Posts Tagged mass ratio

Recent Postings from mass ratio

Comprehensive Analysis of Yukawa Hierarchies on $T^2/Z_N$ with Magnetic Fluxes

Based on the result of classification in our previous work, we exhaustively investigate Yukawa sector of $U(8)$ model on magnetized orbifolds $T^{2}/Z_{2}$, $T^{2}/Z_{3}$, $T^{2}/Z_{4}$ and $T^{2}/Z_{6}$ by evaluating ratios of the mass eigenvalues of the three states in all the possible configurations with one and two Higgs pairs where three generations are realized in fermions. Because of smearing effect via kinetic mixing, one can realize a hierarchy such as $10^{-2}$-$10^{-3}$, but it is very difficult to achieve the mass ratio between the up and top quarks ($m_{\text{up}}/m_{\text{top}} \sim 10^{-5}$) on the complicated magnetized orbifolds $T^{2}/Z_{N}\,(N=3,4,6)$.

Secular models and Kozai resonance for planets in coorbital non-coplanar motion

In this work, we construct and test an analytical and a semianalytical secular models for two planets locked in a coorbital non-coplanar motion, comparing some results with the case of restricted three body problem. The analytical average model replicates the numerical N-body integrations, even for moderate eccentricities ($\lesssim$ 0.3) and inclinations ($\lesssim10^\circ$), except for the regions corresponding to quasi-satellite and Lidov-Kozai configurations. Furthermore, this model is also useful in the restricted three body problem, assuming very low mass ratio between the planets. We also describe a four-degree-of-freedom semianalytical model valid for any type of coorbital configuration in a wide range of eccentricities and inclinations. {Using a N-body integrator, we have found that the phase space of the General Three Body Problem is different to the restricted case for inclined systems, and establish the location of the Lidov-Kozai equilibrium configurations depending on mass ratio. We study the stability of periodic orbits in the inclined systems, and find that apart from the robust configurations $L_4$, $AL_4$, and $QS$ is possible to harbour two Earth-like planets in orbits previously identified as unstable $U$ and also in Euler $L_3$ configurations, with bounded chaos.

ASASSN-15jd: WZ Sge-type star with intermediate superoutburst between single and double ones

We present optical photometry of a WZ Sge-type dwarf nova (DN), ASASSN-15jd. Its light curve showed a small dip in the middle of the superoutburst in 2015 for the first time among WZ Sge-type DNe. The unusual light curve implies a delay in the growth of the 3:1 resonance tidal instability. Also, the light curve is similar to those of other two WZ Sge-type stars, SSS J122221.7$-$311523 and OT J184228.1$+$483742, which are believed to be the best candidates for a period bouncer on the basis of their small values of the mass ratio ($q \equiv M_{2}/M_{1}$). Additionally, the small mean superhump amplitude ($<$ 0.1 mag) and the long duration of no ordinary superhumps at the early stage of the superoutburst are common to the best candidates for a period bouncer. The average superhump period was $P_{\rm sh}$ = 0.0649810(78) d and no early superhumps were detected. Although we could not estimate the mass ratio of ASASSN-15jd with high accuracy, this object is expected to be a candidate for a period bouncer, a binary accounting for the missing population of post-period minimum cataclysmic variables, based on the above characteristics.

OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb: A Saturn-mass Planet around an M-dwarf

We report the discovery of a planet by the microlensing method, OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb. Although the duration of the planetary signal for this event was one of the shortest seen for a planetary event, the anomaly was well covered thanks to high cadence observations taken by the survey groups OGLE and MOA. By analyzing the light curve, this planetary system is found to have a mass ratio $q=(1.58\pm0.15)\times10^{-3}$. By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the host star is an M-dwarf star with a mass of $M_{\rm L}=0.29_{-0.16}^{+0.33} \ M_{\odot}$ located at $D_{\rm L}=6.7_{-1.2}^{+1.1} \ {\rm kpc}$ away from the Earth and the companion's mass is $m_{\rm P}=0.47_{-0.26}^{+0.54} \ M_{\rm Jup}$. The projected planet-host separation is $a_{\perp}=1.6_{-0.3}^{+0.4} \ {\rm AU}$. Because the lens-source relative proper motion is relatively high, future high resolution images would detect the lens host star and determine the lens properties uniquely. This system is likely a Saturn-mass exoplanet around an M-dwarf and such systems are commonly detected by gravitational microlensing. This adds an another example of a possible pileup of sub-Jupiters $(0.2 < m_{\rm P}/M_{\rm Jup} < 1)$ in contrast to a lack of Jupiters ($\sim 1 - 2 \ M_{\rm Jup}$) around M-dwarfs, supporting the prediction by core accretion models that Jupiter-mass or more massive planets are unlikely to form around M-dwarfs.

The ELM Survey. VII. Orbital Properties of Low Mass White Dwarf Binaries

We present the discovery of 15 extremely low mass (5 < log{g} < 7) white dwarf candidates, 9 of which are in ultra-compact double-degenerate binaries. Our targeted ELM Survey sample now includes 76 binaries. The sample has a lognormal distribution of orbital periods with a median period of 5.4 hr. The velocity amplitudes imply that the binary companions have a normal distribution of mass with 0.76 Msun mean and 0.25 Msun dispersion. Thus extremely low mass white dwarfs are found in binaries with a typical mass ratio of 1:4. Statistically speaking, 95% of the white dwarf binaries have a total mass below the Chandrasekhar mass and thus are not Type Ia supernova progenitors. Yet half of the observed binaries will merge in less than 6 Gyr due to gravitational wave radiation; probable outcomes include single massive white dwarfs and stable mass transfer AM CVn binaries.

From perturbative calculations of the QCD static potential towards four-loop pole-running heavy quarks masses relation

The summary of the available semi-analytical results for the three-loop corrections to the QCD static potential and for the $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_s^4)$ contributions to the ratio of the running and pole heavy quark masses are presented. The procedure of the determination of the dependence of the four-loop contribution to the pole-running heavy quarks mass ratio on the number of quarks flavours, based on application of the least squares method is described. The necessity of clarifying the reason of discrepancy between the numerical uncertainties of the $\alpha_s^4$ coefficients in the mass ratio, obtained by this mathematical method by the direct numerical calculations is emphasised.

