Posts Tagged ism

Recent Postings from ism

Transport and mixing of r-process elements in neutron star binary merger blast waves

The r-process nuclei are robustly synthesized in the material ejected during a neutron star binary merger (NSBM), as tidal torques transport angular momentum and energy through the outer Lagrange point in the form of a vast tidal tail. If NSBM are indeed solely responsible for the solar system r- process abundances, a galaxy like our own would require to host a few NSBM per million years, with each event ejecting, on average, about 5x10^{-2} M_sun of r-process material. Because the ejecta velocities in the tidal tail are significantly larger than in ordinary supernovae, NSBM deposit a comparable amount of energy into the interstellar medium (ISM). In contrast to extensive efforts studying spherical models for supernova remnant evolution, calculations quantifying the impact of NSBM ejecta in the ISM have been lacking. To better understand their evolution in a cosmological context, we perform a suite of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with optically-thin radiative cooling of isolated NSBM ejecta expanding in environments with conditions adopted from Milky Way-like galaxy simulations. Although the remnant morphology is highly complex at early times, the subsequent radiative evolution that results from thermal instability in atomic gas is remarkably similar to that of a standard supernova blast wave. This implies that sub-resolution supernova feedback models can be used in galaxy-scale simulations that are unable to resolve the key evolutionary phases of NSBM blast waves. Among other quantities, we examine the radius, time, mass and kinetic energy content of the NSBM remnant at shell formation as well as the momentum injected to the ISM. We find that the shell formation epoch is attained when the swept-up mass is about 10^3 M_sun, at this point the mass fraction of r-process material is drastically enhanced up to two orders of magnitude in relation to a solar metallicity ISM.

Effects of environmental gas compression on the multiphase ISM and star formation

The cluster environment can affect galaxy evolution in different ways: via ram pressure stripping or by gravitational perturbations caused by galactic encounters. New IRAM 30m HERA CO(2-1) data of NGC 4501 and NGC 4567/68 are presented. We find an increase in the molecular fraction where the ISM is compressed. The gas is close to self-gravitation in compressed regions. This leads to an increase in gas pressure and a decrease in the ratio between the molecular fraction and total ISM pressure. The overall Kennicutt Schmidt relation based on a pixel-by-pixel analysis at ~1.5 kpc resolution is not significantly modified by compression. However, we detected continuous regions of low molecular star formation efficiencies in the compressed parts of the galactic gas disks. The data suggest that a relation between the molecular star formation efficiency SFE_H2 and gas self-gravitation exists. Both systems show spatial variations in the star formation efficiency with respect to the molecular gas that can be related to environmental compression of the ISM. An analytical model was used to investigate the dependence of SFE_H2 on self-gravitation. The model correctly reproduces the correlations between R_mol/P_tot, SFE_H2, and Toomre Q if different global turbulent velocity dispersions are assumed for the three galaxies. We found that variations in the N_H_2/I_CO conversion factor can mask most of the correlation between SFE_H2 and the Q parameter. Dynamical simulations were used to compare the effects of ram pressure and tidal ISM compression. We conclude that a gravitationally induced ISM compression has the same consequences as ram pressure compression: (i) an increasing gas surface density, (ii) an increasing molecular fraction, and (iii) a decreasing R_mol/P_tot in the compressed region due to the presence of nearly self-gravitating gas. The response of SFE_H2 to compression is more complex.

Absorption at 11 microns in the interstellar medium and embedded sources: evidence for crystalline silicates

An absorption feature is occasionally reported around 11 ?microns in astronomical spectra, including those of forming stars. Candidate carriers include water ice, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), silicon carbide, crystalline silicates or even carbonates. All are known constituents of cosmic dust in one or more types of environments, though not necessarily together. In this paper we present new ground-based 8-13 ?micron spectra of one evolved star, several embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) and a background source lying behind a large column of the interstellar medium (ISM) toward the Galactic Centre. Our observations, obtained at a spectral resolution of ?approximately 100, are compared with previous lower resolution data, as well as data obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) on these and other targets. By presenting a subset of a larger sample our aim is to establish the reality of the feature and subsequently speculate on its carrier. All evidence points toward crystalline silicate. For instance, the 11 ?micron band profile is well matched with the emissivity of crystalline olivine. Furthermore, the apparent association of the absorption feature with a sharp polarisation signature in the spectrum of two previously reported cases suggests a carrier with a relatively high band strength compared to amorphous silicates. If true, this would either set back the evolutionary stage in which silicates are crystallised, either to the embedded phase or even before within the ISM, or else the silicates ejected from the outflows of evolved stars retain some of their crystalline identity during their long residence in the ISM.

Dicke's Superradiance in Astrophysics. I -- The 21 cm Line

We have applied the concept of superradiance introduced by Dicke in 1954 to the ISM by extending the corresponding analysis to the magnetic dipole interaction characterizing the atomic hydrogen 21 cm line. Although it is unlikely that superradiance could take place in thermally relaxed regions, in situations where the conditions necessary for superradiance are met (i.e., close atomic spacing, high velocity coherence, population inversion, and long dephasing time-scales compared to those related to coherent behavior), our results suggest that relatively low levels of population inversion over short astronomical length-scales (e.g., as compared to those required for maser amplification) can lead to the cooperative behavior required for superradiance in the ISM. Given the results of our analysis, we expect the observational properties of superradiance to be characterized by the emission of high intensity, spatially compact, burst-like features potentially taking place over short periods ranging from minutes to days.

Scintillation arcs in low-frequency observations of the timing-array millisecond pulsar J0437-4715

Low-frequency observations of pulsars provide a powerful means for probing the microstructure in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). Here we report on high-resolution dynamic spectral analysis of our observations of the timing-array millisecond pulsar J0437-4715 with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), enabled by our recently commissioned tied-array beam processing pipeline for voltage data recorded from the high time resolution mode of the MWA. A secondary spectral analysis reveals faint parabolic arcs, akin to those seen in high-frequency observations of pulsars with the Green Bank and Arecibo telescopes. Data from Parkes observations at a higher frequency of 732 MHz reveal a similar parabolic feature, with a curvature that scales approximately as the square of the observing wavelength ($\lambda^2$) to the MWA's frequency of 192 MHz. Our analysis suggests that scattering toward PSR J0437-4715 predominantly arises from a compact region about 115 pc from the Earth, which matches well with the expected location of the edge of the Local Bubble that envelopes the local Solar neighborhood. As well as demonstrating new and improved pulsar science capabilities of the MWA, our analysis underscores the potential of low-frequency pulsar observations for gaining valuable insights into the local ISM and for characterizing the ISM toward timing-array pulsars.

Isoscalar monopole and dipole excitations of cluster states and giant resonances in $^{12}$C

The isoscalar monopole(ISM) and dipole(ISD) excitations in $^{12}$C are theoretically investigated with the shifted antisymmetrized molecular dynamics(AMD) plus $3\alpha$-cluster generator coordinate method(GCM). The small amplitude vibration modes are described by coherent one-particle one-hole excitations expressed by small shift of single-nucleon Gaussian wave functions within the AMD framework, whereas the large amplitude cluster modes are incorporated by superposing $3\alpha$-cluster wave functions in the GCM. The coupling of the excitations in the intrinsic frame with the rotation and parity transformation is taken into account microscopically by the angular-momentum and parity projections. The present calculation describes the ISM and ISD excitations in a wide energy region covering cluster modes in the low-energy region and the giant resonances in the high-energy region, though the quantitative description of the high-energy part is not satisfactory. The low-energy ISM and ISD strengths of the cluster modes are enhanced by the radial motion of $\alpha$ clusters, and they split into a couple of states because of the angular motion of $\alpha$ clusters. The low-energy ISM strengths exhaust 26% of the EWSR, which is consistent with the experimental data for the $^{12}$C($0^+_2$;7.65 MeV) and $^{12}$C($0^+_3$;10.3 MeV) measured by $(e,e')$, $(\alpha,\alpha')$, and ($^6$Li,$^6$Li$'$) scatterings. In the calculated low-energy ISD strengths, two $1^-$ states (the $1^-_1$ and $1^-_2$) with the significant strengths are obtained in $E=10-15$ MeV. It is indicated that the ISD excitations can be a good probe to experimentally search for new cluster states such as the $^{12}$C($1^-_2$) obtained in the present calculation.

