Posts Tagged inverse compton

Recent Postings from inverse compton

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight

We present a new extended gamma ray excess toward the Galactic Center that traces the 3.4 micron infrared emission morphology. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight [Cross-Listing]

We present a new extended gamma ray excess toward the Galactic Center that traces the 3.4 micron infrared emission morphology. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Inverse Compton light curves of blazars under non-linear, time-dependent synchrotron-self Compton cooling

Blazars exhibit flares with a doubling time scale on the order of minutes. Such rapid flares are theoretically challenging and several {models} have been put forward to explain the fast variability. In this paper we continue the discussion concerning the effects of non-linear, time-dependent synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling. In previous papers we were able to show that the non-linearity{, introduced by a time-dependent electron injection,} has severe consequences for both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and the monochromatic synchrotron light curve. The non-linear cooling introduces novel breaks in the SED, which are usually explained by complicated underlying electron distributions, while the much faster cooling of the SSC process {causes significant differences in the synchrotron light curves}. In this paper we calculate the inverse Compton light curves, taking into account both the SSC and the external Compton process. The light curves are calculated from the monochromatic intensities by introducing the retardation due to the finite size of the emission region and the geometry of the source. Even though some of the obvious effects of the SSC cooling are washed out by the retardation, there are still several observational constraints which could help to discriminate between the non-linear and the usual linear models, such as different flux states, temporal shapes or faster variability of the light curves at different energies.

Discovery of an extended X-ray jet in AP Librae

Chandra observations of the low-energy peaked BL Lac object AP Librae revealed the clear discovery of a non-thermal X-ray jet. AP Lib is the first low energy peaked BL Lac object with an extended non-thermal X-ray jet that shows emission into the VHE range. The X-ray jet has an extension of ~15” (~ 14 kpc). The X-ray jet morphology is similar to the radio jet observed with VLA at 1.36 GHz emerging in south-east direction and bends by 50 degrees at a distance of 12” towards north-east. The intensity profiles of the X-ray emission are studied consistent with those found in the radio range. The spectral analysis reveals that the X-ray spectra of the core and jet region are both inverse Compton dominated. This adds to a still small sample of BL Lac objects whose X-ray jets are IC dominated and thus more similar to the high luminosity FRII sources than to the low luminosity FRI objects, which are usually considered to be the parent population of the BL Lac objects.

Magnetic Field Amplification and Blazar Flares

Recent multiwavelength observations of PKS 0208-512 by SMARTS, Fermi, and Swift revealed that gamma-ray and optical light curves of this flat spectrum radio quasars are highly correlated, but with an exception of one large optical flare having no corresponding gamma-ray activity or even detection. On the other hand, recent advances in SNRs observations and plasma simulations both reveal that magnetic field downstream of astrophysical shocks can be largely amplified beyond simple shock compression. These amplifications, along with their associated particle acceleration, might contribute to blazar flares, including the peculiar flare of PKS 0208-512. Using our time dependent multizone blazar emission code, we evaluate several scenarios that may represent such phenomena. This code combines Monte Carlo method that tracks the radiative processes including inverse Compton scattering, and Fokker-Planck equation that follows the cooling and acceleration of particles. It is a comprehensive time dependent code that fully takes into account the light travel time effects. In this study, both the changes of the magnetic field and acceleration efficiency are explored as the cause of blazar flares. Under these assumption, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton scenarios produce distinct features that favor the external Compton scenario. The optical flares with/without gamma-ray counterparts can be explained by different allocations of energy between the magnetization and particle acceleration, which in turn can be affected by the relative orientation between the magnetic field and the shock flow. We compare the details of the observations and simulation, and highlight what implications this study has on our understanding of relativistic jets.

On the location of the gamma-ray emission region for 21 flat spectrum radio quasars with quasi-simultaneous observations [Replacement]

We try to infer the location of the GeV emission region for 21 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) with quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs), in which the SEDs of 21 FSRQs are reproduced by the one-zone leptonic model including the synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) and external Compton (EC) processes. We suggest that the X-ray emission could be produced by the SSC process and the GeV emission could come from the EC process. The EC emission could originate from the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of photons from the broad line region (BLR) and accretion disk or dust torus by the same electron population, which mainly depend on the location of the $\gamma$-ray emission region. We propose a method to constrain the location of the GeV emission region based on the spectral shapes. When the GeV emission is located within the BLR, the IC scattering could occur at the Klein-Nishina regime and produce a broken/steep spectrum in the GeV energy band. When the GeV emission is produced outside the BLR, the IC scattering could take place at the Thomson regime and the GeV spectrum would have the same spectral index as the optical-infrared spectrum. We infer that the location of the GeV emission region is inside the BLR for 5 FSRQs and beyond the BLR for 16 FSRQs. Our results show that the ratio of the magnetic field and electron energy density is close to equipartition condition for 21 FSRQs.

The Dynamics of Radio Galaxies and Double-Double Radio Galaxies

Relativistic and magnetised plasma ejected by radio loud AGNs through jets form the diffuse lobes of radio galaxies. The radiating particles (electron/electron-positron) in lobes emit in radio via the synchrotron process and X-ray via inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. The thermal environment around radio galaxies emits X-rays via the thermal bremsstrahlung process. By combining information from these processes we can measure physical conditions in and around the radio lobes and thus study the dynamics of radio galaxies, including double-double radio galaxies.

The giant lobes of Centaurus A observed at 118 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array

We present new wide-field observations of Centaurus A (Cen A) and the surrounding region at 118 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) 32-tile prototype, with which we investigate the spectral-index distribution of Cen A’s giant radio lobes. We compare our images to 1.4 GHz maps of Cen A and compute spectral indices using temperature-temperature plots and spectral tomography. We find that the morphologies at 118 MHz and 1.4 GHz match very closely apart from an extra peak in the southern lobe at 118 MHz, which provides tentative evidence for the existence of a southern counterpart to the northern middle lobe of Cen A. Our spatially-averaged spectral indices for both the northern and southern lobes are consistent with previous analyses, however we find significant spatial variation of the spectra across the extent of each lobe. Both the spectral-index distribution and the morphology at low radio frequencies support a scenario of multiple outbursts of activity from the central engine. Our results are consistent with inverse-Compton modelling of radio and gamma-ray data that supports a value for the lobe age of between 10 and 80 Myr.

