Posts Tagged mass function

Recent Postings from mass function

The cosmic evolution of massive black holes in the Horizon-AGN simulation

We analyze the demographics of black holes (BHs) in the large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. This simulation statistically models how much gas is accreted onto BHs, traces the energy deposited into their environment and, consequently, the back-reaction of the ambient medium on BH growth. The synthetic BHs reproduce a variety of observational constraints such as the redshift evolution of the BH mass density and the mass function. Yet there seem to be too many BHs with mass~ 1e7 Msun at high redshift, and too few BHs with similar mass at z=0 in intermediate-mass galaxies. Strong self-regulation via AGN feedback, weak supernova feedback, and unresolved internal process are likely to be responsible for this, and for a tight BH-galaxy mass correlation. Starting at z~2, tidal stripping creates a small population of BHs over-massive with respect to the halo. The fraction of galaxies hosting a central BH or an AGN increases with stellar mass. The AGN fraction agrees better with multi-wavelength studies, than single-wavelength ones, unless obscuration is taken into account. The most massive halos present BH multiplicity, with additional BHs gained by ongoing or past mergers. In some cases, both a central and an off-center AGN shine concurrently, producing a dual AGN. This dual AGN population dwindles with decreasing redshift, as found in observations. Specific accretion rate and Eddington ratio distributions are in good agreement with observational estimates. The BH population is dominated in turn by fast, slow, and very slow accretors, with transitions occurring at z=3 and z=2 respectively.

On the relativistic mass function and averaging in cosmology

The general relativistic description of cosmological structure formation is an important challenge from both the theoretical and the numerical point of views. In this paper we present a brief prescription for a general relativistic treatment of structure formation and a resulting mass function on galaxy cluster scales in a highly generic scenario. To obtain this we use an exact scalar averaging scheme together with the relativistic generalization of Zel'dovich's approximation (RZA) that serves as a closure condition for the averaged equations.

Tidal Disruption Event (TDE) Demographics

We survey the properties of stars destroyed in TDEs as a function of BH mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For Mbh<10^7Msun, the typical TDE is due to a M*~0.3Msun M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for $M*<Msun. The contribution from older main sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From Mbh~10^7.5-10^8.5Msun, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by Mbh~10^6.0-10^7.5Msun BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall back time is relatively long, with 16% having Tfb<10^(-1) years (37 days), and 84% having longer time scales. Many residual rate discrepancies can be explained if surveys are biased against TDEs with these longer Tfb, which seems very plausible if Tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

Growth of spherical overdensities in scalar-tensor cosmologies [Cross-Listing]

The accelerated expansion of the universe is a rather established fact in cosmology and many different models have been proposed as a viable explanation. Many of these models are based on the standard general relativistic framework of non-interacting fluids or more recently of coupled (interacting) dark energy models, where dark energy (the scalar field) is coupled to the dark matter component giving rise to a fifth-force. An interesting alternative is to couple the scalar field directly to the gravity sector via the Ricci scalar. These models are dubbed non-minimally coupled models and give rise to a time-dependent gravitational constant. In this work we study few models falling into this category and describe how observables depend on the strength of the coupling. We extend recent work on the subject by taking into account also the effects of the perturbations of the scalar field and showing their relative importance on the evolution of the mass function. By working in the framework of the spherical collapse model, we show that perturbations of the scalar field have a limited impact on the growth factor (for small coupling constant) and on the mass function with respect to the case where perturbations are neglected.

Growth of spherical overdensities in scalar-tensor cosmologies

The accelerated expansion of the universe is a rather established fact in cosmology and many different models have been proposed as a viable explanation. Many of these models are based on the standard general relativistic framework of non-interacting fluids or more recently of coupled (interacting) dark energy models, where dark energy (the scalar field) is coupled to the dark matter component giving rise to a fifth-force. An interesting alternative is to couple the scalar field directly to the gravity sector via the Ricci scalar. These models are dubbed non-minimally coupled models and give rise to a time-dependent gravitational constant. In this work we study few models falling into this category and describe how observables depend on the strength of the coupling. We extend recent work on the subject by taking into account also the effects of the perturbations of the scalar field and showing their relative importance on the evolution of the mass function. By working in the framework of the spherical collapse model, we show that perturbations of the scalar field have a limited impact on the growth factor (for small coupling constant) and on the mass function with respect to the case where perturbations are neglected.

Microlensing by single black-holes in the Galaxy

The longest microlensing events provide enough information to estimate the mass and distance of the lens. Among hundreds of millions of stars which were monitored for many years by the OGLE project we selected those with clear parallax effect and derived the mass function of lensing objects in the Milky Way. We also found candidates for microlensing stellar-mass single black holes. We discuss how Gaia superb astrometry will help in measuring masses of remnants in currently on-going and future microlensing events.

On the eclipsing binary ELHC 10 with occulting dark disc in the Large Magellanic Cloud

We investigate the luminous star ELHC 10 located in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud, concluding that it is a SB1 long-period eclipsing binary where the main eclipse is produced by an opaque structure hiding the secondary star. For the more luminous component we determine an effective temperature of 6500 $\pm$ 250 $K$, log\,g = 1.0 $\pm$ 0.5 and luminosity 5970 L$_{\sun}$. From the radial velocities of their photospheric lines we calculate a mass function of 7.37 $\pm$ 0.55 M$_{\sun}$. Besides Balmer and forbidden N II emission, we find splitting of metallic lines, characterized by strong discrete absorption components (DACs), alternatively seen at the blue and red side of the photospheric spectrum. These observations hardly can be interpreted in terms of an structured atmosphere but might reflect mass streams in an interacting binary. The primary shows signatures of s-process nucleosynthesis and might be a low-mass post-AGB star with a rare evolutionary past if the binary is semi-detached. The peak separation and constancy of radial velocity in H$\alpha$ suggest that most of the Balmer emission comes from a circumbinary disc.

AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS: is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate i.e., lambda_SAR, distribution function (SARDF) up to z~2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass dependent but redshift independent break whose low lambda_SAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that, for a given stellar mass, higher lambda_SAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch compared to the lower lambda_SAR ones, following and mimicking the well known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schechter function with a almost constant Mstar* and a low mass slope alpha that flattens with redshift. Compared to the stellar mass function, we find that the HGMF has a similar shape and that, up to log((Mstar/Msun)~11.5 the ratio of AGN host galaxies to star forming galaxies is basically constant (~10%). Finally, the comparison of the AGN HGMF for different luminosity and specific accretion rate sub-classes with the phenomenological model prediction by Peng et al. (2010) for the "transient" population, i.e. galaxies in the process of being mass-quenched, reveals that low-luminosity AGN do not appear to be able to contribute significantly to the quenching and that at least at high masses, i.e. Mstar>10^(10.7) Msun , feedback from luminous AGN (log(Lbol)>~46 [erg/s]) may be responsible for the quenching of star formation in the host galaxy.