Isoscalar monopole and dipole excitations of cluster states and giant resonances in $^{12}$C

The isoscalar monopole(ISM) and dipole(ISD) excitations in $^{12}$C are theoretically investigated with the shifted antisymmetrized molecular dynamics(AMD) plus $3\alpha$-cluster generator coordinate method(GCM). The small amplitude vibration modes are described by coherent one-particle one-hole excitations expressed by small shift of single-nucleon Gaussian wave functions within the AMD framework, whereas the large amplitude cluster modes are incorporated by superposing $3\alpha$-cluster wave functions in the GCM. The coupling of the excitations in the intrinsic frame with the rotation and parity transformation is taken into account microscopically by the angular-momentum and parity projections. The present calculation describes the ISM and ISD excitations in a wide energy region covering cluster modes in the low-energy region and the giant resonances in the high-energy region, though the quantitative description of the high-energy part is not satisfactory. The low-energy ISM and ISD strengths of the cluster modes are enhanced by the radial motion of $\alpha$ clusters, and they split into a couple of states because of the angular motion of $\alpha$ clusters. The low-energy ISM strengths exhaust 26% of the EWSR, which is consistent with the experimental data for the $^{12}$C($0^+_2$;7.65 MeV) and $^{12}$C($0^+_3$;10.3 MeV) measured by $(e,e')$, $(\alpha,\alpha')$, and ($^6$Li,$^6$Li$'$) scatterings. In the calculated low-energy ISD strengths, two $1^-$ states (the $1^-_1$ and $1^-_2$) with the significant strengths are obtained in $E=10-15$ MeV. It is indicated that the ISD excitations can be a good probe to experimentally search for new cluster states such as the $^{12}$C($1^-_2$) obtained in the present calculation.

Is Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium Driven by Feedback or Gravity? An Observational Test

Galaxies' interstellar media (ISM) are observed to be supersonically-turbulent, but the ultimate power source that drives turbulent motion remains uncertain. The two dominant models are that the turbulence is driven by star formation feedback and/or that it is produced by gravitational instability in the gas. Here we show that, while both models predict that the galaxies' ISM velocity dispersions will be positively correlated with their star formation rates, the forms of the correlation predicted by these two models are subtly but measurably different. A feedback-driven origin for the turbulence predicts a velocity dispersion that rises more sharply with star formation rate, and that does not depend on the gas fraction (i.e. $\dot{M}_* \propto \sigma^2$), while a gravity-driven model yields a shallower rise and a strong dependence on gas fraction(i.e. $\dot{M}_* \propto f_g^2 \sigma$). We compare the models to a collection of data on local and high-redshift galaxies culled from the literature, and show that the correlation expected for gravity-driven turbulence is a better match to the observations than a feedback-driven model. This suggests that gravity is the ultimate source of ISM turbulence, at least in the rapidly-star-forming, high velocity dispersion galaxies for which our test is most effective. We conclude by discussing the limitations of the present data set, and the prospects for future measurements to enable a more definitive test of the two models.

Type Ia Supernovae and their Environment: Theory and Applications to SN 2014J

We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE (Supernovae Progenitor Interaction Calculator for parameterized Environments, available on request), assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Pi-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia (SN~Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For M_Ch explosions,the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM lines Doppler shifted by 10-100 km/s, and equivalent widths of approximately 100 mA and 1 mA in case of ambient environments with constant density and produced by prior mass loss, respectively. For SN 2014J, both mergers and M_Ch mass explosions have been suggested based on radio and narrow lines. As a consistent and most likely solution, we find an AD wind running into an environment produced by the RG wind of the progenitor during the pre-WD stage, and a short delay, 0.013 to 1.4 Myr, between the WD formation and the explosion. Our framework may be applied more generally to stellar winds and star-formation feedback in large scale galactic evolution simulations.

Type Ia Supernovae and their Environment: Theory and Applications to SN 2014J [Replacement]

We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE (Supernovae Progenitor Interaction Calculator for parameterized Environments, available on request), assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Pi-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia (SN~Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For M_Ch explosions,the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM lines Doppler shifted by 10-100 km/s, and equivalent widths of approximately 100 mA and 1 mA in case of ambient environments with constant density and produced by prior mass loss, respectively. For SN 2014J, both mergers and M_Ch mass explosions have been suggested based on radio and narrow lines. As a consistent and most likely solution, we find an AD wind running into an environment produced by the RG wind of the progenitor during the pre-WD stage, and a short delay, 0.013 to 1.4 Myr, between the WD formation and the explosion. Our framework may be applied more generally to stellar winds and star-formation feedback in large scale galactic evolution simulations.

Velocity resolved [CII] spectroscopy of the center and the BCLMP302 region of M33 (HerM33es)

We aim to understand the contribution of the ionized, atomic and molecular phases of the ISM to the [CII] emission from clouds near the dynamical center and the BCLMP302 HII region in the north of the nearby galaxy M33 at a spatial resolution of 50pc. We combine high resolution [CII] spectra taken with the HIFI spectrometer onboard the Herschel satellite with [CII] Herschel-PACS maps and ground-based observations of CO(2-1) and HI. All data are at a common spatial resolution of 50pc. Typically, the [CII] lines have widths intermediate between the narrower CO(2-1) and broader HI line profiles. We decomposed the [CII] spectra in terms of contribution from molecular and atomic gas detected in CO(2-1) and HI, respectively. We find that the relative contribution of molecular and atomic gas traced by CO(2-1) and HI varies depends mostly on the local physical conditions and geometry. We estimate that 11-60% and 5-34% of the [CII] intensities in the center and in BCLMP302, respectively, arise at velocities showing no CO(2-1) or HI emission and could arise in CO-dark molecular gas. The deduced strong variation in the [CII] emission not associated with CO and HI cannot be explained in terms of differences in A_v, far-ultraviolet radiation field, and metallicity between the two studied regions. Hence the relative amounts of diffuse (CO-dark) and dense molecular gas possibly vary on spatial scales smaller than 50pc. Based on the emission measure observed at radio wavelengths we estimate the contribution of ionized gas at a few positions to lie between 10-25%. The correlations between the intensities of tracers corresponding to the same velocity range as [CII], differ from the correlation derived from PACS data. The results in this paper emphasize the need for velocity-resolved observations to discern the contribution of different components of the ISM to [CII] emission. (abridged)

Gravitational multi-soliton solutions on flat space [Replacement]

It is well known that, for even n, the n-soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n, the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n-soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n-soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n. It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number, say m, of solitons can be eliminated in a non-trivial way by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n-m]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n- and [n-m]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly centred Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.

Gravitational multi-soliton solutions on flat space [Replacement]

It is well known that, for even n, the n-soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n, the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n-soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n-soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n. It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number, say m, of solitons can be eliminated in a non-trivial way by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n-m]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n- and [n-m]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly centred Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.