Calculations of the Propagated LIS Electron Spectrum Which Describe the Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum below ~100 MeV Measured Beyond 122 AU at Voyager 1 and its Relationship to the PAMELA Electron Spectrum above 200 MeV [Cross-Listing]

The new Voyager measurements of cosmic ray electrons between 6-60 MeV beyond 122 AU are very sensitive indicators of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration in the galaxy at a very low modulation level. Using a Monte Carlo diffusion model with a source spectrum with a single spectral index of -2.2 at all energies we are able to fit this observed Voyager spectrum and the contemporary PAMELA electron spectrum over an energy range from 6 MeV to ~200 GeV. This spectrum has a break in it but this break is due to propagation effects, not changes in the primary spectrum. This break is gradual, starting at > 2 GeV where the spectrum is ~E^-3.2 and continuing down to ~100 MeV or below where the spectrum becomes ~E^-1.5. At the higher energies the loss terms due to synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton effects which are ~E^2.0 steepen the exponent of the source spectrum by 1.0. At lower energies, these terms become unimportant and the loss is governed by diffusion and escape from the galaxy. A diffusion term which is proportional to beta^-1 below ~0.32 GV (which also fit the H and He spectra measured at Voyager) and has a value = 3×1028 cm^2 x s^-1 at 1 GV and a boundary at +/-1 Kpc will fit the Voyager or other similar spectra at low energies.

Plasma effects on fast pair beams II. Reactive versus kinetic instability of parallel electrostatic wave

The interaction of TeV gamma rays from distant blazars with the extragalactic background light produces relativistic electron-positron pair beams by the photon-photon annihilation process. Using the linear instability analysis in the kinetic limit, which properly accounts for the longitudinal and the small but finite perpendicular momentum spread in the pair momentum distribution function, the growth rate of parallel propagating electrostatic oscillations in the intergalactic medium is calculated. Contrary to the claims of Miniati and Elyiv (2013) we find that neither the longitudinal nor the perpendicular spread in the relativistic pair distribution function do significantly affect the electrostatic growth rates. The maximum kinetic growth rate for no perpendicular spread is even about an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding reactive maximum growth rate. The reduction factors to the maximum growth rate due to the finite perpendicular spread in the pair distribution function are tiny, and always less than $10^{-4}$. We confirm the earlier conclusions by Broderick et al. (2012) and us, that the created pair beam distribution function is quickly unstable in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium. Therefore, there is no need to require the existence of small intergalactic magnetic fields to scatter the produced pairs, so that the explanation (made by several authors) of the FERMI non-detection of the inverse Compton scattered GeV gamma rays by a finite deflecting intergalactic magnetic field is not necessary. In particular, the various derived lower bounds for the intergalactic magnetic fields are invalid due to the pair beam instability argument.

Constraints on WIMP Annihilation for Contracted Dark Matter in the Inner Galaxy with the Fermi-LAT

We derive constraints on parameters of generic dark matter candidates by comparing theoretical predictions with the gamma-ray emission observed by the Fermi-LAT from the region around the Galactic Center. Our analysis is conservative since it simply requires that the expected dark matter signal does not exceed the observed emission. The constraints obtained in the likely case that the collapse of baryons to the Galactic Center is accompanied by the contraction of the dark matter are strong. In particular, we find that for bb and \tau+\tau- or W+W- dark matter annihilation channels, the upper limits on the annihilation cross section imply that the thermal cross section is excluded for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) mass smaller than about 700 and 500 GeV, respectively. For the \mu+ \mu- channel, where the effect of the inverse Compton scattering is important, depending on models of the Galactic magnetic field the exclusion of the thermal cross-section is for a WIMP mass smaller than about 150 to 400 GeV. The upper limits on the annihilation cross section of dark matter particles obtained are two orders of magnitude stronger than without contraction. In the latter case our results are compatible with the upper limits from the Galactic halo analysis reported by the Fermi-LAT collaboration for the case in which the same conservative approach without modeling of the astrophysical background is employed.

Revisiting the Light Curves of Gamma-ray Bursts in the Relativistic Turbulence Model

Rapid temporal variability has been widely observed in the light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One possible mechanism for such variability is related to the relativistic eddies in the jet. In this paper, we include the contribution of the inter-eddy medium together with the eddies to the gamma-ray emission. We show that the gamma-ray emission can either lead or lag behind the observed synchrotron emission, where the latter originates in the inter-eddy medium and provides most of seed photons for producing gamma-ray emission through the inverse-Compton scattering. As a consequence, we argue that the lead/lag found in non-stationary short-lived light curves may not reveal the intrinsic lead/lag of different emission components. In addition, our results may explain the lead of gamma-ray emission with respect to optical emission observed in GRB 080319B.

GeV Emission during X-Ray Flares from Late Internal Shocks: Application to GRB 100728A

Recently, the GeV radiation during the X-ray flare activity in GRB 100728A was detected by Feimi/LAT. Here we study the dynamics and emission properties of collision between two homogeneous shells based on the late internal shock model. The GeV photons can be produced from X-ray flare photons up-scattered by relativistic electrons accelerated by forward-reverse shocks, where involved radiative processes include synchrotron self-Compton and crossing inverse-Compton scattering. By analytical and numerical calculations, the observed spectral properties in GRB 100728A can be well explained.

Radiative damping and emission signatures of strong superluminal waves in pulsar winds

We analyse the damping by radiation reaction and by Compton drag of strong, superluminal electromagnetic waves in the context of pulsar winds. The associated radiation signature is found by estimating the efficiency and the characteristic radiation frequencies. Applying these estimates to the gamma-ray binary containing PSR B1259-63, we show that the GeV flare observed by Fermi-LAT can be understood as inverse Compton emission by particles scattering photons from the companion star, if the pulsar wind termination shock acquires a precursor of superluminal waves roughly 30 days after periastron. This constrains the mass-loading factor of the wind $\mu=L/\dot{N}mc^2$ (where $L$ is the luminosity and $\dot{N}$ the rate of loss of electrons and positrons) to be roughly $6\times 10^4$.

