Posts Tagged jup

Recent Postings from jup

The Envelope and Embedded Disk around the Class 0 Protostar L1157-mm: Dual-wavelength Interferometric Observations and Modeling

We present dual-wavelength observations and modeling of the nearly edge-on Class 0 young stellar object L1157-mm. Using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, a nearly spherical structure is seen from the circumstellar envelope at the size scale of 10^2 to 10^3 AU in both 1 mm and 3 mm dust emission. Radiative transfer modeling is performed to compare data with theoretical envelope models, including a power-law envelope model and the Terebey-Shu-Cassen model. Bayesian inference is applied for parameter estimation and information criteria is used for model selection. The results prefer the power-law envelope model against the Terebey-Shu-Cassen model. In particular, for the power-law envelope model, a steep density profile with an index of ~2 is inferred. Moreover, the dust opacity spectral index (beta) is estimated to be ~0.9, implying that grain growth has started at L1157-mm. Also, the unresolved disk component is constrained to be < 40 AU in radius and < 4-25 M_Jup in mass. However, the estimate of the embedded disk component relies on the assumed envelope model.

The quest for companions to post-common envelope binaries: III. A reexamination of HW Virginis

We report new mid-eclipse times of the short-period sdB/dM binary HW Vir, which differ substantially from the times predicted by a previous model. The proposed orbits of the two planets in that model are found to be unstable. We present a new secularly stable solution, which involves two companions orbiting HW VIr with periods of 12.7 yr and 55 +/-15 yr. For orbits coplanar with the binary, the inner companion is a giant planet with mass M_3 sin i_3 = 14 M_Jup and the outer one a brown dwarf or low-mass star with a mass of M_4 sin i_4 = 30-120 M_Jup. Using the mercury6 code, we find that such a system would be stable over more than 10^7 yr, in spite of the sizeable interaction. Our model fits the observed eclipse-time variations by the light-travel time effect alone, without invoking any additional process, thereby providing support for the planetary hypothesis of the eclipse-time variations in close binaries. The signature of non-Keplerian orbits may be visible in the data.

WASP-78b and WASP-79b: Two highly-bloated hot Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type stars in Eridanus

We report the discovery of WASP-78b and WASP-79b, two highly-bloated Jupiter-mass exoplanets orbiting F-type host stars. WASP-78b orbits its V=12.0 host star (TYC 5889-271-1) every 2.175 days and WASP-79b orbits its V=10.1 host star (CD-30 1812) every 3.662 days. A simultaneous fit to WASP and TRAPPIST transit photometry and CORALIE radial-velocity measurements yields planetary masses of 0.89 +/- 0.08 M_Jup and 0.90 +/- 0.08 M_Jup, and radii of 1.70 +/- 0.11 R_Jup and 2.09 +/- 0.14 R_Jup, for WASP-78b and WASP-79b, respectively. The planetary equilibrium temperature of T_P = 2350 +/- 80 K for WASP-78b makes it one of the hottest of the currently known exoplanets. The radius of WASP-79b suggests that it is potentially the largest known exoplanet.

Searching for young Jupiter analogs around AP Col: L-band high-contrast imaging of the closest pre-main sequence star

The nearby M-dwarf AP Col was recently identified by Riedel et al. 2011 as a pre-main sequence star (age 12 – 50 Myr) situated only 8.4 pc from the Sun. The combination of its youth, distance, and intrinsically low luminosity make it an ideal target to search for extrasolar planets using direct imaging. We report deep adaptive optics observations of AP Col taken with VLT/NACO and Keck/NIRC2 in the L-band. Using aggressive speckle suppression and background subtraction techniques, we are able to rule out companions with mass m >= 0.5 – 1M_Jup for projected separations a>4.5 AU, and m >= 2 M_Jup for projected separations as small as 3 AU, assuming an age of 40 Myr using the COND theoretical evolutionary models. Using a different set of models the mass limits increase by a factor of ~2. The observations presented here are the deepest mass-sensitivity limits yet achieved within 20 AU on a star with direct imaging. While Doppler radial velocity surveys have shown that Jovian bodies with close-in orbits are rare around M-dwarfs, gravitational microlensing studies predict that ~17% of these stars host massive planets with orbital separations of 1-10 AU. Sensitive high-contrast imaging observations, like those presented here, will help to validate results from complementary detection techniques by determining the frequency of gas giant planets on wide orbits around M-dwarfs.

The Anglo-Australian Planet Search. XXII. Two New Multi-Planet Systems

We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005\pm427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3M_Jup. HD142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 \pm 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3\pm1.3 days, and m sin i=0.73\pm0.05 M_Jup. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

The Anglo-Australian Planet Search. XXII. Two New Multi-Planet Systems [Replacement]

We report the detection of two new planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. These planets orbit two stars each previously known to host one planet. The new planet orbiting HD 142 has a period of 6005\pm427 days, and a minimum mass of 5.3M_Jup. HD142c is thus a new Jupiter analog: a gas-giant planet with a long period and low eccentricity (e = 0.21 \pm 0.07). The second planet in the HD 159868 system has a period of 352.3\pm1.3 days, and m sin i=0.73\pm0.05 M_Jup. In both of these systems, including the additional planets in the fitting process significantly reduced the eccentricity of the original planet. These systems are thus examples of how multiple-planet systems can masquerade as moderately eccentric single-planet systems.

Seven transiting hot-Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-47b, WASP-55b, WASP-61b, WASP-62b, WASP-63b, WASP-66b & WASP-67b

We present seven new transiting hot Jupiters from the WASP-South survey. The planets are all typical hot Jupiters orbiting stars from F4 to K0 with magnitudes of V = 10.3 to 12.5. The orbital periods are all in the range 3.9–4.6 d, the planetary masses range from 0.4–2.3 Mjup and the radii from 1.1–1.4 Mjup. In line with known hot Jupiters, the planetary densities range from Jupiter-like to inflated (rho = 0.13–1.07 rho_jup). We use the increasing numbers of known hot Jupiters to investigate the distribution of their orbital periods and the 3–4-d “pile-up”.