The selective effect of environment on the atomic and molecular gas-to-dust ratio of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

We combine dust, atomic (HI) and molecular (H$_{2}$) hydrogen mass measurements for 176 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to investigate the effect of environment on the gas-to-dust mass ($M_{\rm gas}/M_{\rm dust}$) ratio of nearby galaxies. We find that, at fixed stellar mass, the average $M_{\rm gas}/M_{\rm dust}$ ratio varies by no more than a factor of $\sim$2 when moving from field to cluster galaxies, with Virgo galaxies being slightly more dust rich (per unit of gas) than isolated systems. Remarkably, once the molecular and atomic hydrogen phases are investigated separately, we find that \hi-deficient galaxies have at the same time lower $M_{\rm HI}/M_{\rm dust}$ ratio but higher $M_{\rm H_{2}}/M_{\rm dust}$ ratio than \hi-normal systems. In other words, they are poorer in atomic but richer in molecular hydrogen if normalized to their dust content. By comparing our findings with the predictions of theoretical models, we show that the opposite behavior observed in the $M_{\rm HI}/M_{\rm dust}$ and $M_{\rm H_{2}}/M_{\rm dust}$ ratios is fully consistent with outside-in stripping of the interstellar medium (ISM), and is simply a consequence of the different distribution of dust, \hi\ and H$_{2}$ across the disk. Our results demonstrate that the small environmental variations in the total $M_{\rm gas}/M_{\rm dust}$ ratio, as well as in the gas-phase metallicity, do not automatically imply that environmental mechanisms are not able to affect the dust and metal content of the ISM in galaxies.

PM J03338+3320: Long-Period Superhumps in Growing Phase Following a Separate Precursor Outburst

We observed the first-ever recorded outburst of PM J03338+3320, the cataclysmic variable selected by proper-motion survey. The outburst was composed of a precursor and the main superoutburst. The precursor outburst occurred at least 5 d before the maximum of the main superoutburst. Despite this separation, long-period superhumps were continuously seen between the precursor and main superoutburst. The period of these superhumps is longer than the orbital period by 6.0(1)% and can be interpreted to reflect the dynamical precession rate at the 3:1 resonance for a mass ratio of 0.172(4). These superhumps smoothly evolved into those in the main superoutburst. These observations provide the clearest evidence that the 3:1 resonance is triggered by the precursor outburst, even if it is well separated, and the resonance eventually causes the main superoutburst as predicted by the thermal-tidal instability model. The presence of superhumps well before the superoutburst cannot be explained by alternative models (the enhanced mass-transfer model and the pure thermal instability model) and the present observations give a clear support to the thermal-tidal instability model.

The evolution of a supermassive retrograde binary embedded in an accretion disk

In this note we discuss the main results of a study of a massive binary with unequal mass ratio, q, embedded in an accretion disk, with its orbital rotation being opposed to that of the disk. When the mass ratio is sufficiently large, a gap opens in the disk, but the mechanism of gap formation is very different from the prograde case. Inward migration occurs on a timescale of t_ev ~ M_p/(dot M), where M_p is the mass of the less massive component (the perturber), and dot M is the accretion rate. When q<< 1, the accretion takes place mostly onto the more massive component, with the accretion rate onto the perturber being smaller than, or of order of, q^(1/3)M. However, this rate increases when supermassive binary black holes are considered and gravitational wave emission is important. We estimate a typical duration of time for which the accretion onto the perturber and gravitational waves could be detected.

Mass ratio determination from Halpha lines in Black-Hole X-ray transients

We find that the mass ratio q in quiescent black hole (BH) X-ray transients is tightly correlated with the ratio of the double peak separation (DP) to the full-width-half maximum (FWHM) of the Halpha emission line, log q = -6.88 -23.2 log (DP/FWHM). The correlation is explained through the efficient truncation of the outer disc radius by the 3:1 resonance with the companion star. This is the dominant tidal interaction for extreme mass ratios q=M2/M1<~0.25, the realm of BH (and some neutron star) X-ray transients. Mass ratios can thus be estimated with a typical uncertainty of ~32%, provided that the Halpha profile used to measure DP/FWHM is an orbital phase average. We apply the DP/FWHM-q relation to the three faint BH transients XTE J1650-500, XTE J1859+226 and Swift J1357-0933 and predict q=0.026 (+0.038-0.007), 0.049 (+0.023-0.012) and 0.040 (+0.003-0.005), respectively. This new relation, together with the FWHM-K2 correlation presented in Paper I (casares 2015) allows the extraction of fundamental parameters from very faint targets and, therefore, the extension of dynamical BH studies to much deeper limits than was previously possible. As an example, we combine our mass ratio determination for Swift J1357-0922 with previous results to yield a BH mass of 12.4+-3.6 Msun. This confirms Swift J1357-0922 as one of the most massive BH low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galaxy.

Secular resonances between bodies on close orbits: a case study of the Himalia prograde group of jovian irregular satellites

The gravitational interaction between two objects on similar orbits can effect noticeable changes in the orbital evolution even if the ratio of their masses to that of the central body is vanishingly small. Christou (2005) observed an occasional resonant lock in the differential node $\Delta \Omega$ between two members in the Himalia irregular satellite group of Jupiter in the $N$-body simulations (corresponding mass ratio $\sim 10^{-9}$). Using a semianalytical approach, we have reproduced this phenomenon. We also demonstrate the existence of two additional types of resonance, involving angle differences $\Delta\omega$ and $\Delta (\Omega+\varpi)$ between two group members. These resonances cause secular oscillations in eccentricity and/or inclination on timescales $\sim$ 1 Myr. We locate these resonances in $(a,e,i)$ space and analyse their topological structure. In subsequent $N$-body simulations, we confirm these three resonances and find a fourth one involving $\Delta \varpi$. In addition, we study the occurrence rates and the stability of the four resonances from a statistical perspective by integrating 1000 test particles for 100 Myr. We find $\sim 10-30$ librators for each of the resonances. Particularly, the nodal resonance found by Christou is the most stable: 2 particles are observed to stay in libration for the entire integration.

