits the pattern of recently discovered post-CE PNe extremely well with its dominant low-ionisation structures (e.g. as in NGC 6326) and collimated outflows (e.g. as in Fleming 1). The anomalously long 4.04 d orbital period is either a once-off (e.g. NGC 2346) or it may indicate there is a sizeable population of [WR] binaries with massive WD companions in relatively wide orbits, perhaps influenced by interactions with the strong [WR] wind.

A radial velocity survey for post-common-envelope Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae: First results and discovery of the close binary nucleus of NGC 5189 [Replacement]

The formation of Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae ([WR] CSPNe) whose spectroscopic appearance mimics massive WR stars remains poorly understood. Least understood is the nature and frequency of binary companions to [WR] CSPNe that may explain their H-deficiency. We have conducted a systematic radial velocity (RV) study of 6 [WR] CSPNe to search for post-common-envelope (post-CE) [WR] binaries. We used a cross-correlation method to construct the RV time-series as successfully done for massive close binary WR stars. No significant RV variability was detected for the late-[WC] type nuclei of Hen 2-113, Hen 3-1333, PMR 2 and Hen 2-99. Significant, large-amplitude variability was found in the [WC4] nucleus of NGC 5315. In the [WO1] nucleus of NGC 5189 we discovered significant periodic variability that reveals a close binary with $P_\mathrm{orb}=4.04\pm0.1$ d. We measured a semi-amplitude of $62.3\pm1.3$ km s$^{-1}$ that gives a companion mass of $m_2\ge0.5$ $M_\odot$ or $m_2=0.84$ $M_\odot$ (assuming $i=45^\circ$). The most plausible companion type is a massive WD as found in Fleming 1. The spectacular nebular morphology of NGC 5189 fits the pattern of recently discovered post-CE PNe extremely well with its dominant low-ionisation structures (e.g. as in NGC 6326) and collimated outflows (e.g. as in Fleming 1). The anomalously long 4.04 d orbital period is either a once-off (e.g. NGC 2346) or it may indicate there is a sizeable population of [WR] binaries with massive WD companions in relatively wide orbits, perhaps influenced by interactions with the strong [WR] wind.

Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions at the LBNF Near Detector [Cross-Listing]

The reaction mechanisms for neutrino interactions with an $^{40}Ar$ nucleus with the LBNF flux are calculated with the Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport-theoretical implementation of these interactions. Quasielastic scattering, many-body effects, pion production and absorption and Deep Inelastic Scattering are discussed; they all play a role at the LBNF energies and are experimentally entangled with each other. Quasielastic scattering makes up for only about 1/3 of the total cross section whereas pion production channels make up about 2/3 of the total. This underlines the need for a consistent description of the neutrino-nucleus reaction that treats all channels on an equal, consistent footing. The results discussed here can also serve as useful guideposts for the Intermediate Neutrino Program.

Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions at the LBNF Near Detector [Replacement]

The reaction mechanisms for neutrino interactions with an $^{40}Ar$ nucleus with the LBNF flux are calculated with the Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport-theoretical implementation of these interactions. Quasielastic scattering, many-body effects, pion production and absorption and Deep Inelastic Scattering are discussed; they all play a role at the LBNF energies and are experimentally entangled with each other. Quasielastic scattering makes up for only about 1/3 of the total cross section whereas pion production channels make up about 2/3 of the total. This underlines the need for a consistent description of the neutrino-nucleus reaction that treats all channels on an equal, consistent footing. The results discussed here can also serve as useful guideposts for the Intermediate Neutrino Program.

The Infrared Jet in 3C31

We report the detection of infrared emission from the jet of the nearby FR I radio galaxy 3C 31. The jet was detected with the IRAC instrument on Spitzer at 4.5 micron, 5.8 micron, and 8.0 micron out to 30" (13 kpc) from the nucleus. We measure radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray fluxes in three regions along the jet determined by the infrared and X-ray morphology. Radio through X-ray spectra in these regions demonstrate that the emission can be interpreted as synchrotron emission from a broken power-law distribution of electron energies. We find significant differences in the high energy spectra with increasing distance from the nucleus. Specifically, the high energy slope increases from 0.86 to 1.72 from 1 kpc to 12 kpc along the jet, and the spectral break likewise increases in frequency along the jet from 10-100's of GHz to ~20 THz. Thus the ratio of IR to X-ray flux in the jet increases by at least an order of magnitude with increasing distance from the nucleus. We argue that these changes cannot simply be the result of spectral aging and that there is ongoing particle acceleration through this region of the jet. The effects of mass loading, turbulence, and jet deceleration, however these processes modify the jet flow in detail, must be causing a change in the electron energy distribution and the efficiency of particle acceleration.