Gravitational multi-soliton solutions on flat space

It is well-known that, for even n, the n-soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n, the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n-soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n-soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n. It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number say m of solitons can be eliminated in a non-trivial way, by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n-m]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n- and [n-m]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly-centred Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.

Gravitational multi-soliton solutions on flat space [Cross-Listing]

It is well-known that, for even n, the n-soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n, the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n-soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n-soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n. It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number say m of solitons can be eliminated in a non-trivial way, by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n-m]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n- and [n-m]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly-centred Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.

A Systematic Study of Evolved Supernova Remnants in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds with Suzaku

Typing the origin (i.e., Type Ia or core-collapse) of supernova remnants (SNRs) is crucial to determine the rates of supernova (SN) explosions in a galaxy, which is a key to understand its recent chemical evolution. However, evolved SNRs in the so-called Sedov phase are dominated by the swept-up interstellar medium (ISM), making it difficult to determine their ejecta composition and thus SN type. Here we present a systematic X-ray study of nine evolved SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, DEM L238, DEM L249, 0534-69.9, 0548-70.4, B0532-71.0, B0532-67.5, 0103-72.6, 0049-73.6, and 0104-72.3, using archival data of the Suzaku satellite. Although Suzaku does not spatially resolve the SN ejecta from the swept-up ISM due to the limited angular resolution, its excellent energy resolution has enabled clear separation of emission lines in the soft X-ray band. This leads to the finding that the `spatially-integrated' spectra of the evolved (~10^4 yr) SNRs are still significantly contributed by emission from the ejecta at the energies around 1 keV. The Fe/Ne mass ratios, determined mainly from the well-resolved Fe L-shell and Ne K-shell lines, clearly divide the observed SNRs into the Type Ia and core-collapse groups, confirming some previous typing made by Chandra observations that had utilized its extremely high angular resolution. This demonstrates that spatially-integrated X-ray spectra of old SNRs can also be used to discriminate their progenitor type, which would be helpful for future systematic studies of extragalactic SNRs with ASTRO-H and beyond.

Molecular Gas and Star Formation in the Cartwheel

Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 12CO(J=1-0) observations are used to study the cold molecular ISM of the Cartwheel ring galaxy and its relation to HI and massive star formation (SF). CO moment maps find $(2.69\pm0.05)\times10^{9}$ M$_{\odot}$ of H$_2$ associated with the inner ring (72%) and nucleus (28%) for a Galactic I(CO)-to-N(H2) conversion factor ($\alpha_{\rm CO}$). The spokes and disk are not detected. Analysis of the inner ring's CO kinematics show it to be expanding ($V_{\rm exp}=68.9\pm4.9$ km s$^{-1}$) implying an $\approx70$ Myr age. Stack averaging reveals CO emission in the starburst outer ring for the first time, but only where HI surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm HI}$) is high, representing $M_{\rm H_2}=(7.5\pm0.8)\times10^{8}$ M$_{\odot}$ for a metallicity appropriate $\alpha_{\rm CO}$, giving small $\Sigma_{\rm H_2}$ ($3.7$ M$_{\odot}$ pc$^{-2}$), molecular fraction ($f_{\rm mol}=0.10$), and H$_2$ depletion timescales ($\tau_{\rm mol} \approx50-600$ Myr). Elsewhere in the outer ring $\Sigma_{\rm H_2}\lesssim 2$ M$_{\odot}$ pc$^{-2}$, $f_{\rm mol}\lesssim 0.1$ and $\tau_{\rm mol}\lesssim 140-540$ Myr (all $3\sigma$). The inner ring and nucleus are H$_2$-dominated and are consistent with local spiral SF laws. $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ in the outer ring appears independent of $\Sigma_{\rm H_2}$, $\Sigma_{\rm HI}$ or $\Sigma_{\rm HI+H_2}$. The ISM's long confinement in the robustly star forming rings of the Cartwheel and AM0644-741 may result in either a large diffuse H$_2$ component or an abundance of CO-faint low column density molecular clouds. The H$_2$ content of evolved starburst rings may therefore be substantially larger. Due to its lower $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ and age the Cartwheel's inner ring has yet to reach this state. Alternately, the outer ring may trigger efficient SF in an HI-dominated ISM.

IR-excesses around nearby Lambda Boo stars are caused by debris disks rather than ISM bow waves

Lambda Boo stars are predominately A-type stars with solar abundant C, N, O, and S, but up to 2 dex underabundances of refractory elements. The stars' unusual surface abundances could be due to a selective accretion of volatile gas over dust. It has been proposed that there is a correlation between the Lambda Boo phenomenon and IR-excesses which are the result of a debris disk or interstellar medium (ISM) interaction providing the accreting material. We observe 70 or 100 and 160 $\mu$m excess emission around 9 confirmed Lambda Boo stars with the Herschel Space Observatory, to differentiate whether the dust emission is from a debris disk or an ISM bow wave. We find that 3/9 stars observed host well resolved debris disks. While the remaining 6/9 are not resolved, they are inconsistent with an ISM bow wave based on the dust emission being more compact for its temperature and predicted bow wave models produce hotter emission than what is observed. We find the incidence of bright IR-excesses around Lambda Boo stars is higher than normal A-stars. To explain this given our observations, we explore Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag as a mechanism of accretion from a debris disk but find it insufficient. As an alternative, we propose the correlation is due to higher dynamical activity in the disks currently underway. Large impacts of planetesimals or a higher influx of comets could provide enough volatile gas for accretion. Further study on the transport of circumstellar material in relation to the abundance anomalies are required to explain the phenomenon through external accretion.

Sodium Absorption Systems towards SN Ia 2014J Originate on Interstellar Scales

Na I D absorbing systems towards Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively studied over the last decade with the aim of finding circumstellar material (CSM), which is an indirect probe of the progenitor system. However, it is difficult to deconvolve CSM components from non-variable, and often dominant, components created by interstellar material (ISM). We present a series of high resolution spectra of SN Ia 2014J from before maximum brightness to >~250 days after maximum brightness. The late-time spectrum provides unique information for determining the origin of the Na I D absorption systems. The deep late-time observation allows us to probe the environment around the SN at a large scale, extending to >~40 pc. We find that a spectrum of diffuse light in the vicinity, but not directly in the line-of-sight of the SN, has absorbing systems nearly identical to those obtained for the `pure' SN line-of-sight. Therefore, basically all Na I D systems seen towards SN 2014J must originate from foreground material that extends to at least ~40 pc in projection and none at the CSM scale. A fluctuation in the column densities at a scale of ~20 pc is also identified. After subtracting the diffuse, "background" spectrum, the late-time SN line-of-sight Na I D profile is consistent with that of near-maximum brightness profiles. The lack of variability on a ~1 year timescale is consistent with the ISM interpretation for the gas.

Sodium Absorption Systems toward SN Ia 2014J Originate on Interstellar Scales [Replacement]

Na I D absorbing systems toward Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively studied over the last decade with the aim of finding circumstellar material (CSM), which is an indirect probe of the progenitor system. However, it is difficult to deconvolve CSM components from non-variable, and often dominant, components created by interstellar material (ISM). We present a series of high-resolution spectra of SN Ia 2014J from before maximum brightness to ~250 days after maximum brightness. The late-time spectrum provides unique information for determining the origin of the Na I D absorption systems. The deep late-time observation allows us to probe the environment around the SN at a large scale, extending to ~40 pc. We find that a spectrum of diffuse light in the vicinity, but not directly in the line-of-sight, of the SN has absorbing systems nearly identical to those obtained for the "pure" SN line-of-sight. Therefore, basically all Na I D systems seen toward SN 2014J must originate from foreground material that extends to at least ~40 pc in projection and none at the CSM scale. A fluctuation in the column densities at a scale of ~20 pc is also identified. After subtracting the diffuse, "background" spectrum, the late-time SN Na I D profile along the SN line-of-sight is consistent with the profile in the near-maximum brightness spectra. The lack of variability on a ~1 year timescale is consistent with the ISM interpretation for the gas.