The Nature of Transition Circumstellar Disks II. Southern Molecular Clouds

Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from lsim1 to 10 M JUP, and accretion rates ranging from lsim10-11 to 10-7.7 M \odot yr-1. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

Planetary and Other Short Binary Microlensing Events from the MOA Short Event Analysis

We present the analysis of four candidate short duration binary microlensing events from the 2006-2007 MOA Project short event analysis. These events were discovered in an analysis designed to find short timescale single lens events that may be due to free-floating planets. Three of these events are determined to be microlensing events, while the fourth is most likely caused by stellar variability. For each of the three microlensing events, the signal is almost entirely due to a brief caustic feature with little or no lensing attributable mainly to the lens primary. One of these events, MOA-bin-1, is due to a planet, and it is the first example of a planetary event in which stellar host is only detected through binary microlensing effects. The mass ratio, q = 4.9 \pm 1.4 \times 10^{-3}, is relatively large for a planetary system, and the star-planet separation, s = 2.10 \pm 0.05, is the largest ever for a low magnification microlensing event. The planet MOA-bin-1Lb has a mass of m_p = 3.7 \pm 2.1 M_Jup,and orbits a star of M_\ast = 0.75 (+0.33 -0.41) M_solar at a semi-major axis of a = 8.3 (+4.5 -2.7) AU, according to a Bayesian analysis based on a standard Galactic model. This is one of the most massive planets found by microlensing. The scarcity of such wide separation planets also has implications for interpretation of the isolated planetary mass objects found by this analysis. If these planets are actually bound in wide orbits around host stars, then it is likely that the median orbital semi-major axis is > 30 AU.

The quest for companions to post-common envelope binaries. II. NSVS14256825 and HS0705+6700

We report new mid-eclipse times of the two close binaries NSVS14256825 and HS0705+6700, harboring an sdB primary and a low-mass main-sequence secondary. Both objects display clear variations in the measured orbital period, which can be explained by the action of a third object orbiting the binary. If this interpretation is correct, the third object in NSVS14256825 is a giant planet with a mass of roughly 12 M_Jup. For HS0705+6700, we provide evidence that strengthens the case for the suggested periodic nature of the eclipse time variation and reduces the uncertainties in the parameters of the brown dwarf implied by that model. The derived period is 8.4 yr and the mass is 31 M_Jup, if the orbit is coplanar with the binary. This research is part of the PlanetFinders project, an ongoing collaboration between professional astronomers and student groups at high schools.

The CHESS survey of the L1157-B1 shock: the dissociative jet shock as revealed by Herschel--PACS

Outflows generated by protostars heavily affect the kinematics and chemistry of the hosting molecular cloud through strong shocks that enhance the abundance of some molecules. L1157 is the prototype of chemically active outflows, and a strong shock, called B1, is taking place in its blue lobe between the precessing jet and the hosting cloud. We present the Herschel-PACS 55–210 micron spectra of the L1157-B1 shock, showing emission lines from CO, H2O, OH, and [OI]. The spatial resolution of the PACS spectrometer allows us to map the warm gas traced by far-infrared (FIR) lines with unprecedented detail. The rotational diagram of the high-Jup CO lines indicates high-excitation conditions (Tex ~ 210 +/- 10 K). We used a radiative transfer code to model the hot CO gas emission observed with PACS and in the CO (13-12) and (10-9) lines measured by Herschel-HIFI. We derive 200<Tkin10^5 cm-3. The CO emission comes from a region of about 7 arcsec located at the rear of the bow shock where the [OI] and OH emission also originate. Comparison with shock models shows that the bright [OI] and OH emissions trace a dissociative J-type shock, which is also supported by a previous detection of [FeII] at the same position. The inferred mass-flux is consistent with the “reverse” shock where the jet is impacting on the L1157-B1 bow shock. The same shock may contribute significantly to the high-Jup CO emission.

First sub-millimeter detection of the TWA brown dwarf disc 2MASSW J1207334-393254

We present Herschel/SPIRE observations for the 2MASS1207334-393254 (2M1207) system. Based on radiative transfer modeling of near-infrared to sub-millimeter data, we estimate a disc mass of 3+/-2 M_Jup and an outer disc radius of 50–100 AU for the 2M1207A disc. The relative disc mass for 2M1207A is similar to the T Tauri star TW Hya, which indicates that massive discs are not underabundant around sub-stellar objects. In probing the various formation mechanisms for this system, we find that core accretion is highly uncertain mainly due to the large separation between the primary and the companion. Disk fragmentation could be a likely scenario based on analytical models, and if the disc initially was more massive than its current estimate. Considering that the TWA is sparsely populated, this system could have formed via one of the known binary formation mechanisms (e.g. turbulent fragmentation of a core) and survived disruption at an early stage.

Direct Imaging of Extra-solar Planets - Homogeneous Comparison of Detected Planets and Candidates

Searching the literature, we found 25 stars with directly imaged planets and candidates. We gathered photometric and spectral information for all these objects to derive their luminosities in a homogeneous way, taking a bolometric correction into account. Using theoretical evolutionary models, one can then estimate the mass from luminosity, temperature, and age. According to our mass estimates, all of them can have a mass below 25 Jup masses, so that they are considered as planets.

The TRAPPIST survey of southern transiting planets. I. Thirty eclipses of the ultra-short period planet WASP-43 b [Replacement]

We present twenty-three transit light curves and seven occultation light curves for the ultra-short period planet WASP-43 b, in addition to eight new measurements of the radial velocity of the star. Thanks to this extensive data set, we improve significantly the parameters of the system. Notably, the largely improved precision on the stellar density (2.41+-0.08 rho_sun) combined with constraining the age to be younger than a Hubble time allows us to break the degeneracy of the stellar solution mentioned in the discovery paper. The resulting stellar mass and size are 0.717+-0.025 M_sun and 0.667+-0.011 R_sun. Our deduced physical parameters for the planet are 2.034+-0.052 M_jup and 1.036+-0.019 R_jup. Taking into account its level of irradiation, the high density of the planet favors an old age and a massive core. Our deduced orbital eccentricity, 0.0035(-0.0025,+0.0060), is consistent with a fully circularized orbit. We detect the emission of the planet at 2.09 microns at better than 11-sigma, the deduced occultation depth being 1560+-140 ppm. Our detection of the occultation at 1.19 microns is marginal (790+-320 ppm) and more observations are needed to confirm it. We place a 3-sigma upper limit of 850 ppm on the depth of the occultation at ~0.9 microns. Together, these results strongly favor a poor redistribution of the heat to the night-side of the planet, and marginally favor a model with no day-side temperature inversion.