Dynamical mass ejection from the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity [Cross-Listing]

We perform neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars in numerical relativity. Neutron stars are modeled by soft and moderately stiff finite-temperature equations of state (EOS). We find that the properties of the dynamical ejecta such as the total mass, neutron richness profile, and specific entropy profile depend on the mass ratio of the binary systems for a given EOS in a unique manner. For the soft EOS (SFHo), the total ejecta mass depends weakly on the mass ratio, but the average of electron number per baryon ($Y_e$) and specific entropy ($s$) of the ejecta decreases significantly with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry. For the stiff EOS (DD2), with the increase of the mass asymmetry degree, the total ejecta mass significantly increases while the average of $Y_e$ and $s$ moderately decreases. We find again that only for the soft EOS (SFHo), the total ejecta mass exceeds $0.01M_\odot$ irrespective of the mass ratio chosen in this paper. The ejecta have a variety of electron number per baryon with its average approximately between $Y_e \sim 0.2$ and $\sim 0.3$ irrespective of the EOS employed, which is well-suited for the production of the r-process heavy elements (second and third peaks), although its averaged value decreases with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry.

Dynamical mass ejection from the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity

We perform neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars in numerical relativity. Neutron stars are modeled by soft and moderately stiff finite-temperature equations of state (EOS). We find that the properties of the dynamical ejecta such as the total mass, neutron richness profile, and specific entropy profile depend on the mass ratio of the binary systems for a given EOS in a unique manner. For the soft EOS (SFHo), the total ejecta mass depends weakly on the mass ratio, but the average of electron number per baryon ($Y_e$) and specific entropy ($s$) of the ejecta decreases significantly with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry. For the stiff EOS (DD2), with the increase of the mass asymmetry degree, the total ejecta mass significantly increases while the average of $Y_e$ and $s$ moderately decreases. We find again that only for the soft EOS (SFHo), the total ejecta mass exceeds $0.01M_\odot$ irrespective of the mass ratio chosen in this paper. The ejecta have a variety of electron number per baryon with its average approximately between $Y_e \sim 0.2$ and $\sim 0.3$ irrespective of the EOS employed, which is well-suited for the production of the r-process heavy elements (second and third peaks), although its averaged value decreases with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry.

Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Electron-Ion Outlfows

We use the Los Alamos VPIC code to investigate particle acceleration in relativistic, unmagnetized, collisionless electron-ion plasmas. We run our simulations both with a realistic proton-to-electron mass ratio m_p/m_e = 1836, as well as commonly employed mass ratios of m_p/m_e =100 and 25, and show that results differ among the different cases. In particular, for the physically accurate mass ratio, electron acceleration occurs efficiently in a narrow region of a few hundred inertial lengths near the flow front, producing a power law dN/dgamma ~ gamma^(-p) with p ~ -2 developing over a few decades in energy, while acceleration is weak in the region far downstream. We find 20%, 10%, and 0.2% of the total energy given to the electrons for mass ratios of 25, 100, and 1836 respectively at a time of 2500 (w_p)^-1. Our simulations also show significant magnetic field generation just ahead of and behind the the flow front, with about 1% of the total energy going into the magnetic field for a mass ratio of 25 and 100, and 0.1% for a mass ratio of and 1836. In addition, lower mass ratios show significant fields much further downstream than in the realistic mass ratio case. Our results suggest the region and energetic extent of particle acceleration is directly related to the presence of magnetic field generation. Our work sheds light on the understanding of particle acceleration and emission in gamma-ray bursts, among other relativistic astrophysical outflows, but also underscores the necessity of optimizing numerical and physical parameters, as well as comparing among PIC codes before firm conclusions are drawn from these types of simulations.

The critical mass ratio of double white dwarf binaries for violent merger-induced Type Ia supernova explosions

Mergers of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) are considered as one of the potential progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent hydrodynamical simulations showed that the less massive (secondary) WD violently accretes onto the more massive (primary) one, carbon detonation occurs, the detonation wave propagates through the primary, and the primary finally explodes as a sub-Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia. Such an explosion mechanism is called the violent merger scenario. Based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of merging CO WDs, we derived more stringent critical mass ratio (qcr) leading to the violent merger scenario than the previous results. We conclude that this difference mainly comes from the differences in the initial condition, synchronously spinning of WDs or not. Using our new results, we estimated the brightness distribution of SNe Ia in the violent merger scenario and compared it with previous studies. We found that our new qcr does not significantly affect the brightness distribution. We present the direct outcome immediately following CO WD mergers for various primary masses and mass ratios. We also discussed the final fate of the central system of the bipolar planetary nebula Henize 2-428, which was recently suggested to be a double CO WD system whose total mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar-limiting mass, merging within the Hubble time. Even considering the uncertainties in the proposed binary parameters, we concluded that the final fate of this system is almost certainly a sub-Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia in the violent merger scenario.

The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. IV. A Method to Determine the Average Mass Ratio of Mergers That Built Massive Elliptical Galaxies

Many recent observations and numerical simulations suggest that nearby massive, early-type galaxies were formed through a "two-phase" process. In the proposed second phase, the extended stellar envelope was accumulated through many dry mergers. However, details of the past merger history of present-day ellipticals, such as the typical merger mass ratio, are difficult to constrain observationally. Within the context and assumptions of the two-phase formation scenario, we propose a straightforward method, using photometric data alone, to estimate the average mass ratio of mergers that contributed to the build-up of massive elliptical galaxies. We study a sample of nearby massive elliptical galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using two-dimensional analysis to decompose their light distribution into an inner, denser component plus an extended, outer envelope, each having a different optical color. The combination of these two substructures accurately recovers the negative color gradient exhibited by the galaxy as whole. The color difference between the two components (<\Delta(B-V)> ~ 0.10 mag; <\Delta(B-R)> ~ 0.14 mag), based on the slope of the M_stellar-color relation for nearby early-type galaxies, can be translated into an estimate of the average mass ratio of the mergers. The rough estimate, 1:5 to 1:10, is consistent with the expectation of the two-phase formation scenario, suggesting that minor mergers were largely responsible for building up to the outer stellar envelope of present-day massive ellipticals. With the help of accurate photometry, large sample size, and more choices of colors promised by ongoing and future surveys, the approach proposed here can reveal more insights into the growth of massive galaxies during the last few Gyr.

