# Posts Tagged lsst

## Recent Postings from lsst

### Looking through the same lens: shear calibration for LSST, Euclid & WFIRST with stage 4 CMB lensing

The next generation weak lensing surveys (i.e., LSST, Euclid and WFIRST) will require exquisite control over systematic effects. In this paper, we address shear calibration and present the most realistic forecast to date for LSST/Euclid/WFIRST and CMB lensing from a stage 4 CMB experiment (CMB S4). We use the CosmoLike code to simulate a joint analysis of all the two-point functions of galaxy density, galaxy shear and CMB lensing convergence. We include the full Gaussian and non-Gaussian covariances and explore the resulting joint likelihood with Monte Carlo Markov Chains. We constrain shear calibration biases while simultaneously varying cosmological parameters, galaxy biases and photometric redshift uncertainties. We find that CMB lensing from CMB S4 enables the calibration of the shear biases down to 0.2% - 3% in 10 tomographic bins for LSST (below the ~0.5% requirements in most tomographic bins), down to 0.4% - 2.4% in 10 bins for Euclid and 0.6% - 3.2% in 10 bins for WFIRST. For a given lensing survey, the method works best at high redshift where shear calibration is otherwise most challenging. This self-calibration is robust to Gaussian photometric redshift uncertainties and to a reasonable level of intrinsic alignment. It is also robust to changes in the beam and the effectiveness of the component separation of the CMB experiment, and slowly dependent on its depth, making it possible with third generation CMB experiments such as AdvACT and SPT-3G, as well as the Simons Observatory.

### Testing LSST Dither Strategies for Survey Uniformity and Large-Scale Structure Systematics

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will survey the southern sky from 2022-2032 with unprecedented detail. Given that survey observational strategy can lead to artifacts in the observed data, we investigate the effects of telescope-pointing offsets (called dithers) on the $r$-band coadded 5$\sigma$ depth yielded after the 10-year survey. We analyze this survey depth for several geometric patterns of dithers (e.g., random, hexagonal lattice, spiral) with amplitude as large as the radius of the LSST field-of-view, implemented on different timescales (per season, per night, per visit). Our results illustrate that per night and per visit dither assignments are more effective than per season. Also, we find that some dither geometries (e.g. hexagonal lattice) are particularly sensitive to the timescale on which the dithers are implemented, while others like random dithers perform well on all timescales. We then model the propagation of depth variations to artificial fluctuations in galaxy counts, which are a systematic for large-scale structure studies. We calculate the bias in galaxy counts induced due to the observing strategy, accounting for photometric calibration uncertainties, dust extinction, and magnitude cuts; uncertainties in this bias limit our ability to account for structure induced by the survey strategy. We find that after 10 years of the LSST survey, the best observing strategies lead to uncertainties in the bias smaller than the minimum statistical floor for a galaxy catalog as deep as $r$$<27.5; of these, a few bring the uncertainties close to the floor for r$$<$25.7 after only one year of survey.

### Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Science

Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

### Optical selection of quasars: SDSS and LSST

Over the last decade, quasar sample sizes have increased from several thousand to several hundred thousand, thanks mostly to SDSS imaging and spectroscopic surveys. LSST, the next-generation optical imaging survey, will provide hundreds of detections per object for a sample of more than ten million quasars with redshifts of up to about seven. We briefly review optical quasar selection techniques, with emphasis on methods based on colors, variability properties and astrometric behavior.

### Cosmic shear without shape noise

We describe a new method for reducing the shape noise in weak lensing measurements by an order of magnitude. Our method relies on spectroscopic measurements of disk galaxy rotation and makes use of the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation in order to control for the intrinsic orientations of galaxy disks. For this new proposed experiment, the shape noise ceases to be an important source of statistical error. Using CosmoLike, a new cosmological analysis software package, we simulate likelihood analyses for two spectroscopic weak lensing survey concepts (roughly similar in scale to Dark Energy Survey Task Force Stage III and Stage IV missions) and compare their constraining power to a cosmic shear survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Our forecasts in seven-dimensional cosmological parameter space include statistical uncertainties resulting from shape noise, cosmic variance, halo sample variance, and higher-order moments of the density field. We marginalize over systematic uncertainties arising from photometric redshift errors and shear calibration biases considering both optimistic and conservative assumptions about LSST systematic errors. We find that even the TF-Stage III is highly competitive with the optimistic LSST scenario, while evading the most important sources of theoretical and observational systematic error inherent in traditional weak lensing techniques. Furthermore, the TF technique enables a narrow-bin cosmic shear tomography approach to tightly constrain time-dependent signatures in the dark energy phenomenon.

### Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge: I. Experimental Design

The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters as well as probe the dark matter (sub-)structure within the lens galaxy. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly as a result of some dedicated efforts; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ~1000 lens systems consisting of a foreground elliptical galaxy producing multiple images of a background quasar. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community to accurately measure the time delays in strong gravitational lens systems, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we invite the community to take part in a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of "ladders", each containing a group of simulated datasets to be analyzed blindly by participating independent analysis teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' datasets increasing in complexity and realism to incorporate a variety of anticipated physical and experimental effects. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of datasets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams as they set up their analysis pipelines. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 will be the TDC1 launch date, December 1, 2013. TDC1 will consist of some 1000 light curves, a sample designed to provide the statistical power to make meaningful statements about the sub-percent accuracy that will be required to provide competitive Dark Energy constraints in the LSST era.

### Growth of Cosmic Structure: Probing Dark Energy Beyond Expansion

The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years. Further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects, which will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Dark energy and gravity both affect how rapidly structure grows; the greater the acceleration, the more suppressed the growth of structure, while the greater the gravity, the more enhanced the growth. While distance measurements also constrain dark energy, the comparison of growth and distance data tests whether General Relativity describes the laws of physics accurately on large scales. Modified gravity models are able to reproduce the distance measurements but at the cost of altering the growth of structure (these signatures are described in more detail in the accompanying paper on Novel Probes of Gravity and Dark Energy). Upcoming surveys will exploit these differences to determine whether the acceleration of the Universe is due to dark energy or to modified gravity. To realize this potential, both wide field imaging and spectroscopic redshift surveys play crucial roles. Projects including DES, eBOSS, DESI, PFS, LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST are in line to map more than a 1000 cubic-billion-light-year volume of the Universe. These will map the cosmic structure growth rate to 1% in the redshift range 0<z<2, over the last 3/4 of the age of the Universe.

### Growth of Cosmic Structure: Probing Dark Energy Beyond Expansion [Replacement]

The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years. Further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects, which will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Dark energy and gravity both affect how rapidly structure grows; the greater the acceleration, the more suppressed the growth of structure, while the greater the gravity, the more enhanced the growth. While distance measurements also constrain dark energy, the comparison of growth and distance data tests whether General Relativity describes the laws of physics accurately on large scales. Modified gravity models are able to reproduce the distance measurements but at the cost of altering the growth of structure (these signatures are described in more detail in the accompanying paper on Novel Probes of Gravity and Dark Energy). Upcoming surveys will exploit these differences to determine whether the acceleration of the Universe is due to dark energy or to modified gravity. To realize this potential, both wide field imaging and spectroscopic redshift surveys play crucial roles. Projects including DES, eBOSS, DESI, PFS, LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST are in line to map more than a 1000 cubic-billion-light-year volume of the Universe. These will map the cosmic structure growth rate to 1% in the redshift range 0<z<2, over the last 3/4 of the age of the Universe.

### Prospects for Detecting Gamma Rays from Annihilating Dark Matter in Dwarf Galaxies in the Era of DES and LSST

Among the most stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section are those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. As current (e.g., Dark Energy Survey, DES) and future (Large Scale Synoptic Telescope, LSST) optical imaging surveys discover more of the Milky Way's ultra-faint satellite galaxies, they may increase Fermi's sensitivity to dark matter annihilations. In this study, we use a semi-analytic model of the Milky Way's satellite population to predict the characteristics of the dwarfs likely to be discovered by DES and LSST, and project how these discoveries will impact Fermi's sensitivity to dark matter. While we find that modest improvements are likely, the dwarf galaxies discovered by DES and LSST are unlikely to increase Fermi's sensitivity by more than a factor of ~2.