The TRAPPIST survey of southern transiting planets. I. Thirty eclipses of the ultra-short period planet WASP-43 b

We present twenty-three transit light curves and seven occultation light curves for the ultra-short period planet WASP-43 b, in addition to eight new measurements of the radial velocity of the star. Thanks to this extensive data set, we improve significantly the parameters of the system. Notably, the largely improved precision on the stellar density (2.41+-0.08 rho_sun) combined with constraining the age to be younger than a Hubble time allows us to break the degeneracy of the stellar solution mentioned in the discovery paper. The resulting stellar mass and size are 0.717+-0.025 M_sun and 0.667+-0.011 R_sun. Our deduced physical parameters for the planet are 2.034+-0.052 M_jup and 1.036+-0.019 R_jup. Taking into account its level of irradiation, the high density of the planet favors an old age and a massive core. Our deduced orbital eccentricity, 0.0035(-0.0025,+0.0060), is consistent with a fully circularized orbit. We detect the emission of the planet at 2.09 microns at better than 11-sigma, the deduced occultation depth being 1560+-140 ppm. Our detection of the occultation at 1.19 microns is marginal (790+-320 ppm) and more observations are needed to confirm it. We place a 3-sigma upper limit of 850 ppm on the depth of the occultation at ~0.9 microns. Together, these results strongly favor a poor redistribution of the heat to the night-side of the planet, and marginally favor a model with no day-side temperature inversion.

MOA-2011-BLG-293Lb: A testbed for pure survey microlensing planet detections

Microlensing planet searches are transitioning from “survey+followup” mode to “pure survey” mode, wherein events will be monitored without reference to the presence of planets, which will enable a more rigorous statistical interpretation. Such surveys will be able to monitor many more events but at a lower cadence than typical followup observations, meaning that the significance of the planets detected in this manner will be lower. It would be useful to test these pure survey detections to ensure that even with sparser data, the planets can be reliably detected. MOA-2011-BLG-293 provides one such test. This planet is robustly detected in survey+followup data (DeltaChi^2~5400). The planet/host mass ratio is q=5.1 +/- 0.2*10^(-3). The best fit projected separation is s=0.545 +/- 0.005 Einstein radii. However, due to the s -> 1/s degeneracy, projected separations of 1/s are only marginally disfavored at DeltaChi^2=2. A Bayesian estimate of the host mass gives M_L = 0.44^{+0.27}_{-0.17} M_Sun, with a sharp upper limit of M_L < 1.2 M_Sun from upper limits on the lens flux. Hence, the best estimate of the planet mass is m_p=2.4^{+1.4}_{-0.9} M_Jup, and the physical projected separation is either r_perp ~ 1.0 AU or r_perp ~ 3.5 AU. We show that survey data alone correctly predict this solution and are able to characterize the planet even though the signal from the planet is close to the limit of detectability (DeltaChi^2~500). Analyzing a large sample of events like MOA-2011-BLG-293, which have both followup data and high cadence survey data, will provide a guide for the interpretation of pure survey microlensing data.

MOA-2011-BLG-293Lb: A test of pure survey microlensing planet detections [Replacement]

Because of the development of large-format, wide-field cameras, microlensing surveys are now able to monitor millions of stars with sufficient cadence to detect planets. These new discoveries will span the full range of significance levels including planetary signals too small to be distinguished from the noise. At present, we do not understand where the threshold is for detecting planets. MOA-2011-BLG-293Lb is the first planet to be published from the new surveys, and it also has substantial followup observations. This planet is robustly detected in survey+followup data (Delta chi^2 ~ 5400). The planet/host mass ratio is q=5.3+/- 0.2*10^{-3}. The best fit projected separation is s=0.548+/- 0.005 Einstein radii. However, due to the s–>s^{-1} degeneracy, projected separations of s^{-1} are only marginally disfavored at Delta chi^2=3. A Bayesian estimate of the host mass gives M_L = 0.43^{+0.27}_{-0.17} M_Sun, with a sharp upper limit of M_L < 1.2 M_Sun from upper limits on the lens flux. Hence, the planet mass is m_p=2.4^{+1.5}_{-0.9} M_Jup, and the physical projected separation is either r_perp = ~1.0 AU or r_perp = ~3.4 AU. We show that survey data alone predict this solution and are able to characterize the planet, but the Delta chi^2 is much smaller (Delta chi^2~500) than with the followup data. The Delta chi^2 for the survey data alone is smaller than for any other securely detected planet. This event suggests a means to probe the detection threshold, by analyzing a large sample of events like MOA-2011-BLG-293, which have both followup data and high cadence survey data, to provide a guide for the interpretation of pure survey microlensing data.

SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. V. The three hot Jupiters KOI-135b, KOI-204b and KOI-203b (alias Kepler-17b)

We report the discovery of two new transiting hot Jupiters, KOI-135b and KOI-204b, that were previously identified as planetary candidates by Borucki et al. 2011, and, independently of the Kepler team, confirm the planetary nature of Kepler-17b, recently announced by Desert et al. 2011. Radial-velocity measurements, taken with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the OHP, and Kepler photometry (Q1 and Q2 data) were used to derive the orbital, stellar and planetary parameters. KOI-135b and KOI-204b orbit their parent stars in 3.02 and 3.25 days, respectively. They have approximately the same radius, Rp=1.20+/-0.06 R_jup and 1.24+/-0.07 R_jup, but different masses Mp=3.23+/-0.19 M_jup and 1.02+/-0.07 M_jup. As a consequence, their bulk densities differ by a factor of four, rho_p=2.33+/-0.36 g.cm^-3 (KOI-135b) and 0.65+/-0.12 g.cm-3 (KOI-204b). Our SOPHIE spectra of Kepler-17b, used both to measure the radial-velocity variations and determine the atmospheric parameters of the host star, allow us to refine the characterisation of the planetary system. In particular we found the radial-velocity semi-amplitude and the stellar mass to be respectively slightly smaller and larger than Desert et al. These two quantities, however, compensate and lead to a planetary mass fully consistent with Desert et al.: our analysis gives Mp=2.47+/-0.10 M_jup and Rp=1.33+/-0.04 R_jup. We found evidence for a younger age of this planetary system, t<1.8 Gyr, which is supported by both evolutionary tracks and gyrochronology. Finally, we confirm the detection of the optical secondary eclipse and found also the brightness phase variation with the Q1 and Q2 Kepler data. The latter indicates a low redistribution of stellar heat to the night side (<16% at 1-sigma), if the optical planetary occultation comes entirely from thermal flux. The geometric albedo is A_g<0.12 (1-sigma).

