Posts Tagged ism

Recent Postings from ism

Modelling galaxy spectra in presence of interstellar dust-III. From nearby galaxies to the distant Universe

Improving upon the standard evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) technique, we present spectrophotometric models of galaxies whose morphology goes from spherical structures to discs, properly accounting for the effect of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). These models enclose three main physical components: the diffuse ISM composed by gas and dust, the complexes of molecular clouds (MCs) where active star formation occurs and the stars of any age and chemical composition. These models are based on robust evolutionary chemical models that provide the total amount of gas and stars present at any age and that are adjusted in order to match the gross properties of galaxies of different morphological type. We have employed the results for the properties of the ISM presented in Piovan, Tantalo & Chiosi (2006a) and the single stellar populations calculated by Cassar\`a et al. (2013) to derive the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies going from pure bulge to discs passing through a number of composite systems with different combinations of the two components. The first part of the paper is devoted to recall the technical details of the method and the basic relations driving the interaction between the physical components of the galaxy. Then, the main parameters are examined and their effects on the spectral energy distribution of three prototype galaxies are highlighted. We conclude analyzing the capability of our galaxy models in reproducing the SEDs of real galaxies in the Local Universe and as a function of redshift.

The Interstellar Medium and star formation on kpc size scales

By resimulating a region of a global disc simulation at higher resolution, we resolve and study the properties of molecular clouds with a range of masses from a few 100′s M$_{\odot}$ to $10^6$ M$_{\odot}$. The purpose of our paper is twofold, i) to compare the ISM and GMCs at much higher resolution compared to previous global simulations, and ii) to investigate smaller clouds and characteristics such as the internal properties of GMCs which cannot be resolved in galactic simulations. We confirm the robustness of cloud properties seen in previous galactic simulations, and that these properties extend to lower mass clouds, though we caution that velocity dispersions may not be measured correctly in poorly resolved clouds. We find that the properties of the clouds and ISM are only weakly dependent on the details of local stellar feedback, although stellar feedback is important to produce realistic star formation rates and agreement with the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation. We study internal properties of GMCs resolved by $10^4-10^5$ particles. The clouds are highly structured, but we find clouds have a velocity dispersion radius relationship which overall agrees with the Larson relation. The GMCs show evidence of multiple episodes of star formation, with holes corresponding to previous feedback events and dense regions likely to imminently form stars. Our simulations show clearly long filaments, which are seen predominantly in the inter-arm regions, and shells.

Variations of the ISM Conditions Across the Main Sequence of Star-Forming Galaxies: Observations and Simulations

(abridged) Significant evidence has been gathered suggesting the existence of a main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies that relates their star formation rate and their stellar mass: $SFR \propto M_*^{\alpha}$. Several ideas have been suggested to explain fundamental properties of the MS, such as its slope, its dispersion, and its evolution with redshift. However, no consensus has been reached regarding its true nature, or whether the membership of particular galaxies to this MS implies the existence of two different modes of star formation. In order to advance our understanding of the MS, here we use a statistically robust Bayesian Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) analysis (CHIBURST) to consistently analyze the star-forming properties of a set of hydro-dynamical simulations of mergers, as well as observations of real mergers and luminous galaxies, both local and at intermediate redshift. We find a very tight correlation between the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of our fitted galaxies, and the typical conditions of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM), parametrized via a novel quantity: the compactness parameter C, that controls the evolution of dust temperature with time. The normalization of this correlation is bimodal, and such bi-modality relates to the membership of individual galaxies to the MS. As mergers move into the coalescence phase, they increase their compactness and sSFR, creating a scatter in the MS that we measure to be 0.38 dex. The increase in compactness implies that the physical conditions of the ISM smoothly evolve across the MS. One possible interpretation for the slope of the log sSFR- log C correlation is that systems with higher sSFR have smaller physical sizes, whereas the bi-modality between MS objects and outliers suggests the existence of two different regimes of star formation, with distinct ISM conditions.

The SILCC (SImulating the LifeCycle of molecular Clouds) project: I. Chemical evolution of the supernova-driven ISM

The SILCC project (SImulating the Life-Cycle of molecular Clouds) aims at a more self-consistent understanding of the interstellar medium (ISM) on small scales and its link to galaxy evolution. We simulate the evolution of the multi-phase ISM in a 500 pc x 500 pc x 10 kpc region of a galactic disc, with a gas surface density of $\Sigma_{_{\rm GAS}} = 10 \;{\rm M}_\odot/{\rm pc}^2$. The Flash 4.1 simulations include an external potential, self-gravity, magnetic fields, heating and radiative cooling, time-dependent chemistry of H$_2$ and CO considering (self-) shielding, and supernova (SN) feedback. We explore SN explosions at different (fixed) rates in high-density regions (peak), in random locations (random), in a combination of both (mixed), or clustered in space and time (clustered). Only random or clustered models with self-gravity (which evolve similarly) are in agreement with observations. Molecular hydrogen forms in dense filaments and clumps and contributes 20% – 40% to the total mass, whereas most of the mass (55% – 75%) is in atomic hydrogen. The ionised gas contributes <10%. For high SN rates (0.5 dex above Kennicutt-Schmidt) as well as for peak and mixed driving the formation of H$_2$ is strongly suppressed. Also without self-gravity the H$_2$ fraction is significantly lower ($\sim$ 5%). Most of the volume is filled with hot gas ($\sim$90% within $\pm$2 kpc). Only for random or clustered driving, a vertically expanding warm component of atomic hydrogen indicates a fountain flow. Magnetic fields have little impact on the final disc structure. However, they affect dense gas ($n\gtrsim 10\;{\rm cm}^{-3}$) and delay H$_2$ formation. We highlight that individual chemical species, in particular atomic hydrogen, populate different ISM phases and cannot be accurately accounted for by simple temperature-/density-based phase cut-offs.

Deuterium Enrichment of the Interstellar Medium

Despite low elemental abundance of atomic deuterium in interstellar medium (ISM), observational evidences suggest that several species in gas-phase and in ices could be heavily fractionated. We explore various aspects of deuterium enrichment by constructing a chemical evolution model in gas and grain phases. Depending on various physical parameters, gas and grains are allowed to interact with each other through exchange of their chemical species. It is known that HCO+ and N2H+ are two abundant gas phase ions in ISM and their deuterium fractionation are generally used to predict degree of ionization in various regions of a molecular cloud. To have a more realistic estimation, we consider a density profile of a collapsing cloud. We present radial distributions of important interstellar molecules along with their deuterated isotopomers. We carry out quantum chemical simulation to study effects of isotopic substitution on spectral properties of these important interstellar species. We calculate vibrational (harmonic) frequency of the most important deuterated species (neutral & ions). Rotational and distortional constants of these molecules are also computed to predict rotational transitions of these species. We compare vibrational (harmonic) and rotational transitions as computed by us with existing observational, experimental and theoretical results. We hope that our results would assist observers in their quest of several hitherto unobserved deuterated species.

ASTRO-H White Paper - Older Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae

Most supernova remnants (SNRs) are old, in the sense that their structure has been profoundly modified by their interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Old SNRs are very heterogenous in terms of their appearance, reflecting differences in their evolutionary state, the environments in which SNe explode and in the explosion products. Some old SNRs are seen primarily as a result of a strong shock wave interacting with the ISM. Others, the so-called mixed-morphology SNRs, show central concentrations of emission, which may still show evidence of emission from the ejecta. Yet others, the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), are seen primarily as a result of emission powered by a pulsar; these SNRs often lack the detectable thermal emission from the primary shock. The underlying goal in all studies of old SNRs is to understand these differences, in terms of the SNe that created them, the nature of the ISM into which they are expanding, and the fundamental physical processes that govern their evolution. Here we identify three areas of study where ASTRO-H can make important contributions. These are constraining abundances and physical processes in mature limb-brightened SNRs, understanding the puzzling nature of mixed-morphology SNRs, and exploring the nature of PWNe. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on-board ASTRO-H will, as a result of its high spectral resolution, be the primary tool for addressing problems associated with old SNRs, supported by hard X-ray observations with the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) to obtain broad band X-ray coverage.