Constraining the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass through Ultra-Deep UV Luminosity Functions at z=2

We compute the mass function of galactic dark matter halos for different values of the Warm Dark Matter (WDM) particle mass m_X and compare it with the abundance of ultra-faint galaxies derived from the deepest UV luminosity function available so far at redshift z~2. The magnitude limit M_UV=-13 reached by such observations allows us to probe the WDM mass functions down to scales close to or smaller than the half-mass mode mass scale ~10^9 M_sun. This allowed for an efficient discrimination among predictions for different m_X which turn out to be independent of the star formation efficiency adopted to associate the observed UV luminosities of galaxies to the corresponding dark matter masses. Adopting a conservative approach to take into account the existing theoretical uncertainties in the galaxy halo mass function, we derive a robust limit m_X>1.8 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles when comparing with the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies, while m_X>1.5 keV is obtained when we compare with the Schechter fit to the observed luminosity function. The corresponding lower limit for sterile neutrinos depends on the modeling of the production mechanism; for instance m_sterile > 4 keV holds for the Shi-Fuller mechanism. We discuss the impact of observational uncertainties on the above bound on m_X. As a baseline for comparison with forthcoming observations from the HST Frontier Field, we provide predictions for the abundance of faint galaxies with M_UV=-13 for different values of m_X and of the star formation efficiency, valid up to z~4.

Constraining the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass through Ultra-Deep UV Luminosity Functions at z=2 [Cross-Listing]

We compute the mass function of galactic dark matter halos for different values of the Warm Dark Matter (WDM) particle mass m_X and compare it with the abundance of ultra-faint galaxies derived from the deepest UV luminosity function available so far at redshift z~2. The magnitude limit M_UV=-13 reached by such observations allows us to probe the WDM mass functions down to scales close to or smaller than the half-mass mode mass scale ~10^9 M_sun. This allowed for an efficient discrimination among predictions for different m_X which turn out to be independent of the star formation efficiency adopted to associate the observed UV luminosities of galaxies to the corresponding dark matter masses. Adopting a conservative approach to take into account the existing theoretical uncertainties in the galaxy halo mass function, we derive a robust limit m_X>1.8 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles when comparing with the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies, while m_X>1.5 keV is obtained when we compare with the Schechter fit to the observed luminosity function. The corresponding lower limit for sterile neutrinos depends on the modeling of the production mechanism; for instance m_sterile > 4 keV holds for the Shi-Fuller mechanism. We discuss the impact of observational uncertainties on the above bound on m_X. As a baseline for comparison with forthcoming observations from the HST Frontier Field, we provide predictions for the abundance of faint galaxies with M_UV=-13 for different values of m_X and of the star formation efficiency, valid up to z~4.

Constraining the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass through Ultra-Deep UV Luminosity Functions at z=2 [Cross-Listing]

We compute the mass function of galactic dark matter halos for different values of the Warm Dark Matter (WDM) particle mass m_X and compare it with the abundance of ultra-faint galaxies derived from the deepest UV luminosity function available so far at redshift z~2. The magnitude limit M_UV=-13 reached by such observations allows us to probe the WDM mass functions down to scales close to or smaller than the half-mass mode mass scale ~10^9 M_sun. This allowed for an efficient discrimination among predictions for different m_X which turn out to be independent of the star formation efficiency adopted to associate the observed UV luminosities of galaxies to the corresponding dark matter masses. Adopting a conservative approach to take into account the existing theoretical uncertainties in the galaxy halo mass function, we derive a robust limit m_X>1.8 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles when comparing with the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies, while m_X>1.5 keV is obtained when we compare with the Schechter fit to the observed luminosity function. The corresponding lower limit for sterile neutrinos depends on the modeling of the production mechanism; for instance m_sterile > 4 keV holds for the Shi-Fuller mechanism. We discuss the impact of observational uncertainties on the above bound on m_X. As a baseline for comparison with forthcoming observations from the HST Frontier Field, we provide predictions for the abundance of faint galaxies with M_UV=-13 for different values of m_X and of the star formation efficiency, valid up to z~4.

Generalization of Regular Black Holes in General Relativity to $f(R)$ Gravity

In this paper, we determine regular black hole solutions using a very general $f(R)$ theory, coupled to a non-linear electromagnetic field given by a Lagrangian $\mathcal{L}_{NED}$. The functions $f(R)$ and $\mathcal{L}_{NED}$ are left in principle unspecified. Instead, the model is constructed through a choice of the mass function $M(r)$ presented in the metric coefficients. Solutions which have a regular behaviour of the geometric invariants are found. These solutions have two horizons, the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon. All energy conditions are satisfied in the whole space-time, except the strong energy condition (SEC) which is violated near the Cauchy horizon.

Generalization of Regular Black Holes in General Relativity to $f(R)$ Gravity [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we determine regular black hole solutions using a very general $f(R)$ theory, coupled to a non-linear electromagnetic field given by a Lagrangian $\mathcal{L}_{NED}$. The functions $f(R)$ and $\mathcal{L}_{NED}$ are left in principle unspecified. Instead, the model is constructed through a choice of the mass function $M(r)$ presented in the metric coefficients. Solutions which have a regular behaviour of the geometric invariants are found. These solutions have two horizons, the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon. All energy conditions are satisfied in the whole space-time, except the strong energy condition (SEC) which is violated near the Cauchy horizon.

Generalization of Regular Black Holes in General Relativity to $f(R)$ Gravity [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we determine regular black hole solutions using a very general $f(R)$ theory, coupled to a non-linear electromagnetic field given by a Lagrangian $\mathcal{L}_{NED}$. The functions $f(R)$ and $\mathcal{L}_{NED}$ are left in principle unspecified. Instead, the model is constructed through a choice of the mass function $M(r)$ presented in the metric coefficients. Solutions which have a regular behaviour of the geometric invariants are found. These solutions have two horizons, the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon. All energy conditions are satisfied in the whole space-time, except the strong energy condition (SEC) which is violated near the Cauchy horizon.

Stellar population properties of the most massive globular clusters and ultra-compact dwarf galaxies of the Fornax cluster

Most ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) and very massive globular clusters reside in nearby galaxy clusters or around nearby giant galaxies. Due to their distance (>Mpc) and compactness (r_eff<100pc) they are barely resolved, and thus it is difficult to obtain their internal properties. Here I present our most recent attempts to constrain the mass function, stellar content and dynamical state of UCDs in the Fornax cluster. Thanks to radial velocity membership assignment of ~950 globular clusters (GCs) and UCDs in the core of Fornax, the shape of their mass function is well constrained. It is consistent with the 'standard' Gaussian mass function of GCs. Our recent simulations on the disruption process of nucleated dwarf galaxies in cluster environments showed that ~40% of the most massive UCDs should originate from nuclear star clusters. Some Fornax UCDs actually show evidence for this scenario, as revealed by extended low surface brightness disks around them and onsets of tidal tails. Multi-band UV to optical imaging as well as low to medium resolution spectroscopy revealed that there exist UCDs with youngish ages, (sub-)solar [alpha/Fe] abundances, and probably He-enriched populations.