Mass transfer between debris discs during close stellar encounters

We study mass transfers between debris discs during stellar encounters. We carried out numerical simulations of close flybys of two stars, one of which has a disc of planetesimals represented by test particles. We explored the parameter space of the encounters, varying the mass ratio of the two stars, their pericentre and eccentricity of the encounter, and its geometry. We find that particles are transferred to the other star from a restricted radial range in the disc and the limiting radii of this transfer region depend on the parameters of the encounter. We derive an approximate analytic description of the inner radius of the region. The efficiency of the mass transfer generally decreases with increasing encounter pericentre and increasing mass of the star initially possessing the disc. Depending on the parameters of the encounter, the transfer particles have a specific distributions in the space of orbital elements (semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre) around their new host star. The population of the transferred particles can be used to constrain the encounter through which it was delivered. We expect that many stars experienced transfer among their debris discs and planetary systems in their birth environment. This mechanism presents a formation channel for objects on wide orbits of arbitrary inclinations, typically having high eccentricity but possibly also close-to-circular (eccentricities of about 0.1). Depending on the geometry, such orbital elements can be distinct from those of the objects formed around the star.

Comet formation in collapsing pebble clouds. What cometary bulk density implies for the cloud mass and dust-to-ice ratio

Comets are remnants of the icy planetesimals that formed beyond the ice line in the Solar Nebula. Growing from micrometre-sized dust and ice particles to km-sized objects is, however, difficult because of growth barriers and time scale constraints. The gravitational collapse of pebble clouds that formed through the streaming instability may provide a suitable mechanism for comet formation. We study the collisional compression of cm-sized porous ice/dust-mixed pebbles in collapsing pebble clouds. For this, we developed a collision model for pebbles consisting of a mixture of ice and dust, characterised by their dust-to-ice mass ratio. Using the final compression of the pebbles, we constrain combinations of initial cloud mass, initial pepple porosity, and dust-to-ice ratio that lead to cometesimals which are consistent with observed bulk properties of cometary nuclei. We find that observed high porosity and low density of ~0.5 g/cc of comet nuclei can only be explained if comets formed in clouds with mass approximately M>1e18 g. Lower mass clouds would only work if the pebbles were initially very compact. Furthermore, the dust-to-ice ratio must be in the range of between 3 and 9 to match the observed bulk properties of comet nuclei. (abridged version)

Unstable flip-flopping spinning binary black holes

We give a unified description of the flip-flop effect in spinning binary black holes and the anti-alignment instability in terms of real and imaginary flip-flop frequencies. We find that this instability is only effective for mass ratios $0.5<q<1$. We provide analytic expressions that determine the region of parameter space for which the instability occurs in terms of maps of the mass ratio and spin magnitudes $(q,\alpha_1,\alpha_2)$. This restricts the priors of parameter estimation techniques for the observation of gravitational waves from binary black holes and it is relevant for astrophysical modeling and final recoil computations of such binary systems.

Unstable flip-flopping spinning binary black holes [Cross-Listing]

We give a unified description of the flip-flop effect in spinning binary black holes and the anti-alignment instability in terms of real and imaginary flip-flop frequencies. We find that this instability is only effective for mass ratios $0.5<q<1$. We provide analytic expressions that determine the region of parameter space for which the instability occurs in terms of maps of the mass ratio and spin magnitudes $(q,\alpha_1,\alpha_2)$. This restricts the priors of parameter estimation techniques for the observation of gravitational waves from binary black holes and it is relevant for astrophysical modeling and final recoil computations of such binary systems.

Unstable flip-flopping spinning binary black holes [Cross-Listing]

We give a unified description of the flip-flop effect in spinning binary black holes and the anti-alignment instability in terms of real and imaginary flip-flop frequencies. We find that this instability is only effective for mass ratios $0.5<q<1$. We provide analytic expressions that determine the region of parameter space for which the instability occurs in terms of maps of the mass ratio and spin magnitudes $(q,\alpha_1,\alpha_2)$. This restricts the priors of parameter estimation techniques for the observation of gravitational waves from binary black holes and it is relevant for astrophysical modeling and final recoil computations of such binary systems.

Analytical high-order post-Newtonian expansions for spinning extreme mass ratio binaries

We present an analytic computation of Detweiler's redshift invariant for a point mass in a circular orbit around a Kerr black hole, giving results up to 8.5 post-Newtonian order while making no assumptions on the magnitude of the spin of the black hole. Our calculation is based on the functional series method of Mano, Suzuki and Takasugi, and employs a rigorous mode-sum regularization prescription based on the Detweiler-Whiting singular-regular decomposition. The approximations used in our approach are minimal; we use the standard self-force expansion to linear order in the mass ratio, and the standard post-Newtonian expansion in the separation of the binary. A key advantage of this approach is that it produces expressions that include contributions at all orders in the spin of the Kerr black hole. While this work applies the method to the specific case of Detweiler's redshift invariant, it can be readily extended to other gauge invariant quantities and to higher post-Newtonian orders.

Analytical high-order post-Newtonian expansions for spinning extreme mass ratio binaries [Replacement]

We present an analytic computation of Detweiler's redshift invariant for a point mass in a circular orbit around a Kerr black hole, giving results up to 8.5 post-Newtonian order while making no assumptions on the magnitude of the spin of the black hole. Our calculation is based on the functional series method of Mano, Suzuki and Takasugi, and employs a rigorous mode-sum regularization prescription based on the Detweiler-Whiting singular-regular decomposition. The approximations used in our approach are minimal; we use the standard self-force expansion to linear order in the mass ratio, and the standard post-Newtonian expansion in the separation of the binary. A key advantage of this approach is that it produces expressions that include contributions at all orders in the spin of the Kerr black hole. While this work applies the method to the specific case of Detweiler's redshift invariant, it can be readily extended to other gauge invariant quantities and to higher post-Newtonian orders.

Fragmentation functions of the pion, kaon, and proton in the NLO approximation: Laplace transform approach

Using repeated Laplace transform, We find an analytical solution for DGLAP evolution equations for extracting the pion, kaon and proton Fragmentation Functions (FFs) at NLO approximation. We also study the symmetry breaking of the sea quarks Fragmentation Functions, $D_{\bar q}^h (z,Q^2)$ and simply separated them according to their mass ratio. Finally, we calculate the total Fragmentation Functions of these hadrons and compare them with experimental data and those from global fits. Our results show a good agreement with the FFs obtained from global parameterizations as well as with the experimental data.

Adiabatic and post-adiabatic approaches to extreme mass ratio inspiral

Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) show a strong separation of timescales, with the time characterizing inspiral, $T_{\rm i}$, much longer than any time $T_{\rm o}$ characterizing orbital motions. The ratio of these timescales (which is essentially an EMRI's mass ratio) can be regarded as a parameter that controls a perturbative expansion. Here we describe the value and limitations of an "adiabatic" description of these binaries, which uses only the leading terms arising from such a two-timescale expansion. An adiabatic approach breaks down when orbits evolve through resonances, with important dynamical and observational consequences. We describe the shortfalls of an approach that only includes the adiabatic contributions to EMRI evolution, and outline what must be done to evolve these systems through resonance and to improve our ability to model EMRI systems more generally.