Radio jets clearing the way through galaxies: the view from HI and molecular gas

Massive gas outflows are considered a key component in the process of galaxy formation and evolution. Because of this, they are the topic of many studies aimed at learning more about their occurrence, location and physical conditions as well as the mechanism(s) at their origin. This contribution presents recent results on two of the best examples of jet-driven outflows traced by cold and molecular gas. Thanks to high-spatial resolution observations, we have been able to locate the region where the outflow occurs. This appears to be coincident with bright radio features and regions where the interaction between radio plasma jet and ISM is known to occur, thus strongly supporting the idea of jet-driven outflows. We have also imaged the distribution of the outflowing gas. The results clearly show the effect that expanding radio jets and lobes have on the ISM. This appears to be in good agreement with what predicted from numerical simulations. Furthermore, the results show that cold gas is associated with these powerful phenomena and can be formed – likely via efficient cooling – even after a strong interaction and fast shocks. The discovery of similar fast outflows of cold gas in weak radio sources is further increasing the relevance that the effect of the radio plasma can have on the surrounding medium and on the host galaxy.

The cycling of carbon into and out of dust

Observational evidence seems to indicate that the depletion of interstellar carbon into dust shows rather wide variations and that carbon undergoes rather rapid recycling in the interstellar medium (ISM). Small hydrocarbon grains are processed in photo-dissociation regions by UV photons, by ion and electron collisions in interstellar shock waves and by cosmic rays. A significant fraction of hydrocarbon dust must therefore be re-formed by accretion in the dense, molecular ISM. A new dust model (Jones et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2013, 558, A62) shows that variations in the dust observables in the diffuse interstellar medium (nH = 1000 cm^3), can be explained by systematic and environmentally-driven changes in the small hydrocarbon grain population. Here we explore the consequences of gas-phase carbon accretion onto the surfaces of grains in the transition regions between the diffuse ISM and molecular clouds (e.g., Jones, Astron. Astrophys., 2013, 555, A39). We find that significant carbonaceous dust re-processing and/or mantle accretion can occur in the outer regions of molecular clouds and that this dust will have significantly different optical properties from the dust in the adjacent diffuse ISM. We conclude that the (re-)processing and cycling of carbon into and out of dust is perhaps the key to advancing our understanding of dust evolution in the ISM.

Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project. II. Gas-to-Dust Ratio Variations across ISM Phases

The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Halpha observations. In the diffuse atomic ISM, we derive the gas-to-dust ratio as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find gas-to-dust ratios of 380+250-130 in the LMC, and 1200+1600-420 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 Mo pc-2 in the LMC and 0.03 Mo pc-2 in the SMC, corresponding to AV ~ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H2 conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on XCO to be 6×1020 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s in the LMC (Z=0.5Zo) at 15 pc resolution, and 4x 1021 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s in the SMC (Z=0.2Zo) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ~2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H2 in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H2. Within the expected 5–20 times Galactic XCO range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling and observations are required to break the degeneracy between dust grain coagulation, accretion, and CO-dark H2.

The chemical signature of surviving Population III stars in the Milky Way

Cosmological simulations of Population (Pop) III star formation suggest that the primordial initial mass function may have extended to sub-solar masses. If Pop III stars with masses < 0.8 M_Sun did form, then they should still be present in the Galaxy today as either main sequence or red giant stars. To date, however, despite searches for metal-poor stars in both the halo and the bulge of the Milky Way, no primordial stars have been identified. It has long been recognized that the initial metal-free nature of primordial stars could be masked due to accretion of metal-enriched material from the interstellar medium (ISM) over the course of their long lifetimes. Here we point out that while gas accretion from the ISM may readily occur, the accretion of dust from the ISM can be prevented due to the pressure of the radiation emitted from low-mass stars. This implies a possible unique chemical signature for stars polluted only via accretion, namely an enhancement in gas phase elements relative to those in the dust phase. Using Pop III stellar models, we outline the conditions in which this signature could be exhibited, and we derive the expected signature for the case of accretion from the local ISM. Intriguingly, due to the large fraction of iron depleted into dust relative to that of carbon and other elements, this signature is similar to that observed in many of the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We therefore suggest that some fraction of the observed CEMP stars may, in fact, be accretion-polluted Pop III stars. We find, more broadly, that this effect could also be at play in accretion flows onto protostars, implying that it may also impact the chemical signatures of second generation (Pop II) stars.

Interaction between the IGM and a dwarf galaxy

Dwarf Galaxies are the most common objects in the Universe and are believed to contain large amounts of dark matter. There are mainly three morphologic types of dwarf galaxies: dwarf ellipticals, dwarf spheroidals and dwarf irregulars. Dwarf irregular galaxies are particularly interesting in dwarf galaxy evolution, since dwarf spheroidal predecessors could have been very similar to them. Therefore, a mechanism linked to gas-loss in dwarf irregulars should be observed, i.e. ram pressure stripping. In this paper, we study the interaction between the ISM of a dwarf galaxy, and a flowing IGM. We derive the weak-shock, plasmon solution corresponding to the balance between the post-bow shock pressure and the pressure of the stratified ISM (which we assume follows the fixed stratification of a gravitationally dominant dark matter halo). We compare our model with previously published numerical simulations and with the observed shape of the HI cloud around the Ho II and Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxies. We show that such a comparison provides a straightforward way for estimating the Mach number of the impinging flow.

The frequency and nature of `cloud-cloud collisions' in galaxies

We investigate cloud-cloud collisions, and GMC evolution, in hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies. The simulations include heating and cooling of the ISM, self–gravity and stellar feedback. Over timescales $<5$ Myr most clouds undergo no change, and mergers and splits are found to be typically two body processes, but evolution over longer timescales is more complex and involves a greater fraction of intercloud material. We find that mergers, or collisions, occur every 8-10 Myr (1/15th of an orbit) in a simulation with spiral arms, and once every 28 Myr (1/5th of an orbit) with no imposed spiral arms. Both figures are higher than expected from analytic estimates, as clouds are not uniformly distributed in the galaxy. Thus clouds can be expected to undergo between zero and a few collisions over their lifetime. We present specific examples of cloud–cloud interactions in our results, including synthetic CO maps. We would expect cloud–cloud interactions to be observable, but find they appear to have little or no impact on the ISM. Due to a combination of the clouds’ typical geometries, and moderate velocity dispersions, cloud–cloud interactions often better resemble a smaller cloud nudging a larger cloud. Our findings are consistent with the view that spiral arms make little difference to overall star formation rates in galaxies, and we see no evidence that collisions likely produce massive clusters. However, to confirm the outcome of such massive cloud collisions we ideally need higher resolution simulations.