Dynamical Evolution of Outer-Halo Globular Clusters

Outer-halo globular clusters show large half-light radii and flat stellar mass functions, depleted in low-mass stars. Using N-body simulations of globular clusters on eccentric orbits within a Milky Way-like potential, we show how a cluster's half-mass radius and its mass function develop over time. The slope of the central mass function flattens proportionally to the amount of mass a cluster has lost, and the half-mass radius grows to a size proportional to the average strength of the tidal field. The main driver of these processes is mass segregation of dark remnants. We conclude that the extended, depleted clusters observed in the Milky Way must have had small half-mass radii in the past, and that they expanded due to the weak tidal field they spend most of their lifetime in. Moreover, their mass functions must have been steeper in the past but flattened significantly as a cause of mass segregation and tidal mass loss.

Strong Gravitational Lensing and the Stellar IMF of Early-type Galaxies

The stellar initial mass function is an important ingredient in galaxy formation, mainly linking the luminosity of a galaxy to its stellar mass, and driving chemical enrichment. In recent years there has been an ongoing discussion about systematic variations of the IMF in early-type galaxies and its connection with possible drivers such as velocity dispersion or metallicity. Strong gravitational lensing over galaxy scales in combination with photometric and spectroscopic data provides a powerful method to constrain the stellar mass-to-light ratio and hence the functional form of the IMF. We combine photometric and spectroscopic constraints from the latest set of population synthesis models of Charlot & Bruzual, including a varying IMF, with a non-parametric analysis of the lensing mass in a sample of 18 early-type lens galaxies from the SLACS survey, with velocity dispersions in the range 200-300 km/s. We find that very bottom-heavy IMFs are excluded. However, the upper limit to the IMF slope ($\mu \lesssim 2.2$ for a bimodal IMF, taking into account a 20-30% contribution to the lensing mass from dark matter, where $\mu=1.3$ corresponds to a Kroupa-like IMF) is compatible at the $1\sigma$ level with the constraints imposed by gravity-sensitive line strengths. A two-segment power law parameterisation of the IMF (keeping its index at the high mass end fixed at the Salpeter value) is more constrained ($\Gamma\lesssim1.5$, where $\Gamma$ is the power index at the low-mass end). Furthermore we find that for a standard Milky Way-like IMF to be applicable a significant amount of dark matter is required within an effective radius. Our results reveal a large scatter regarding possible values of the IMF slope, suggesting that the recent lenses of Smith et al. - who find a Milky Way-like IMF in a few massive lensing early-type galaxies - may be explained by such a scatter. (Abridged)

Explaining the stellar initial mass function with the theory of spatial networks

The distributions of stars and prestellar cores by mass (initial and dense core mass functions, IMF/DCMF) stay among the key factors regulating star formation and are subject of detailed theoretical and observational studies. Results from numerical simulations of star formation qualitatively resemble an observed mass function, a scale free power law with a sharp decline at low masses. However, most analytic IMF theories critically depend on the empirically chosen input spectrum of mass fluctuations which evolve into dense cores and, subsequently, stars. Here we propose a new approach exploiting the techniques from the field of network science. We represent a system of dense cores accreting gas from the surrounding diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) as a spatial network growing by preferential attachment and assume that the ISM density has a self-similar fractal distribution following the Kolmogorov turbulence theory. As opposed to gravoturbulent fragmentation theories, we consider the dense core growth and demonstrate that the power law core mass function emerges independently of the initial distribution of density fluctuations by mass. Our model yields a power law solely defined by the fractal dimensionalities of the ISM and accreting gas. With a proper choice of the low mass cut-off, it reproduces observations over three decades in mass. We also rule out a low mass star dominated ``bottom-heavy'' IMF in a single star forming region.

The Mass Distribution of Population III Stars [Replacement]

Extremely metal-poor stars are uniquely informative on the nature of massive Population III stars. Modulo a few elements that vary with stellar evolution, the present-day photospheric abundances observed in extremely metal-poor stars are representative of their natal gas cloud composition. For this reason, the detailed chemistry of extremely metal-poor stars closely reflects the nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae from massive Population III stars. Here we collate detailed chemical abundances of 53 extremely metal-poor stars from the literature and infer the masses of their Population III progenitors. We fit a simple initial mass function to the ensemble of inferred Population III star masses, and find that the mass distribution is well-represented by a powerlaw IMF with an exponent of \$\alpha=2.35^{+0.29}_{-0.24}\$. The inferred maximum progenitor mass for supernovae from massive Population III stars is \$M=87^{+13}_{-33}M_\odot\$, and we find no evidence for a contribution from stars with masses above \$\sim120M_\odot\$. The minimum mass is strongly consistent with the theoretical lower mass limit for Population III Supernovae. We conclude that the IMF for massive Population III stars is consistent with the initial mass function of present-day massive stars and there may well have formed stars much below the supernova mass limit that could have survived to the present day.

The Mass Distribution of Population III Stars

Extremely metal-poor stars are uniquely informative on the nature of massive Population III stars. Modulo a few elements that vary with stellar evolution, the present-day photospheric abundances observed in extremely metal-poor stars are representative of their natal gas cloud composition. For this reason, the detailed chemistry of extremely metal-poor stars closely reflects the nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae from massive Population III stars. Here we collate detailed chemical abundances of 53 extremely metal-poor stars from the literature and infer the masses of their Population III progenitors. We fit a simple initial mass function to the ensemble of inferred Population III star masses, and find that the mass distribution is well-represented by a powerlaw IMF with an exponent of \$\alpha=2.35^{+0.29}_{-0.24}\$. The inferred maximum progenitor mass for supernovae from massive Population III stars is \$M=87^{+13}_{-33}M_\odot\$, and we find no evidence for a contribution from stars with masses above \$\sim120M_\odot\$. The minimum mass is strongly consistent with the theoretical lower mass limit for Population III Supernovae. We conclude that the IMF for massive Population III stars is consistent with the initial mass function of present-day massive stars and there may well have formed stars much below the supernova mass limit that could have survived to the present day.

Revisiting the classics: Is [Mg/Fe] a good proxy for galaxy formation time-scales?

In the local Universe, massive early-type galaxies exhibit enhanced [Mg/Fe] ratios, which has been traditionally interpreted as the result of a rapid ($\tau \lesssim 1$ Gyr) collapse. However, recent claims of a non-universal, steep initial mass function call for a revision of this standard interpretation. In the present work we show how the simultaneous consideration of a high [Mg/Fe] and a steep IMF slope would imply unreasonably short ($\tau \sim 7$ Myr) and intense (SFR $\sim 10^{5}$ Msun yr$^{-1}$) formation events for massive early-type galaxies. We discuss possible caveats and explanations to this apparent inconsistency, and we suggest that further IMF determinations, both in the local Universe and at high redshift, are necessary to better understand the problem.