Explaining the stellar initial mass function with the theory of spatial networks

The distributions of stars and prestellar cores by mass (initial and dense core mass functions, IMF/DCMF) stay among the key factors regulating star formation and are subject of detailed theoretical and observational studies. Results from numerical simulations of star formation qualitatively resemble an observed mass function, a scale free power law with a sharp decline at low masses. However, most analytic IMF theories critically depend on the empirically chosen input spectrum of mass fluctuations which evolve into dense cores and, subsequently, stars. Here we propose a new approach exploiting the techniques from the field of network science. We represent a system of dense cores accreting gas from the surrounding diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) as a spatial network growing by preferential attachment and assume that the ISM density has a self-similar fractal distribution following the Kolmogorov turbulence theory. As opposed to gravoturbulent fragmentation theories, we consider the dense core growth and demonstrate that the power law core mass function emerges independently of the initial distribution of density fluctuations by mass. Our model yields a power law solely defined by the fractal dimensionalities of the ISM and accreting gas. With a proper choice of the low mass cut-off, it reproduces observations over three decades in mass. We also rule out a low mass star dominated ``bottom-heavy'' IMF in a single star forming region.

Stellar feedback efficiencies: supernovae versus stellar winds [Replacement]

Stellar winds and supernova (SN) explosions of massive stars ("stellar feedback") create bubbles in the interstellar medium (ISM) and insert newly produced heavy elements and kinetic energy into their surroundings, possibly driving turbulence. Most of this energy is thermalized and immediately removed from the ISM by radiative cooling. The rest is available for driving ISM dynamics. In this work we estimate the amount of feedback energy retained as kinetic energy when the bubble walls have decelerated to the sound speed of the ambient medium. We show that the feedback of the most massive star outweighs the feedback from less massive stars. For a giant molecular cloud (GMC) mass of 1e5 solar masses (as e.g. found in the Orion GMCs) and a star formation efficiency of 8% the initial mass function predicts a most massive star of approximately 60 solar masses. For this stellar evolution model we test the dependence of the retained kinetic energy of the cold GMC gas on the inclusion of stellar winds. In our model winds insert 2.34 times the energy of a SN and create stellar wind bubbles serving as pressure reservoirs. We find that during the pressure driven phases of the bubble evolution radiative losses peak near the contact discontinuity (CD), and thus, the retained energy depends critically on the scales of the mixing processes across the CD. Taking into account the winds of massive stars increases the amount of kinetic energy deposited in the cold ISM from 0.1% to a few percent of the feedback energy.

Stellar feedback efficiencies: supernovae versus stellar winds

Stellar winds and supernova (SN) explosions of massive stars ("stellar feedback") create bubbles in the interstellar medium (ISM) and insert newly produced heavy elements and kinetic energy into their surroundings, possibly driving turbulence. Most of this energy is thermalized and immediately removed from the ISM by radiative cooling. The rest is available for driving ISM dynamics. In this work we estimate the amount of feedback energy retained as kinetic energy when the bubble walls have decelerated to the sound speed of the ambient medium. We show that the feedback of the most massive star outweighs the feedback from less massive stars. For a giant molecular cloud (GMC) mass of 1e5 solar masses (as e.g. found in the Orion GMCs) and a star formation efficiency of 8% the initial mass function predicts a most massive star of approximately 60 solar masses. For this stellar evolution model we test the dependence of the retained kinetic energy of the cold GMC gas on the inclusion of stellar winds. In our model winds insert 2.34 times the energy of a SN and create stellar wind bubbles serving as pressure reservoirs. We find that during the pressure driven phases of the bubble evolution radiative losses peak near the contact discontinuity (CD), and thus, the retained energy depends critically on the scales of the mixing processes across the CD. Taking into account the winds of massive stars increases the amount of kinetic energy deposited in the cold ISM from 0.1% to a few percent of the feedback energy.

ISM masses and the star formation law at Z = 1 to 6 // ALMA observations of dust continuum in 145 galaxies in the COSMOS survey field

ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the long wavelength dust emission in 145 star-forming galaxies are used to probe the evolution of star-forming ISM. We also develop the physical basis and empirical calibration (with 72 low-z and z ~ 2 galaxies) for using the dust continuum as a quantitative probe of interstellar medium (ISM) masses. The galaxies with highest star formation rates (SFRs) at <z> = 2.2 and 4.4 have gas masses up to 100 times that of the Milky Way and gas mass fractions reaching 50 to 80%, i.e. gas masses 1 - 4 times their stellar masses. We find a single high-z star formation law: SFR = 35 M_ mol^0.89 x (1+z)_{z=2}^0.95 x (sSFR)_{MS}^0.23 \msun yr^-1 -- an approximately linear dependence on the ISM mass and an increased star formation efficiency per unit gas mass at higher redshift. Galaxies above the Main Sequence (MS) have larger gas masses but are converting their ISM into stars on a timescale only slightly shorter than those on the MS -- thus these 'starbursts' are largely the result of having greatly increased gas masses rather than and increased efficiency for converting gas to stars. At z $> 1$, the entire population of star-forming galaxies has $\sim$ 2 - 5 times shorter gas depletion times than low-z galaxies. These shorter depletion times indicate a different mode of star formation in the early universe -- most likely dynamically driven by compressive, high-dispersion gas motions -- a natural consequence of the high gas accretion rates.

ISM masses and the star formation law at Z = 1 to 6 // ALMA observations of dust continuum in 145 galaxies in the COSMOS survey field [Replacement]

ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the long wavelength dust emission in 145 star-forming galaxies are used to probe the evolution of star-forming ISM. We also develop the physical basis and empirical calibration (with 72 low-z and z ~ 2 galaxies) for using the dust continuum as a quantitative probe of interstellar medium (ISM) masses. The galaxies with highest star formation rates (SFRs) at <z> = 2.2 and 4.4 have gas masses up to 100 times that of the Milky Way and gas mass fractions reaching 50 to 80%, i.e. gas masses 1 - 4 times their stellar masses. We find a single high-z star formation law: SFR = 35 M_ mol^0.89 x (1+z)_{z=2}^0.95 x (sSFR)_{MS}^0.23 \msun yr^-1 -- an approximately linear dependence on the ISM mass and an increased star formation efficiency per unit gas mass at higher redshift. Galaxies above the Main Sequence (MS) have larger gas masses but are converting their ISM into stars on a timescale only slightly shorter than those on the MS -- thus these 'starbursts' are largely the result of having greatly increased gas masses rather than and increased efficiency for converting gas to stars. At z $> 1$, the entire population of star-forming galaxies has $\sim$ 2 - 5 times shorter gas depletion times than low-z galaxies. These shorter depletion times indicate a different mode of star formation in the early universe -- most likely dynamically driven by compressive, high-dispersion gas motions -- a natural consequence of the high gas accretion rates.