Modelling the supernova-driven ISM in different environments

We use hydrodynamical simulations in a $(256\;{\rm pc})^3$ periodic box to model the impact of supernova (SN) explosions on the multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) for initial densities $n =$ 0.5-30 cm$^{-3}$ and SN rates 1-720 Myr$^{-1}$. We include radiative cooling, diffuse heating, and the formation of molecular gas using a chemical network. The SNe explode either at random positions, at density peaks, or both. We further present a model combining thermal energy for resolved and momentum input for unresolved SN remnants. Random driving at high SN rates results in hot gas ($T\gtrsim 10^6$ K) filling $> 90$% of the volume. This gas reaches high pressures ($10^4 < P/k_\mathrm{B} < 10^7$ K cm$^{-3}$) due to the combination of SN explosions in the hot, low density medium and confinement in the periodic box. These pressures move the gas from a two-phase equilibrium to the single-phase, cold branch of the cooling curve. The molecular hydrogen dominates the mass ($>50$%), residing in small, dense clumps. Such a model might resemble the dense ISM in high-redshift galaxies. Peak driving results in huge radiative losses, but disrupts the densest regions by construction, producing a filamentary ISM with virtually no hot gas, and a small molecular hydrogen mass fraction ($\ll 1$%). Varying the ratio of peak to random SNe yields ISM properties in between the two extremes, with a sharp transition for equal contributions (at $n = 3$ cm$^{-3}$). Modern galaxies have few SNe in density peak locations due to preceding stellar winds and ionisation. The velocity dispersion in HI remains $\lesssim 10$ km s$^{-1}$ in all cases. For peak driving the velocity dispersion in H$_\alpha$ can be as high as $70$ km s$^{-1}$ due to the contribution from young, embedded SN remnants.

Shell-Shocked: The Interstellar Medium Near Cygnus X-1

We conduct a detailed case-study of the interstellar shell near the high-mass X-ray binary, Cygnus X-1. We present new WIYN optical spectroscopic and Chandra X-ray observations of this region, which we compare with detailed MAPPINGS III shock models, to investigate the outflow powering the shell. Our analysis places improved, physically motivated constraints on the nature of the shockwave and the interstellar medium (ISM) it is plowing through. We find that the shock is traveling at less than a few hundred km/s through a low-density ISM (< 5 cm^-3). We calculate a robust, 3 sigma upper limit to the total, time-averaged power needed to drive the shockwave and inflate the bubble, < 2 x 10^38 erg/s. We then review possible origins of the shockwave. We find that a supernova origin to the shockwave is unlikely and that the black hole jet and/or O-star wind can both be central drivers of the shockwave. We conclude that the source of the Cygnus X-1 shockwave is far from solved.

Star formation quenching in simulated group and cluster galaxies: When, how, and why?

Star formation is observed to be suppressed in group and cluster galaxies compared to the field. To gain insight into the quenching process, we have analysed ~2000 galaxies formed in the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The time of quenching varies from ~2 Gyr before accretion (first crossing of r200,c) to >4 Gyr after, depending on satellite and host mass. Once begun, quenching is rapid (>~ 500 Myr) in low-mass galaxies (M* < 10^10 M_Sun), but significantly more protracted for more massive satellites. The simulations predict a substantial role of outflows driven by ram pressure — but not tidal forces — in removing the star-forming interstellar matter (ISM) from satellite galaxies, especially dwarfs (M* ~ 10^9 M_Sun) where they account for nearly two thirds of ISM loss in both groups and clusters. Immediately before quenching is complete, this fraction rises to ~80% even for Milky Way analogues (M* ~ 10^10.5 M_Sun) in groups (M_host ~ 10^13.5 M_Sun). We show that (i) ISM stripping was significantly more effective at early times than at z = 0; (ii) approximately half the gas is stripped from `galactic fountains’ and half directly from the star forming disk; (iii) galaxies undergoing stripping experience ram pressure up to ~100 times the average at a given group/cluster-centric radius, because they are preferentially located in overdense ICM regions. Remarkably, stripping causes at most half the loss of the extended gas haloes surrounding our simulated satellites. These results contrast sharply with the current picture of strangulation — removal of the ISM through star formation after stripping of the hot halo — being the dominant mechanism quenching group and cluster satellites.

[CII] absorption and emission in the diffuse interstellar medium across the Galactic Plane

Ionized carbon is the main gas-phase reservoir of carbon in the neutral diffuse interstellar medium and its 158 micron fine structure transition [CII] is the most important cooling line of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We combine [CII] absorption and emission spectroscopy to gain an improved understanding of physical conditions in the different phases of the ISM. We present high resolution [CII] spectra obtained with the Herschel/HIFI instrument towards bright dust continuum sources regions in the Galactic plane, probing simultaneously the diffuse gas along the line of sight and the background high-mass star forming regions. These data are complemented by observations of the 492 and 809 GHz fine structure lines of atomic carbon and by medium spectral resolution spectral maps of the fine structure lines of atomic oxygen at 63 and 145 microns with Herschel/PACS. We show that the presence of foreground absorption may completely cancel the emission from the background source in medium spectral resolution data and that high spectral resolution spectra are needed to interpret the [CII] and [OI] emission and the [CII]/FIR ratio. This phenomenon may explain part of the [CII]/FIR deficit seen in external luminous infrared galaxies. The C+ and C excitation in the diffuse gas is consistent with a median pressure of 5900 Kcm-3 for a mean TK ~100 K. The knowledge of the gas density allows us to determine the filling factor of the absorbing gas along the selected lines of sight: the median value is 2.4 %, in good agreement with the CNM properties. The mean excitation temperature is used to derive the average cooling due to C+ in the Galactic plane : 9.5 x 10^{-26} erg/s/H. Along the observed lines of sight, the gas phase carbon abundance does not exhibit a strong gradient as a function of Galacto-centric radius and has a weighted average of C/H = 1.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^{-4}.

The onset of large scale turbulence in the interstellar medium of spiral galaxies

Turbulence is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Milky Way and other spiral galaxies. The energy source for this turbulence has been much debated with many possible origins proposed. The universality of turbulence, its reported large-scale driving, and that it occurs also in starless molecular clouds, challenges models invoking any stellar source. A more general process is needed to explain the observations. In this work we study the role of galactic spiral arms. This is accomplished by means of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations which follow the dynamical evolution of interstellar diffuse clouds (100cm-3) interacting with the gravitational potential field of the spiral pattern. We find that the tidal effects of the arm’s potential on the cloud result in internal vorticity, fragmentation and hydrodynamical instabilities. The triggered turbulence result in large-scale driving, on sizes of the ISM inhomogeneities, i.e. as large as 100pc, and efficiencies in converting potential energy into turbulence in the range 10 to 25 percent per arm crossing. This efficiency is much higher than those found in previous models. The statistics of the turbulence in our simulations are strikingly similar to the observed power spectrum and Larson scaling relations of molecular clouds and the general ISM. The dependency found from different models indicate that the ISM turbulence is mainly related to local spiral arm properties, such as its mass density and width. This correlation seems in agreement with recent high angular resolution observations of spiral galaxies, e.g. M51 and M33.

Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide

The largest non-cyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a non-terminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

Galactic fountains and outflows in star forming dwarf galaxies: ISM expulsion and chemical enrichment

We investigated the impact of supernova feedback in gas-rich dwarf galaxies experiencing a low-to-moderate star formation rate, typical of relatively quiescent phases between starbursts. We calculated the long term evolution of the ISM and the metal-rich SN ejecta using 3D hydrodynamic simulations, in which the feedback energy is deposited by SNeII exploding in distinct OB associations. We found that a circulation flow similar to galactic fountains is generally established, with some ISM lifted at heights of one to few kpc above the galactic plane. This gas forms an extra-planar layer, which falls back to the plane in about $10^8$ yr, once the star formation stops. Very little or no ISM is expelled outside the galaxy system for the considered SFRs, even though in the most powerful model the SN energy is comparable to the gas binding energy. The metal-rich SN ejecta is instead more vulnerable to the feedback and we found that a significant fraction (25-80\%) is vented in the intergalactic medium, even for low SN rate ($7\times 10^{-5}$ – $7\times 10^{-4}$ yr$^{-1}$). About half of the metals retained by the galaxy are located far ($z >$ 500 pc) from the galactic plane. Moreover, our models indicate that the circulation of the metal-rich gas out from and back to the galactic disk is not able to erase the chemical gradients imprinted by the (centrally concentrated) SN explosions.