Stellar Population Effects on the Inferred Photon Density at Reionization

The relationship between stellar populations and the ionizing flux with which they irradiate their surroundings has profound implications for the evolution of the intergalactic medium. We quantify the ionizing flux arising from synthetic stellar populations which incorporate the evolution of interacting binary stars. We determine that these show ionizing flux boosted by 60 per cent at 0.05 < Z < 0.3 Z_sun and a more modest 10-20 per cent at near-Solar metallicities relative to star-forming populations in which stars evolve in isolation. The relation of ionizing flux to observables such as 1500A continuum and ultraviolet spectral slope is sensitive to attributes of the stellar population including age, star formation history and initial mass function. For a galaxy forming 1 M_sun yr^{-1}, observed at > 100 Myr after the onset of star formation, we predict a production rate of photons capable of ionizing hydrogen, N_ion = 1.4 x 10^{53} s^{-1} at Z = Z_sun and 3.5 x 10^{53} s^{-1} at 0.1 Z_sun, assuming a Salpeter-like initial mass function. We evaluate the impact of these issues on the ionization of the intergalactic medium, finding that the known galaxy populations can maintain the ionization state of the Universe back to z ~ 9, assuming that their luminosity functions continue to M_UV = -10, and that constraints on the intergalactic medium at z ~ 2 - 5 can be satisfied with modest Lyman continuum photon escape fractions of 4 - 24 per cent depending on assumed metallicity.

Stellar Population Effects on the Inferred Photon Density at Reionization [Replacement]

The relationship between stellar populations and the ionizing flux with which they irradiate their surroundings has profound implications for the evolution of the intergalactic medium. We quantify the ionizing flux arising from synthetic stellar populations which incorporate the evolution of interacting binary stars. We determine that these show ionizing flux boosted by 60 per cent at 0.05 < Z < 0.3 Z_sun and a more modest 10-20 per cent at near-Solar metallicities relative to star-forming populations in which stars evolve in isolation. The relation of ionizing flux to observables such as 1500A continuum and ultraviolet spectral slope is sensitive to attributes of the stellar population including age, star formation history and initial mass function. For a galaxy forming 1 M_sun yr^{-1}, observed at > 100 Myr after the onset of star formation, we predict a production rate of photons capable of ionizing hydrogen, N_ion = 1.4 x 10^{53} s^{-1} at Z = Z_sun and 3.5 x 10^{53} s^{-1} at 0.1 Z_sun, assuming a Salpeter-like initial mass function. We evaluate the impact of these issues on the ionization of the intergalactic medium, finding that the known galaxy populations can maintain the ionization state of the Universe back to z ~ 9, assuming that their luminosity functions continue to M_UV = -10, and that constraints on the intergalactic medium at z ~ 2 - 5 can be satisfied with modest Lyman continuum photon escape fractions of 4 - 24 per cent depending on assumed metallicity.

The VMC Survey. XVIII. Radial dependence of the low-mass, 0.55--0.82 $M_\odot$ stellar mass function in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

We use near-infrared observations obtained as part of the {\sl Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy} (VISTA) Survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC), as well as two complementary {\sl Hubble Space Telescope} ({\sl HST}) data sets, to study the luminosity and mass functions as a function of clustercentric radius of the main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The {\sl HST} observations indicate a relative deficit in the numbers of faint stars in the central region of the cluster compared with its periphery, for $18.75\leq m_{\rm F606W}\leq 20.9$ mag (corresponding to a stellar mass range of $0.55<m_\ast/{M_\odot}<0.73$). The stellar number counts at $6.7'$ from the cluster core show a deficit for $17.62\leq m_{\rm F606W}\leq 19.7$ mag (i.e., $0.65<m_\ast/{M_\odot}<0.82$), which is consistent with expectations from mass segregation. The VMC-based stellar mass functions exhibit power-law shapes for masses in the range $0.55<m_\ast/{M_\odot}< 0.82$. These power laws are characterized by an almost constant slope, $\alpha$. The radial distribution of the power-law slopes $\alpha$ thus shows evidence of the importance of both mass segregation and tidal stripping, for both the first- and second-generation stars in 47 Tuc.

The VMC Survey. XVIII. Radial dependence of the low-mass, 0.55--0.82 $M_\odot$ stellar mass function in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae [Replacement]

We use near-infrared observations obtained as part of the {\sl Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy} (VISTA) Survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC), as well as two complementary {\sl Hubble Space Telescope} ({\sl HST}) data sets, to study the luminosity and mass functions as a function of clustercentric radius of the main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The {\sl HST} observations indicate a relative deficit in the numbers of faint stars in the central region of the cluster compared with its periphery, for $18.75\leq m_{\rm F606W}\leq 20.9$ mag (corresponding to a stellar mass range of $0.55<m_\ast/{M_\odot}<0.73$). The stellar number counts at $6.7'$ from the cluster core show a deficit for $17.62\leq m_{\rm F606W}\leq 19.7$ mag (i.e., $0.65<m_\ast/{M_\odot}<0.82$), which is consistent with expectations from mass segregation. The VMC-based stellar mass functions exhibit power-law shapes for masses in the range $0.55<m_\ast/{M_\odot}< 0.82$. These power laws are characterized by an almost constant slope, $\alpha$. The radial distribution of the power-law slopes $\alpha$ thus shows evidence of the importance of both mass segregation and tidal stripping, for both the first- and second-generation stars in 47 Tuc.

Towards a self-consistent halo model for the nonlinear large-scale structure [Replacement]

The halo model is a theoretically and empirically well-motivated framework for predicting the statistics of the nonlinear matter distribution in the Universe. However, current incarnations of the halo model suffer from two major deficiencies: $(i)$ they do not enforce the stress-energy conservation of matter; $(ii)$ they are not guaranteed to recover exact perturbation theory results on large scales. Here, we provide a formulation of the halo model ("EHM") that remedies both drawbacks in a consistent way, while attempting to maintain the predictivity of the approach. In the formulation presented here, mass and momentum conservation are guaranteed, and results of perturbation theory and the effective field theory can in principle be matched to any desired order on large scales. We find that a key ingredient in the halo model power spectrum is the halo stochasticity covariance, which has been studied to a much lesser extent than other ingredients such as mass function, bias, and profiles of halos. As written here, this approach still does not describe the transition regime between perturbation theory and halo scales realistically, which is left as an open problem. We also show explicitly that, when implemented consistently, halo model predictions do not depend on any properties of low-mass halos that are smaller than the scales of interest.

Towards a self-consistent halo model for the nonlinear large-scale structure

The halo model is a theoretically and empirically well-motivated framework for predicting the statistics of the nonlinear matter distribution in the Universe. However, current incarnations of the halo model suffer from two major deficiencies: $(i)$ they do not enforce the stress-energy conservation of matter; $(ii)$ they are not guaranteed to recover exact perturbation theory results on large scales. Here, we provide a formulation of the halo model ("EHM") that remedies both drawbacks in a consistent way, while attempting to maintain the predictivity of the approach. In the formulation presented here, mass and momentum conservation are guaranteed, and results of perturbation theory and the effective field theory can in principle be matched to any desired order on large scales. We find that a key ingredient in the halo model power spectrum is the halo stochasticity covariance, which has been studied to a much lesser extent than other ingredients such as mass function, bias, and profiles of halos. As written here, this approach still does not describe the transition regime between perturbation theory and halo scales realistically, which is left as an open problem. We also show explicitly that, when implemented consistently, halo model predictions do not depend on any properties of low-mass halos that are smaller than the scales of interest.