Adiabatic and post-adiabatic approaches to extreme mass ratio inspiral [Cross-Listing]

Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) show a strong separation of timescales, with the time characterizing inspiral, $T_{\rm i}$, much longer than any time $T_{\rm o}$ characterizing orbital motions. The ratio of these timescales (which is essentially an EMRI's mass ratio) can be regarded as a parameter that controls a perturbative expansion. Here we describe the value and limitations of an "adiabatic" description of these binaries, which uses only the leading terms arising from such a two-timescale expansion. An adiabatic approach breaks down when orbits evolve through resonances, with important dynamical and observational consequences. We describe the shortfalls of an approach that only includes the adiabatic contributions to EMRI evolution, and outline what must be done to evolve these systems through resonance and to improve our ability to model EMRI systems more generally.

The active W UMa type binary star V781 Tau revisited

In this paper, new determined BVR_cI_c light curves and radial velocities of V781 Tau are presented. By analyzing the light curves and radial velocities simultaneously, we found that V781 Tau is a W-subtype medium contact binary star with a mass ratio of q=2.207+-0.005 and a contact degree of f=21.6(+-1.0)%. The difference between the two light maxima was explained by a dark spot on the less massive primary component. The orbital period change of V781 Tau was also investigated. A secular decrease at a rate of $-6.01(+-2.28)*10^{-8} d/yr and a cyclic modulation with a period of 44.8+-5.7 yr and an amplitude of 0.0064+-0.0011 day were discovered. The continuous period decrease may be caused by angular momentum loss due to magnetic stellar wind. Applegate mechanism failed to explain the cyclic modulation. It is highly possible that the cyclic oscillation is the result of the light travel time effect by a third companion.

A 750 GeV dark matter messenger at the Galactic Center [Replacement]

The first data from the LHC Run-2 have shown a possible excess in diphoton events with invariant mass $\sim 750$ GeV, suggesting the existence of a new resonance which may decay dominantly into dark matter (DM) particles. We show in a simple model that the reported diphoton excess at the LHC is consistent with another photon excess, the $2$ GeV excess in cosmic gamma-ray fluxes towards the Galactic Center observed by the Fermi-LAT. Both the excesses can be simultaneously explained by a $\sim 60$ GeV scalar DM particle annihilating dominantly into two gluons with a typical thermal annihilation cross section, which leads to the prediction of a large width to mass ratio $\Gamma/M\approx \mathcal{O}(10^{-2})$ of the resonance. The upper limit on the dijet search at LHC Run-1 leads to a $lower$ limit on the predicted cross section for DM annihilating into $\gamma\gamma$ final states $\langle\sigma v\rangle_{\gamma\gamma} \gtrsim\mathcal{O}(10^{-30})~\mbox{cm}^{3}\mbox{s}^{-1}$. Both the predictions can be tested by the LHC, Fermi-LAT and future experiments.

A 750 GeV dark matter messenger at the Galactic Center [Replacement]

The first data from the LHC Run-2 have shown a possible excess in diphoton events with invariant mass $\sim 750$ GeV, suggesting the existence of a new resonance which may decay dominantly into dark matter (DM) particles. We show in a simple model that the reported diphoton excess at the LHC is consistent with another photon excess, the $2$ GeV excess in cosmic gamma-ray fluxes towards the Galactic Center observed by the Fermi-LAT. Both the excesses can be simultaneously explained by a $\sim 60$ GeV scalar DM particle annihilating dominantly into two gluons with a typical thermal annihilation cross section, which leads to the prediction of a large width to mass ratio $\Gamma/M\approx \mathcal{O}(10^{-2})$ of the resonance. The upper limit on the dijet search at LHC Run-1 leads to a $lower$ limit on the predicted cross section for DM annihilating into $\gamma\gamma$ final states $\langle\sigma v\rangle_{\gamma\gamma} \gtrsim\mathcal{O}(10^{-30})~\mbox{cm}^{3}\mbox{s}^{-1}$. Both the predictions can be tested by the LHC, Fermi-LAT and future experiments.

The Size of the Emitting Region in the Magnetic Eclipsing Cataclysmic Variable Stars

We discuss a method for determination of the size of the emitting region close to the compact star in a binary system with eclipses by a secondary, which fills its Roche lobe. The often used approach is to model the Roche lobe by a sphere with the "effective radius" corresponding to the volume of the Roche lobe. This approach leads to a 4-6% overestimate of the radius, if taking into account the angular dimensions of the Roche lobe seen form the compact star. Andronov (1992) had shown that the projection of the Roche lobe onto the celestial sphere is close to an ellipse and had tabulated these dimensions as a function of the mass ratio. Also he published the coefficients of the approximation similar to that of the Eggleton (1983) for the "sphere corresponding to the same volume". We compare results obtained for the "circle+circle", "ellipse+circle" and "ellipse+point" approximations of the projections of the red dwarf and a white dwarf, respectively. Results are applied to the recently discovered eclipsing polar CSS 081231:071126+440405.

On the accuracy and precision of numerical waveforms: Effect of waveform extraction methodology

We present a new set of 95 numerical relativity simulations of non-precessing binary black holes (BBHs). The simulations sample comprehensively both black-hole spins up to spin magnitude of 0.9, and cover mass ratios 1 to 3. The simulations cover on average 24 inspiral orbits, plus merger and ringdown, with low initial orbital eccentricities $e<10^{-4}$. A subset of the simulations extends the coverage of non-spinning BBHs up to mass ratio $q=10$. Gravitational waveforms at asymptotic infinity are computed with two independent techniques, extrapolation, and Cauchy characteristic extraction. An error analysis based on noise-weighted inner products is performed. We find that numerical truncation error, error due to gravitational wave extraction, and errors due to the finite length of the numerical waveforms are of similar magnitude, with gravitational wave extraction errors somewhat dominating at noise-weighted mismatches of $\sim 3\times 10^{-4}$. This set of waveforms will serve to validate and improve aligned-spin waveform models for gravitational wave science.