Kepler KOI-13.01 - Detection of beaming and ellipsoidal modulations pointing to a massive hot Jupiter

KOI-13 was presented by the Kepler team as a candidate for having a giant planet – KOI-13.01, with orbital period of 1.7 d and transit depth of ~0.8%. We have analyzed the Kepler Q2 data of KOI-13, which was publicly available at the time of the submission of this paper, and derived the amplitudes of the beaming, ellipsoidal and reflection modulations: 8.6 +/- 1.1, 66.8 +/- 1.6 and 72.0 +/- 1.5 ppm (parts per million), respectively. After the paper was submitted, Q3 data were released, so we repeated the analysis with the newly available light curve. The results of the two quarters were quite similar. From the amplitudes of the beaming and the ellipsoidal modulations we derived two independent estimates of the mass of the secondary. Both estimates, 6 +/- 3 M_Jup and 4 +/- 2 M_Jup, suggested that KOI-13.01 was a massive planet, with one of the largest known radii. We also found in the data a periodicity of unknown origin with a period of 1.0595 d and a peak-to-peak modulation of ~60 ppm. The light curve of Q3 revealed a few more small-amplitude periodicity with similar frequencies. It seemed as if the secondary occultation of KOI-13 was slightly deeper than the reflection peak-to- peak modulation by 16.8 +/- 4.5 ppm. If real, this small difference was a measure of the thermal emission from the night side of KOI-13.01. We estimated the effective temperature to be 2600 +/- 150 K, using a simplistic black-body emissivity approximation. We then derived the planetary geometrical and Bond albedos as a function of the day-side temperature. Our analysis suggested that the Bond albedo of KOI-13.01 might be substantially larger than the geometrical albedo.

WASP-50b: a hot Jupiter transiting a moderately active solar-type star

We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of a giant planet in a close orbit (0.0295+-0.0009 AU) around a moderately bright (V=11.6, K=10) G9 dwarf (0.89+-0.08 M_sun, 0.84+-0.03 R_sun) in the Southern constellation Eridanus. Thanks to high-precision follow-up photometry and spectroscopy obtained by the telescopes TRAPPIST and Euler, the mass and size of this planet, WASP-50b, are well constrained to 1.47+-0.09 M_jup and 1.15+-0.05 R_jup, respectively. The transit ephemeris is 2455558.6120 (+-0.0002) + N x 1.955096 (+-0.000005) HJD_UTC. The size of the planet is consistent with basic models of irradiated giant planets. The chromospheric activity (log R’_HK = -4.67) and rotational period (P_rot = 16.3+-0.5 days) of the host star suggest an age of 0.8+-0.4 Gy that is discrepant with a stellar-evolution estimate based on the measured stellar parameters (rho_star = 1.48+-0.10 rho_sun, Teff = 5400+-100 K, [Fe/H]= -0.12+-0.08) which favours an age of 7+-3.5 Gy. This discrepancy could be explained by the tidal and magnetic influence of the planet on the star, in good agreement with the observations that stars hosting hot Jupiters tend to show faster rotation and magnetic activity (Pont 2009; Hartman 2010). We measure a stellar inclination of 84 (-31,+6) deg, disfavouring a high stellar obliquity. Thanks to its large irradiation and the relatively small size of its host star, WASP-50b is a good target for occultation spectrophotometry, making it able to constrain the relationship between hot Jupiters’ atmospheric thermal profiles and the chromospheric activity of their host stars proposed by Knutson et al. (2010).

Range of outward migration and influence of the disc's mass on the migration of giant planet cores

The migration of planets plays an important role in the early planet-formation process. An important problem has been that standard migration theories predict very rapid inward migration, which poses problems for population synthesis models. However, it has been shown recently that low-masss planets (20-30 Earth Masses) that are still embedded in the protoplanetary can migrate outwards under certain conditions. Simulations have been peformed mostly for planets at given radii for a particular disc model. Here, we plan to extend previous work and consider different masses of the disc to quantify the influence of the physical disc conditions on planetary migration. We perform three-dimensional (3D) radiation hydrodynamical simulations of embedded planets in protoplanteary discs. For planets on circular orbits at various locations we measure the radial dependece of the torques. For all considered planet masses (20-30 Earth masses) in this study we find outward migration within a limited radial range of the disc, typically from about 0.5 up to 1.5-2.5 a_Jup. Inside and outside this intervall, migration is inward and given by the Lindblad value for large radii. Because outward migration stops at a certain location in the disc, there exists a zero-torque distance for planetary embryos, where they can continue to grow without moving too fast. For higher disc masses (M_disc > 0.02 M_Sol) convection ensues, which changes the structure of the disc and therefore the torque on the planet as well. Outward migration stops at different points in the disc for different planetary masses, resulting in a quite extended region where the formation of larger cores might be easier. In higher mass discs, convection changes the disc’s structure resulting in fluctuations in the surface density, which influence the torque acting on the planet, and therefore its migration rate.

Range of outward migration and influence of the disc's mass on the migration of giant planet cores [Replacement]

The migration of planets plays an important role in the early planet-formation process. An important problem has been that standard migration theories predict very rapid inward migration, which poses problems for population synthesis models. However, it has been shown recently that low-mass planets (20-30 Earth Masses) that are still embedded in the protoplanetary disc can migrate outwards under certain conditions. Simulations have been performed mostly for planets at given radii for a particular disc model. Here, we plan to extend previous work and consider different masses of the disc to quantify the influence of the physical disc conditions on planetary migration. We perform three-dimensional (3D) radiation hydrodynamical simulations of embedded planets in protoplanteary discs. For planets on circular orbits at various locations we measure the radial dependece of the torques. For all considered planet masses (20-30 Earth masses) in this study we find outward migration within a limited radial range of the disc, typically from about 0.5 up to 1.5-2.5 a_Jup. Inside and outside this intervall, migration is inward and given by the Lindblad value for large radii. Because outward migration stops at a certain location in the disc, there exists a zero-torque distance for planetary embryos, where they can continue to grow without moving too fast. For higher disc masses (M_disc > 0.02 M_Sol) convection ensues, which changes the structure of the disc and therefore the torque on the planet as well. Outward migration stops at different points in the disc for different planetary masses, resulting in a quite extended region where the formation of larger cores might be easier. In higher mass discs, convection changes the disc’s structure resulting in fluctuations in the surface density, which influence the torque acting on the planet, and therefore its migration rate.

Range of outward migration and influence of the disc's mass on the migration of giant planet cores [Replacement]

The migration of planets plays an important role in the early planet-formation process. An important problem has been that standard migration theories predict very rapid inward migration, which poses problems for population synthesis models. However, it has been shown recently that low-mass planets (20-30 Earth Masses) that are still embedded in the protoplanetary disc can migrate outwards under certain conditions. Simulations have been performed mostly for planets at given radii for a particular disc model. Here, we plan to extend previous work and consider different masses of the disc to quantify the influence of the physical disc conditions on planetary migration. We perform three-dimensional (3D) radiation hydrodynamical simulations of embedded planets in protoplanteary discs. For planets on circular orbits at various locations we measure the radial dependece of the torques. For all considered planet masses (20-30 Earth masses) in this study we find outward migration within a limited radial range of the disc, typically from about 0.5 up to 1.5-2.5 a_Jup. Inside and outside this intervall, migration is inward and given by the Lindblad value for large radii. Because outward migration stops at a certain location in the disc, there exists a zero-torque distance for planetary embryos, where they can continue to grow without moving too fast. For higher disc masses (M_disc > 0.02 M_Sol) convection ensues, which changes the structure of the disc and therefore the torque on the planet as well. Outward migration stops at different points in the disc for different planetary masses, resulting in a quite extended region where the formation of larger cores might be easier. In higher mass discs, convection changes the disc’s structure resulting in fluctuations in the surface density, which influence the torque acting on the planet, and therefore its migration rate.