Effective Window Function for Lagrangian Halos [Replacement]

The window function for the Lagrangian halos is often assumed to be a top hat function. We measure the profile of the Lagrangian halo directly and find that it is more extended than a top hat but less diffuse than a Gaussian. We find that the Lagrangian profile can be described well by an effective window composed of a product of a top hat and a Gaussian window in Fourier space. We also check that the same effective window function together with the scale-dependent excursion set bias parameters fits the Lagrangian cross bias parameter in Fourier space well up to $ k R_{\rm Lag} \sim 10 $, where $ R_{\rm Lag} $ is the Lagrangian size of the halo. The effective window is simple in Fourier space, and there is also an analytic form in real space, thus there is little work in converting from the usual top hat window to the effective window. With the effective window function, all the spectral moments of the power spectrum are finite, thus we have a unified treatment for computing the spectral moments in peak and excursion set peak theories. When the effective window function is used, the resultant excursion set peak mass function is significantly lower compared to that obtained from the mixed window function approach, and hence this causes the excursion set peak mass function to be appreciably lower than the simulation results for halos of mass $\lesssim 10^{14} M_{\odot}/h$. We can interpret this deficit as that only part of the low to medium mass halos can arise directly from peaks, or the current modelling of the collapse of peaks is not sufficient.

The Bottom-Light Present Day Mass Function of the Peculiar Globular Cluster NGC 6535

Dynamical mass calculations have suggested that the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 6535 belongs to a population of clusters with high mass-to-light ratios, possibly due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We use published Hubble Space Telescope data to measure the present day stellar mass function of this cluster within its half-light radius and instead find that it is bottom-light, exacerbating the discrepancy between the dynamical measurement and its known stellar content. The cluster's proximity to the Milky Way bulge and its relatively strong velocity anisotropy are both reasons to be suspicious of the dynamical mass measurement, but we find that neither straightforwardly explains the sense and magnitude of the discrepancy. Although there are alternative potential explanations for the high mass-to-light ratio, such as the presence of large numbers of stellar remnants or dark matter, we find this cluster to be sufficiently perplexing that we now exclude it from a discussion of possible variations in the initial mass function. Because this was the sole known old, Milky Way cluster in the population of high dynamical mass-to-light ratio clusters, some possible explanations for the difference in cluster properties are again open for consideration.

The Imprint of f(R) Gravity on Non-Linear Structure Formation

We test the imprint of f(R) modified gravity on the halo mass function, using N-body simulations and a theoretical model developed in (Kopp et al. 2013). We find a very good agreement between theory and simulations. We extend the theoretical model to the conditional mass function and apply it to the prediction of the linear halo bias in f(R) gravity. Using the halo model we obtain a prediction for the non-linear matter power spectrum accurate to ~10% at z=0 and up to k=2h/Mpc. We also study halo profiles for the f(R) models and find a deviation from the standard general relativity result up to 40%, depending on the halo masses and redshift. This has not been pointed out in previous analysis. Finally we study the number density and profiles of voids identified in these f(R) N-body simulations. We underline the effect of the bias and the sampling to identify voids. We find significant deviation from GR when measuring the f(R) void profiles with fR0<-10^{-6}.

Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations

We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological $N$-body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, most probably more precise, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naive derivation assuming a universal mass function by 18%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum and halo-dark matter cross-spectrum response to long wavelength fluctuations and derive second order halo bias from it, as well as the super-sample variance contribution to the galaxy power spectrum covariance matrix.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function

We exploit the first public data release of VIPERS to investigate environmental effects in galaxy evolution between $z\sim0.5$ and $0.9$. The large number of spectroscopic redshifts over an area of about $10\,\mathrm{deg}^2$ provides a galaxy sample with high statistical power. The accurate redshift measurements, with $\sigma_z = 0.00047(1+z_\mathrm{spec})$, allow us to robustly isolate galaxies living in the lowest- and highest-density environments, as defined in terms of spatial 3D density contrast. We estimate the stellar mass function (SMF) of galaxies residing in these two environments, and constrain its high-mass end with unprecedented precision. We find that the galaxy SMF in the densest regions has a different shape than that measured at low densities, with an enhancement of massive galaxies and a hint of a flatter (less negative) slope at $z<0.8$. We normalise each SMF to the comoving volume occupied by the corresponding environment, and relate estimates from different redshift bins. We observe an evolution of the SMF of VIPERS galaxies in high densities, while the low-density one is nearly constant. We compare these results to semi-analytical models and find consistent environmental signatures. We discuss how the halo mass function and fraction of central/satellite galaxies depend on the environments considered, making intrinsic and environmental properties of galaxies physically coupled, and therefore difficult to disentangle. The evolution of our low-density regions is well described by the formalism introduced by Peng et al.~(2010), and is consistent with the idea that galaxies become progressively passive because of internal physical processes. The same formalism could also describe the evolution of the SMF in the high density regions, but only if a significant contribution from dry mergers is considered. [Abridged]

The initial mass function of young open clusters in the Galaxy: A preliminary result

The initial mass function (IMF) is an essential tool with which to study star formation processes. We have initiated the photometric survey of young open clusters in the Galaxy, from which the stellar IMFs are obtained in a homogeneous way. A total of 16 famous young open clusters have preferentially been studied up to now. These clusters have a wide range of surface densities (log sigma = -1 to 3 [stars pc^2] for stars with mass larger than 5M_sun) and cluster masses (M_cl = 165 to 50,000M_sun), and also are distributed in five different spiral arms in the Galaxy. It is possible to test the dependence of star formation processes on the global properties of individual clusters or environmental conditions. We present a preliminary result on the variation of the IMF in this paper.

Light versus dark in strong-lens galaxies: Dark matter haloes that are rounder than their stars

We measure the projected density profile, shape and alignment of the stellar and dark matter mass distribution in 11 strong-lens galaxies. We find that the projected dark matter density profile - under the assumption of a Chabrier stellar initial mass function - shows significant variation from galaxy to galaxy. Those with an outermost image beyond $\sim 10$ kpc are very well fit by a projected NFW profile; those with images within 10 kpc appear to be more concentrated than NFW, as expected if their dark haloes contract due to baryonic cooling. We find that over several half-light radii, the dark matter haloes of these lenses are rounder than their stellar mass distributions. While the haloes are never more elliptical than $e_{dm} = 0.2$, their stars can extend to $e_* > 0.2$. Galaxies with high dark matter ellipticity and weak external shear show strong alignment between light and dark; those with strong shear ($\gamma \gtrsim 0.1$) can be highly misaligned. This is reassuring since isolated misaligned galaxies are expected to be unstable. Our results provide a new constraint on galaxy formation models. For a given cosmology, these must explain the origin of both very round dark matter haloes and misaligned strong-lens systems.

IAU Commission 37 "Star Clusters and Associations" Legacy report

It is widely accepted that stars do not form in isolation but result from the fragmentation of molecular clouds, which in turn leads to star cluster formation. Over time, clusters dissolve or are destroyed by interactions with molecular clouds or tidal stripping, and their members become part of the general field population. Star clusters are thus among the basic building blocks of galaxies. In turn, star cluster populations, from young associations and open clusters to old globulars, are powerful tracers of the formation, assembly, and evolutionary history of their parent galaxies. Although their importance had been recognised for decades, major progress in this area has only become possible in recent years, both for Galactic and extragalactic cluster populations. Star clusters are the observational foundation for stellar astrophysics and evolution, provide essential tracers of galactic structure, and are unique stellar dynamical environments. Star formation, stellar structure, stellar evolution, and stellar nucleosynthesis continue to benefit and improve tremendously from the study of these systems. Additionally, fundamental quantities such as the initial mass function can be successfully derived from modelling either the H-R diagrams or the integrated velocity structures of, respectively, resolved and unresolved clusters and cluster populations. Star cluster studies thus span the fields of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysics, while heavily affecting our detailed understanding of the process of star formation in dense environments.This report highlights science results of the last decade in the major fields covered by IAU Commission 37: Star clusters and associations.