Nucleus Driven Electronic Pulsation [Cross-Listing]

We derive and solve by the spectral method the equations for a neutral system of ultra-relativistic electrons that are compressed to the radius of the nucleus and subject to a driving force. This driving force can be thought of as originating from a nuclear breathing mode, a possibility we discuss in detail.

Structure of the nucleus of 1928+738

Modeling of the trajectories of VLBI components ejected by the nucleus of 1928+738 shows the VLBI jet contains three families of trajectories, i.e. VLBI components are ejected from three different origins. The fit of components C1, C6 and C8 indicates that the nucleus of 1928+738 contains two binary black hole systems. The first binary black hole system is associated with the stationary components Cg and CS and is characterized by a radius $R_{bin,1} \approx 0.220$ mas; both black holes ejected VLBI components quasi regularly between 1990 and 2010. The second binary black hole system is not associated with stationary components and is characterized by a radius $R_{bin,2} \approx 0.140$ mas; it ejected only three VLBI components between 1994 and 1999. The two black hole sytems are separated by $\approx 1.35$ mas. We briefly discuss the consequences of the existence of binary black holes systems in radio quasars to make the link between radio quasars and GAIA.

Short-Timescale monitoring of the X-ray, UV and broad double-peak emission line of the nucleus of NGC 1097

Recent studies have suggested that the short-timescale ($\lesssim7$ days) variability of the broad ($\sim$10,000 km s$^{-1}$) double-peaked H$\alpha$ profile of the LINER nucleus of NGC1097 could be driven by a variable X-ray emission from a central radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF). To test this scenario, we have monitored the NGC1097 nucleus in X-ray and UV continuum with Swift and the H$\alpha$ flux and profile in the optical spectrum using SOAR and Gemini-South from 2012 August to 2013 February. During the monitoring campaign, the H$\alpha$ flux remained at a very low level --- 3 times lower than the maximum flux observed in previous campaigns and showing only limited ($\sim 20\%$) variability. The X-ray variations were small, only $\sim 13\%$ throughout the campaign, while the UV did not show significant variations. We concluded that the timescale of the H$\alpha$ profile variation is close to the sampling interval of the optical observations, which results in only marginal correlation between the X-ray and H$\alpha$ fluxes. We have caught the AGN in NGC1097 in a very low activity state, in which the ionizing source was very weak and capable of ionizing just the innermost part of the gas in the disk. Nonetheless, the data presented here still support the picture in which the gas that emits the broad double-peaked Balmer lines is illuminated/ionized by a source of high-energy photons which is located interior to the inner radius of the line-emitting part of the disk.

Constraining the Dust Coma Properties of Comet C/Siding Spring (2013 A1) at Large Heliocentric Distances

The close encounter of Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with Mars on October 19, 2014 presented an extremely rare opportunity to obtain the first flyby quality data of the nucleus and inner coma of a dynamically new comet. However, the comet's dust tail potentially posed an impact hazard to those spacecraft. To characterize the comet at large heliocentric distances, study its long-term evolution, and provide critical inputs to hazard modeling, we imaged C/Siding Spring with the Hubble Space Telescope when the comet was at 4.58, 3.77, and 3.28 AU from the Sun. The dust production rate, parameterized by the quantity Af$\rho$, was 2500, 2100, and 1700 cm (5000-km radius aperture) for the three epochs, respectively. The color of the dust coma is 5.0$\pm$0.3$\%$/100 nm for the first two epochs, and 9.0$\pm$0.3$\%$/100 nm for the last epoch, and reddens with increasing cometocentric distance out to ~3000 km from the nucleus. The spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of the dust color are most consistent with the existence of icy grains in the coma. Two jet-like dust features appear in the north-northwest and southeast directions projected in the sky plane. Within each epoch of 1-2 hour duration, no temporal variations were observed for either feature, but the PA of the southeastern feature varied between the three epochs by ~30$^\circ$. The dust feature morphology suggests two possible orientations for the rotational pole of the nucleus, (RA, Dec) = (295$^\circ\pm$5$^\circ$, +43$^\circ\pm$2$^\circ$) and (190$^\circ\pm$10$^\circ$, 50$^\circ\pm$5$^\circ$), or their diametrically opposite orientations.