3D maps of the local interstellar medium: searching for the imprints of past events

Inversion of interstellar gas or dust columns measured along the path to stars distributed in distance and direction allows reconstructing the distribution of interstellar matter (ISM) in 3D. A low resolution IS dust map based on the reddening of 23,000 stars illustrates the potential of future maps. It reveals the location of the main IS clouds within $\sim$1kpc and, owing to biases towards weakly reddened targets, regions devoid of IS matter. It traces the Local Bubble and neighboring cavities, including a giant, $\geq$1000 pc long cavity located beyond the so-called $\beta$CMa tunnel, bordered by the main constituents of the Gould belt (GB), the rotating and expanding ring of clouds and young stars, inclined by $\sim$ 20$^{\circ}$ to the galactic plane. From comparison with diffuse X-ray background and absorption data it appears that the giant cavity is filled with warm, ionized and dust-poor gas in addition to million K gas. This set of structures must reflect the main events that occurred in the past. It has been suggested that the Cretaceus-Tertiary mass extinction may be due to a gamma-ray burst (GRB) in the massive globular cluster (GC) 47 Tuc during its close encounter with the Sun $\sim$70 Myrs ago. Given the mass, speed and size of 47 Tuc, wherever it crossed the Galactic plane it must have produced at the crossing site significant dynamical effects on the disk stars and IS clouds, and triggered star formation. Interestingly, first-order estimates suggest that the GB dynamics and age could match the consequences of the cluster crossing. Additionally, the giant ionized, dust-free cavity could be related to an intense flux of hard radiation, and dust-gas decoupling after the burst could explain the high variability and pattern of the D/H ratio in the nearby gaseous ISM. Future Gaia data should confirm or dismiss this hypothesis.

On the Inverse Scattering Method for Integrable PDEs on a Star Graph [Cross-Listing]

We present a framework to solve the open problem of formulating the inverse scattering method (ISM) for an integrable PDE on a star-graph. The idea is to map the problem on the graph to a matrix initial-boundary value (IBV) problem and then to extend the unified method of Fokas to such a matrix IBV problem. The nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation is chosen to illustrate the method. The framework unifies all previously known examples which are recovered as particular cases. The case of general Robin conditions at the vertex is discussed: the notion of linearizable initial-boundary conditions is introduced. For such conditions, the method is shown to be as efficient as the ISM on the full-line.

Supernova Feedback in an Inhomogeneous Interstellar Medium

Supernova (SN) feedback is one of the key processes shaping the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. SNe contribute to (and in some cases may dominate) driving turbulence in the ISM and accelerating galactic winds. Modern cosmological simulations have sufficient resolution to capture the main structures in the ISM of galaxies, but are typically still not capable of explicitly resolving all of the small-scale stellar feedback processes, including the expansion of supernova remnants (SNRs). We perform a series of controlled three-dimensional hydrodynamic (adaptive mesh refinement, AMR) simulations of single SNRs expanding in an inhomogeneous density field with statistics motivated by those of the turbulent ISM. We use these to quantify the momentum and thermal energy injection from SNe as a function of spatial scale and the density, metallicity, and structure of the ambient medium. Using these results, we develop an analytic sub-resolution model for SN feedback for use in galaxy formation simulations. We then use simulations of multiple, stochastically driven SNe that resolve the key phases of SNRs to test the sub-resolution model, and show that it accurately captures the turbulent kinetic energy and thermal energy in the ISM. By contrast, proposed SN feedback models in the literature based on delayed cooling significantly overpredict the late-time thermal energy and momentum in SNRs.

Ram pressure stripping in elliptical galaxies: II. magnetic field effects

We investigate the effects of magnetic fields and turbulence on ram pressure stripping in elliptical galaxies using ideal magnetohydrodynamics simulations. We consider weakly-magnetised interstellar medium (ISM) characterised by subsonic turbulence, and two orientations of the magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM) – parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the galaxy motion through the ICM. While the stronger turbulence enhances the ram pressure stripping mass loss, the magnetic fields tend to suppress the stripping rates, and the suppression is stronger for parallel fields. However, the effect of magnetic fields on the mass stripping rate is mild. Nevertheless, the morphology of the stripping tails depends significantly on the direction of the ICM magnetic field. The effect of the magnetic field geometry on the tail morphology is much stronger than that of the level of the ISM turbulence. The tail has a highly collimated shape for parallel fields, while it has a sheet-like morphology in the plane of the ICM magnetic field for perpendicular fields. The magnetic field in the tail is amplified irrespectively of the orientation of the ICM field. More strongly magnetised regions in the ram pressure stripping tails are expected to have systematically higher metallicity due to the strong concentration of the stripped ISM than the less magnetised regions. Strong dependence of the morphology of the stripped ISM on the magnetic field could potentially be used to constrain the relative orientation of the ram pressure direction and the dominant component of the ICM magnetic field.

A Herschel [CII] Galactic plane survey III: [CII] as a tracer of star formation

We study the relationship between the [CII] emission and the star formation rate (SFR) in the Galactic plane and separate the relationship of different ISM phases to the SFR. We compare these relationships to those in external galaxies and local clouds, allowing examinations of these relationships over a wide range of physical scales. We compare the distribution of the [CII] emission, with its different contributing ISM phases, as a function of Galactocentric distance with the SFR derived from radio continuum observations. We also compare the SFR with the surface density distribution of atomic and molecular gas, including the CO-dark H2 component. The [CII] and SFR are well correlated at Galactic scales with a relationship that is in general agreement with that found for external galaxies. By combining [CII] and SFR data points in the Galactic plane with those in external galaxies and nearby star forming regions, we find that a single scaling relationship between the [CII] luminosity and SFR applies over six orders of magnitude. The [CII] emission from different ISM phases are each correlated with the SFR, but only the combined emission shows a slope that is consistent with extragalactic observations. These ISM components have roughly comparable contributions to the Galactic [CII] luminosity: dense PDRs (30%), cold HI (25%), CO-dark H2 (25%), and ionized gas (20%). The SFR-gas surface density relationship shows a steeper slope compared to that observed in galaxies, but one that it is consistent with those seen in nearby clouds. The different slope is a result of the use of a constant CO-to-H2 conversion factor in the extragalactic studies, which in turn is related to the assumption of constant metallicity in galaxies. We find a linear correlation between the SFR surface density and that of the dense molecular gas.

Investigating Nearby Star-Forming Galaxies in the Ultraviolet with HST/COS Spectroscopy. I: Spectral Analysis and Interstellar Abundance Determinations

This is the first in a series of three papers describing a project with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure abundances of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of 9 nearby star-forming galaxies. The goal is to assess the (in)homogeneities of the multiphase ISM in galaxies where the bulk of metals can be hidden in the neutral phase, yet the metallicity is inferred from the ionized gas in the HII regions. The sample, spanning a wide range in physical properties, is to date the best suited to investigate the metallicity behavior of the neutral gas at redshift z=0. ISM absorption lines were detected against the far-ultraviolet spectra of the brightest star-forming region(s) within each galaxy. Here we report on the observations, data reduction, and analysis of these spectra. Column densities were measured by a multi-component line-profile fitting technique, and neutral-gas abundances were obtained for a wide range of elements. Several caveats were considered including line saturation, ionization corrections, and dust depletion. Ionization effects were quantified with `ad-hoc’ CLOUDY models reproducing the complex photoionization structure of the ionized and neutral gas surrounding the UV-bright sources. An `average spectrum of a redshift z=0 star-forming galaxy’ was obtained from the average column densities of unsaturated profiles of neutral-gas species. This template can be used as a powerful tool for studies of the neutral ISM at both low and high redshift.