A transition in circumbinary accretion discs at a binary mass ratio of 1:25

We study circumbinary accretion discs in the framework of the restricted three-body problem (R3Bp) and via numerically solving the height-integrated equations of viscous hydrodynamics. Varying the mass ratio of the binary, we find a pronounced change in the behaviour of the disc near mass ratio $q \equiv M_s/M_p \sim 0.04$. For mass ratios above $q=0.04$, solutions for the hydrodynamic flow transition from steady, to strongly-fluctuating; a narrow annular gap in the surface density around the secondary's orbit changes to a hollow central cavity; and a spatial symmetry is lost, resulting in a lopsided disc. This phase transition is coincident with the mass ratio above which stable orbits do not exist around the L4 and L5 equilibrium points of the R3B problem. Using the DISCO code, we find that for thin discs, for which a gap or cavity can remain open, the mass ratio of the transition is relatively insensitive to disc viscosity and pressure. The $q=0.04$ transition has relevance for the evolution of massive black hole binary+disc systems at the centers of galactic nuclei, as well as for young stellar binaries and possibly planets around brown dwarfs.

V1006 Cygni: Dwarf Nova Showing Three Types of Outbursts and Simulating Some Features of the WZ Sge-Type Behavior

We observed the 2015 July-August long outburst of V1006 Cyg and established this object to be an SU UMa-type dwarf nova in the period gap. Our observations have confirmed that V1006 Cyg is the second established object showing three types of outbursts (normal, long normal and superoutbursts) after TU Men. We have succeeded in recording the growing stage of superhumps (stage A superhumps) and obtained a mass ratio of 0.26-0.33, which is close to the stability limit of tidal instability. This identification of stage A superhumps demonstrated that superhumps indeed slowly grow in systems near the stability limit, the idea first introduced by Kato et al. 2014, arXiv:1406.6428). The superoutburst showed a temporary dip followed by a rebrightening. The moment of the dip coincided with the stage transition of superhumps, and we suggest that stage C superhumps is related to the start of the cooling wave in the accretion disk. We interpret that the tidal instability was not strong enough to maintain the disk in the hot state when the cooling wave started. We propose that the properties commonly seen in the extreme ends of mass ratios (WZ Sge-type objects and long-period systems) can be understood as a result of weak tidal effect.

Probing Light Thermal Dark-Matter With a Higgs Portal Mediator [Cross-Listing]

We systematically study light (< few GeV) Dark Matter (DM) models that thermalize with visible matter through the Higgs portal and identify the remaining gaps in the viable parameter space. Such models require a comparably light scalar mediator that mixes with the Higgs to avoid DM overproduction and can be classified according to whether this mediator decays (in)visibly. In a representative benchmark model with Dirac fermion DM, we find that, even with conservative assumptions about the DM-mediator coupling and mass ratio, the regime in which the mediator is heavier than the DM is fully ruled out by a combination of collider, rare meson decay, and direct detection limits; future and planned experiments including NA62 can further improve sensitivity to scenarios in which the Higgs portal interaction does not determine the DM abundance. The opposite, regime in which the mediator is lighter than the DM and the latter annihilates to pairs of visibly-decaying mediators is still viable, but much of the parameter space is covered by rare meson decay, supernova cooling, beam dump, and direct detection constraints. Nearly all of these conclusions apply broadly to the simplest variations (e.g. scalar or asymmetric DM). Future experiments including SHiP, NEWS, and Super-CDMS SNOLAB can greatly improve coverage to this class of models.

Probing Light Thermal Dark-Matter With a Higgs Portal Mediator

We systematically study light (< few GeV) Dark Matter (DM) models that thermalize with visible matter through the Higgs portal and identify the remaining gaps in the viable parameter space. Such models require a comparably light scalar mediator that mixes with the Higgs to avoid DM overproduction and can be classified according to whether this mediator decays (in)visibly. In a representative benchmark model with Dirac fermion DM, we find that, even with conservative assumptions about the DM-mediator coupling and mass ratio, the regime in which the mediator is heavier than the DM is fully ruled out by a combination of collider, rare meson decay, and direct detection limits; future and planned experiments including NA62 can further improve sensitivity to scenarios in which the Higgs portal interaction does not determine the DM abundance. The opposite, regime in which the mediator is lighter than the DM and the latter annihilates to pairs of visibly-decaying mediators is still viable, but much of the parameter space is covered by rare meson decay, supernova cooling, beam dump, and direct detection constraints. Nearly all of these conclusions apply broadly to the simplest variations (e.g. scalar or asymmetric DM). Future experiments including SHiP, NEWS, and Super-CDMS SNOLAB can greatly improve coverage to this class of models.

Probing Light Thermal Dark-Matter With a Higgs Portal Mediator [Cross-Listing]

We systematically study light (< few GeV) Dark Matter (DM) models that thermalize with visible matter through the Higgs portal and identify the remaining gaps in the viable parameter space. Such models require a comparably light scalar mediator that mixes with the Higgs to avoid DM overproduction and can be classified according to whether this mediator decays (in)visibly. In a representative benchmark model with Dirac fermion DM, we find that, even with conservative assumptions about the DM-mediator coupling and mass ratio, the regime in which the mediator is heavier than the DM is fully ruled out by a combination of collider, rare meson decay, and direct detection limits; future and planned experiments including NA62 can further improve sensitivity to scenarios in which the Higgs portal interaction does not determine the DM abundance. The opposite, regime in which the mediator is lighter than the DM and the latter annihilates to pairs of visibly-decaying mediators is still viable, but much of the parameter space is covered by rare meson decay, supernova cooling, beam dump, and direct detection constraints. Nearly all of these conclusions apply broadly to the simplest variations (e.g. scalar or asymmetric DM). Future experiments including SHiP, NEWS, and Super-CDMS SNOLAB can greatly improve coverage to this class of models.