Stellar and gas dynamical model for tidal disruption events in a quiescent galaxy [Replacement]

A detailed model of the tidal disruption events (TDEs) has been constructed using stellar dynamical and gas dynamical inputs that include black hole (BH) mass $M_{\bullet}$, specific orbital energy $E$ and angular momentum $J$, star mass $M_{\star}$ and radius $R_{\star}$, and the pericenter of the star orbit $r_{p}(E,\hspace{1mm}J,\hspace{1mm}M_{\bullet})$. We solved the steady state Fokker--Planck equation using the standard loss cone theory for the galactic density profile $\rho (r) \propto r^{-\gamma}$ and stellar mass function $\xi(m) $ where $m=M_{\star}/M_{\odot}$ and obtained the feeding rate of stars to the BH integrated over the phase space as $\dot{N}_{t} \propto M_{\bullet}^\beta$, where $\beta= -0.3\pm 0.01$ for $M_{\bullet}>10^7 M_{\odot}$ and $\sim 6.8 \hspace{1mm} \times 10^{-5}$ Yr$^{-1}$ for $\gamma=0.7$. We use this to model the in-fall rate of the disrupted debris, $\dot{M}(E,\hspace{1mm}J,\hspace{1mm}m,\hspace{1mm}t)$, and discuss the conditions for the disk formation, finding that the accretion disk is almost always formed for the fiduciary range of the physical parameters. We also find the conditions under which the disk formed from the tidal debris of a given star with a super Eddington accretion phase. We have simulated the light curve profiles in the relevant optical g band and soft X-rays for both super and sub-Eddington accretion disks as a function of $\dot{M}(E,\hspace{1mm}J,\hspace{1mm}t)$. Using this, standard cosmological parameters, and mission instrument details, we predict the detectable TDE rates for various forthcoming surveys finally as a function of $\gamma$.

Stellar and gas dynamical model for tidal disruption events in a quiescent galaxy

A detailed model of the tidal disruption events (TDE) has been constructed using stellar dynamical and gas dynamical inputs that include black hole mass $M_{\bullet}$, specific orbital energy $E$ and angular momentum $J$, star mass $M_{\star}$ and radius $R_{\star}$ and pericenter of the star orbit $r_{p}(E,\hspace{1mm}J,\hspace{1mm}M_{\bullet})$. We have solved the steady state Fokker- Planck equation using the standard loss cone theory for the galactic density profile $\rho (r) \propto r^{-\gamma}$ and stellar mass function $\xi(m) $ where $m=M_{\star}/M_{\odot}$ and obtained the feeding rate of stars to the black hole integrated over the phase space as $\dot{N}_{t} \propto M_{\bullet}^\beta$ where $\beta= -0.3\pm 0.01$ for $M_{\bullet}>10^7 M_{\odot}$ and $\sim 6.8 \hspace{1mm} \times 10^{-5}$ Yr$^{-1}$ for $\gamma=0.7$. Using this we model the in fall rate of the disrupted debris, $\dot{M}(E,\hspace{1mm}J,\hspace{1mm}m,\hspace{1mm}t)$ and discuss conditions for the disk formation and find that the accretion disk is formed almost always for the fiduciary range of the physical parameters. We also find the conditions under which the disk formed from the tidal debris of a given star has a super Eddington accretion phase. We have simulated the light curve profiles in relevant optical g band and soft X-rays for both super and sub Eddington accretion disks as function of $\dot{M}(E,\hspace{1mm}J,\hspace{1mm}t)$. Using this, standard cosmological parameters and mission instrument details, we predict the detectable TDE rates for various forthcoming surveys finally as a function of $\gamma$.

CLASH-VLT: Environment-driven evolution of galaxies in the z=0.209 cluster Abell 209

The analysis of galaxy properties and the relations among them and the environment, can be used to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. We study the cluster A209 by using the CLASH-VLT spectroscopic data combined with Subaru photometry, yielding to 1916 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^{8.6} Msun. We determine: i) the stellar mass function of star-forming and passive galaxies; ii) the intra-cluster light and its properties; iii) the orbits of low- and high-mass passive galaxies; and iv) the mass-size relation of ETGs. The stellar mass function of the star-forming galaxies does not depend on the environment, while the slope found for passive galaxies becomes flatter in the densest region. The color distribution of the intra-cluster light is consistent with the color of passive members. The analysis of the dynamical orbits shows that low-mass passive galaxies have tangential orbits, avoiding small pericenters around the BCG. The mass-size relation of low-mass passive ETGs is flatter than that of high mass galaxies, and its slope is consistent with that of field star-forming galaxies. Low-mass galaxies are also more compact within the scale radius of 0.65 Mpc. The ratio between stellar and number density profiles shows a mass segregation in the center. The comparative analysis of the stellar and total density profiles indicates that this effect is due to dynamical friction. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which the "environmental quenching" of low-mass galaxies is due to mechanisms such as harassment out to R200, starvation and ram-pressure stripping at smaller radii, as supported by the analysis of the mass function, of the dynamical orbits and of the mass-size relation of passive early-types in different regions. Our analyses support the idea that the intra-cluster light is formed through the tidal disruption of subgiant galaxies.

The Necessity of Feedback Physics in Setting the Peak of the Initial Mass Function [Replacement]

A popular theory of star formation is gravito-turbulent fragmentation, in which self-gravitating structures are created by turbulence-driven density fluctuations. Simple theories of isothermal fragmentation successfully reproduce the core mass function (CMF) which has a very similar shape to the initial mass function (IMF) of stars. However, numerical simulations of isothermal turbulent fragmentation thus far have not succeeded in identifying a fragment mass scale that is independent of the simulation resolution. Moreover, the fluid equations for magnetized, self-gravitating, isothermal turbulence are scale-free, and do not predict any characteristic mass. In this paper we show that, although an isothermal self-gravitating flow does produce a CMF with a mass scale imposed by the initial conditions, this scale changes as the parent cloud evolves. In addition, the cores that form undergo further fragmentation and after sufficient time forget about their initial conditions, yielding a scale-free pure power-law distribution $\mathrm{d} N/\mathrm{d} M\propto M^{-2}$ for the stellar IMF. We show that this problem can be alleviated by introducing additional physics that provides a termination scale for the cascade. Our candidate for such physics is a simple model for stellar radiation feedback. Radiative heating, powered by accretion onto forming stars, arrests the fragmentation cascade and imposes a characteristic mass scale that is nearly independent of the time-evolution or initial conditions in the star-forming cloud, and that agrees well with the peak of the observed IMF. In contrast, models that introduce a stiff equation of state for denser clouds but that do not explicitly include the effects of feedback do not yield an invariant IMF.