Radiative damping and emission signatures of strong superluminal waves in pulsar winds [Replacement]

We analyse the damping by radiation reaction and by Compton drag of strong, superluminal electromagnetic waves in the context of pulsar winds. The associated radiation signature is found by estimating the efficiency and the characteristic radiation frequencies. Applying these estimates to the gamma-ray binary containing PSR B1259-63, we show that the GeV flare observed by Fermi-LAT can be understood as inverse Compton emission by particles scattering photons from the companion star, if the pulsar wind termination shock acquires a precursor of superluminal waves roughly 30 days after periastron. This constrains the mass-loading factor of the wind $\mu=L/\dot{N}mc^2$ (where $L$ is the luminosity and $\dot{N}$ the rate of loss of electrons and positrons) to be roughly $6\times 10^4$.

Implications of Plasma Beam Instabilities for the Statistics of the Fermi Hard Gamma-ray Blazars and the Origin of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

Fermi has been instrumental in constraining the luminosity function and redshift evolution of gamma-ray bright blazars. This includes limits upon the spectrum and anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB), redshift distribution of nearby Fermi active galactic nuclei (AGN), and the construction of a log(N)-log(S) relation. Based upon these, it has been argued that the evolution of the gamma-ray bright blazar population must be much less dramatic than that of other AGN. However, critical to such claims is the assumption that inverse Compton cascades reprocess emission above a TeV into the Fermi energy range, substantially enhancing the strength of the observed limits. Here we demonstrate that in the absence of such a process, due, e.g., to the presence of virulent plasma beam instabilities that preempt the cascade, a population of TeV-bright blazars that evolve similarly to quasars is consistent with the population of hard gamma-ray blazars observed by Fermi. Specifically, we show that a simple model for the properties and luminosity function is simultaneously able to reproduce their log(N)-log(S) relation, local redshift distribution, and contribution to the EGRB and its anisotropy without any free parameters. Insofar the naturalness of a picture in which the hard gamma-ray blazar population exhibits the strong redshift evolution observed in other tracers of the cosmological history of accretion onto halos is desirable, this lends support for the absence of the inverse Compton cascades and the existence of the beam plasma instabilities.

Diffuse TeV Gamma-Ray Emission in the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey

Diffuse gamma-ray emission has long been established as the most prominent feature in the GeV sky. Although the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique has been successful in revealing a large population of discrete TeV gamma-ray sources, a thorough investigation of diffuse emission at TeV energies is still pending. Data from the Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) obtained by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have now achieved a sensitivity and coverage adequate for probing signatures of diffuse emission in the energy range of ~100 GeV to a few TeV. Gamma-rays are produced in cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium (aka "sea of cosmic rays") and in inverse Compton scattering on cosmic photon fields. This inevitably leads to guaranteed gamma-ray emission related to the gas content along the line-of-sight. Further contributions relate to those gamma-ray sources that fall below the current detection threshold and the aforementioned inverse Compton emission. Based on the H.E.S.S. GPS, we present the first observational assessment of diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission. The observation is compared with corresponding flux predictions based on the HI (LAB data) and CO (as a tracer of H2, NANTEN data) gas distributions. Consequences for unresolved source contributions and the anticipated level of inverse Compton emission are discussed.

Fermi Rules Out the IC/CMB Model for the Large Scale Jet X-ray Emission of 3C 273

The source of the X-ray emission associated with the large-scale jets of powerful radio quasars has been a source of debate in recent years, with two competing interpretations: either the X-rays are of synchrotron origin, arising from a different electron energy distribution than that producing the radio- to-optical synchrotron component, or they are due to inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) by relativistic electrons in a powerful relativistic jet with bulk Lorentz factor Gamma ~10 – 20. These two models imply radically different conditions in the large scale jet in terms of jet speed, kinetic power, and maximum energy of the particle acceleration mechanism, with important implications for the impact of the jet on the larger-scale environment. A large part of the X-ray origin debate has centered on the well-studied source 3C 273. Here we present new observations from Fermi which put an upper limit on the gamma-ray flux from the large-scale jet of 3C 273 (from 3 – 10 GeV) of 4.85×10^-13 erg s^-1 cm^-2. This upper limit violates by almost a factor of ten the flux expected from the IC/CMB X-ray model found by extrapolation of the UV to X-ray spectrum of knot A, thus ruling out the IC/CMB interpretation entirely for this source. Further, the upper limit from Fermi puts a limit on the Doppler beaming factor of at least delta <9, assuming equipartition fields, and possibly as low as delta <5 assuming no major deceleration of the jet from knots A through D1.

Ionization Break-Out from Millisecond Pulsar Wind Nebulae: an X-ray Probe of the Origin of Superluminous Supernovae

Magnetic spin-down of a millisecond neutron star has been proposed as the power source of hydrogen-poor "superluminous" supernovae (SLSNe-I). However, producing an unambiguous test that can distinguish this model from alternatives, such as circumstellar interaction, has proven challenging. After the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind inflates a hot cavity behind the expanding stellar ejecta: the nascent millisecond pulsar wind nebula. Electron/positron pairs injected by the wind cool through inverse Compton scattering and synchrotron emission, producing a pair cascade and hard X-ray spectrum inside the nebula. These X-rays ionize the inner exposed side of the ejecta, driving an ionization front that propagates outwards with time. Under some conditions this front can breach the ejecta surface within months after the optical supernova peak, allowing ~0.1-1 keV photons to escape the nebula unattenuated with a characteristic luminosity L_X ~ 1e43-1e45 erg/s. This "ionization break-out" may explain the luminous X-ray emission observed from the transient SCP 06F, providing direct evidence that this SLSN was indeed engine-powered. Luminous break-out requires a low ejecta mass and that the spin-down time of the pulsar be comparable to the photon diffusion timescale at optical maximum, the latter condition similar to that required for a supernova with a high optical fluence. These relatively special requirements may explain why most SLSNe-I are not accompanied by detectable X-ray emission. Global asymmetry of the supernova ejecta increases the likelihood of an early break-out along the direction of lowest density. Atomic states with lower threshold energies are more readily ionized at earlier times near optical maximum, allowing UV break-out across a wider range of pulsar and ejecta properties than X-ray break-out, possibly contributing to the blue/UV colors of SLSNe-I.