Episodic Ejection from Active Asteroid 311P/PANSTARRS

We examine the development of the active asteroid 311P/PANSTARRS (formerly, 2013 P5) in the period from 2013 September to 2014 February using high resolution images from the Hubble Space Telescope. This multi-tailed object is characterized by a single, reddish nucleus of absolute magnitude $H \ge$ 18.98$\pm$0.10, corresponding to an equal-area sphere of radius $\le$200$\pm$20 m (for assumed geometric albedo 0.29$\pm$0.09). We set an upper limit to the radii of possible companion nuclei at $\sim$10 m. The nucleus ejected debris in nine discrete episodes, spread irregularly over a nine month interval, each time forming a distinct tail. Particles in the tails range from about 10 $\mu$m to at least 80 mm in radius, and were ejected at speeds $<$1 m s$^{-1}$. The ratio of the total ejected dust mass to the nucleus mass is $\sim$3$\times$10$^{-5}$, corresponding to a global surface layer $\sim$2 mm thick, or to a deeper layer covering a smaller fraction of the surface. The observations are incompatible with an origin of the activity by impact or by the sublimation of entrapped ice. This object appears to be shedding its regolith by rotational (presumably YORP-driven) instability. Long-term fading of the photometry (months) is attributed to gradual dissipation of near-nucleus dust. Photometric variations on short timescales ($<$0.7 hr) are probably caused by fast rotation of the nucleus. However, because of limited time coverage and dilution of the nucleus signal by near-nucleus dust, we have not been able to determine the rotation period.

Episodic Ejection from Active Asteroid 311P/PANSTARRS [Replacement]

We examine the development of the active asteroid 311P/PANSTARRS (formerly, 2013 P5) in the period from 2013 September to 2014 February using high resolution images from the Hubble Space Telescope. This multi-tailed object is characterized by a single, reddish nucleus of absolute magnitude $H \ge$ 18.98$\pm$0.10, corresponding to an equal-area sphere of radius $\le$200$\pm$20 m (for assumed geometric albedo 0.29$\pm$0.09). We set an upper limit to the radii of possible companion nuclei at $\sim$10 m. The nucleus ejected debris in nine discrete episodes, spread irregularly over a nine month interval, each time forming a distinct tail. Particles in the tails range from about 10 $\mu$m to at least 80 mm in radius, and were ejected at speeds $<$1 m s$^{-1}$. The ratio of the total ejected dust mass to the nucleus mass is $\sim$3$\times$10$^{-5}$, corresponding to a global surface layer $\sim$2 mm thick, or to a deeper layer covering a smaller fraction of the surface. The observations are incompatible with an origin of the activity by impact or by the sublimation of entrapped ice. This object appears to be shedding its regolith by rotational (presumably YORP-driven) instability. Long-term fading of the photometry (months) is attributed to gradual dissipation of near-nucleus dust. Photometric variations on short timescales ($<$0.7 hr) are probably caused by fast rotation of the nucleus. However, because of limited time coverage and dilution of the nucleus signal by near-nucleus dust, we have not been able to determine the rotation period.

Resolving the Bright HCN(1-0) Emission toward the Seyfert 2 Nucleus of M51: Shock Enhancement by Radio Jets and Weak Masing by Infrared Pumping?