X-ray galaxy clusters abundance and mass temperature scaling

The abundance of clusters of galaxies is known to be a potential source of cosmological constraints through their mass function. In the present work, we examine the information that can be obtained from the temperature distribution function of X-ray clusters. For this purpose, the mass-temperature ($M$-$T$) relation and its statistical properties are critical ingredients. Using a combination of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from Planck and our estimations of X-ray cluster abundances, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to estimate the $\Lambda$CDM cosmological parameters and the mass to X-ray temperature scaling relation simultaneously. We determine the integrated X-ray temperature function of local clusters using flux-limited surveys. A local comprehensive sample was build from the BAX X-ray cluster database, allowing us to estimate the local temperature distribution function above $\sim$1 keV. We model the expected temperature function from the mass function and the $M$-$T$ scaling relation. We then estimate the cosmological parameters and the parameters of the $M$-$T$ relation (calibration and slope) simultaneously. The measured temperature function of local clusters in the range $\sim\!\!1$-$10$ keV is well reproduced once the calibration of the $M$-$T$ relation is treated as a free parameter, and therefore is self-consistent with respect to the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. The best-fit values of the standard cosmological parameters as well as their uncertainties are unchanged by the addition of clusters data. The calibration of the mass temperature relation, as well as its slope, are determined with $\sim10\%$ statistical uncertainties. This calibration leads to masses that are $\sim\!\!75\%$ larger than X-ray masses used in Planck.

A unified multi-wavelength model of galaxy formation

We present a new version of the GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation. This brings together several previous developments of GALFORM into a single unified model, including a different initial mass function (IMF) in quiescent star formation and in starbursts, feedback from active galactic nuclei supressing gas cooling in massive halos, and a new empirical star formation law in galaxy disks based on their molecular gas content. In addition, we have updated the cosmology, introduced a more accurate treatment of dynamical friction acting on satellite galaxies, and updated the stellar population model. The new model is able to simultaneously explain both the observed evolution of the K-band luminosity function and stellar mass function, and the number counts and redshift distribution of sub-mm galaxies selected at 850 mu. This was not previously achieved by a single physical model within the LambdaCDM framework, but requires having an IMF in starbursts that is somewhat top-heavy. The new model is tested against a wide variety of observational data covering wavelengths from the far-UV to sub-mm, and redshifts from z=0 to z=6, and is found to be generally successful. These observations include the optical and near-IR luminosity functions, HI mass function, Tully-Fisher relation, fraction of early type galaxies, metallicity-luminosity relation and size-luminosity relation at z=0, as well as far-IR number counts, and far-UV luminosity functions at z ~ 3-6. [abridged]

Spectro-photometric characterization of high proper motion sources from WISE

The census of the solar neighborhood is almost complete for stars and becoming more complete in the brown dwarf regime. Spectroscopic, photometric and kinematic characterization of nearby objects helps us to understand the local mass function, the binary fraction, and provides new targets for sensitive planet searches. We aim to derive spectral types and spectro-photometric distances of a sample of new high proper motion sources found with the WISE satellite, and obtain parallaxes for those objects that fall within the area observed by the Vista Variables in the V\'ia L\'actea survey (VVV). We used low resolution spectroscopy and template fitting to derive spectral types, multiwavelength photometry to characterize the companion candidates and obtain photometric distances. Multi-epoch imaging from the VVV survey was used to measure the parallaxes and proper motions for three sources. We confirm a new T2 brown dwarf within $\sim$15 pc. We derived optical spectral types for twenty four sources, mostly M dwarfs within 50 pc. We addressed the wide binary nature of sixteen objects found by the WISE mission and previously known high proper motion sources. Six of these are probably members of wide binaries, two of those are new, and present evidence against the physical binary nature of two candidate binary stars found in the literature, and eight that we selected as possible binary systems. We discuss a likely microlensing event produced by a nearby low mass star and a galaxy, that is to occur in the following five years.

Star Formation triggered by cloud-cloud collisions

We present the results of SPH simulations in which two clouds, each having mass $M_{_{\rm{o}}}\!=\!500\,{\rm M}_{_\odot}$ and radius $R_{_{\rm{o}}}\!=\!2\,{\rm pc}$, collide head-on at relative velocities of $\Delta v_{_{\rm{o}}} =2.4,\;2.8,\;3.2,\;3.6\;{\rm and}\;4.0\,{\rm km}\,{\rm s}^{-1}$. There is a clear trend with increasing $\Delta v_{_{\rm{o}}}$. At low $\Delta v_{_{\rm{o}}}$, star formation starts later, and the shock-compressed layer breaks up into an array of predominantly radial filaments; stars condense out of these filaments and fall, together with residual gas, towards the centre of the layer, to form a single large-$N$ cluster, which then evolves by competitive accretion, producing one or two very massive protostars and a diaspora of ejected (mainly low-mass) protostars; the pattern of filaments is reminiscent of the hub and spokes systems identified recently by observers. At high $\Delta v_{_{\rm{o}}}$, star formation occurs sooner and the shock-compressed layer breaks up into a network of filaments; the pattern of filaments here is more like a spider's web, with several small-$N$ clusters forming independently of one another, in cores at the intersections of filaments, and since each core only spawns a small number of protostars, there are fewer ejections of protostars. As the relative velocity is increased, the {\it mean} protostellar mass increases, but the {\it maximum} protostellar mass and the width of the mass function both decrease. We use a Minimal Spanning Tree to analyse the spatial distributions of protostars formed at different relative velocities.

A unified model for the spatial and mass distribution of subhaloes [Replacement]

N-body simulations suggest that the substructures that survive inside dark matter haloes follow universal distributions in mass and radial number density. We demonstrate that a simple analytical model can explain these subhalo distributions as resulting from tidal stripping which increasingly reduces the mass of subhaloes with decreasing halo-centric distance. As a starting point, the spatial distribution of subhaloes of any given infall mass is shown to be largely indistinguishable from the overall mass distribution of the host halo. Using a physically motivated statistical description of the amount of mass stripped from individual subhaloes, the model fully describes the joint distribution of subhaloes in final mass, infall mass and radius. As a result, it can be used to predict several derived distributions involving combinations of these quantities including, but not limited to, the universal subhalo mass function, the subhalo spatial distribution, the gravitational lensing profile, the dark matter annihilation radiation profile and boost factor. This model clarifies a common confusion when comparing the spatial distributions of galaxies and subhaloes, the so called "anti-bias", as a simple selection effect. We provide a Python code SubGen for populating haloes with subhaloes at http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/

A unified model for the spatial and mass distribution of subhaloes

N-body simulations suggest that the substructures that survive inside dark matter haloes follow universal distributions in mass and radial number density. We demonstrate that a simple analytical model can explain these subhalo distributions as resulting from tidal stripping which increasingly reduces the mass of subhaloes with decreasing halo-centric distance. As a starting point, the spatial distribution of subhaloes of any given infall mass is shown to be largely indistinguishable from the overall mass distribution of the host halo. Using a physically motivated statistical description of the amount of mass stripped off individual subhaloes, the model fully describes the joint distribution of subhaloes in final mass, infall mass and radius. As a result, it can be used to predict several derived distributions involving combinations of these quantities including, but not limited to, the universal subhalo mass function, the subhalo spatial distribution, the lensing profile, the dark matter annihilation radiation profile and boost factor. This model clarifies a common confusion when comparing the spatial distributions of galaxies and subhaloes, the so called "anti-bias", as a simple selection effect. We provide a Python code SubGen for populating haloes with subhaloes at http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/.