Bremsstrahlung gamma rays from light Dark Matter

We discuss the often-neglected role of bremsstrahlung processes on the interstellar gas in computing indirect signatures of Dark Matter (DM) annihilation in the Galaxy, particularly for light DM candidates in the phenomenologically interesting O(10) GeV mass range. Especially from directions close to the Galactic Plane, the expected gamma-ray spectrum is altered via two effects: directly, by the photons emitted in the bremsstrahlung process on the interstellar gas by energetic electrons which are among the DM annihilation byproducts; indirectly, by the modification of the same electron spectrum, due to the additional energy loss process in the diffusion-loss equation (e.g. the resulting inverse Compton emission is altered). We quantify the importance of the bremsstrahlung emission in the GeV energy range, showing that it is the dominant component of the gamma-ray spectrum for some cases. We also find that, in regions in which bremsstrahlung dominates energy losses, the related gamma-ray emission is only moderately sensitive to possible large variations in the gas density. Still, we stress that, for computing precise spectra in the (sub-)GeV range, it is important to obtain a reliable description of the inner Galaxy gas distribution as well as to compute self-consistently the gamma emission and the solution to the diffusion-loss equation. For example, these are crucial issues to quantify and interpret meaningfully gamma-ray map `residuals’ in terms of (light) DM annihilations.

Fermi Bubbles under Dark Matter Scrutiny. Part I: Astrophysical Analysis [Cross-Listing]

The quest for Dark Matter signals in the gamma-ray sky is one of the most intriguing and exciting challenges in astrophysics. In this paper we perform the analysis of the energy spectrum of the \textit{Fermi bubbles} at different latitudes, making use of the gamma-ray data collected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. By exploring various setups for the full-sky analysis we achieve stable results in all the analyzed latitudes. At high latitude, $|b|=20^{\circ}-50^{\circ}$, the \textit{Fermi bubbles} energy spectrum can be reproduced by gamma-ray photons generated by inverse Compton scattering processes, assuming the existence of a population of high-energy electrons. At low latitude, $|b|=10^{\circ}-20^{\circ}$, the presence of a bump at $E_{\gamma}\sim 1-4$ GeV, reveals the existence of an extra component compatible with Dark Matter annihilation. Our best-fit candidate corresponds to annihilation into $b\bar{b}$ with mass $M_{\rm DM}= 61.8^{+6.9}_{-4.9}$ GeV and cross section $<\sigma v> = 3.30^{+0.69}_{-0.49}\times 10^{-26}$ cm$^{3}$s$^{-1}$. In addition, using the energy spectrum of the \textit{Fermi bubbles}, we derive new conservative but stringent upper limits on the Dark Matter annihilation cross section.

High-Energy Radiation from Remnants of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

We study high-energy emission from the mergers of neutron star binaries as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves aside from short gamma-ray bursts. The mergers entail significant mass ejection, which interacts with the surrounding medium to produce similar but brighter remnants than supernova remnants in a few years. We show that electrons accelerated in the remnants can produce synchrotron radiation in X-rays detectable at $\sim 100$ Mpc by current generation telescopes and inverse Compton emission in gamma rays detectable by the \emph{Fermi} Large Area Telescopes and the Cherenkov Telescope Array under favorable conditions. The remnants may have already appeared in high-energy surveys such as the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image and the \emph{Fermi} Large Area Telescope as unidentified sources. We also suggest that the merger remnants could be the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays beyond the knee energy, $\sim 10^{15}$ eV, in the cosmic-ray spectrum.

StellarICs: Stellar and solar Inverse Compton emission package

StellarICs is software to compute gamma-ray emission from inverse-Compton scattering by cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere and in the photospheres of stars. It includes a set of cosmic-ray spectra and a formulation of their modulation, but it can be used for any user-defined modulation model and lepton spectra. Inverse-Compton emission provides a unique probe of cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere between the earth and the sun. The software is publicly available and it is under continuing development.

Search for Very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from Galactic globular clusters with H.E.S.S

Globular clusters (GCs) are established emitters of high-energy (HE, 100 MeV<E<100 GeV) \gamma-ray radiation which could originate from the cumulative emission of the numerous millisecond pulsars (msPSRs) in the clusters’ cores or from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of relativistic leptons accelerated in the GC environment. GCs could also constitute a new class of sources in the very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) \gamma-ray regime, judging from the recent detection of emission from the direction of Terzan 5 with the H.E.S.S. telescope array. To search for VHE \gamma-ray sources associated with other GCs, and to put constraints on leptonic emission models, we systematically analyzed the observations towards 15 GCs taken with H.E.S.S. We searched for individual sources of VHE \gamma-rays from each GC in our sample and also performed a stacking analysis combining the data from all GCs to investigate the hypothesis of a population of faint emitters. Assuming IC emission as the source of emission from Terzan 5, we calculated the expected \gamma-ray flux for each of the 15 GCs, based on their number of millisecond pulsars, their optical brightness and the energy density of background photon fields. We did not detect significant emission from any of the 15 GCs. The obtained flux upper limits allow to rule out the simple IC/msPSR scaling model for NGC 6388 and NGC 7078. The upper limits derived from the stacking analyses are factors between 2 and 50 below the flux predicted by the simple leptonic model, depending on the assumed source extent and the dominant target photon fields. Therefore, Terzan 5 still remains exceptional among all GCs, as the VHE \gamma-ray emission either arises from extra-ordinarily efficient leptonic processes, or from a recent catastrophic event, or is even unrelated to the GC itself.

On the origin of GeV emission in gamma-ray bursts

The most common progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are massive stars with strong stellar winds. We show that the GRB blast wave in the wind should emit a bright GeV flash. It is produced by inverse Compton scattering of the prompt MeV radiation (emitted at smaller radii) which streams through the external blast wave. Some of the prompt photons are scattered and many scattered photons convert to electron-positron pairs. The inverse-Compton flash is bright due to the huge e+- enrichment of the medium. GeV emission generated by this mechanism lasts much longer than the prompt GRB because of a broader angular distribution of scattered photons. At late times, the blast wave switches to normal synchrotron-self-Compton cooling. The mechanism is demonstrated by a detailed transfer simulation. The observed prompt MeV radiation is taken as an input of the simulation; we use GRB 080916C as an example. The result reproduces the GeV flash observed by the Fermi telescope. It explains the delayed onset, the steep rise, the peak flux, the time of the peak, the long smooth decline, and the spectral slope of GeV emission. The wind density required to reproduce all these features is typical of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our simulation predicts strong TeV emission 1 min after the burst trigger; then the cutoff of the observed high-energy spectrum must be shaped by extragalactic background light absorption. In addition, a bright optical counterpart of the GeV flash is expected for plausible values of the magnetic field; such double (optical+GeV) flashes may be observed with Fermi and optical robotic telescopes.