Eyes in the sky: Interactions between AGB winds and the interstellar magnetic field

We aim to examine the role of the interstellar magnetic field in shaping the extended morphologies of slow dusty winds of Asymptotic Giant-branch (AGB) stars in an effort to pin-point the origin of so-called eye shaped CSE of three carbon-rich AGB stars. In addition, we seek to understand if this pre-planetary nebula (PN) shaping can be responsible for asymmetries observed in PNe. Hydrodynamical simulations are used to study the effect of typical interstellar magnetic fields on the free-expanding spherical stellar winds as they sweep up the local interstellar medium (ISM). The simulations show that typical Galactic interstellar magnetic fields of 5 to 10 muG, are sufficient to alter the spherical expanding shells of AGB stars to appear as the characteristic eye shape revealed by far-infrared observations. The typical sizes of the simulated eyes are in accordance with the observed physical sizes. However, the eye shapes are of transient nature. Depending on the stellar and interstellar conditions they develop after 20,000 to 200,000yrs and last for about 50,000 to 500,000 yrs, assuming that the star is at rest relative to the local interstellar medium. Once formed the eye shape will develop lateral outflows parallel to the magnetic field. The "explosion" of a PN in the center of the eye-shaped dust shell gives rise to an asymmetrical nebula with prominent inward pointing Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Interstellar magnetic fields can clearly affect the shaping of wind-ISM interaction shells. The occurrence of the eyes is most strongly influenced by stellar space motion and ISM density. Observability of this transient phase is favoured for lines-of-sight perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field direction. The simulations indicate that shaping of the pre-PN envelope can strongly affect the shape and size of PNe.

Supernovae Driven Turbulence In The Interstellar Medium

I model the multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) randomly heated and shocked by supernovae, with gravity, differential rotation and other parameters we understand to be typical of the solar neighbourhood. The simulations are 3D extending horizontally 1 x 1 kpc squared and vertically 2 kpc, symmetric about the galactic mid-plane. They routinely span gas number densities 1/10000 to 100 per cubic cm, temperatures 100 to 100 MK, speeds up to 10000 km/s and Mach number up to 25. Radiative cooling is applied from two widely adopted parameterizations, and compared directly to assess the sensitivity of the results to cooling. There is strong evidence to describe the ISM as comprising well defined cold, warm and hot regions, which are statistically close to thermal and total pressure equilibrium. This result is not sensitive to the choice of parameters considered here. The distribution of the gas density within each can be robustly modelled as lognormal. Appropriate distinction is required between the properties of the gases in the supernova active mid-plane and the more homogeneous phases outside this region. The connection between the fractional volume of a phase and its various proxies is clarified. An exact relation is then derived between the fractional volume and the filling factors defined in terms of the volume and probabilistic averages. These results are discussed in both observational and computational contexts. The correlation scale of the random flows is calculated from the velocity autocorrelation function; it is of order 100 pc and tends to grow with distance from the mid-plane. The origin and structure of the magnetic fields in the ISM is also investigated in non-ideal MHD simulations. A seed magnetic field, with volume average of roughly 4 nG, grows exponentially to reach a statistically steady state within 1.6 Gyr.

Supernovae Driven Turbulence In The Interstellar Medium [Replacement]

I model the multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) randomly heated and shocked by supernovae, with gravity, differential rotation and other parameters we understand to be typical of the solar neighbourhood. The simulations are 3D extending horizontally 1 x 1 kpc squared and vertically 2 kpc, symmetric about the galactic mid-plane. They routinely span gas number densities 1/10000 to 100 per cubic cm, temperatures 100 to 100 MK, speeds up to 10000 km/s and Mach number up to 25. Radiative cooling is applied from two widely adopted parameterizations, and compared directly to assess the sensitivity of the results to cooling. There is strong evidence to describe the ISM as comprising well defined cold, warm and hot regions, which are statistically close to thermal and total pressure equilibrium. This result is not sensitive to the choice of parameters considered here. The distribution of the gas density within each can be robustly modelled as lognormal. Appropriate distinction is required between the properties of the gases in the supernova active mid-plane and the more homogeneous phases outside this region. The connection between the fractional volume of a phase and its various proxies is clarified. An exact relation is then derived between the fractional volume and the filling factors defined in terms of the volume and probabilistic averages. These results are discussed in both observational and computational contexts. The correlation scale of the random flows is calculated from the velocity autocorrelation function; it is of order 100 pc and tends to grow with distance from the mid-plane. The origin and structure of the magnetic fields in the ISM is also investigated in non-ideal MHD simulations. A seed magnetic field, with volume average of roughly 4 nG, grows exponentially to reach a statistically steady state within 1.6 Gyr.

The interstellar medium and feedback in the progenitors of the compact passive galaxies at z~2 [Replacement]

Quenched galaxies at z>2 are nearly all very compact relative to z~0, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present restframe UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 selected to be candidate progenitors of quenched galaxies at z~2 based on their compact restframe optical sizes and high surface density of star-formation. We compare their UV properties to those of more extended LBGs of similar mass and star formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster ISM gas velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyman-alpha and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyman-alpha emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral HI fraction is patchy such that Lyman-alpha photons can escape. We detect stronger CIV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and HeII emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster bulk motions, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyman-alpha properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z~2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally-sized LBGs at these early epochs.

Clues on the Galactic evolution of sulphur from star clusters

(Abridged) The abundances of alpha-elements are a powerful diagnostic of the star formation history and chemical evolution of a galaxy. Sulphur, being moderately volatile, can be reliably measured in the interstellar medium (ISM) of damped Ly-alpha galaxies and extragalactic HII regions. Measurements in stars of different metallicity in our Galaxy can then be readily compared to the abundances in external galaxies. Such a comparison is not possible for Si or Ca that suffer depletion onto dust in the ISM. Furthermore, studying sulphur is interesting because it probes nucleosynthetic conditions that are very different from those of O or Mg. The measurements in star clusters are a reliable tracers of the Galactic evolution of sulphur. We find <A(S)>NLTE=6.11+/-0.04 for M 4, <A(S)>NLTE=7.17+/-0.02 for NGC 2477, and <A(S)>NLTE=7.13+/-0.06 for NGC 5822. For the only star studied in Trumpler 5 we find A(S)NLTE=6.43+/-0.03 and A(S)LTE=6.94+/-0.05. Our measurements show that, by and large, the S abundances in Galactic clusters trace reliably those in field stars. The only possible exception is Trumpler 5, for which the NLTE sulphur abundance implies an [S/Fe] ratio lower by roughly 0.4 dex than observed in field stars of comparable metallicity, even though its LTE sulphur abundance is in line with abundances of field stars. Moreover the LTE sulphur abundance is consistent only with the abundance of another alpha-element, Mg, in the same star, while the low NLTE value is consistent with Si and Ca. The S abundances in our sample of stars in clusters imply that the clusters are chemically homogeneous for S within 0.05 dex.