Range of outward migration and influence of the disc's mass on the migration of giant planet cores [Replacement]

The migration of planets plays an important role in the early planet-formation process. An important problem has been that standard migration theories predict very rapid inward migration, which poses problems for population synthesis models. However, it has been shown recently that low-mass planets (20-30 Earth Masses) that are still embedded in the protoplanetary disc can migrate outwards under certain conditions. Simulations have been performed mostly for planets at given radii for a particular disc model. Here, we plan to extend previous work and consider different masses of the disc to quantify the influence of the physical disc conditions on planetary migration. We perform three-dimensional (3D) radiation hydrodynamical simulations of embedded planets in protoplanteary discs. For planets on circular orbits at various locations we measure the radial dependece of the torques. For all considered planet masses (20-30 Earth masses) in this study we find outward migration within a limited radial range of the disc, typically from about 0.5 up to 1.5-2.5 a_Jup. Inside and outside this intervall, migration is inward and given by the Lindblad value for large radii. Because outward migration stops at a certain location in the disc, there exists a zero-torque distance for planetary embryos, where they can continue to grow without moving too fast. For higher disc masses (M_disc > 0.02 M_Sol) convection ensues, which changes the structure of the disc and therefore the torque on the planet as well. Outward migration stops at different points in the disc for different planetary masses, resulting in a quite extended region where the formation of larger cores might be easier. In higher mass discs, convection changes the disc’s structure resulting in fluctuations in the surface density, which influence the torque acting on the planet, and therefore its migration rate.

Range of outward migration and influence of the disc's mass on the migration of giant planet cores [Replacement]

The migration of planets plays an important role in the early planet-formation process. An important problem has been that standard migration theories predict very rapid inward migration, which poses problems for population synthesis models. However, it has been shown recently that low-mass planets (20-30 Earth Masses) that are still embedded in the protoplanetary disc can migrate outwards under certain conditions. Simulations have been performed mostly for planets at given radii for a particular disc model. Here, we plan to extend previous work and consider different masses of the disc to quantify the influence of the physical disc conditions on planetary migration. We perform three-dimensional (3D) radiation hydrodynamical simulations of embedded planets in protoplanteary discs. For planets on circular orbits at various locations we measure the radial dependece of the torques. For all considered planet masses (20-30 Earth masses) in this study we find outward migration within a limited radial range of the disc, typically from about 0.5 up to 1.5-2.5 a_Jup. Inside and outside this intervall, migration is inward and given by the Lindblad value for large radii. Because outward migration stops at a certain location in the disc, there exists a zero-torque distance for planetary embryos, where they can continue to grow without moving too fast. For higher disc masses (M_disc > 0.02 M_Sol) convection ensues, which changes the structure of the disc and therefore the torque on the planet as well. Outward migration stops at different points in the disc for different planetary masses, resulting in a quite extended region where the formation of larger cores might be easier. In higher mass discs, convection changes the disc’s structure resulting in fluctuations in the surface density, which influence the torque acting on the planet, and therefore its migration rate.

The Transit Light Curve project. XIV. Confirmation of Anomalous Radii for the Exoplanets TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b [Replacement]

We present transit photometry of three exoplanets, TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b, allowing for refined estimates of the systems’ parameters. TrES-4b and WASP-12b were confirmed to be “bloated” planets, with radii of 1.706 +/- 0.056 R_Jup and 1.736 +/- 0.092 R_Jup, respectively. These planets are too large to be explained with standard models of gas giant planets. In contrast, HAT-P-3b has a radius of 0.827 +/- 0.055 R_Jup, smaller than a pure hydrogen-helium planet and indicative of a highly metal-enriched composition. Analyses of the transit timings revealed no significant departures from strict periodicity. For TrES-4, our relatively recent observations allow for improvement in the orbital ephemerides, which is useful for planning future observations.

The Transit Light Curve project. XIV. Confirmation of Anomalous Radii for the Exoplanets TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b

We present transit photometry of three exoplanets, TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b, allowing for refined estimates of the systems’ parameters. TrES-4b and WASP-12b were confirmed to be “bloated” planets, with radii of 1.706 +/- 0.056 R_Jup and 1.736 +/- 0.092 R_Jup, respectively. These planets are too large to be explained with standard models of gas giant planets. In contrast, HAT-P-3b has a radius of 0.827 +/- 0.055 R_Jup, smaller than a pure hydrogen-helium planet and indicative of a highly metal-enriched composition. Analyses of the transit timings revealed no significant departures from strict periodicity. For TrES-4, our relatively recent observations allow for improvement in the orbital ephemerides, which is useful for planning future observations.

The retrograde orbit of the HAT-P-6b exoplanet

We observed with the SOPHIE spectrograph (OHP, France) the transit of the HAT-P-6b exoplanet across its host star. The resulting stellar radial velocities display the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly and reveal a retrograde orbit: the planetary orbital spin and the stellar rotational spin point towards approximately opposite directions. A fit to the anomaly measures a sky-projected angle lambda = 166 +/- 10 degrees between these two spin axes. All seven known retrograde planets are hot jupiters with masses M_p 4 M_Jup) are prograde but misaligned. Different mechanisms may therefore be responsible for planetary obliquities above and below ~3.5 M_Jup.

Constraints on the location of a putative distant massive body in the Solar System from recent planetary data [Replacement]

We analytically work out the long-term variations caused on the motion of a planet orbiting a star by a very distant, pointlike massive object X. Apart from the semi-major axis a, all the other Keplerian osculating orbital elements experience long-term variations which are complicated functions of the orbital configurations of both the planet itself and of X. We infer constraints on the minimum distance d_X at which X may exist by comparing our prediction of the long-term variation of the longitude of the perihelion \varpi to the latest empirical determinations of the corrections \Delta\dot\varpi to the standard Newtonian/Einsteinian secular precessions of several solar system planets recently estimated by independent teams of astronomers. We obtain the following approximate lower bounds on dX for the assumed masses of X quoted in brackets: 150 – 200 au (m_Mars), 250 – 450 au (0.7 m_Earth), 3500 – 4500 au (4 m_Jup).