Correcting for Interstellar Scattering Delay in High-precision Pulsar Timing: Simulation Results

Light travel time changes due to gravitational waves may be detected within the next decade through precision timing of millisecond pulsars. Removal of frequency-dependent interstellar medium (ISM) delays due to dispersion and scattering is a key issue in the detection process. Current timing algorithms routinely correct pulse times of arrival (TOAs) for time-variable delays due to cold plasma dispersion. However, none of the major pulsar timing groups correct for delays due to scattering from multi-path propagation in the ISM. Scattering introduces a frequency-dependent phase change in the signal that results in pulse broadening and arrival time delays. Any method to correct the TOA for interstellar propagation effects must be based on multi-frequency measurements that can effectively separate dispersion and scattering delay terms from frequency-independent perturbations such as those due to a gravitational wave. Cyclic spectroscopy, first described in an astronomical context by Demorest (2011), is a potentially powerful tool to assist in this multi-frequency decomposition. As a step toward a more comprehensive ISM propagation delay correction, we demonstrate through a simulation that we can accurately recover impulse response functions (IRFs), such as those that would be introduced by multi-path scattering, with a realistic signal-to-noise ratio. We demonstrate that timing precision is improved when scatter-corrected TOAs are used, under the assumptions of a high signal-to-noise and highly scattered signal. We also show that the effect of pulse-to-pulse "jitter" is not a serious problem for IRF reconstruction, at least for jitter levels comparable to those observed in several bright pulsars.

The Strikingly Uniform, Highly Turbulent Interstellar Medium of the Most Luminous Galaxy in the Universe

Observed at z = 4.601 and with L_bol = 3.5 x 10^14 Lsun, W2246-0526 is the most luminous galaxy known in the Universe, and hosts a deeply-buried active galactic nucleus (AGN)/super-massive black hole (SMBH). Discovered using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), W2246-0526 is classified as a Hot Dust Obscured Galaxy (Hot DOG), based on its luminosity and dust temperature. Here we present spatially resolved ALMA [CII]157.7um observations of W2246-0526, providing unique insight into the kinematics of its interstellar medium (ISM). The measured [CII]-to-far-infrared ratio is ~2 x 10^-4, implying ISM conditions that compare only with the most obscured, compact starbursts and AGN in the local Universe today. The spatially resolved [CII] line is strikingly uniform and very broad, 500-600 km/s wide, extending throughout the entire galaxy over about 2.5 kpc, with modest shear. Such a large, homogeneous velocity dispersion indicates a highly turbulent medium. W2246-0526 is unstable in terms of the energy and momentum that are being injected into the ISM, strongly suggesting that the gas is being blown away from the system isotropically, likely reflecting a cathartic state on its road to becoming an un-obscured quasar. W2246-0526 provides an extraordinary laboratory to study and model the properties and kinematics of gas in an extreme environment under strong feedback, at a time when the Universe was 1/10 of its current age: a system pushing the limits that can be reached during galaxy formation.

The Phase Coherence of Interstellar Density Fluctuations

Studies of MHD turbulence often investigate the Fourier power spectrum to provide information on the nature of the turbulence cascade. However, the Fourier power spectrum only contains the Fourier amplitudes and rejects all information regarding the Fourier phases. Here we investigate the utility of two statistical diagnostics for recovering information on Fourier phases in ISM density data: the averaged amplitudes of the bispectrum and the phase coherence index (PCI), a new phase technique for the ISM. We create 3D density and 2D column density maps using a set of simulations of isothermal ideal MHD turbulence with a wide range of sonic and Alfv\'enic Mach numbers. We find that the bispectrum averaged along different angles with respect to either the $k_1$ or $k_2$ axis is primarily sensitive to the sonic Mach number while averaging the bispectral amplitudes over different annuli is sensitive to both the sonic and Alfv\'enic Mach numbers. The PCI of density suggests that the most correlated phases occur in supersonic sub-Alfv\'enic turbulence and also near the numerical dissipation regime. This suggests that non-linear interactions with correlated phases are strongest in shock dominated regions, in agreement with findings from the solar wind. Additionally, our results are particularly encouraging as they suggests the phase information contained in the bispectrum and PCI can be used to find parameters of turbulence in column density maps.

Cold gas and the disruptive effect of a young radio jet

Newly born and young radio sources are in a delicate phase of their life. Their jets are fighting their way through the surrounding gaseous medium, strongly experiencing this interaction while, at the same time, impacting and affecting the interstellar medium (ISM). Here we present the results from two studies of HI (in absorption) and molecular gas illustrating what can be learned from these phases of the gas. We first describe a statistical study with the WSRT. The study shows that the young radio sources not only have an higher detection rate of HI, but also systematically broader and more asymmetric HI profiles, most of them blueshifted. This supports the idea that we are looking at young radio jets making their way through the surrounding ISM, which also appears to be, on average, richer in gas than in evolved radio sources. Signatures of the impact of the jet are seen in the kinematics of the gas. However, even among the young sources, we identify a population that remains undetected in HI even after stacking their profiles. Orientation effects can only partly explain the result. These objects either are genuinely gas-poor or have different conditions of the medium, e.g. higher spin temperature. We further present the ALMA study of molecular gas in IC5063 to trace in detail the jet impacting the ISM. The kinematics of the cold, molecular gas co-spatial with the radio plasma shows this process in action. The ALMA data reveal a fast outflow of molecular gas extending along the entire radio jet (~1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities at the location of the brighter hot-spot. We propose a scenario where the radio jet is expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the ISM.

Where are all of the nebulae ionized by supersoft X-ray sources?

Accreting, steadily nuclear-burning white dwarfs are associated with so-called close-binary supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs), observed to have temperatures of a few$\times 10^{5}$K and luminosities on the order of $10^{38}$erg/s. These and other types of SSSs are expected to be capable of ionizing their surrounding circumstellar medium, however, to date only one such nebula was detected in the Large Magellanic Cloud (of its 6 known close-binary SSSs), surrounding the accreting, nuclear-burning WD CAL 83. This has led to the conclusion that most SSSs cannot have been both luminous ($\gtrsim 10^{37}$erg/s) and hot ($\gtrsim$ few $\times 10^{4}$K) for the majority of their past accretion history, unless the density of the ISM surrounding most sources is much less than that inferred for the CAL 83 nebula (4--10$\rm{cm}^{-3}$). Here we demonstrate that most SSSs must lie in much lower density media than CAL 83. Past efforts to detect such nebulae have not accounted for the structure of the ISM in star-forming galaxies and, in particular, for the fact that most of the volume is occupied by low density warm \& hot ISM. CAL 83 appears to lie in a region of ISM which is at least $\sim 40$-fold overdense. We compute the probability of such an event to be $\approx 18\%$, in good agreement with observed statistics. We provide a revised model for the "typical" SSS nebula, and outline the requirements of a survey of the Magellanic clouds which could detect the majority of such objects. We then briefly discuss some of the possible implications, should there prove to be a large population of previously undiscovered ionizing sources.