Spatially resolved kinematics, galactic wind, and quenching of star formation in the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS F11506-3851

We present a multi-wavelength integral field spectroscopic study of the low-z LIRG IRAS F11506-3851, on the basis of VIMOS and SINFONI (ESO-VLT) observations. The morphology and the 2D kinematics of the gaseous (neutral and ionized) and stellar components have been mapped using the NaD doublet, the H$\alpha$ line, and the near-IR CO(2-0) and CO(3-1) bands. The kinematics of the ionized gas and the stars are dominated by rotation, with large observed velocity amplitudes and centrally peaked velocity dispersion maps. The stars lag behind the warm gas and represent a dynamically hotter system, as indicated by the observed dynamical ratios. Thanks to these IFS data we have disentangled the contribution of the stars and the ISM to the NaD feature, finding that it is dominated by the absorption of neutral gas clouds in the ISM. The neutral gas 2D kinematics shows a complex structure dominated by two components. On the one hand, the thick slowly rotating disk lags significantly compared to the ionized gas and the stars, with an irregular and off-center velocity dispersion map. On the other hand, a kpc-scale neutral gas outflow is observed along the semi-minor axis of the galaxy, as revealed by large blueshifted velocities (30-154 km/s). We derive an outflowing mass rate in neutral gas of about 48 $\dot{M_{\rm w}}$/yr. Although this implies a global mass loading factor of 1.4, the 2D distribution of the ongoing SF suggests a much larger value of mass loading factor associated with the inner regions (R$<$200 pc), where the current SF represents only 3 percent of the total. All together these results strongly suggest that we are witnessing (nuclear) quenching due to SF feedback in IRAS F11506-3851. However, the relatively large mass of molecular gas detected in the nuclear region via the H2 1-0 S(1) line suggests that further episodes of SF may take place again.

The morphology of the Milky Way - I. Reconstructing CO maps from simulations in fixed potentials

We present an investigation into the morphological features of the Milky Way. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way under the effect of a number of different gravitational potentials representing spiral arms and bars, assuming the Milky Way is grand design in nature. The gas is subject to ISM cooling and chemistry, enabling us to track the evolution of molecular gas. We use a 3D radiative transfer code to simulate the emission from the SPH output, allowing for the construction of synthetic longitude-velocity (l-v) emission maps as viewed from the Earth. By comparing these maps with the observed emission in CO from the Milky Way, we infer the arm/bar geometry that provides a best fit to our Galaxy. We find that it is possible to reproduce nearly all features of the l-v diagram in CO emission. There is no model, however, that satisfactorily reproduces all of the features simultaneously. Models with 2 arms cannot reproduce all the observed arm features, while 4 armed models produce too bright local emission in the inner Galaxy. Our best fitting models favour a bar pattern speed within 50-60km/s/kpc and an arm pattern speed of approximately 20km/s/kpc, with a bar orientation of approximately 45 degrees and arm pitch angle between 10-15 degrees.

Evolution of dust and molecular hydrogen in the Magellanic System

We investigate the evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) in self-consistent, chemodynamical simulations of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) during their recent (z<0.3) past. An explicit modelling of dust and molecular hydrogen lifecycles enables the comparison of our models against the observed properties of the ISM, including elemental depletion from the gas-phase. Combining this model with a tidal-dominated paradigm for the formation for the Magellanic Stream and Bridge, we reproduce the age-metallicity relations, long gas depletion timescales, and presently observed dust and molecular hydrogen masses of the MCs to within their respective uncertainties. We find that these models’ enrichment depends sensitively on the processing of dust within the ISM and the dynamical influence of external tides/stellar bars. The ratio of characteristic dust destruction timescales in our SMC and LMC models, a governing parameter of our models’ evolution, is consistent with estimates based on observed supernova (SN) rates. Our reference MC models tend to exhibit the disputed universal dust-to-metal ratio, which we argue stems from the adoption of high SNe II condensation efficiencies. Our models are the first to reproduce the one-tenth solar metallicity of the Stream/Leading Arm following tidal stripping of the SMC; the hypothesis that the LMC contributes a metal-rich filament to the Stream, as implied by recent kinematic and abundance analyses, is also appraised in this study.

Three-dimensional extinction mapping using Gaussian random fields [Replacement]

We present a scheme for using stellar catalogues to map the three-dimensional distributions of extinction and dust within our Galaxy. Extinction is modelled as a Gaussian random field, whose covariance function is set by a simple physical model of the ISM that assumes a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum of turbulent fluctuations. As extinction is modelled as a random field, the spatial resolution of the resulting maps is set naturally by the data available; there is no need to impose any spatial binning. We verify the validity of our scheme by testing it on simulated extinction fields and show that its precision is significantly improved over previous dust-mapping efforts. The approach we describe here can make use of any photometric, spectroscopic or astrometric data; it is not limited to any particular survey. Consequently, it can be applied to a wide range of data from both existing and future surveys.

Three-dimensional extinction mapping using Gaussian random fields

We present a scheme for using stellar catalogues to map the three-dimensional distributions of extinction and dust within our Galaxy. Extinction is modelled as a Gaussian random field, whose covariance function is set by a simple physical model of the ISM that assumes a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum of turbulent fluctuations. As extinction is modelled as a random field, the spatial resolution of the resulting maps is set naturally by the data available; there is no need to impose any spatial binning. We verify the validity of our scheme by testing it on simulated extinction fields and show that its precision is significantly improved over previous dust-mapping efforts. The approach we describe here can make use of any photometric, spectroscopic or astrometric data; it is not limited to any particular survey. Consequently, it can be applied to a wide range of data from both existing and future surveys.

Three-dimensional extinction mapping using Gaussian random fields [Replacement]

We present a scheme for using stellar catalogues to map the three-dimensional distributions of extinction and dust within our Galaxy. Extinction is modelled as a Gaussian random field, whose covariance function is set by a simple physical model of the ISM that assumes a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum of turbulent fluctuations. As extinction is modelled as a random field, the spatial resolution of the resulting maps is set naturally by the data available; there is no need to impose any spatial binning. We verify the validity of our scheme by testing it on simulated extinction fields and show that its precision is significantly improved over previous dust-mapping efforts. The approach we describe here can make use of any photometric, spectroscopic or astrometric data; it is not limited to any particular survey. Consequently, it can be applied to a wide range of data from both existing and future surveys.

Three-dimensional extinction mapping using Gaussian random fields [Replacement]

We present a scheme for using stellar catalogues to map the three-dimensional distributions of extinction and dust within our Galaxy. Extinction is modelled as a Gaussian random field, whose covariance function is set by a simple physical model of the ISM that assumes a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum of turbulent fluctuations. As extinction is modelled as a random field, the spatial resolution of the resulting maps is set naturally by the data available; there is no need to impose any spatial binning. We verify the validity of our scheme by testing it on simulated extinction fields and show that its precision is significantly improved over previous dust-mapping efforts. The approach we describe here can make use of any photometric, spectroscopic or astrometric data; it is not limited to any particular survey. Consequently, it can be applied to a wide range of data from both existing and future surveys.

Nuclear enhancement of the photon yield in cosmic ray interactions

The concept of the nuclear enhancement factor has been used since the beginning of gamma-ray astronomy. It provides a simple and convenient way to account for the contribution of nuclei (A>1) in cosmic rays (CRs) and in the interstellar medium (ISM) to the diffuse gamma-ray emission. An accurate treatment of the dominant emission process, such as hadronic interactions of CRs with the ISM, enables one to study CR acceleration processes, CR propagation in the ISM, and provides a reliable background model for searches of new phenomena. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) launched in 2008 provides excellent quality data in a wide energy range 30 MeV – 1 TeV where the diffuse emission accounts for the majority of photons. Exploiting its data to the fullest requires a new study of the processes of gamma-ray production in hadronic interactions. In this paper we point out that several commonly used studies of the nuclear enhancement factor miss to account for the spectrally averaged energy loss fraction which ensures that the energy fraction transferred to photons is averaged properly with the spectra of CR species. We present a new calculation of the spectrally averaged energy loss fraction and the nuclear enhancement factor using the QGSJET-II-04 and EPOS-LHC interaction models.