Constraints on the location of a putative distant massive body in the Solar System from recent planetary data [Replacement]

We analytically work out the long-term variations caused on the motion of a planet orbiting a star by a very distant, pointlike massive object X. Apart from the semi-major axis a, all the other Keplerian osculating orbital elements experience long-term variations which are complicated functions of the orbital configurations of both the planet itself and of X. We infer constraints on the minimum distance d_X at which X may exist by comparing our prediction of the long-term variation of the longitude of the perihelion \varpi to the latest empirical determinations of the corrections \Delta\dot\varpi to the standard Newtonian/Einsteinian secular precessions of several solar system planets recently estimated by independent teams of astronomers. We obtain the following approximate lower bounds on dX for the assumed masses of X quoted in brackets: 150 – 200 au (m_Mars), 250 – 450 au (0.7 m_Earth), 3500 – 4500 au (4 m_Jup).

Constraints on the location of a putative distant massive body in the Solar System from recent planetary data [Replacement]

We analytically work out the long-term variations caused on the motion of a planet orbiting a star by a very distant, pointlike massive object X. Apart from the semi-major axis a, all the other Keplerian osculating orbital elements experience long-term variations which are complicated functions of the orbital configurations of both the planet itself and of X. We infer constraints on the minimum distance d_X at which X may exist by comparing our prediction of the long-term variation of the longitude of the perihelion \varpi to the latest empirical determinations of the corrections \Delta\dot\varpi to the standard Newtonian/Einsteinian secular precessions of several solar system planets recently estimated by independent teams of astronomers. We obtain the following approximate lower bounds on dX for the assumed masses of X quoted in brackets: 150 – 200 au (m_Mars), 250 – 450 au (0.7 m_Earth), 3500 – 4500 au (4 m_Jup).

Planets around Giant Stars

We present results from a radial-velocity survey of 373 giant stars at Lick Observatory, which started in 1999. The previously announced planets iota Dra b and Pollux b are confirmed by continued monitoring. The frequency of detected planetary companions appears to increase with metallicity. The star nu Oph is orbited by two brown dwarf companions with masses of 22.3 M_Jup and 24.5 M_Jup in orbits with a period ratio close to 6:1. It is likely that the two companions to nu Oph formed in a disk around the star.

WASP-41b: A transiting hot Jupiter planet orbiting a magnetically-active G8V star [Replacement]

We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05d orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8V star (V=11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H]=-0.08+-0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the CaII H and K lines and photometric variability with a period of 18.4d and an amplitude of about 1%. We use a new method to show quantitatively that this periodic signal has a low false alarm probability. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.92+-0.06M_Jup, 1.20+-0.06R_Jup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and thelevel of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

WASP-41b: A transiting hot Jupiter planet orbiting a magnetically-active G8V star

We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05d orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8V star (V=11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H]=-0.08+-0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the CaII H and K lines and photometric variability with a period of 18.3d and an amplitude of about 1%. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.93+-0.06M_Jup, 1.21+-0.06R_Jup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and the level of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

WASP-41b: A transiting hot Jupiter planet orbiting a magnetically-active G8V star [Replacement]

We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05d orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8V star (V=11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H]=-0.08+-0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the CaII H and K lines and photometric variability with a period of 18.3d and an amplitude of about 1%. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.93+-0.06M_Jup, 1.21+-0.06R_Jup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and the level of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

WASP-34b: a near-grazing transiting sub-Jupiter-mass exoplanet in a hierarchical triple system

We report the discovery of WASP-34b, a sub-Jupiter-mass exoplanet transiting its 10.4-magnitude solar-type host star (1SWASP J110135.89-235138.4; TYC 6636-540-1) every 4.3177 days in a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.038 +/- 0.012). We find a planetary mass of 0.59 +/- 0.01 M_Jup and radius of 1.22 ^{+0.11}_{-0.08} R_Jup. There is a linear trend in the radial velocities of 55+/-4 m/s/y indicating the presence of a long-period third body in the system with a mass > 0.45 M_Jup at a distance of >1.2 AU from the host star. This third-body is either a low-mass star, white dwarf, or another planet. The transit depth ((R_P/R_*)^2 = 0.0126) and high impact parameter (b = 0.90) suggest that this could be the first known transiting exoplanet expected to undergo grazing transits, but with a confidence of only ~80%.

Possible detection of phase changes from the non-transiting planet HD 46375b by CoRoT

The present work deals with the detection of phase changes in an exoplanetary system. HD 46375 is a solar analog known to host a non-transiting Saturn-mass exoplanet with a 3.0236 day period. It was observed by the CoRoT satellite for 34 days during the fall of 2008. We attempt to identify at optical wavelengths, the changing phases of the planet as it orbits its star. We then try to improve the star model by means of a seismic analysis of the same light curve and the use of ground-based spectropolarimetric observations. The data analysis relies on the Fourier spectrum and the folding of the time series. We find evidence of a sinusoidal signal compatible in terms of both amplitude and phase with light reflected by the planet. Its relative amplitude is Delta Fp/F* = [13.0, 26.8] ppm, implying an albedo A=[0.16, 0.33] or a dayside visible brightness temperature Tb ~ [1880,2030] K by assuming a radius R=1.1 R_Jup and an inclination i=45 deg. Its orbital phase differs from that of the radial-velocity signal by at most 2 sigma_RV. However, the tiny planetary signal is strongly blended by another signal, which we attribute to a telluric signal with a 1 day period. We show that this signal is suppressed, but not eliminated, when using the time series for HD 46179 from the same CoRoT run as a reference. This detection of reflected light from a non-transiting planet should be confirmable with a longer CoRoT observation of the same field. In any case, it demonstrates that non-transiting planets can be characterized using ultra-precise photometric lightcurves with present-day observations by CoRoT and Kepler. The combined detection of solar-type oscillations on the same targets (Gaulme et al. 2010a) highlights the overlap between exoplanetary science and asteroseismology and shows the high potential of a mission such as Plato.