We present high angular resolution observations of the HCN(1-0) emission (at ~1" or ~34 pc), together with CO J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 observations, toward the Seyfert 2 nucleus of M51 (NGC 5194). The overall HCN(1-0) distribution and kinematics are very similar to that of the CO lines, which have been indicated as the jet-entrained molecular gas in our past observations. In addition, high HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) brightness temperature ratio of about unity is observed along the jets, similar to that observed at the shocked molecular gas in our Galaxy. These results strongly indicate that both diffuse and dense gases are entrained by the jets and outflowing from the AGN. The channel map of HCN(1-0) at the systemic velocity shows a strong emission right at the nucleus, where no obvious emission has been detected in the CO lines. The HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) brightness temperature ratio at this region reaches >2, a value that cannot be explained considering standard physical/chemical conditions. Based on our calculations, we suggest infrared pumping and possibly weak HCN masing, but still requiring an enhanced HCN abundance for the cause of this high ratio. This suggests the presence of a compact dense obscuring molecular gas in front of the nucleus of M51, which remains unresolved at our ~1" (~34 pc) resolution, and consistent with the Seyfert 2 classification picture.

Observations of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) from Lowell Observatory

We observed dynamically new sungrazing comet ISON (C/2012 S1) extensively at Lowell Observatory throughout 2013 in order to characterize its behavior prior to perihelion. ISON had "typical" abundances for an Oort Cloud comet. Its dust production, as measured by Afrho, remained nearly constant during the apparition but its CN gas production increased by ~50x. The minimum active area necessary to support observed water production rates exceeded the likely surface area of the nucleus and suggests a population of icy grains in the coma. Together with the flattening of the dust radial profile over time, this is consistent with ejection of a large quantity of slow moving dust and icy grains in the coma at large heliocentric distance. The dust morphology was dominated by the tail, but a faint sunward dust fan was detected in March, April, May, and September. We imaged multiple gas species in September, October, and November. Excess CN signal was observed in the sunward hemisphere in September and early October. In November the excess CN signal was in the tailward hemisphere and two faint CN features appeared approximately orthogonal to the tail with position angles varying by about +/-20 degrees from night to night. Using numerical modeling, we best reproduced the orientation and shape of these features as well as the bulk brightness with a pole oriented approximately towards the Sun and a single source located within ~35 degrees of the equator. The production rates and coma morphology suggest a nucleus that was active over nearly its entire sunward facing hemisphere in September and October but which underwent a significant mass loss event, potentially including fragmentation, shortly before November 1. Significant mass loss likely continued at the same site over subsequent days/weeks and may have catastrophically weakened the nucleus prior to perihelion.

Interaction between the jet and the interstellar medium of M87 using Chandra

This study shows the existence of an additional thermal component found in the synchrotron emission from the M87 jet. Using Chandra, thermal bremsstrahlung is detected in four out of six fields. X-rays for the nucleus and HST-1 are well described with a power law model. Neutral density, plasma density, and the density of accelerated electrons for the nucleus and each part of the jet are obtained. The mass of the thermal gas is estimated to be 3.9x10^6 M. The possibility that the thermal gas is injected into the jet from the black-hole is excluded because the nucleus and the field HST-1 do not contain thermal components. It is possible that the interstellar medium is compressed by the jet and is heated by the shock. The energy density of the gas is comparable to that of the magnetic field with 1 mG. For the field D, a high density of accelerated electrons of 1.5x10^11 (2 d / tval )^3 ( 6 / delta )^3 ( 3 /Gamma )^2 m^-3 GeV^(p-1), a high upper limit of neutral density of 8 cm^-3, and a high ion density of 195 cm^-3 are obtained. A possible contribution of non-thermal bremsstrahlung from the jet, especially the field D to the observed flux with Fermi is suggested. This scenario matches with non-flux variability in the GeV energy range.

Transverse Spin and Classical Gluon Fields: Combining Two Perspectives on Hadronic Structure

In recent decades, the spin and transverse momentum of quarks and gluons were found to play integral roles in the structure of the nucleon. Simultaneously, the onset of gluon saturation in hadrons and nuclei at high energies was predicted to result in a new state of matter dominated by classical gluon fields. Understanding both of these contributions to hadronic structure is essential for current and future collider phenomenology. In this Dissertation, we study the combined effects of transverse spin and gluon saturation using the Glauber-Gribov-Mueller / McLerran-Venugopalan model of a heavy nucleus in the quasi-classical approximation. We investigate the use of a transversely-polarized projectile as a probe of the saturated gluon fields in the nucleus, finding that the transverse spin asymmetry of produced particles couples to the component of the gluon fields which is antisymmetric under both time reversal and charge conjugation. We also analyze the effects of saturation on the transverse spin asymmetry (Sivers function) of quarks within the wave function of the nucleus, finding that gluon saturation preferentially generates the asymmetry through the orbital angular momentum of the nucleons, together with nuclear shadowing.