I. Inverse Compton origin of pulsar \gamma-ray emission. II. Reconnection model of Crab flares

I. There is growing evidence that pulsars’ high energy emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. II. The particles producing Crab flares, and possibly most of the Crab Nebula’s high energy emission, are accelerated via reconnection events, and not at shock via Fermi mechanisms.

PKS 1510-089 - a rare example of a flat spectrum radio quasar with very high energy emission

The blazar PKS 1510-089 is an example of the so-called flat spectrum radio quasars for which no very high energy emission is expected due to the Klein-Nishina effects and strong absorption in the broad line region. Recent detection of at least three such blazars by Cherenkov telescopes has forced a revision of our understanding of these objects. We have aimed to model the observed spectral energy distribution of PKS 1510-089 during the high energy and very high energy flares in March 2009. We have applied the single zone internal shock scenario to reproduce the multiwavelength spectrum of PKS 1510-089. We have followed the evolution of the electrons as they propagate along the jet and emit synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation. We have considered two sources of external photons: the dusty torus and the broad line region. We have also examined the effects of the absorption of the high energy photons both in the broad line region and on extragalactic background light. We have successfully modeled the observed spectrum of PKS 1510-089. In our model, the highest energy emission is the result of the Comptonization of the infrared photons from the dusty torus, thus avoiding Klein-Nishina regime, while the bulk of the emission in the GeV range is still dominated by the Comptonization of radiation coming from the broad line region.

X-ray emission around the z=4.1 radio galaxy TNJ1338-1942 and the potential role of far-infrared photons in AGN Feedback

We report the discovery in an 80-ks observation of spatially-extended X-ray emission around the high-redshift radio galaxy TNJ1388-1942 (z=4.11) with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission extends over a ~30-kpc diameter region and although it is less extended than the GHz-radio lobes, it is roughly aligned with them. We suggest that the X-ray emission arises from Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of photons by relativistic electrons around the radio galaxy. At z=4.11 this is the highest redshift detection of IC emission around a radio galaxy. We investigate the hypothesis that in this compact source, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which is ~700x more intense than at z~0 is nonetheless not the relevant seed photon field for the bulk of the IC emission. Instead, we find a tentative correlation between the IC emission and far-infrared luminosities of compact, far-infrared luminous high-redshift radio galaxies (those with lobe lengths of <100kpc). Based on these results we suggest that in the earliest phases of the evolution of radio-loud AGN at very high redshift, the far-infrared photons from the co-eval dusty starbursts occuring within these systems may make a significant contribution to their IC X-ray emission and so contribute to the feedback in these massive high-redshift galaxies.

A new interpretation of the far-infrared - radio correlation and the expected breakdown at high redshift

(Abrigded) Observations of galaxies up to z 2 show a tight correlation between far-infrared and radio continuum emission. We explain the far-infrared – radio continuum correlation by relating star formation and magnetic field strength in terms of turbulent magnetic field amplification, where turbulence is injected by supernova explosions from massive stars. We calculate the expected amount of turbulence in galaxies based on their star formation rates, and infer the expected magnetic field strength due to turbulent dynamo amplification. We estimate the timescales for cosmic ray energy losses via synchrotron emission, inverse Compton scattering, ionization and bremsstrahlung emission, probing up to which redshift strong synchrotron emission can be maintained. We find that the correlation between star formation rate and magnetic field strength in the local Universe can be understood as a result of turbulent magnetic field amplification. If the typical gas density in the interstellar medium increases at high z, we expect an increase of the magnetic field strength and the radio emission, as indicated by current observations. Such an increase would imply a modification of the far-infrared – radio correlation. We expect a breakdown when inverse Compton losses start dominating over synchrotron emission. For a given star formation surface density, we calculate the redshift where the breakdown occurs, yielding z (Sigma_SFR/0.0045 M_solar kpc^{-2} yr^{-1})^{1/(6-alpha/2)}. In this relation, the parameter \alpha describes the evolution of the characteristic ISM density in galaxies as (1+z)^\alpha. Both the possible raise of the radio emission at high redshift and the final breakdown of the far-infrared — radio correlation at a critical redshift will be probed by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, while the typical ISM density in galaxies will be probed with ALMA.

A new interpretation of the far-infrared - radio correlation and the expected breakdown at high redshift [Replacement]

(Abrigded) Observations of galaxies up to z 2 show a tight correlation between far-infrared and radio continuum emission. We explain the far-infrared – radio continuum correlation by relating star formation and magnetic field strength in terms of turbulent magnetic field amplification, where turbulence is injected by supernova explosions from massive stars. We calculate the expected amount of turbulence in galaxies based on their star formation rates, and infer the expected magnetic field strength due to turbulent dynamo amplification. We estimate the timescales for cosmic ray energy losses via synchrotron emission, inverse Compton scattering, ionization and bremsstrahlung emission, probing up to which redshift strong synchrotron emission can be maintained. We find that the correlation between star formation rate and magnetic field strength in the local Universe can be understood as a result of turbulent magnetic field amplification. If the typical gas density in the interstellar medium increases at high z, we expect an increase of the magnetic field strength and the radio emission, as indicated by current observations. Such an increase would imply a modification of the far-infrared – radio correlation. We expect a breakdown when inverse Compton losses start dominating over synchrotron emission. For a given star formation surface density, we calculate the redshift where the breakdown occurs, yielding z (Sigma_SFR/0.0045 M_solar kpc^{-2} yr^{-1})^{1/(6-alpha/2)}. In this relation, the parameter \alpha describes the evolution of the characteristic ISM density in galaxies as (1+z)^\alpha. Both the possible raise of the radio emission at high redshift and the final breakdown of the far-infrared — radio correlation at a critical redshift will be probed by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, while the typical ISM density in galaxies will be probed with ALMA.