Two planets orbiting the recently formed post-common envelope binary NN Serpentis

Planets orbiting post-common envelope binaries provide fundamental information on planet formation and evolution. We searched for such planets in NN Ser ab, an eclipsing short-period binary that shows long-term eclipse time variations. Using published, reanalysed, and new mid-eclipse times of NN Ser ab obtained between 1988 and 2010, we find excellent agreement with the light-travel-time effect by two additional bodies superposed on the linear ephemeris of the binary. Our multi-parameter fits accompanied by N-body simulations yield a best fit for the objects NN Ser (ab)c and d locked in a 2:1 mean motion resonance, with orbital periods P_c=15.5 yrs and P_d=7.7 yrs, masses M_c sin i_c = 6.9 M_Jup and M_d sin i_d = 2.2 M_Jup, and eccentricities e_c=0 and e_d=0.20. A secondary chi**2 minimum corresponds to an alternative solution with a period ratio of 5:2. We estimate that the progenitor binary consisted of an A star with ~2 M_Sun and the present M dwarf secondary at an orbital separation of ~1.5 AU. The survival of two planets through the common-envelope phase that created the present white dwarf requires fine tuning between the gravitational force and the drag force experienced by them in the expanding envelope. The alternative is a second-generation origin in a circumbinary disk created at the end of this phase. In that case, the planets would be extremely young with ages not exceeding the cooling age of the white dwarf of 10**6 yrs.

WASP-32b: A transiting hot Jupiter planet orbiting a lithium-poor, solar-type star

We report the discovery of a transiting planet orbiting the star TYC 2-1155-1. The star, WASP-32, is a moderately bright (V=11.3) solar-type star (Teff=6100 +- 100K, [Fe/H] = -0.13 +- 0.10). The lightcurve of the star obtained with the WASP-South and WASP-North instruments shows periodic transit-like features with a depth of about 1% and a duration of 0.10d every 2.72d. The presence of a transit-like feature in the lightcurve is confirmed using z-band photometry obtained with Faulkes Telescope North. High resolution spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph confirms the presence of a planetary mass companion. From a combined analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data, assuming that the star is a typical main-sequence star, we estimate that the planet has a mass M_p = 3.60 +- 0.07 M_Jup and a radius R_p = 1.19 +- 0.06R_Jup. WASP-32 is one of a small group of hot Jupiters with masses M_p > 3M_Jup. We find that some stars with hot Jupiter companions and with masses M_* =~ 1.2M_sun, including WASP-32, are depleted in lithium, but that the majority of these stars have similar lithium abundances to field stars.

Search for brown-dwarf companions of stars

The discovery of 9 new brown-dwarf candidates orbiting stars in the CORALIE and HARPS radial-velocity surveys is reported. New CORALIE radial velocities yielding accurate orbits of 6 previously-known hosts of potential brown-dwarf companions are presented. Including targets selected from the literature, 33 hosts of potential brown-dwarf companions are examined. Employing innovative methods, we use the new reduction of the Hipparcos data to fully characterise the astrometric orbits of 6 objects, revealing M-dwarf companions with masses between 90 M_Jup and 0.52 M_Sun. Additionally, the masses of two companions can be restricted to the stellar domain. The companion to HD 137510 is found to be a brown dwarf. At 95 % confidence, the companion of HD 190228 is also a brown dwarf. The remaining 23 companions persist as brown-dwarf candidates. Based on the CORALIE planet-search sample, we obtain an upper limit of 0.6 % for the frequency of brown-dwarf companions around Sun-like stars. We find that the companion-mass distribution function is rising at the lower end of the brown-dwarf mass range, suggesting that in fact we are detecting the high-mass tail of the planetary distribution.

WASP-29b: A Saturn-sized transiting exoplanet

We report the discovery of a Saturn-sized planet transiting a V = 11.3, K4 dwarf star every 3.9 d. WASP-29b has a mass of 0.24+/-0.02 M_Jup and a radius of 0.79+/-0.05 R_Jup, making it the smallest planet so far discovered by the WASP survey, and the exoplanet most similar in mass and radius to Saturn. The host star WASP-29 has an above-Solar metallicity and fits a possible correlation for Saturn-mass planets such that planets with higher-metallicity host stars have higher core masses and thus smaller radii.

HAT-P-25b: a Hot-Jupiter Transiting a Moderately Faint G Star

We report the discovery of HAT-P-25b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the V = 13.19 G5 dwarf star GSC 1788-01237, with a period P = 3.652836 +/- 0.000019 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455176.85173 +/- 0.00047 (BJD), and transit duration 0.1174 +/- 0.0017 days. The host star has mass of 1.01 +/- 0.03 M(Sun), radius of 0.96 +(0.05)-(0.04) R(Sun), effective temperature 5500 +/- 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.31 +/- 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.567 +/- 0.022 M(Jup), and radius of 1.190 +(0.081)-(0.056) R(Jup) yielding a mean density of 0.42 +/- 0.07 g cm-3. Comparing these observations with recent theoretical models, we find that HAT-P-25b is consistent with a hydrogen-helium dominated gas giant planet with negligible core mass and age 3.2 +/- 2.3 Gyr. The properties of HAT-P-25b support several previously observed correlations for planets in the mass range 0.4 < M < 0.7 M(Jup), including those of core mass vs. metallicity, planet radius vs. equilibrium temperature, and orbital period vs. planet mass. We also note that HAT-P-25b orbits the faintest star found by HATNet to have a transiting planet to date, and is one of only a very few number of planets discovered from the ground orbiting a star fainter than V = 13.0.

Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XII. CoRoT-12b: a short-period low-density planet transiting a solar analog star

We report the discovery by the CoRoT satellite of a new transiting giant planet in a 2.83 days orbit about a V=15.5 solar analog star (M_* = 1.08 +- 0.08 M_sun, R_* = 1.1 +- 0.1 R_sun, T_eff = 5675 +- 80 K). This new planet, CoRoT-12b, has a mass of 0.92 +- 0.07 M_Jup and a radius of 1.44 +- 0.13 R_Jup. Its low density can be explained by standard models for irradiated planets.

A magnetic field evolution scenario for brown dwarfs and giant planets

Very little is known about magnetic fields of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. We use the energy flux scaling law presented by Christensen et al. (2009) to calculate the evolution of average magnetic fields in extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs under the assumption of fast rotation, which is probably the case for most of them. We find that massive brown dwarfs of about 70 M_Jup can have fields of a few kilo-Gauss during the first few hundred Million years. These fields can grow by a factor of two before they weaken after deuterium burning has stopped. Brown dwarfs with weak deuterium burning and extrasolar giant planets start with magnetic fields between ~100G and ~1kG at the age of a few Myr, depending on their mass. Their magnetic field weakens steadily until after 10Gyr it has shrunk by about a factor of 10. We use observed X-ray luminosities to estimate the age of the known extrasolar giant planets that are more massive than 0.3M_Jup and closer than 20pc. Taking into account the age estimate, and assuming sun-like wind-properties and radio emission processes similar to those at Jupiter, we calculate their radio flux and its frequency. The highest radio flux we predict comes out as 700mJy at a frequency around 150MHz for $\tau$Boob, but the flux is below 60mJy for the rest. Most planets are expected to emit radiation between a few Mhz and up to 100MHz, well above the ionospheric cutoff frequency.