How stellar feedback simultaneously regulates star formation and drives outflows

We present an analytic model for how momentum deposition from stellar feedback simultaneously regulates star formation and drives outflows in a turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). Because the ISM is turbulent, a given patch of ISM exhibits sub-patches with a range of surface densities. The high-density patches are 'pushed' by feedback, thereby driving turbulence and self-regulating local star formation. Sufficiently low-density patches, however, are accelerated to above the escape velocity before the region can self-adjust and are thus vented as outflows. In the turbulent-pressure-supported regime, when the gas fraction is $\gtrsim 0.3$, the ratio of the turbulent velocity dispersion to the circular velocity is sufficiently high that at any given time, of order half of the ISM has surface density less than the critical value and thus can be blown out on a dynamical time. The resulting outflows have a mass-loading factor ($\eta \equiv M_{\rm out}/M_{\star}$) that is inversely proportional to the gas fraction times the circular velocity. At low gas fractions, the star formation rate needed for local self-regulation, and corresponding turbulent Mach number, decline rapidly; the ISM is 'smoother', and it is actually more difficult to drive winds with large mass-loading factors. Crucially, our model predicts that stellar-feedback-driven outflows should be suppressed at $z \lesssim 1$ in $M_{\star} \gtrsim 10^{10} M_{\odot}$ galaxies. This mechanism allows massive galaxies to exhibit violent outflows at high redshifts and then 'shut down' those outflows at late times, thereby enabling the formation of a smooth, extended thin stellar disk. We provide simple fitting functions for $\eta$ that should be useful for sub-resolution and semi-analytic models. [abridged]

The super star cluster driven feedback in ESO338-IG04 and Haro 11

The stellar content of young massive star clusters emit large amounts of Lyman continuum photons and inject momentum into the inter stellar medium (ISM) by the strong stellar winds of the most massive stars in the cluster. When the most massive stars explode as supernovae, large amounts of mechanical energy are injected in the ISM. A detailed study of the ISM around these massive cluster provides insights on the effect of cluster feedback. We present high quality integral field spectroscopy taken with VLT/MUSE of two starburst galaxies: ESO 338-IG04 and Haro 11. Both galaxies contain a significant number of super star clusters. The MUSE data provide us with an unprecedented view of the state and kinematics of the ionized gas in the galaxy allowing us to study the effect of stellar feedback on small and large spatial scales. We present our recent results on studying the ISM state of these two galaxies. The data of both galaxies show that the mechanical and ionization feedback of the super star clusters in the galaxy modify the state and kinematics of the ISM substancially by creating highly ionized bubbles around the cluster, making the central part of the galaxy highly ionized. This shows that the HII regions around the individual clusters are density bounded, allowing the ionizing photons to escape and ionize the ISM further out.

Shocks, Star Formation, and the JWST

The interstellar medium (ISM) is constantly evolving due to unremitting injection of energy in various forms. Energetic radiation transfers energy to the ISM: from the UV photons, emitted by the massive stars, to X- and $\gamma$-ray ones. Cosmic rays are another source of energy. Finally, mechanical energy is injected through shocks or turbulence. Shocks are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of galaxies. They are associated to star formation (through jets and bipolar outflows), life (via stellar winds), and death (in AGB stellar winds or supernovae explosion). The dynamical processes leading to the formation of molecular clouds also generate shocks where flows of interstellar matter collide. Because of their ubiquity, the study of interstellar shocks is also a useful probe to the other mechanisms of energy injection in the ISM. This study must be conducted in order to understand the evolution of the ISM as a whole, and to address various questions: what is the peculiar chemistry associated to shocks, and what is their contribution to the cycle of matter in galaxies ? What is the energetic impact of shocks on their surroundings on various scales, and hence what is the feedback of stars on the galaxies ? What are the scenarios of star formation, whether this star formation leads to the propagation of shocks, or whether it is triggered by shock propagation ? What is the role of shocks in the acceleration of cosmic rays ? Can they shed light on their composition and diffusion processes ? In order to progress on these questions, it is paramount to interpret the most precise observations with the most precise models of shocks. From the observational point of view, the James Webb Space Telescope represents a powerful tool to better address the above questions, as it will allow to observe numerous shock tracers in the infrared range at an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution.

Global diffusion of cosmic rays [Replacement]

The propagation of charged particles, including cosmic rays, in a partially ordered magnetic field is characterized by a diffusion tensor whose components depend on the particle's Larmor radius $R_L$ and the degree of order in the magnetic field. Most studies of the particle diffusion presuppose a scale separation between the mean and random magnetic fields (e.g., there being a pronounced minimum in the magnetic power spectrum at intermediate scales). Scale separation is often a good approximation in laboratory plasmas, but not in most astrophysical environments such as the interstellar medium (ISM). Modern simulations of the ISM have numerical resolution of order 1 pc, so the Larmor radius of the cosmic rays that dominate in energy density is at least $10^{6}$ times smaller than the resolved scales. Large-scale simulations of cosmic ray propagation in the ISM thus rely on oversimplified forms of the diffusion tensor. We take the first steps towards a more realistic description of cosmic ray diffusion for such simulations, obtaining direct estimates of the diffusion tensor from test particle simulations in random magnetic fields (with the Larmor radius scale being fully resolved), for a range of particle energies corresponding to $10^{-2}\lesssim R_L/l_c \lesssim 10^{3}$, where $l_c$ is the magnetic correlation length. We obtain explicit expressions for the cosmic ray diffusion tensor for $R_L/l_c \ll 1$, that might be used in a sub-grid model of cosmic ray diffusion. The diffusion coefficients obtained are closely connected with existing transport theories that include the random walk of magnetic lines.

Ulysses and IBEX Constraints on the Interstellar Neutral Helium Distribution

We relax the usual assumption of Maxwellian velocity distributions in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the analysis of neutral He particle data from Ulysses and the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). For Ulysses, the possibility that a narrow component from heavy neutrals is contaminating the He signal is considered, which could potentially explain the lower ISM temperature measured by Ulysses compared to IBEX. The expected heavy element contribution is about an order of magnitude too small to resolve that discrepancy. For IBEX, we find that modest asymmetries in the ISM velocity distribution can potentially improve the quality of fit to the first two years of data, and perhaps improve agreement with the Ulysses measurements.

The little-studied cluster Berkeley 90. II. The foreground ISM

Context: Nearly one century after their discovery, the carrier(s) of Diffuse Interstellar Bands is/are still unknown and there are few sightlines studied in detail for a large number of DIBs. Aims: We want to study the ISM sightlines towards LS III +46 11 and LS III +46 12, two early-O-type stellar systems, and LS III +46 11 B, a mid-B-type star. The three targets are located in the stellar cluster Berkeley 90 and have a high extinction. Methods: We use the multi-epoch high-S/N optical spectra presented in paper I (Ma\'iz Apell\'aniz et al. 2015), the extinction results derived there, and additional spectra. Results: We have measured equivalent widths, velocities, and FWHMs for a large number of absorption lines in the rich ISM spectrum in front of Berkeley 90. The absorbing ISM has at least two clouds at different velocities, one with a lower column density (thinner) in the K I lines located away from Berkeley 90 and another one with a higher column density (thicker) associated with the cluster. The first cloud has similar properties for both O-star sightlines but the second one is thicker for LS III +46 11. The comparison between species indicate that the cloud with a higher column density has a denser core, allowing us to classify the DIBs in a sigma-zeta scale, some of them for the first time. The LS III +46 12 sightline also has a high-velocity redshifted component.

Linear polarization structures in LOFAR observations of the interstellar medium in the 3C196 field

This study aims to characterise linear polarization structures in LOFAR observations of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the 3C196 field, one of the primary fields of the LOFAR-Epoch of Reionization key science project. We have used the high band antennas (HBA) of LOFAR to image this region and RM-synthesis to unravel the distribution of polarized structures in Faraday depth. The brightness temperature of the detected Galactic emission is $5-15~{\rm K}$ in polarized intensity and covers the range from -3 to +8 ${\rm rad~m^{-2}}$ in Faraday depth. The most interesting morphological feature is a strikingly straight filament at a Faraday depth of $+0.5~{\rm rad~m^{-2}}$ running from north to south, right through the centre of the field and parallel to the Galactic plane. There is also an interesting system of linear depolarization canals conspicuous in an image showing the peaks of Faraday spectra. We have used the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at 350 MHz to image the same region. For the first time we see some common morphology in the RM cubes made at 150 and 350 MHz. There is no indication of diffuse emission in total intensity in the interferometric data, in line with results at higher frequencies and previous LOFAR observations. Based on our results, we have determined physical parameters of the ISM and have proposed a simple model that may explain the observed distribution of the intervening magneto-ionic medium. The mean line-of-sight magnetic field component, $B_\parallel$, is determined to be $0.3\pm0.1~{\rm \mu G}$ and its spatial variation across the 3C196 field is $0.1~{\rm \mu G}$. The filamentary structure is probably an ionized filament in the ISM, located somewhere within the Local Bubble. It shows an excess in thermal electron density ($n_e B_\parallel>6.2~{\rm cm^{-3}\mu G}$) compared to its surroundings.