Gamma-rays from millisecond pulsar population within the central stellar cluster in the Galactic Center

It was proposed that the central dense stellar cluster in the Galactic Center, containing the mass of $\sim$4 times larger than that of the central black hole, had been formed as a result of a merging of several massive globular clusters. These globular clusters are expected to provide a large number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) within the central parsec of the Galactic Center. We propose that the GeV $\gamma$-ray emission observed from the Galactic Center is in fact a cumulative effect of the emission from several globular clusters captured by the Galactic Center black hole. Moreover, the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters accelerate leptons in their wind zones to energies of the order of a few tens of TeV injecting them into the dense infrared and optical radiation region present within the central parsec. We calculate the expected TeV $\gamma$-ray emission produced by these leptons by the Inverse Compton Scattering process in the soft radiation field. It is shown that this emission can be responsible for the multi-TeV $\gamma$-rays observed by the Cherenkov telescopes from the Galactic Center for reasonable densities of the soft radiation, diffusion models for the propagation of leptons, their injection parameters (fluxes and spectral proprieties). If the energy conversion efficiency from the pulsars to the relativistic leptons is of the order of 10%, then about a thousand of MSPs have to be present in the central cluster in the Galactic Center.

Notes on non-thermal X-ray radiation of radio supernova remnant W50 and collimated radiation of SS433

Diffuse X-ray emission of the radio nebula W50 along the line of the of jets of the microquasar SS433 has a non-thermal power law component. This could be the inverse-Compton scattered emission of the SS433 accretion disk funnel, which is collimated in a cone before the scattering off relativistic electrons – so called emission cone, hypothetical and invisible directly. This model would remove the synchrotron model problems of the X-ray emission: of acceleration of the emitting electrons to extreme Lorenz factors $\gamma > 10^9$ in the mildly relativistic SS433 jets and morphological difference of W50 in the synchrotron radio and X-ray bands. Our study of the comptonization model showed up that in the case of the minimal factor $\gamma_{\rm min}$ of the order 1 the energy of the relativistic particles, which upscatter the cone photons, is close to or exceeds total energy of the nebula – the case of inapplicability of the model. In the case of $\gamma_{\rm min} > 10$ the cone emission is comptonized beyond the 1 – 10\,keV band, consequently the existing observational data are non-sensitive to the emission cone.

Polarization of photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution

Based on the quantum electrodynamics, we present a generic formalism of the polarization for beamed monochromatic photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution. The formulae reduce to the components of the Fano matrix when electrons are at rest. We mainly investigate the polarization in three scenarios, i.e., electrons at rest, isotropic electrons with a power law spectrum and thermal electrons. If the incident beam is polarized, the polarization is reduced significantly by isotropic electrons at large viewing angles, and the degree of polarization due to thermal electrons is about one times less than that of electrons in a power law. If the incident bean is unpolarized, soft $\gamma$-rays can lead to about 15% polarization at viewing angles around $\pi/4$. For isotropic electrons, one remarkable feature is that the polarization as a function of the incident photon energy always peaks roughly at 1 MeV, this is valid for both the thermal and power law cases. This feature can be used to distinguish the model of the inverse Compton scattering from that of the synchrotron radiation.

Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

Bright AGN frequently show ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ! 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one temperature regime; 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the Inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component, while the limits on the 2T emission are far weaker. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encourage X-ray observers to look for the Inverse Compton components calculated here in order to constrain AGN feedback models further.

Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback [Replacement]

Bright AGN frequently show ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ~0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one temperature regime; 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the Inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component. The limits on the 2T emission are far weaker, and in fact it is possible that the observed soft X-ray excess of AGN is partially or fully due to the 2T shock emission. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encourage X-ray observers to look for the Inverse Compton components calculated here in order to constrain AGN feedback models further.

Synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from radio galaxies with non-uniform magnetic field and electron distributions

I investigate the effect of non-uniform magnetic fields in the extended structures of radio galaxies on the observed synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission. On the assumption of an isotropic field, with a given power spectrum and a Gaussian distribution of the Cartesian components of the magnetic field strength, I derive a simple integral that can be used numerically to calculate the synchrotron emissivity from any electron population. In the case of power-law spectra, I show that it is possible to estimate the difference between the synchrotron emissivity from a region with such a field and that from the commonly assumed arrangement where $B$ is constant everywhere, though fully tangled, and that this difference is small, though it increases if the electron energy density scales with the field. An aged electron spectrum in such a field produces a characteristic curved synchrotron spectrum which differs significantly from the classical Jaffe-Perola spectrum, and I discuss some effects that this might have on standard spectral age fitting. Finally, I show that inverse-Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background is only moderately affected by such a field structure, with the effects becoming more important if the electrons follow the field. Magnetic-field estimates in the literature from combined synchrotron and inverse-Compton modelling will give reasonable estimates of the mean magnetic field energy density if the field is non-uniform but isotropic.

A magnetic reconnection origin for the soft X-ray excess in AGN

We present a new scenario to explain the soft X-ray excess in Active Galactic Nucleus. The magnetic reconnection could happen in a thin layer on the surface of accretion disk. Electrons are accelerated by shock wave and turbulence triggered by magnetic reconnection, then they take place inverse Compton scattering above accretion disk which contributes soft X-rays. Based on standard disk model, we estimate the magnetic field strength and the energy released by magnetic reconnection along accretion disk, and find that the luminosity caused by magnetic reconnection mainly emits in the inner disk which is dominated by radiation pressure. We then apply the model to fit the spectra of AGNs with strong soft X-ray excess.

Measurements and simulation of Faraday rotation across the Coma radio relic

The aim of this work is to probe the magnetic field properties in relics and infall regions of galaxy clusters using Faraday Rotation Measures. We present Very Large Array multi-frequency observations of seven sources in the region South-West of the Coma cluster, where the infalling group NGC4839 and the relic 1253+275 are located. The Faraday Rotation Measure maps for the observed sources are derived and analysed to study the magnetic field in the South-West region of Coma. We discuss how to interpret the data by comparing observed and mock rotation measures maps that are produced simulating different 3-dimensional magnetic field models. The magnetic field model that gives the best fit to the Coma central region underestimates the rotation measure in the South-West region by a factor ~6, and no significant jump in the rotation measure data is found at the position of the relic. We explore different possibilities to reconcile observed and mock rotation measure trends, and conclude that an amplification of the magnetic field along the South-West sector is the most plausible solution. Our data together with recent X-ray estimates of the gas density obtained with Suzaku suggest that a magnetic field amplification by a factor ~3 is required throughout the entire South-West region in order to reconcile real and mock rotation measures trends. The magnetic field in the relic region is inferred to be ~2 microG, consistent with Inverse Compton limits.