The effects of galaxy shape and rotation on the X-ray haloes of early-type galaxies - II. Numerical simulations

By means of high resolution 2D hydrodynamical simulations, we study the evolution of the hot ISM for a large set of early-type galaxy models, characterized by various degrees of flattening and internal rotation. The galaxies are described by state-of-the-art axisymmetric two-component models, tailored to reproduce real systems; the dark matter haloes follow the Navarro-Frenk-White or the Einasto profile. The gas is produced by the evolving stars, and heated by Type Ia SNe. We find that, in general, the rotation field of the ISM in rotating galaxies is very similar to that of the stars, with a consequent negligible heating contribution from thermalization of the ordered motions. The relative importance of flattening and rotation in determining the final X-ray luminosity $L_x$ and temperature $T_x$ of the hot haloes is a function of the galactic mass. Flattening and rotation in low mass galaxies favour the establishment of global winds, with the consequent reduction of $L_x$. In medium-to-high mass galaxies, flattening and rotation are not sufficient to induce global winds, however, in the rotating models the nature of the gas flows is deeply affected by conservation of angular momentum, resulting in a reduction of both $L_x$ and $T_x$.

The effects of galaxy shape and rotation on the X-ray haloes of early-type galaxies - II. Numerical simulations [Replacement]

By means of high resolution 2D hydrodynamical simulations, we study the evolution of the hot ISM for a large set of early-type galaxy models, characterized by various degrees of flattening and internal rotation. The galaxies are described by state-of-the-art axisymmetric two-component models, tailored to reproduce real systems; the dark matter haloes follow the Navarro-Frenk-White or the Einasto profile. The gas is produced by the evolving stars, and heated by Type Ia SNe. We find that, in general, the rotation field of the ISM in rotating galaxies is very similar to that of the stars, with a consequent negligible heating contribution from thermalization of the ordered motions. The relative importance of flattening and rotation in determining the final X-ray luminosity $L_x$ and temperature $T_x$ of the hot haloes is a function of the galactic mass. Flattening and rotation in low mass galaxies favour the establishment of global winds, with the consequent reduction of $L_x$. In medium-to-high mass galaxies, flattening and rotation are not sufficient to induce global winds, however, in the rotating models the nature of the gas flows is deeply affected by conservation of angular momentum, resulting in a reduction of both $L_x$ and $T_x$.

Thermal and radiative AGN feedback have a limited impact on star formation in high-redshift galaxies [Replacement]

The effects of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) on their host-galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation — in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition — on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host-galaxy, and on its total Star Formation Rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN Spectral Energy Distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution ($\sim6$ pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity ($L_{bol}=10^{46.5}$ erg s$^{-1}$). Although the circum-galactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds ($n\gtrsim10^{2-3}$ cm$^{-3}$) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas ($n\sim0.3-10$ cm$^{-3}$) — which are the sites of future star formation (100 – 200 Myrs), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the star formation efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

Collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds under pressure

Recent analytical and numerical models show that AGN outflows and jets create ISM pressure in the host galaxy that is several orders of magnitude larger than in quiescent systems. This pressure increase can confine and compress molecular gas, thus accelerating star formation. In this paper, we model the effects of increased ambient ISM pressure on spherically symmetric turbulent molecular clouds. We find that large external pressure confines the cloud and drives a shockwave into it, which, together with instabilities behind the shock front, significantly accelerates the fragmentation rate. The compressed clouds therefore convert a larger fraction of their mass into stars over the cloud lifetime, and produce clusters that are initially more compact. Neither cloud rotation nor shear against the ISM affect this result significantly, unless the shear velocity is higher than the sound speed in the confining ISM. We conclude that external pressure is an important element in the star formation process, provided that it dominates over the internal pressure of the cloud.

Exploring the Origins of Carbon in Terrestrial Worlds

Given the central role of carbon in the chemistry of life, it is a fundamental question as to how carbon is supplied to the Earth, in what form and when. We provide an accounting of carbon found in solar system bodies, in particular a comparison between the organic content of meteorites and that in identified organics in the dense interstellar medium (ISM). Based on this accounting identified organics created by the chemistry of star formation could contain at most ~15% of the organic carbon content in primitive meteorites and significantly less for cometary organics, which represent the putative contributors to starting materials for the Earth. In the ISM ~30% of the elemental carbon is found in CO, either in the gas or ices, with a typical abundance of ~10^-4 (relative to H2). Recent observations of the TW Hya disk find that the gas phase abundance of CO is reduced by an order of magnitude compared to this value. We explore a solution where the volatile CO is destroyed via a gas phase processes, providing an additional source of carbon for organic material to be incorporated into planetesimals and cometesimals. This chemical processing mechanism requires warm grains (> 20 K), partially ionized gas, and sufficiently small <10 micron grains, i.e. a larger total grain surface area, such that freeze-out is efficient. Under these conditions static (non-turbulent) chemical models predict that a large fraction of the carbon nominally sequestered in CO can be the source of carbon for a wide variety of organics that are present as ice coatings on the surfaces of warm pre-planetesimal dust grains.

On the properties of the interstellar medium in extremely metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxies: GMOS-IFU spectroscopy and SDSS photometry of the double-knot galaxy HS 2236+1344

The main goal of this study is to carry out a spatially resolved investigation of the warm interstellar medium (ISM) in the extremely metal-poor Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxy HS 2236+1344. Special emphasis is laid on the analysis of the spatial distribution of chemical abundances, emission-line ratios and kinematics of the ISM, and to the recent star-forming activity in this galaxy. This study is based on optical integral field unit spectroscopy data from Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Gemini North telescope and archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey images. The data were obtained in two different positions across the galaxy, obtaining a total 4 arcsec X 8 arcsec field which encompasses most of its ISM. Emission-line maps and broad-band images obtained in this study indicate that HS 2236+1344 hosts three Giant HII regions. Our data also reveal some faint curved features in the BCD periphery that might be due to tidal perturbations or expanding ionized-gas shells. The ISM velocity field shows systematic gradients along the major axis of the BCD, with its south-eastern and north-western half differing by ~80 km/s in their recessional velocity. The Ha and Hb equivalent width distribution in the central part of HS 2236+1344 is consistent with a very young (~3 Myr) burst. Our surface photometry analysis indicates that the ongoing starburst provides ~50% of the total optical emission, similar to other BCDs. It also reveals an underlying lower-surface brightness component with moderately red colors, which suggest that the galaxy has undergone previous star formation. We derive an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)=7.53\pm0.06 and a nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio of log(N/O)=-1.57\pm0.19. Our results are consistent, within the uncertainties, with a homogeneous distribution of oxygen and nitrogen within the ISM of the galaxy. (abridged)

The IRAM M33 CO(2-1) Survey - A complete census of the molecular gas out to 7 kpc

In order to study the ISM and the interplay between the atomic and molecular components in a low-metallicity environment, we present a complete high angular and spectral resolution map and data cube of the 12CO(2-1) emission from the Local Group galaxy M33. Its metallicity is roughly half-solar, such that we can compare its ISM with that of the Milky Way with the main changes being the metallicity and the gas mass fraction. The data have a 12" angular resolution (50pc) with a spectral resolution of 2.6 km/s and a mean noise level of 20 mK per channel in antenna temperature. A radial cut along the major axis was also observed in the 12CO(1-0) line. The CO data cube and integrated intensity map are optimal when using HI data to define the baseline window and the velocities over which the CO emission is integrated. Great care was taken when building these maps, testing different windowing and baseline options and investigating the effect of error beam pickup. The total CO(2-1) luminosity is 2.8e7 K km/s pc2, following the spiral arms in the inner disk. There is no clear variation in the CO(2-1/1-0) intensity ratio with radius and the average value is roughly 0.8. The total molecular gas mass is estimated, using a N(H2)/Ico(1-0)=4e20 cm-2/(K km/s) conversion factor, to be 3.1e8 Msol. The CO spectra in the cube were shifted to zero velocity by subtracting the velocity of the HI peak from the CO spectra. Hence, the velocity dispersion between the atomic and molecular components is extremely low, independently justifying the use of the HI line in building our maps. Stacking the spectra in concentric rings shows that the CO linewidth and possibly the CO-HI velocity dispersion decrease in the outer disk. Using the CO(2-1) emission to trace the molecular gas, the probability distribution function of the H2 column density shows an excess at high column density above a log normal distribution.