Extreme dust disks in Arp 220 as revealed by ALMA

We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution ($0.36 \times 0.20^{\prime\prime}$) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick ($\tau_{434\mu m} = 5.3$), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque ($\tau_{434\mu m} = 1.7$). We derive full-width half-maximum diameters of $ 76 \times \le 70$ pc and $123 \times 79$ pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for ($83 ^{+65}_{-38}$ (calibration) $^{+0}_{-34}$ (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus ($ \log(\sigma T^4) = 14.3\pm 0.2 ^{+0}_{-0.7}$ in units of L$_\odot$ kpc$^{-2}$) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an AGN or a "hot starburst", although the exact value depends sensitively on the brightness distribution adopted for the source. Although the role of any central AGN remains open, the inferred mean gas column densities of $0.6-1.8 \times 10^{25}$ cm$^{-2}$ mean that any AGN in Arp 220 must be Compton-thick.

Michel decay spectrum for a muon bound to a nucleus [Replacement]

The spectrum of electrons from muons decaying in an atomic bound state is significantly modified by their interaction with the nucleus. Somewhat unexpectedly, its first measurement, at the Canadian laboratory TRIUMF, differed from basic theory. We show, using a combination of techniques developed in atomic, nuclear, and high-energy physics, that radiative corrections eliminate the discrepancy. In addition to solving that outstanding problem, our more precise predictions are potentially useful for interpreting future high-statistics muon experiments that aim to search for exotic interactions at $10^{-16}$ sensitivity.

Michel decay spectrum for a muon bound to a nucleus

The spectrum of electrons from muons decaying in an atomic bound state is significantly modified by their interaction with the nucleus. Somewhat unexpectedly, its first measurement, at the Canadian laboratory TRIUMF, differed from basic theory. We show, using a combination of techniques developed in atomic, nuclear, and high-energy physics, that radiative corrections eliminate the discrepancy. In addition to solving that outstanding problem, our more precise predictions are potentially useful for interpreting future high-statistics muon experiments that aim to search for exotic interactions at $10^{-16}$ sensitivity.

The central parsecs of active galactic nuclei: challenges to the torus

Type 2 AGN are by definition nuclei in which the broad-line region and continuum light are hidden at optical/UV wavelengths by dust. Via accurate registration of infrared (IR) Very Large Telescope adaptive optics images with optical \textit{Hubble Space Telescope} images we unambiguously identify the precise location of the nucleus of a sample of nearby, type 2 AGN. Dust extinction maps of the central few kpc of these galaxies are constructed from optical-IR colour images, which allow tracing the dust morphology at scales of few pc. In almost all cases, the IR nucleus is shifted by several tens of pc from the optical peak and its location is behind a dust filament, prompting to this being a major, if not the only, cause of the nucleus obscuration. These nuclear dust lanes have extinctions $A_V \geq 3-6$ mag, sufficient to at least hide the low-luminosity AGN class, and in some cases are observed to connect with kpc-scale dust structures, suggesting that these are the nuclear fueling channels. A precise location of the ionised gas H$\alpha$ and [\textsc{Si\,vii}] 2.48 $\mu$m coronal emission lines relative to those of the IR nucleus and dust is determined. The H$\alpha$ peak emission is often shifted from the nucleus location and its sometimes conical morphology appears not to be caused by a nuclear --torus-- collimation but to be strictly defined by the morphology of the nuclear dust lanes. Conversely, [\textsc{Si\,vii}] 2.48 $\mu$m emission, less subjected to dust extinction, reflects the truly, rather isotropic, distribution of the ionised gas. All together, the precise location of the dust, ionised gas and nucleus is found compelling enough to cast doubts on the universality of the pc-scale torus and supports its vanishing in low-luminosity AGN. Finally, we provide the most accurate position of the NGC 1068 nucleus, located at the South vertex of cloud B.