The SILCC (SImulating the LifeCycle of molecular Clouds) project - II. Dynamical evolution of the supernova-driven ISM and the launching of outflows [Replacement]

The SILCC project (SImulating the Life-Cycle of molecular Clouds) aims at a more self-consistent understanding of the interstellar medium (ISM) on small scales and its link to galaxy evolution. We present three-dimensional (magneto)hydrodynamic simulations of the ISM in a vertically stratified box including self-gravity, an external potential due to the stellar component of the galactic disc, and stellar feedback in the form of an interstellar radiation field and supernovae (SNe). The cooling of the gas is based on a chemical network that follows the abundances of H+, H, H2, C+, and CO and takes shielding into account consistently. We vary the SN feedback by comparing different SN rates, clustering and different positioning, in particular SNe in density peaks and at random positions, which has a major impact on the dynamics. Only for random SN positions the energy is injected in sufficiently low-density environments to reduce energy losses and enhance the effective kinetic coupling of the SNe with the gas. This leads to more realistic velocity dispersions (\sigma_HI ~ 0.8\sigma_(300-8000K) ~ 10-20km/s, \sigma_H\alpha ~ 0.6\sigma_(8000-3e5K) ~ 20-30km/s), and strong outflows with mass loading factors of up to 10 even for solar neighbourhood conditions. Clustered SNe abet the onset of outflows compared to individual SNe but do not influence the net outflow rate. The outflows do not contain any molecular gas and are mainly composed of atomic hydrogen. The bulk of the outflowing mass is dense (\rho ~ 1e-25-1e-24g/cc) and slow (v ~ 20-40km/s) but there is a high-velocity tail of up to v ~ 500km/s with \rho ~ 1e-28-1e-27g/cc.

SImulating the LifeCycle of molecular Clouds (SILCC): II. Dynamical evolution of the supernova-driven ISM and the launching of outflows

The SILCC project (SImulating the Life-Cycle of molecular Clouds) aims at a more self-consistent understanding of the interstellar medium (ISM) on small scales and its link to galaxy evolution. We present three-dimensional (magneto)hydrodynamic simulations of the ISM in a vertically stratified box including self-gravity, an external potential due to the stellar component of the galactic disc, and stellar feedback in the form of an interstellar radiation field and supernovae (SNe). The cooling of the gas is based on a chemical network that follows the abundances of H+, H, H2, C+, and CO and takes shielding into account consistently. We vary the SN feedback by comparing different SN rates, clustering and different positioning, in particular SNe in density peaks and at random positions, which has a major impact on the dynamics. Only for random SN positions the energy is injected in sufficiently low-density environments to reduce energy losses and enhance the effective kinetic coupling of the SNe with the gas. This leads to more realistic velocity dispersions (\sigma_HI ~ 0.8\sigma_(300-8000K) ~ 10-20km/s, \sigma_H\alpha ~ 0.6\sigma_(8000-3e5K) ~ 20-30km/s), and strong outflows with mass loading factors of up to 10 even for solar neighbourhood conditions. Clustered SNe abet the onset of outflows compared to individual SNe but do not influence the net outflow rate. The outflows do not contain any molecular gas and are mainly composed of atomic hydrogen. The bulk of the outflowing mass is dense (\rho ~ 1e-25-1e-24g/cc) and slow (v ~ 20-40km/s) but there is a high-velocity tail of up to v ~ 500km/s with \rho ~ 1e-28-1e-27g/cc.

Theoretical study of deuteronated PAHs as carriers for IR emission features in the ISM

This work proposes deuteronated PAH (DPAH+ ) molecules as a potential carrier of the 4.4 and 4.65 {\mu}m mid infrared emission bands that have been observationally detected towards the Orion and M17 regions. Density Functional Theory calculations have been carried out on DPAH+ molecules to see the variations in the spectral behaviour from that of a pure PAH. DPAH+ molecules show features that arise due to the stretching of the aliphatic C-D bond. Deuterated PAHs have been previously reported as carriers for such features. However, preferred conditions of ionization of PAHs in the interstellar medium (ISM) indicates the possibility of the formation of DPAH+ molecules. Comparison of band positions of DPAH+ s shows reasonable agreement with the observations. We report the effect of size of the DPAH+ molecules on band positions and intensities. This study also reports a D/H ratio ([D/H]sc ; the ratio of C-D stretch and C-H stretch bands per [D/H]num ) that is decreasing with the increasing size of DPAH+ s. It is noted that large DPAH+ molecules (no. of C atoms ~ 50) match the D/H ratio that has been estimated from observations. This ratio offers prospects to study the deuterium abundance and depletion in the ISM.

Faraday Tomography of the North Polar Spur: Constraints on the distance to the Spur and on the Magnetic Field of the Galaxy

We present radio continuum and polarization images of the North Polar Spur (NPS) from the Global Magneto-Ionic Medium Survey (GMIMS) conducted with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory 26-m Telescope. We fit polarization angle versus wavelength squared over 2048 frequency channels from 1280 to 1750 MHz to obtain a Faraday Rotation Measure (RM) map of the NPS. Combining this RM map with a published Faraday depth map of the entire Galaxy in this direction, we derive the Faraday depth introduced by the NPS and the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) in front of and behind the NPS. The Faraday depth contributed by the NPS is close to zero, indicating that the NPS is an emitting only feature. The Faraday depth caused by the ISM in front of the NPS is consistent with zero at b>50 degree, implying that this part of the NPS is local at a distance of approximately several hundred parsecs. The Faraday depth contributed by the ISM behind the NPS gradually increases with Galactic latitude up to b=44 degree, and decreases at higher Galactic latitudes. This implies that either the part of the NPS at b<44 degree is distant or the NPS is local but there is a sign change of the large-scale magnetic field. If the NPS is local, there is then no evidence for a large-scale anti-symmetry pattern in the Faraday depth of the Milky Way. The Faraday depth introduced by the ISM behind the NPS at latitudes b>50 degree can be explained by including a coherent vertical magnetic field.

The Interstellar Oxygen Crisis, or Where Have All the Oxygen Atoms Gone?

The interstellar medium (ISM) seems to have a significant surplus of oxygen which was dubbed as the "O crisis": independent of the adopted interstellar reference abundance, the total number of O atoms depleted from the gas phase far exceeds that tied up in solids by as much as ~160ppm of O/H. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the missing O could be hidden in micrometer-sized H2O ice grains. We examine this hypothesis by comparing the infrared (IR) extinction and far-IR emission arising from these grains with that observed in the Galactic diffuse ISM. We find that it is possible for the diffuse ISM to accommodate ~160ppm of O/H in micron-sized H2O ice grains without violating the observational constraints including the absence of the 3.1micron O-H absorption feature. More specifically, H2O ice grains of radii ~4micron and O/H = 160 ppm are capable of accounting for the observed flat extinction at ~ 3-8 micron and produce no excessive emission in the far-IR. These grains could be present in the diffuse ISM through rapid exchange of material between dense molecular clouds where they form and diffuse clouds where they are destroyed by photosputtering.