3D modelling of clumpy PDRs - Understanding the Orion Bar stratification

Aims. We aim to construct a self-consistent numerical PDR model to simulate full spectral cubes of line emission from arbitrary PDRs in three dimensions (3D). The model is to reproduce the intensity of the main cooling lines from the Orion Bar PDR and the observed layering structure of the different transitions. Methods. Using a fractal description of the ISM combined with the KOSMA-{\tau} PDR model, we build up a 3D compound, made of voxels ("3D pixels"), resembling the internal structure of a PDR. Each voxel contains "clumps" mimicking the fractal ISM. The local FUV field strength is calculated self-consistently for each voxel. Line emissivities and opacities of individual clumps, provided by the KOSMA-{\tau} PDR model, are used to calculate voxel-averaged emissivities and opacities that are finally used to simulate full spectral cubes computing the radiative transport through the compound. To test the new model we try to simulate the structure of the Orion Bar PDR and compare the results to observations from HIFI/Herschel and from the Caltech Submillimetre Observatory (CSO). Results. Our model is able to qualitatively reproduce the line intensities and the observed stratification of the emission structure in the various tracers based on the representation of the Orion Bar PDR by a clumpy edge-on cavity wall. In contrast, the model of a convex filament can be ruled out. In the cavity wall, a large fraction of the total mass needs to be contained in clumps. The mass of the interclump medium is constrained by the FUV penetration. Furthermore, the stratification profile cannot be reproduced by a model having the same amount of clump and interclump mass in each voxel, but dense clumps have to be removed from the PDR surface to reproduce the observed intensities and spatial structure.

The properties of bow-shock sources at the Galactic Center

There are an enigmatic population of massive stars around the Galactic Center (GC) that were formed some Ma ago. A fraction of these stars has been found to orbit the supermassive black hole, SgrA*, in a projected clockwise disk, which suggests that they were formed in a formerly existing dense disk around SgrA*. We focus on the extended, near-infrared (NIR) sources IRS1W, IRS5, IRS10W, and IRS21 that have been suggested to be young, massive stars that form bow-shocks through their interaction with the ISM. Their nature has impeded accurate determination of their orbital parameters. We aim at establishing their nature and kinematics to test whether they form part of the clockwise disk. We performed NIR multi-wavelength imaging using adaptive optics (AO) and sparse aperture masking (SAM). We introduce a new method for self-calibration of the SAM PSF in dense stellar fields. The emission mechanism, morphology and kinematics of the targets were examined via 3D bow-shock models. We confirm previous findings that IRS21, IRS1W, and IRS5 are bow-shocks created by the interaction between mass-losing stars and the interstellar gas. The nature of IRS10W remains unclear. Our modeling shows that the bow-shock-emission is caused by thermal emission while the scattering of stellar light does not play any significant role. IRS 1W appears to be a bow-shock produced by an anisotropic stellar wind or by locally inhomogeneous ISM density. Our best-fit models provide an estimate of the local proper motion of the ISM in the NA in agreement with the published models. Assuming that all of the sources are tied to SgrA*, their orbital planes were obtained via a Monte-Carlo simulation. Our orbital analysis suggests that they are not part of any of the clockwise disk. We thus add more evidence to recent findings that a large part of the massive stars show apparently random orbital orientations.

Properties of bow-shock sources at the Galactic center [Replacement]

There are an enigmatic population of massive stars around the Galactic Center (GC) that were formed some Ma ago. A fraction of these stars has been found to orbit the supermassive black hole, SgrA*, in a projected clockwise disk, which suggests that they were formed in a formerly existing dense disk around SgrA*. We focus on the extended, near-infrared (NIR) sources IRS1W, IRS5, IRS10W, and IRS21 that have been suggested to be young, massive stars that form bow-shocks through their interaction with the ISM. Their nature has impeded accurate determination of their orbital parameters. We aim at establishing their nature and kinematics to test whether they form part of the clockwise disk. We performed NIR multi-wavelength imaging using adaptive optics (AO) and sparse aperture masking (SAM). We introduce a new method for self-calibration of the SAM PSF in dense stellar fields. The emission mechanism, morphology and kinematics of the targets were examined via 3D bow-shock models. We confirm previous findings that IRS21, IRS1W, and IRS5 are bow-shocks created by the interaction between mass-losing stars and the interstellar gas. The nature of IRS10W remains unclear. Our modeling shows that the bow-shock-emission is caused by thermal emission while the scattering of stellar light does not play any significant role. IRS 1W appears to be a bow-shock produced by an anisotropic stellar wind or by locally inhomogeneous ISM density. Our best-fit models provide an estimate of the local proper motion of the ISM in the NA in agreement with the published models. Assuming that all of the sources are tied to SgrA*, their orbital planes were obtained via a Monte-Carlo simulation. Our orbital analysis suggests that they are not part of any of the clockwise disk. We thus add more evidence to recent findings that a large part of the massive stars show apparently random orbital orientations.

Tracing the ISM magnetic field morphology: The potential of multi-wavelength polarization measurements

$\textit{Aims.}$ We present a case study to demonstrate the potential of multi-wavelength polarization measurements. The aim is to investigate the effects that dichroic polarization and thermal re-emission have on tracing the magnetic field in the interstellar medium (ISM). Furthermore, we analyze the crucial influence of imperfectly aligned compact dust grains on the resulting synthetic continuum polarization maps.$\\ \textit{Methods.}$ We developed an extended version of the well-known 3D Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MC3D for multi-wavelength polarization simulations running on an adaptive grid.We investigated the interplay between radiation, magnetic fields and dust grains. Our results were produced by post-processing both ideal density distributions and sophisticated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) collapse simulations with radiative transfer simulations. We derived spatially resolved maps of intensity, optical depth, and linear and circular polarization at various inclination angles and scales in a wavelength range from 7 $\mu m$ to 1 $mm$.$\\ \textit{Results.}$ We predict unique patterns in linear and circular polarization maps for different types of density distributions and magnetic field morphologies for test setups and sophisticated MHD collapse simulations. We show that alignment processes of interstellar dust grains can significantly influence the resulting synthetic polarization maps. Multi-wavelength polarization measurements allow one to predict the morphology of the magnetic field inside the ISM. The interpretation of polarization measurements of complex structures still remains ambiguous because of the large variety of the predominant parameters in the ISM.

Transport of charged dust grains into the galactic halo

We develop a 3D dynamical model of dust outflows from galactic discs. The outflows are initiated by multiple SN explosions in a magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) with a gravitationally stratified density distribution. Dust grains are treated as particles in cells interacting collisionally with gas, and forced by stellar radiation of the disc and Lorenz force. We show that magnetic field plays a crucial role in accelerating the charged dust grains and expelling them out of the disc: in 10–20~Myr they can be elevated at distances up to 10~kpc above the galactic plane. The dust-to-gas ratio in the outflowing medium varies in the range $5 \cdot 10^{-4} – 5 \cdot 10^{-2}$ along the vertical stream. Overall the dust mass loss rate depends on the parameters of ISM and may reach up to $3\times 10^{-2}$~\Msun~yr$^{-1}$

 

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