Half-Megasecond Chandra Spectral Imaging of the Hot Circumgalactic Nebula around Quasar Mrk 231

A deep 400-ksec ACIS-S observation of the nearest quasar known, Mrk 231, is combined with archival 120-ksec data obtained with the same instrument and setup to carry out the first ever spatially resolved spectral analysis of a hot X-ray emitting circumgalactic nebula around a quasar. The 65 x 50 kpc X-ray nebula shares no resemblance with the tidal debris seen at optical wavelengths. One notable exception is the small tidal arc 3.5 kpc south of the nucleus where excess soft X-ray continuum emission and Si XIII 1.8 keV line emission are detected, consistent with star formation and its associated alpha-element enhancement, respectively. An X-ray shadow is also detected at the location of the 15-kpc northern tidal tail. The hard X-ray continuum emission within 6 kpc of the center is consistent with being due entirely to the bright central AGN. The soft X-ray spectrum of the outer (>6 kpc) portion of the nebula is best described as the sum of two thermal components with T~3 and ~8 million K and spatially uniform super-solar alpha element abundances, relative to iron. This result implies enhanced star formation activity over ~10^8 yrs accompanied with redistribution of the metals on large scale. The low-temperature thermal component is not present within 6 kpc of the nucleus, suggesting extra heating in this region from the circumnuclear starburst, the central quasar, or the wide-angle quasar-driven outflow identified from optical IFU spectroscopy on a scale of >3 kpc. Significant azimuthal variations in the soft X-ray intensity are detected in the inner region where the outflow is present. The soft X-ray emission is weaker in the western quadrant, coincident with a deficit of Halpha and some of the largest columns of neutral gas outflowing from the nucleus. Shocks created by the interaction of the wind with the ambient ISM may heat the gas to high temperatures at this location. (abridged)

Sungrazer Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON): Curve of light, nucleus size, rotation and peculiar structures in the coma and tail

We present our results for comet (ISON). Our results were obtained with amateur telescopes observing from the ground, before and after the comet had passed conjunction with the Sun in August 2013. We measured a mean radius of 830 +- 245 m, and we have identified a persistent structure in the direction of the sun with a preliminary rotation period of approximately 3 days. In the tail are visible peculiar structures linked to the production of dust by the nucleus. Our data Af(rho) (AHearn et al. 1984), a physical parameter that indicates the amount of dust produced, is approximately 500+-50 cm in the quite phase which means a production Qdust=500kgxsec^-1 equal to 43.2x10^6 kg per day. A considerable amount for a small comet. We have also detected two major outbursts in January, 2013 and November, 2013, and minor outbursts throughout the observation period. Key words: General: general; comets: C2012 S1 (ISON), ISON, comets, afrho, photometry of aperture, flux, apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude, fragmentation.

The Challenge of the EMC Effect: existing data and future directions [Cross-Listing]

Since the discovery that the ratio of inclusive charged lepton (per-nucleon) cross sections from a nucleus A to the deuteron is not unity - even in deep inelastic scattering kinematics - a great deal of experimental and theoretical effort has gone into understanding the phenomenon. The EMC effect, as it is now known, shows that even in the most extreme kinematic conditions the effects of the nucleon being bound in a nucleus can not be ignored. In this paper we collect the most precise data available for various nuclear to deuteron ratios, as well as provide a commentary on the current status of the theoretical understanding of this thirty year old effect.

The Challenge of the EMC Effect: existing data and future directions [Replacement]

Since the discovery that the ratio of inclusive charged lepton (per-nucleon) cross sections from a nucleus A to the deuteron is not unity - even in deep inelastic scattering kinematics - a great deal of experimental and theoretical effort has gone into understanding the phenomenon. The EMC effect, as it is now known, shows that even in the most extreme kinematic conditions the effects of the nucleon being bound in a nucleus can not be ignored. In this paper we collect the most precise data available for various nuclear to deuteron ratios, as well as provide a commentary on the current status of the theoretical understanding of this thirty year old effect.