CoRoT-10b: a giant planet in a 13.24 day eccentric orbit

The space telescope CoRoT searches for transiting extrasolar planets by continuously monitoring the optical flux of thousands of stars in several fields of view. We report the discovery of CoRoT-10b, a giant planet on a highly eccentric orbit (e=0.53 +/- 0.04) revolving in 13.24 days around a faint (V=15.22) metal-rich K1V star. We use CoRoT photometry, radial velocity observations taken with the HARPS spectrograph, and UVES spectra of the parent star to derive the orbital, stellar and planetary parameters. We derive a radius of the planet of 0.97 +/- 0.07 R_Jup and a mass of 2.75 +/- 0.16 M_Jup. The bulk density, rho_pl=3.70 +/- 0.83 g/cm^3, is ~2.8 that of Jupiter. The core of CoRoT-10b could contain up to 240 M_Earth of heavy elements. Moving along its eccentric orbit, the planet experiences a 10.6-fold variation in insolation. Owing to the long circularisation time, tau_circ > 7 Gyr, a resonant perturber is not required to excite and maintain the high eccentricity of CoRoT-10b.

WASP-21b: a hot-Saturn exoplanet transiting a thick disc star

We report the discovery of WASP-21b, a new transiting exoplanet discovered by the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) Consortium and established and characterized with the FIES, SOPHIE, CORALIE and HARPS fiber-fed echelle spectrographs. A 4.3-d period, 1.1% transit depth and 3.4-h duration are derived for WASP-21b using SuperWASP-North and high precision photometric observations at the Liverpool Telescope. Simultaneous fitting to the photometric and radial velocity data with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure leads to a planet in the mass regime of Saturn. With a radius of 1.07 R_Jup and mass of 0.30 M_Jup, WASP-21b has a density close to 0.24 rho_Jup corresponding to the distribution peak at low density of transiting gaseous giant planets. With a host star metallicity [Fe/H] of -0.46, WASP-21b strengthens the correlation between planetary density and host star metallicity for the five known Saturn-like transiting planets. Furthermore there are clear indications that WASP-21b is the first transiting planet belonging to the thick disc.

HAT-P-15b: A 10.9-day Extrasolar Planet Transiting a Solar-type Star

We report the discovery of HAT-P-15b, a transiting extrasolar planet in the `period valley’, a relatively sparsely-populated period regime of the known extrasolar planets. The host star, GSC 2883-01687, is a G5 dwarf with V=12.16. It has a mass of 1.01+/-0.04 M(Sun), radius of 1.08+/-0.04 R(Sun), effective temperature 5568+/-90 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.22+/-0.08. The planetary companion orbits the star with a period 10.863502+/-0.000027 days, transit epoch Tc = 2454638.56019+/-0.00048 (BJD), and transit duration 0.2285+/-0.0015 days. It has a mass of 1.946+/-0.066 M(Jup), and radius of 1.072+/-0.043 R(Jup) yielding a mean density of 1.96+/-0.22 g/cm3. At an age of 6.8+/-2.1 Gyr, the planet is H/He-dominated and theoretical models require about 2% (10 M(Earth)) worth of heavy elements to reproduce its measured radius. With an estimated equilibrium temperature of 820 K during transit, and 1000 K at occultation, HAT-P-15b is a potential candidate to study moderately cool planetary atmospheres by transmission and occultation spectroscopy.

WASP-26b: A 1-Jupiter-mass planet around an early-G-type star

We report the discovery of WASP-26b, a moderately over-sized Jupiter-mass exoplanet transiting its 11.3-magnitude early-G-type host star (1SWASP J001824.70-151602.3; TYC 5839-876-1) every 2.7566 days. A simultaneous fit to transit photometry and radial-velocity measurements yields a planetary mass of 1.02 +/- 0.03 M_Jup and radius of 1.32 +/- 0.08 R_Jup. The host star, WASP-26, has a mass of 1.12 +/- 0.03 M_sun and a radius of 1.34 +/- 0.06 R_sun and is in a visual double with a fainter K-type star. The two stars are at least a common-proper motion pair with a common distance of around 250 +/- 15 pc and an age of 6 +/- 2 Gy.

WASP-22 b: A transiting "hot Jupiter" planet in a hierarchical triple system [Replacement]

We report the discovery of a transiting planet orbiting the star TYC 6446-326-1. The star, WASP-22, is a moderately bright (V=12.0) solar-type star (Teff = 6000 +/- 100 K, [Fe/H] = -0.05 +/- 0.08). The lightcurve of the star obtained with the WASP-South instrument shows periodic transit-like features with a depth of about 1 and a duration of 0.14 days. The presence of a transit-like feature in the lightcurve is confirmed using z-band photometry obtained with Faulkes Telescope South. High resolution spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE and HARPS spectrographs confirm the presence of a planetary mass companion with an orbital period of 3.533 days in a near-circular orbit. From a combined analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data assuming that the star is a typical main-sequence star we estimate that the planet has a mass M_p = 0.56 +/- 0.02 M_Jup and a radius R_p = 1.12 +/- 0.04 R_Jup. In addition, there is a linear trend of 40 m/s/yr in the radial velocities measured over 16 months, from which we infer the presence of a third body with a long period orbit in this system. The companion may be a low mass M-dwarf, a white dwarf or a second planet.

WASP-22 b: A transiting "hot Jupiter" planet in a hierarchical triple system

We report the discovery of a transiting planet orbiting the star TYC 6446-326-1. The star, WASP-22, is a moderately bright (V=12.0) solar-type star (T_eff = 6000 +/- 100K, [Fe/H]= -0.05 \pm 0.08). The lightcurve of the star obtained with the WASP-South instrument shows periodic transit-like features with a depth of about 1% and a duration of 0.14d. The presence of a transit-like feature in the lightcurve is confirmed using z-band photometry obtained with Faulkes Telescope South. High resolution spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE and HARPS spectrographs confirm the presence of a planetary mass companion with an orbital period of 3.533d in a near-circular orbit. From a combined analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data assuming that the star is a typical main-sequence star we estimate that the planet has a mass M_p = (0.56 +/- 0.02)M_Jup and a radius R_p = (1.12 +/- 0.04)R_Jup. In addition, there is a linear trend of 40m/s/y in the radial velocities measured over 16 months, from which we infer the presence of a third body with a long period orbit in this system. The companion may be a low mass M-dwarf or a second planet.

 

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