The First Cold Neptune Analog Exoplanet: MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb

We present the discovery of the first Neptune analog exoplanet, MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb. This planet has a mass similar to that of Neptune or a super-Earth and it orbits at $9\sim 14$ times the expected position of the snow-line, $a_{\rm snow}$, which is similar to Neptune's separation of $ 11\,a_{\rm snow}$ from the Sun. The planet/host-star mass ratio is $q=(3.6\pm0.7)\times 10^{-4}$ and the projected separation normalized by the Einstein radius is $s=2.39\pm0.05$. There are three degenerate physical solutions and two of these are due to a new type of degeneracy in the microlensing parallax parameters, which we designate "the wide degeneracy". The three models have (i) a Neptune-mass planet with a mass of $M_{\rm p}=21_{-7}^{+6} M_{\rm earth}$ orbiting a low-mass M-dwarf with a mass of $M_{\rm h}=0.19_{-0.06}^{+0.05} M_\odot$, (ii) a mini-Neptune with $M_{\rm p}= 7.9_{-1.2}^{+1.8} M_{\rm earth}$ orbiting a brown dwarf host with $M_{\rm h}=0.068_{-0.011}^{+0.019} M_\odot$ and (iii) a super-Earth with $M_{\rm p}= 3.2_{-0.3}^{+0.5} M_{\rm earth}$ orbiting a low-mass brown dwarf host with $M_{\rm h}=0.025_{-0.004}^{+0.005} M_\odot$. The 3-D planet-host separations are 4.6$_{-1.2}^{+4.7}$ AU, 2.1$_{-0.2}^{+1.0}$ AU and 0.94$_{-0.02}^{+0.67}$ AU, which are $8.9_{-1.4}^{+10.5}$, $12_{-1}^{+7}$ or $14_{-1}^{+11}$ times larger than $a_{\rm snow}$ for these models, respectively. The Keck AO observation confirm that the lens is faint. This discovery suggests that Neptune-like planets orbiting at $\sim 11\,a_{\rm snow}$ are quite common. They may be as common as planets at $\sim 3\,a_{\rm snow}$, where microlensing is most sensitive, so processes similar to the one that formed Uranus and Neptune in our own Solar System may be quite common in other solar systems.

Mass transfer and magnetic braking in Sco X-1

Sco X-1 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that has one of the most precisely determined set of binary parameters such as the mass accretion rate, companions mass ratio and the orbital period. For this system, as well as for a large fraction of other well-studied LMXBs, the observationally-inferred mass accretion rate is known to strongly exceed the theoretically expected mass transfer rate. We suggest that this discrepancy can be solved by applying a modified magnetic braking prescription, which accounts for increased wind mass loss in evolved stars compared to main sequence stars. Using our mass transfer framework based on {\tt MESA}, we explore a large range of binaries at the onset of the mass transfer. We identify the subset of binaries for which the mass transfer tracks cross the Sco X-1 values for the mass ratio and the orbital period. We confirm that no solution can be found for which the standard magnetic braking can provide the observed accretion rates, while wind-boosted magnetic braking can provide the observed accretion rates for many progenitor binaries that evolve to the observed orbital period and mass ratio.

Gravity-dominated unequal-mass black hole collisions [Cross-Listing]

We continue our series of studies of high-energy collisions of black holes investigating unequal-mass, boosted head-on collisions in four dimensions. We show that the fraction of the center-of-mass energy radiated as gravitational waves becomes independent of mass ratio and approximately equal to $13\%$ at large energies. We support this conclusion with calculations using black hole perturbation theory and Smarr's zero-frequency limit approximation. These results lend strong support to the conjecture that the detailed structure of the colliding objects is irrelevant at high energies.

Gravity-dominated unequal-mass black hole collisions

We continue our series of studies of high-energy collisions of black holes investigating unequal-mass, boosted head-on collisions in four dimensions. We show that the fraction of the center-of-mass energy radiated as gravitational waves becomes independent of mass ratio and approximately equal to $13\%$ at large energies. We support this conclusion with calculations using black hole perturbation theory and Smarr's zero-frequency limit approximation. These results lend strong support to the conjecture that the detailed structure of the colliding objects is irrelevant at high energies.

Hydrostatic and Caustic Mass Profiles of Galaxy Clusters

We compare X-ray and caustic mass profiles for a sample of 16 massive galaxy clusters. We assume hydrostatic equilibrium in interpreting the X-ray data, and use large samples of cluster members with redshifts as a basis for applying the caustic technique. The hydrostatic and caustic masses agree to better than $20\%$ on average across the radial range covered by both techniques $(\sim[0.2-1.25]R_{500})$, and to within $5\%$ on average at $R_{500}$. The mass profiles were measured independently and do not assume a functional form for either technique. Previous studies suggest that, at $R_{500}$, the hydrostatic and caustic masses are biased low and high respectively. We find that the ratio of hydrostatic to caustic mass at $R_{500}$ is $1.05\pm 0.06$; thus it is larger than 0.9 at $\approx3\sigma$ and the combination of under- and over-estimation of the mass by these two techniques is $\approx10\%$ at most. There is no indication of any dependence of the mass ratio on the X-ray morphology of the clusters, indicating that the hydrostatic masses are not strongly systematically affected by the dynamical state of the clusters. Overall, our results favour a small value of the so-called hydrostatic bias due to non-thermal pressure sources.

Search for a drifting proton--electron mass ratio from H$_2$

An overview is presented of the H$_2$ quasar absorption method to search for a possible variation of the proton--electron mass ratio $\mu=m_p/m_e$ on a cosmological time scale. Details of the analysis of astronomical spectra, obtained with large 8--10 m class optical telescopes, equipped with high-resolution echelle grating based spectrographs, are explained. The methods and results of the laboratory molecular spectroscopy of H$_2$, in particular the laser-based metrology studies for the determination of rest wavelengths of the Lyman and Werner band absorption lines, are reviewed. Theoretical physics scenarios delivering a rationale for a varying $\mu$ will be discussed briefly, as well as alternative spectroscopic approaches to probe variation of $\mu$, other than the H$_2$ method. Also a recent approach to detect a dependence of the proton-to-electron mass ratio on environmental conditions, such as the presence of strong gravitational fields, will be highlighted. Currently some 56 H$_2$ absorption systems are known and listed. Their usefulness to detect $\mu$-variation is discussed, in terms of column densities and brightness of background quasar sources, along with future observational strategies. The astronomical observations of ten quasar systems analyzed so far set a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio of $|\Delta\mu/\mu| < 5 \times 10^{-6}$ (3-$\sigma$), which is a null result, holding for redshifts in the range $z=2.0-4.2$. This corresponds to look-back times of 10--12.4 billion years into cosmic history. Attempts to interpret the results from these 10 H$_2$ absorbers in terms of a spatial variation of $\mu$ are currently hampered by the small sample size and their coincidental distribution in a relatively narrow band across the sky.