Trajectory analysis for the nucleus and dust of comet C/2013~A1 (Siding Spring)

Comet C/2013 A1 (siding Spring) will experience a high velocity encounter with Mars on October 19, 2014 at a distance of 135,000 km +- 5000 km from the planet center. We present a comprehensive analysis of the trajectory of both the comet nucleus and the dust tail. The nucleus of C/2013 A1 cannot impact on Mars even in the case of unexpectedly large nongravitational perturbations. Furthermore, we compute the required ejection velocities for the dust grains of the tail to reach Mars as a function of particle radius and density and heliocentric distance of the ejection. A comparison between our results and the most current modeling of the ejection velocities suggests that impacts are possible only for millimeter to centimeter size particles released more than 13 au from the Sun. However, this level of cometary activity that far from the Sun is considered extremely unlikely. The arrival time of these particles spans a 20-minute time interval centered at October 19, 2014 at 20:09 TDB, i.e., around the time that Mars crosses the orbital plane of C/2013 A1. Ejection velocities larger than currently estimated by a factor >2 would allow impacts for smaller particles ejected as close as 3 au from the Sun. These particles would reach Mars from 43 to 130 min after the nominal close approach epoch of the purely gravitational trajectory of the nucleus.

Determining the nature of orbits in disk galaxies with non spherical nuclei

We investigate the regular or chaotic nature of orbits of stars moving in the meridional plane $(R,z)$ of an axially symmetric galactic model with a flat disk and a central, non spherical and massive nucleus. In particular, we study the influence of the flattening parameter of the central nucleus on the nature of orbits, by computing in each case the percentage of chaotic orbits, as well as the percentages of orbits of the main regular families. In an attempt to maximize the accuracy of our results upon distinguishing between regular and chaotic motion, we use both the Fast Lyapunov Indicator (FLI) and the Smaller ALingment Index (SALI) methods to extensive samples of orbits obtained by integrating numerically the equations of motion as well as the variational equations. Moreover, a technique which is based mainly on the field of spectral dynamics that utilizes the Fourier transform of the time series of each coordinate is used for identifying the various families of regular orbits and also to recognize the secondary resonances that bifurcate from them. Varying the value of the flattening parameter, we study three different cases: (i) the case where we have a prolate nucleus (ii) the case where the central nucleus is spherical and (iii) the case where an oblate massive nucleus is present. Furthermore, we present some additional findings regarding the reliability of short time (fast) chaos indicators, as well as a new method to define the threshold between chaos and regularity for both FLI and SALI, by using them simultaneously. Comparison with early related work is also made.

A Luminous Infrared Merger with Two Bipolar Molecular Outflows: ALMA and SMA Observations of NGC 3256

We report ALMA and SMA observations of the luminous infrared merger NGC 3256, the most luminous galaxy within z=0.01. Both of the two merger nuclei separated by 5" (0.8 kpc) on the sky have a compact concentration of molecular gas, i.e., nuclear disks with Sigma_mol > 10^3 Msun pc^-2. The one at the northern nucleus is face-on while the southern nuclear disk is almost edge-on. The northern nucleus is more massive and has molecular arcs and spiral arms around. The high-velocity molecular gas previously found in the system is resolved to two molecular outflows associated with each of the two nuclei. The molecular outflow from the northern nuclear disk is part of a starburst-driven superwind seen nearly pole on. Its maximum velocity is >750 km/s and its mass outflow rate is estimated to be > 60 Msun/yr for a conversion factor N_{H_2}/I_{CO(1-0)}=1x10^20 cm^-2/(K km/s). The outflow from the southern nucleus is a highly collimated bipolar molecular jet seen nearly edge-on. Its line-of-sight velocity increases with distance out to 300 pc from the southern nucleus. Its maximum de-projected velocity is ~2000 km/s for the estimated inclination and should exceed 1000 km/s even allowing for its uncertainty. The mass outflow rate is estimated to be >50 Msun/yr for this outflow. There are possible signs that this southern outflow has been driven by a bipolar radio jet from an AGN that became inactive very recently. The sum of these outflow rates, although subject to the uncertainty in the molecular mass estimate, either exceeds or compares to the total star formation rate in NGC 3256. The feedback from nuclear activities in the form of molecular outflows is therefore significant in the gas consumption budget, and hence evolution, of this luminous infrared galaxy. (abridged)

 

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