Asymmetric supernova remnants generated by Galactic, massive runaway stars

After the death of a runaway massive star, its supernova shock wave interacts with the bow shocks produced by its defunct progenitor, and may lose energy, momentum, and its spherical symmetry before expanding into the local interstellar medium (ISM). We investigate whether the initial mass and space velocity of these progenitors can be associated with asymmetric supernova remnants. We run hydrodynamical models of supernovae exploding in the pre-shaped medium of moving Galactic core-collapse progenitors. We find that bow shocks that accumulate more than about 1.5 Mo generate asymmetric remnants. The shock wave first collides with these bow shocks 160-750 yr after the supernova, and the collision lasts until 830-4900 yr. The shock wave is then located 1.35-5 pc from the center of the explosion, and it expands freely into the ISM, whereas in the opposite direction it is channelled into the region of undisturbed wind material. This applies to an initially 20 Mo progenitor moving with velocity 20 km/s and to our initially 40 Mo progenitor. These remnants generate mixing of ISM gas, stellar wind and supernova ejecta that is particularly important upstream from the center of the explosion. Their lightcurves are dominated by emission from optically-thin cooling and by X-ray emission of the shocked ISM gas. We find that these remnants are likely to be observed in the [OIII] lambda 5007 spectral line emission or in the soft energy-band of X-rays. Finally, we discuss our results in the context of observed Galactic supernova remnants such as 3C391 and the Cygnus Loop.

Reactivity and Survivability of Glycolaldehyde in Simulated Meteorite Impact Experiments

Sugars of extraterrestrial origin have been observed in the interstellar medium (ISM), in at least one comet spectrum, and in several carbonaceous chondritic meteorites that have been recovered from the surface of the Earth. The origins of these sugars within the meteorites have been debated. To explore the possibility that sugars could be generated during shock events, this paper reports on the results of the first laboratory impact experiments wherein glycolaldehyde, found in the ISM, as well as glycolaldehyde mixed with montmorillonite clay, have been subjected to reverberated shocks from ~5 to >25 GPa. New biologically relevant molecules, including threose, erythrose and ethylene glycol, were identified in the resulting samples. These results show that sugar molecules can not only survive but also become more complex during impact delivery to planetary bodies.

Detection of TiH$_2$ molecule in the interstellar medium is less probable

Identification of TiH$^1$ and TiO$^2$ has been historical, as the Titanium was first time discovered in the interstellar medium (ISM). After finding TiO$_2$$^3$, there is an obvious question about the search of titanium dihydride (TiH$_2$). The existence of TiH$_2$ in the ISM is quite probable, as the atomic abundance of hydrogen is about 1900 times larger than that of oxygen. We have discussed that the detection of TiH$_2$ in the ISM is less probable, though it has a large electric dipole moment.

Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na I lines at 8200 A found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted it as evidence for unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally-extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 A (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related with the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling sign of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related with star formation-caused gas outflow. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable doppler component, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related with ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

Optical light curve of GRB 121011A: a textbook for the onset of GRB afterglow in a mixture of ISM and wind-type medium

We reported the optical observations of GRB 121011A by 0.8-m TNT telescope at Xinglong observatory, China. The light curve of optical afterglow shows a smooth and featureless bump during the epoch of $\sim$130 sec and $\sim$5000 sec with a rising index of $1.57\pm0.28$ before the break time of $539\pm44$ sec, and a decaying index of about $1.29\pm0.07$ up to the end of our observations. Meanwhile, the X-ray light curve decays in a single power-law with a slop of about $1.51\pm0.03$ observed by $XRT$ onboard ${\rm} Swift$ from 100 sec to about 10000 sec after the burst trigger. The featureless optical light curve could be understood as an onset process under the external-shock model. The typical frequency has been below or near the optical one before the deceleration time, and the cooling frequency is located between the optical and X-ray wavelengths. The external medium density has a transition from a mixed stage of ISM and wind-type medium before the peak time to the ISM at the later phase. The joint-analysis of X-ray and optical light curves shows that the emission from both frequencies are consistent with the prediction of the standard afterglow model without any energy injections, indicating that the central engine has stopped its activity and does not restart anymore after the prompt phase.

The most iron-deficient stars as the polluted population III stars

We investigate the origin of the most iron-poor stars including SMSS J031300.36-670839.3 with [Fe/H] < -7.52. We compute the change of surface metallicity of stars with the accretion of interstellar matter (ISM) after their birth using the chemical evolution model within the framework of the hierarchical galaxy formation. The predicted metallicity distribution function agrees very well with that observed from extremely metal-poor stars. In particular, the lowest metallicity tail is well reproduced by the Population III stars whose surfaces are polluted with metals through ISM accretion. This suggests that the origin of iron group elements is explained by ISM accretion for the stars with [Fe/H]$\lesssim -5$. The present results give new insights into the nature of the most metal-poor stars and the search for Population III stars with pristine abundances.

Pulsar lensing geometry

Our analysis of archival VLBI data of PSR 0834+06 revealed that its scintillation properties can be precisely modelled using the inclined sheet model (Pen & Levin 2014), resulting in two distinct lens planes. These data strongly favour the grazing sheet model over turbulence as the primary source of pulsar scattering. This model can reproduce the parameters of the observed diffractive scintillation with an accuracy at the percent level. Comparison with new VLBI proper motion results in a direct measure of the ionized ISM screen transverse velocity. The results are consistent with ISM velocities local to the PSR 0834+06 sight-line (through the Galaxy). The simple 1D structure of the lenses opens up the possibility of using interstellar lenses as precision probes for pulsar lens mapping, precision transverse motions in the ISM, and new opportunities for removing scattering to improve pulsar timing. We describe the parameters and observables of this double screen system. While relative screen distances can in principle be accurately determined, a global conformal distance degeneracy exists that allows a rescaling of the absolute distance scale. For PSR B0834+06, we present VLBI astrometry results that provide (for the fist time) a direct measurement of the distance of the pulsar. For targets where independent distance measurements are not available, which are the cases for most of the recycled millisecond pulsars that are the targets of precision timing observations, the degeneracy presented in the lens modelling could be broken if the pulsar resides in a binary system.

Simulator of Galaxy Millimeter/Submillimeter Emission (SIGAME): The [CII]-SFR Relationship of Massive z=2 Main Sequence Galaxies

We present SIGAME simulations of the [CII] 157.7 {\mu}m fine structure line emission from cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of main sequence galaxies at z = 2. Using sub-grid physics prescriptions the gas in our galaxy simulations is modelled as a multi-phased interstellar medium (ISM) comprised of molecular gas residing in the inner regions of giant molecular clouds, an atomic gas phase associated with photodissociation regions at the surface of the clouds, and a diffuse, fully ionized gas phase. Adopting a density profile of the clouds and taking into account heating by the local FUV radiation field and cosmic rays - both scaled by the local star formation rate density - we calculate the [CII] emission from each of the aforementioned ISM phases using a large velocity gradient approach for each cloud, on resolved and global scales. The [CII] emission peaks in the central (<~ 1 kpc) regions of our galaxies where the star formation is most intense, and we find that the majority (>~ 60%) of the emission in this region originates in the molecular gas phase. At larger galactocentric distances (>~2 kpc), the atomic gas is the main contributor to the [CII] emission (>~ 80%), and at all radii the ionized gas provides a negligible amount (<~ 5%) to the [CII] budget. Our simulations predict a log-linear relationship between the integrated [CII] luminosity and star formation rate with a slope (0.80 +/- 0.12) in agreement with observationally determined slopes (~ 0.85 - 1.00) but with a ~ 3 times higher normalization than the observed z ~ 0 relation.

 

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