High Energy Emission Processes in OJ 287 during 2009 Flare

The broadband spectrum of a BL Lac object, OJ 287, from radio to $\gamma$-rays obtained during a major $\gamma$-ray flare detected by \emph{Fermi} in 2009 are studied to understand the high energy emission mechanism during this episode. Using a simple one-zone leptonic model, incorporating synchrotron and inverse Compton emission processes, we show that the explanation of high energy emission from X-rays to $\gamma$-rays, by considering a single emission mechanism, namely, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) or external Compton (EC) requires unlikely physical conditions. However, a combination of both SSC and EC mechanisms can reproduce the observed high energy spectrum satisfactorily. Using these emission mechanisms we extract the physical parameters governing the source and its environment. Our study suggests that the emission region of OJ 287 is surrounded by a warm infrared (IR) emitting region of $\sim 250 \, K$. Assuming this region as a spherical cloud illuminated by an accretion disk, we obtain the location of the emission region to be $\sim 9 pc$. This supports the claim that the $\gamma$-ray emission from OJ 287 during the 2009 flare arises from a location far away from the central engine as deduced from millimeter-gamma ray correlation study and very long baseline array images.

Discovery of an extra hard spectral component in the high-energy afterglow emission of GRB 130427A

The extended high-energy gamma-ray (>100 MeV) emission occurred after the prompt gamma-ray bursts is usually characterized by a single power-law spectrum, which has been explained as the afterglow synchrotron radiation. The afterglow inverse-Compton emission has long been predicted to be able to produce a high-energy component as well, but previous observations have not revealed such a signature clearly, probably due to the small number of >10 GeV photons even for the brightest GRBs known so far. In this Letter, we report on the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the >100 MeV emission from the very bright and nearby GRB 130427A. We characterize the time-resolved spectra of the GeV emission from the GRB onset to the afterglow phase. Based on detection of about a dozen >10 GeV photons from GRB 130427A, we found a strong evidence of an extra hard spectral component that exists in the extended high-energy emission of this GRB. We argue that this hard component may arise from the afterglow inverse Compton emission.

Discovery of an extra hard spectral component in the high-energy afterglow emission of GRB 130427A [Replacement]

The extended high-energy gamma-ray (>100 MeV) emission occurred after the prompt gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is usually characterized by a single power-law spectrum, which has been explained as the afterglow synchrotron radiation. The afterglow inverse-Compton emission has long been predicted to be able to produce a high-energy component as well, but previous observations have not revealed such a signature clearly, probably due to the small number of >10 GeV photons even for the brightest GRBs known so far. In this Letter, we report on the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the >100 MeV emission from the very bright and nearby GRB 130427A. We characterize the time-resolved spectra of the GeV emission from the GRB onset to the afterglow phase. By performing time-resolved spectral fits of GRB 130427A, we found a strong evidence of an extra hard spectral component that exists in the extended high-energy emission of this GRB. We argue that this hard component may arise from the afterglow inverse Compton emission.

Polarimetry and the High-Energy Emission Mechanisms in Quasar Jets. The Case of PKS 1136-135 [Replacement]

Since the discovery of kiloparsec-scale X-ray emission from quasar jets, the physical processes responsible for their high- energy emission have been poorly defined. A number of mechanisms are under active debate, including synchrotron radiation, inverse-Comptonized CMB (IC/CMB) emission, and other inverse-Compton processes. In a number of cases, the optical and X-ray emission of jet regions are linked by a single spectral component, and in those, high-resolution multi-band imaging and polarimetry can be combined to yield a powerful diagnostic of jet emission processes. Here we report on deep imaging polarimetry of the jet of PKS 1136$-$135 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that several knots are highly polarized in the optical, with fractional polarization >30%. When combined with the broadband spectral shape observed, this is very difficult to explain via IC/CMB models, unless the scattering particles are at the lowest-energy tip of the electron energy distribution, with Lorentz factor $\gamma \sim 1$, and the jet is also very highly beamed ($\delta \geq 20$) and viewed within a few degrees of the line of sight. We discuss both IC/CMB and synchrotron interpretation of the X-ray emission in the light of this new evidence, presenting new models of the spectral energy distribution and also the matter content. The high polarizations do not completely rule out the possibility of IC/CMB optical-to-X-ray emission in knot A, but they strongly disfavor the model, because the permitted parameter space is very restricted, and because PKS 1136-135 is not a blazar, and thus its properties are inconsistent with what one would expect for such a highly beamed source. We discuss the implications of this finding, and also the prospects for future work.

Polarimetry and the High-Energy Emission Mechanisms in Quasar Jets. The Case of PKS 1136-135

Since the discovery of kiloparsec-scale X-ray emission from quasar jets, the physical processes responsible for their high- energy emission have been poorly defined. A number of mechanisms are under active debate, including synchrotron radiation, inverse-Comptonized CMB (IC/CMB) emission, and other inverse-Compton processes. In a number of cases, the optical and X-ray emission of jet regions are linked by a single spectral component, and in those, high-resolution multi-band imaging and polarimetry can be combined to yield a powerful diagnostic of jet emission processes. Here we report on deep imaging polarimetry of the jet of PKS 1136$-$135 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that several knots are highly polarized in the optical, with fractional polarization >30%. When combined with the broadband spectral shape observed, this is very difficult to explain via IC/CMB models, unless the scattering particles are at the lowest-energy tip of the electron energy distribution, with Lorentz factor $\gamma \sim 1$, and the jet is also very highly beamed ($\delta \geq 20$) and viewed within a few degrees of the line of sight. We discuss both IC/CMB and synchrotron interpretation of the X-ray emission in the light of this new evidence, presenting new models of the spectral energy distribution and also the matter content. The high polarizations do not completely rule out the possibility of IC/CMB optical-to-X-ray emission in knot A, but they strongly disfavor the model, because the permitted parameter space is very restricted, and because PKS 1136-135 is not a blazar, and thus its properties are inconsistent with what one would expect for such a highly beamed source. We discuss the implications of this finding, and also the prospects for future work.