KIC 4739791: A New R CMa-type Eclipsing Binary with a Pulsating Component

The {\it Kepler} light curve of KIC 4739791 exhibits partial eclipses, inverse O'Connell effect, and multiperiodic pulsations. Including a starspot on either of the binary components, the light-curve synthesis indicates that KIC 4739791 is in detached or semi-detached configurations with both a short orbital period and a low mass ratio. Multiple frequency analyses were performed in the light residuals after subtracting the binarity effects from the original {\it Kepler} data. We detected 14 frequencies: six in the low-frequency region (0.1$-$2.3 d$^{-1}$) and eight in the high-frequency region (18.2$-$22.0 d$^{-1}$). Among these, six high frequencies with amplitudes of 0.62$-$1.97 mmag were almost constant over time for 200 d. Their pulsation periods and pulsation constants are in the ranges of 0.048$-$0.054 d and 0.025$-$0.031 d, respectively. In contrast, the other frequencies may arise from the alias effects caused by the orbital frequency or combination frequencies. We propose that KIC 4739791 is a short-period R CMa binary with the lowest mass ratio in the known classical Algols and that its primary component is a $\delta$ Sct pulsating star. Only four R CMa stars have been identified, three of which exhibit $\delta$ Sct-type oscillations. These findings make KIC 4739791 an attractive target for studies of stellar interior structure and evolution.

Structures of GMC W 37

We carried out observations toward the giant molecular cloud W 37 with the $J = 1 - 0$ transitions of $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O using the 13.7 m single-dish telescope at the Delingha station of Purple Mountain Observatory. Based on the three CO lines, we calculated the column densities, cloud masses for the molecular clouds with radial velocities at around $+20 \mathrm{km s}^{-1}$. The gas mass of W 37, calculated from $^{13}$CO emission, is $1.7\times10^5 M_\odot$, above the criteria of giant molecular cloud. The dense ridge of W 37 is a dense filament, which is supercritical in linear mass ratio. Dense clumps found by C$^{18}$O emission are aligned along the dense ridge with a regular interval about 2.8 pc, similar to the clump separation caused by large-scale `sausage instability'. We confirm the identification of the giant molecular filament (GMF) G 18.0-16.8 by \cite{2014A&A...568A..73R} and find a new giant filament, G16.5-15.8, located in the west 0.8 degree of G 18.0-16.8. Both GMFs are not gravitationally bound, as indicated by their low linear mass ratio ($\sim80 M_\odot \mathrm{pc}^{-1}$). We compared the gas temperature map with the dust temperature map from \emph{Herschel} images, and find similar structures. The spatial distributions of class I objects and the dense clumps is reminiscent of triggered star formation occurring in the northwestern part of W 37, which is close to NGC 6611.

Multiple origins of asteroid pairs

Rotationally fissioned asteroids produce unbound daughter asteroids that have very similar heliocentric orbits. Backward integration of their current heliocentric orbits provides an age of closest proximity that can be used to date the rotational fission event. Most asteroid pairs follow a predicted theoretical relationship between the primary spin period and the mass ratio of the two pair members that is a direct consequence of the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis. If the progenitor asteroid has strength, asteroid pairs may have high mass ratios with possibly fast rotating primaries. However, secondary fission leaves the originally predicted trend unaltered. We also describe the characteristics of pair members produced by four alternative routes from a rotational fission event to an asteroid pair. Unlike direct formation from the event itself, the age of closest proximity of these pairs cannot generally be used to date the rotational fission event since considerable time may have passed.

Constraints on Individual Supermassive Black Hole Binaries from Pulsar Timing Array Limits on Continuous Gravitational Waves

Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are placing increasingly stringent constraints on the strain amplitude of continuous gravitational waves emitted by supermassive black hole binaries on subparsec scales. In this paper, we incorporate independent measurements of the dynamical masses $M_{\rm bh}$ of supermassive black holes in specific galaxies at known distances and leverage this additional information to further constrain whether or not those galaxies could host a detectable supermassive black hole binary. We estimate the strain amplitudes from individual binaries as a function of binary mass ratio for two samples of nearby galaxies: (1) those with direct dynamical measurements of $M_{\rm bh}$ in the literature, and (2) the 116 most massive early-type galaxies (and thus likely hosts of the most massive black holes) within 108 Mpc from the MASSIVE Survey. Our exploratory analysis shows that the current PTA upper limits on continuous waves can already constrain the mass ratios of hypothetical black hole binaries in a dozen galaxies in our samples. The constraints are stronger for galaxies with larger $M_{\rm bh}$ and at smaller distances. For the black holes with $M_{\rm bh} \gtrsim 5\times 10^9 M_\odot$ at the centers of NGC 4889, NGC 4486 (M87) and NGC 4649 (M60), any binary companion in orbit within the PTA frequency bands would have to have a mass ratio of less than about 1:10.

Black hole accretion disc impacts

We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

Black hole accretion disc impacts [Replacement]

We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

Curvature of the pseudocritical line in (2+1)-flavor QCD with HISQ fermions

We study QCD with (2+1)-HISQ fermions at nonzero temperature and nonzero imaginary baryon chemical potential. Monte Carlo simulations are performed using the MILC code along the line of constant physics with a light to strange mass ratio of $m_l/m_s=1/20$ on lattices up to $48^3 \times 12$ to check for finite cutoff effects. We determine the curvature of the pseudocritical line extrapolated to the continuum limit.

MOA-2010-BLG-353Lb A Possible Saturn Revealed

We report the discovery of a possible planet in microlensing event MOA-2010-BLG-353. This event was only recognised as having a planetary signal after the microlensing event had finished, and following a systematic analysis of all archival data for binary lens microlensing events collected to date. Data for event MOA-2010-BLG-353 were only recorded by the high cadence observations of the OGLE and MOA survey groups. If we make the assumptions that the probability of the lens star hosting a planet of the measured mass ratio is independent of the lens star mass or distance, and that the source star is in the Galactic bulge, a probability density analysis indicates the planetary system comprises a 0.9^{+1.6}_{-0.53} M_{Saturn} mass planet orbiting a 0.18^{+0.32}_{-0.11} M_{sun} red dwarf star, 6.43^{+1.09}_{-1.15} kpc away. The projected separation of the planet from the host star is 1.72^{+0.56}_{-0.48} AU. Under the additional assumption that the source is on the far side of the Galactic bulge, the probability density analysis favours a lens system comprising a slightly lighter planet.

 

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