A possible link between the power spectrum of interstellar filaments and the origin of the prestellar core mass function

Two major features of the prestellar CMF are: 1) a broad peak below 1 Msun, presumably corresponding to a mean gravitational fragmentation scale, and 2) a characteristic power-law slope, very similar to the Salpeter slope of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) at the high-mass end. While recent Herschel observations have shown that the peak of the prestellar CMF is close to the thermal Jeans mass in marginally supercritical filaments, the origin of the power-law tail of the CMF/IMF at the high-mass end is less clear. Inutsuka (2001) proposed a theoretical scenario in which the origin of the power-law tail can be understood as resulting from the growth of an initial spectrum of density perturbations seeded along the long axis of filaments by interstellar turbulence. Here, we report the statistical properties of the line-mass fluctuations of filaments in nearby molecular clouds observed with Herschel using a 1-D power spectrum analysis. The observed filament power spectra were fitted by a power-law function $(P_{true}(s) \propto s^{\alpha})$ after removing the effect of beam convolution at small scales. A Gaussian-like distribution of power-spectrum slopes was found centered at -1.6, close to that of the one-dimensional velocity power spectrum generated by subsonic Kolomogorov turbulence (-1.67). An empirical correlation, $P^{0.5}(s_0) \propto <N_{\rm H_2}>^{1.4 \pm 0.1} $, was also found between the amplitude of each filament power spectrum $P(s_0)$ and the mean column density along the filament $<N_{\rm H_2}>$. Finally, the dispersion of line-mass fluctuations along each filament $\sigma_{\rm M_{line}}$ was found to scale with the physical length $L$ of the filament, roughly as $\sigma_{M_{line}} \propto L^{0.7}$. Overall, our results are consistent with the suggestion that the bulk of the CMF/IMF results from the gravitational fragmentation of filaments.

Push it to the limit: Local Group constraints on high-redshift stellar mass functions for Mstar > 10^5 Msun

We constrain the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function from 2 < z < 5 for galaxies with stellar masses as low as 10^5 Msun by combining star formation histories of Milky Way satellite galaxies derived from deep Hubble Space Telescope observations with merger trees from the ELVIS suite of N-body simulations. This approach extends our understanding more than two orders of magnitude lower in stellar mass than is currently possible by direct imaging. We find the faint end slopes of the mass functions to be alpha= -1.42(+0.07/-0.05) at z = 2 and alpha = -1.57^(+0.06/-0.06) at z = 5, and show the slope only weakly evolves from z = 5 to z = 0. Our findings are in stark contrast to a number of direct detection studies that suggest slopes as steep as alpha = -1.9 at these epochs. Such a steep slope would result in an order of magnitude too many luminous Milky Way satellites in a mass regime that is observationally complete (Mstar > 2*10^5 Msun at z = 0). The most recent studies from ZFOURGE and CANDELS also suggest flatter faint end slopes that are consistent with our results, but with a lower degree of precision. This work illustrates the strong connections between low and high-z observations when viewed through the lens of LCDM numerical simulations.

The O- and B-Type Stellar Population in W3: Beyond the High-Density Layer

We present the first results from our survey of the star-forming complex W3, combining VRI photometry with multiobject spectroscopy to identify and characterize the high-mass stellar population across the region. With 79 new spectral classifications, we bring the total number of spectroscopically-confirmed O- and B-type stars in W3 to 105. We find that the high-mass slope of the mass function in W3 is consistent with a Salpeter IMF, and that the extinction toward the region is best characterized by an Rv of approximately 3.6. B-type stars are found to be more widely dispersed across the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC) than previously realized: they are not confined to the high-density layer (HDL) created by the expansion of the neighboring W4 HII region into the GMC. This broader B-type population suggests that star formation in W3 began spontaneously up to 8--10 Myr ago, although at a lower level than the more recent star formation episodes in the HDL. In addition, we describe a method of optimizing sky subtraction for fiber spectra in regions of strong and spatially-variable nebular emission.

Horizon Run 4 Simulation: Coupled Evolution of Galaxies and Large-scale Structures of the Universe

The Horizon Run 4 is a cosmological $N$-body simulation designed for the study of coupled evolution between galaxies and large-scale structures of the Universe, and for the test of galaxy formation models. Using $6300^3$ gravitating particles in a cubic box of $L_{\rm box} = 3150 ~h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$, we build a dense forest of halo merger trees to trace the halo merger history with a halo mass resolution scale down to $M_s = 2.7 \times 10^{11} h^{-1}{\rm M_\odot}$. We build a set of particle and halo data, which can serve as testbeds for comparison of cosmological models and gravitational theories with observations. We find that the FoF halo mass function shows a substantial deviation from the universal form with tangible redshift evolution of amplitude and shape. At higher redshifts, the amplitude of the mass function is lower, and the functional form is shifted toward larger values of $\ln (1/\sigma)$. We also find that the baryonic acoustic oscillation feature in the two-point correlation function of mock galaxies becomes broader with a peak position moving to smaller scales and the peak amplitude decreasing for increasing directional cosine $\mu$ compared to the linear predictions. From the halo merger trees built from halo data at 75 redshifts, we measure the half-mass epoch of halos and find that less massive halos tend to reach half of their current mass at higher redshifts. Simulation outputs including snapshot data, past lightcone space data, and halo merger data are available at http://sdss.kias.re.kr/astro/Horizon-Run4/.

Horizon Run 4 Simulation: Coupled Evolution of Galaxies and Large-scale Structures of the Universe [Replacement]

The Horizon Run 4 is a cosmological $N$-body simulation designed for the study of coupled evolution between galaxies and large-scale structures of the Universe, and for the test of galaxy formation models. Using $6300^3$ gravitating particles in a cubic box of $L_{\rm box} = 3150 ~h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$, we build a dense forest of halo merger trees to trace the halo merger history with a halo mass resolution scale down to $M_s = 2.7 \times 10^{11} h^{-1}{\rm M_\odot}$. We build a set of particle and halo data, which can serve as testbeds for comparison of cosmological models and gravitational theories with observations. We find that the FoF halo mass function shows a substantial deviation from the universal form with tangible redshift evolution of amplitude and shape. At higher redshifts, the amplitude of the mass function is lower, and the functional form is shifted toward larger values of $\ln (1/\sigma)$. We also find that the baryonic acoustic oscillation feature in the two-point correlation function of mock galaxies becomes broader with a peak position moving to smaller scales and the peak amplitude decreasing for increasing directional cosine $\mu$ compared to the linear predictions. From the halo merger trees built from halo data at 75 redshifts, we measure the half-mass epoch of halos and find that less massive halos tend to reach half of their current mass at higher redshifts. Simulation outputs including snapshot data, past lightcone space data, and halo merger data are available at http://sdss.kias.re.kr/astro/Horizon-Run4/.

 

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