On the origin of >10 GeV photons in gamma-ray burst afterglows [Replacement]

Fermi/LAT has detected long-lasting high-energy photons (>100 MeV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with the highest energy photons reaching about 100 GeV. One proposed scenario is that they are produced by high-energy electrons accelerated in GRB forward shocks via synchrotron radiation. We study the maximum synchrotron photon energy in this scenario, considering the properties of the microturbluence magnetic fields behind the shock, as revealed by recent Particle-in-Cell simulations and theoretical analyses of relativistic collisionless shocks. Due to the small-scale nature of the micro-turbulent magnetic field, the Bohm acceleration approximation breaks down at such high energies. This effect leads to a typical maximum synchrotron photon of a few GeV at 100 s after the burst and this maximum synchrotron photon energy decreases quickly with time. We show that the fast decrease of the maximum synchrotron photon energy leads to a fast decay of the synchrotron flux. The 10-100 GeV photons detected after the prompt phase can not be produced by the synchrotron mechanism. They could originate from the synchrotron self-Compton emission of the early afterglow if the circum-burst density is sufficiently large, or from the external inverse-Compton process in the presence of central X-ray emission, such as X-ray flares and prompt high-latitude X-ray emission.

On the origin of >10 GeV photons in gamma-ray burst afterglows

Fermi/LAT has detected long-lasting high-energy photons (>100 MeV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with the highest energy photons reaching about 100 GeV. One proposed scenario is that they are produced by high-energy electrons accelerated in GRB forward shocks via synchrotron radiation. We study the maximum synchrotron photon energy in this scenario, considering the properties of the microturbluence magnetic fields behind the shock, as revealed by recent Particle-in-Cell simulations and theoretical analyses of relativistic collisionless shocks. Due to the small-scale nature of the micro-turbulent magnetic field, the Bohm acceleration approximation breaks down at such high energies. This effect leads to a typical maximum synchrotron photon of a few GeV at 100 s after the burst and this maximum synchrotron photon energy decreases quickly with time. We show that the fast decrease of the maximum synchrotron photon energy leads to a fast decay of the synchrotron flux. Depending on the strength of the afterglow synchrotron self-Compton component, which is sensitive to the density of the circumburst medium, the overall light curves could have different shapes. The 10-100 GeV photons detected after the prompt phase can not be produced by the synchrotron mechanism. They could originate from the synchrotron self-Compton emission of the early afterglow if the circum-burst density is sufficiently large, or from the external inverse-Compton process in the presence of central X-ray emission, such as X-ray flares and prompt high-latitude X-ray emission.

On the origin of >10 GeV photons in gamma-ray burst afterglows [Replacement]

Fermi/LAT has detected long-lasting high-energy photons (>100 MeV) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with the highest energy photons reaching about 100 GeV. One proposed scenario is that they are produced by high-energy electrons accelerated in GRB forward shocks via synchrotron radiation. We study the maximum synchrotron photon energy in this scenario, considering the properties of the microturbluence magnetic fields behind the shock, as revealed by recent Particle-in-Cell simulations and theoretical analyses of relativistic collisionless shocks. Due to the small-scale nature of the micro-turbulent magnetic field, the Bohm acceleration approximation breaks down at such high energies. This effect leads to a typical maximum synchrotron photon of a few GeV at 100 s after the burst and this maximum synchrotron photon energy decreases quickly with time. We show that the fast decrease of the maximum synchrotron photon energy leads to a fast decay of the synchrotron flux. Depending on the strength of the afterglow synchrotron self-Compton component, which is sensitive to the density of the circumburst medium, the overall light curves could have different shapes. The 10-100 GeV photons detected after the prompt phase can not be produced by the synchrotron mechanism. They could originate from the synchrotron self-Compton emission of the early afterglow if the circum-burst density is sufficiently large, or from the external inverse-Compton process in the presence of central X-ray emission, such as X-ray flares and prompt high-latitude X-ray emission.

High energy emission of GRB 130427A: evidence for inverse Compton radiation [Replacement]

A nearby super-luminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six $\gamma$-ray space telescopes ({\it Swift}, Fermi-GBM/LAT, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic $\gamma-$ray energy release is of $\sim 10^{54}$ erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among the GRBs with a redshift $z\leq 0.5$. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is established for the $\sim (95.3,~47.3,~41.4,~38.5,~32)$ GeV photons arriving at $t\sim (243,~256.3,~610.6,~3409.8,~34366.2)$ s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external-inverse-Compton-scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., $t\sim 120-260$ s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few $\gamma-$rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft $\gamma-$ray, optical and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implication of the null detection of $>1$ TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube is discussed.

High energy emission of GRB 130427A: evidence for inverse Compton radiation [Replacement]

A nearby super-luminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six $\gamma$-ray space telescopes ({\it Swift}, Fermi-GBM/LAT, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic $\gamma-$ray energy release is of $\sim 10^{54}$ erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among the GRBs with a redshift $z\leq 0.5$. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is established for the $\sim (95.3,~47.3,~41.4,~38.5,~32)$ GeV photons arriving at $t\sim (243,~256.3,~610.6,~3409.8,~34366.2)$ s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external-inverse-Compton-scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., $t\sim 120-260$ s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few $\gamma-$rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft $\gamma-$ray, optical and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implication of the null detection of $>1$ TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube is discussed.

High energy emission of GRB 130427A: evidence for inverse Compton radiation

A nearby super-luminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by five $\gamma$-ray space telescopes ({\it Swift}, Fermi-GBM/LAT, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL and AGILE) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic $\gamma-$ray energy release is of $\sim 10^{54}$ erg and the absence of a jet break in the X-ray afterglow lightcurve up to $t>7$ days suggests an intrinsic energy release of $> 10^{52}$ erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among the GRBs with a redshift $z\leq 0.5$. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is established for the $\sim (95.3,~47.3,~41.4)$ GeV photons arriving at $t\sim (243,~256.3,~610.6)$ s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external-inverse-Compton-scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., $t\sim 120-260$ s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few $\gamma-$rays with a typical energy $\sim 10$ GeV, while five photons above 10 GeV were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft $\gamma-$ray, optical and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implication of the null detection of $>1$ TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube is discussed.

Gamma-ray emission from nova outbursts

Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission, with the 511 keV line and a continuum. Gamma-ray spectra and light curves are potential unique tools to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected with the Fermi satellite in V407 Cyg, a nova in a symbiotic binary, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main sequence star as in the cataclysmic variables hosting classical novae. Two more novae have been detected recently (summer 2012) by Fermi, apparently in non symbiotic binaries, thus challenging our understanding of the emission mechanism. Both scenarios (radioactivities and acceleration) of gamma-ray production in novae are discussed.

 

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