Posts Tagged inverse compton

Recent Postings from inverse compton

Modelling high-resolution spatially-resolved Supernova Remnant spectra with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

Supernova Remnants (SNRs) exhibit spectra featured by synchrotron radio emission arising from the relativistic electrons, and high-energy emission from both leptonic (Bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton) and hadronic processes (${\pi}^0$ mesons decay) which are a direct signature of cosmic rays acceleration. Thanks to radio single-dish imaging observations obtained in three frequency bands (1.6, 7, 22 GHz) with the Sardinia Radio Telescope (www.srt.inaf.it), we can model different SNR regions separately. Indeed, in order to disentangle interesting and peculiar hadron contributions in the high-energy spectra (gamma-ray band) and better constrain SNRs as cosmic rays emitters, it is crucial to fully constrain lepton contributions first through radio-observed parameters. In particular, the Bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton bumps observed in gamma-rays are bounded to synchrotron spectral slope and cut-off in the radio domain. Since these parameters vary for different SNR regions and electron populations, spatially-resolved radio spectra are then required for accurate multi-wavelength modelling.

Gamma ray vortices from nonlinear inverse Compton scattering of circularly polarized light [Cross-Listing]

Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is an elemental radiation process that produces high-energy photons both in nature and in the laboratory. Non-linear ICS is a process in which multiple photons are converted to a single high-energy photon. Here, we theoretically show that the photon produced by non-linear ICS of circularly polarized photons is a vortex, which means that it possesses a helical wave front and carries orbital angular momentum. Our work explains a recent experimental result regarding non-linear Compton scattering that clearly shows an annular intensity distribution as a remarkable feature of a vortex beam. Our work implies that gamma ray vortices should be produced in various situations in astrophysics in which high-energy electrons and intense circularly polarized light fields coexist. They should play a critical role in stellar nucleosynthesis. Non-linear ICS is the most promising radiation process for realizing a gamma ray vortex source based on currently available laser and accelerator technologies, which would be an indispensable tool for exploring gamma ray vortex science.

Probing the physics and history of cosmic reionization with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

We study here an alternative technique to probe the Dark Ages (DA) and the Epoch of Reonization (EoR) that makes use of the Comptonization of the CMB spectrum modified by physical effects occurring during this epoch related to the emergence of the 21-cm radiation background. Inverse Compton scattering of 21-cm photon background by thermal and non-thermal electrons residing in the atmospheres of cosmic structures like galaxy clusters, radiogalaxy lobes and galaxy halos, produces a specific form of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) that we refer to as SZE-21cm. We derive the SZE-21cm in a general relativistic approach which is required to describe the correct spectral features of this astrophysical effect. We calculate the spectral features of the thermal and non-thermal SZE-21cm in galaxy clusters and in radiogalaxy lobes, and their dependence on the history of physical mechanisms occurring during the DA and EoR. We study how the spectral shape of the SZE-21cm can be used to establish the global features in the mean 21-cm spectrum generated during and prior to the EoR, and how it depends on the properties of the (thermal and non-thermal) plasma in cosmic structures. We find that the thermal and non-thermal SZE-21cm have peculiar spectral shapes that allow to investigate the physics and history of the EoR and DA. Its spectrum depends on the gas temperature (for the thermal SZE-21cm) and on the electrons minimum momentum (for the non-thermal SZE-21cm). The global SZE-21cm signal can be detected (in $\sim 1000$ hrs) by SKA1-low in the frequency range $\nu \simgt 75-90$ MHz, for clusters in the temperature range 5 to 20 keV, and the difference between the SZE-21cm and the standard SZE can be detected by SKA1 or SKA2 at frequencies depending on the background model and the cluster temperature. [abridged]

Inverse Compton X-ray Emissions from TeV blazar Mrk421 during a Historical Low-Flux State Observed with NuSTAR

We report on the detection of excess hard X-ray emission from the TeV BL Lac object Mrk421 during the historical low-flux state of the source in January 2013. NuSTAR observations were conducted four times between MJD56294 and MJD56312 with a total exposure of 80.9 ksec. The source flux in the 3-40 keV range was nearly constant except for MJD56307, when the average flux level increased by a factor of three. Throughout the exposure, the X-ray spectra of Mrk421 were well represented by a steep power-law model with a photon index of 3.1, although a significant excess was noted above 20 keV in the MJD56302 data when the source was in its faintest state. Moreover, Mrk421 was detected at more than the 4-sigma level in the 40-79 keV count maps for both MJD56307 and MJD56302 but not during the remaining two observations. The detected excess hard X-ray emissions connect smoothly with the extrapolation of the high-energy gamma-ray continuum of the blazar constrained by Fermi-LAT during the source quiescence. These findings indicate that, while the overall X-ray spectrum of Mrk421 is dominated by the highest-energy tail of the synchrotron continuum, the variable excess hard X-ray emission above 20 keV (on the timescale of a week) is related to the inverse Compton emission component. We discuss the resulting constraints on the variability and spectral properties of the low-energy segment of the electron energy distribution in the source.

Fermi-LAT kills dark matter interpretations of AMS-02 data. Or not?

A number of papers attempt to explain the positron anomaly in cosmic rays, observed by PAMELA and AMS-02, in terms of dark matter (DM) decays or annihilations. However, the recent progress in cosmic gamma-ray studies challenges these attempts. Indeed, as we show, any rational DM model explaining the positron anomaly abundantly produces final state radiation and Inverse Compton gamma rays, which inevitably leads to a contradiction with Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background measurements. Furthermore, the Fermi-LAT observation of Milky Way dwarf satellites, supposed to be rich in DM, revealed no significant signal in gamma rays. We propose a generic approach in which the major contribution to cosmic rays comes from the dark matter disc and prove that the tension between the DM origin of the positron anomaly and the cosmic gamma-ray observations can be relieved. We consider both a simple model, in which DM decay/annihilate into charged leptons, and a model-independent minimal case of particle production, and we estimate the optimal thickness of DM disk. Possible mechanisms of dark disk formation and its properties are briefly discussed.

Polarization of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect: relativistic imprint of thermal and non-thermal plasma

[Abridged] Inverse Compton scattering of CMB fluctuations off cosmic electron plasma generates a polarization of the associated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This signal has been studied so far mostly in the non-relativistic regime and for a thermal electron population and, as such, has limited astrophysical applications. Partial attempts to extend this calculation for a thermal electron plasma in the relativistic regime have been done but cannot be applied to a general relativistic electron distribution. Here we derive a general form of the SZ effect polarization valid in the full relativistic approach for both thermal and non-thermal electron plasmas, as well as for a generic combination of various electron population co-spatially distributed in the environments of galaxy clusters or radiogalaxy lobes. We derive the spectral shape of the Stokes parameters induced by the IC scattering of every CMB multipole, focusing on the CMB quadrupole and octupole that provide the largest detectable signals in galaxy clusters. We found that the CMB quadrupole induced Stoke parameter Q is always positive with a maximum amplitude at 216 GHz which increases slightly with increasing cluster temperature. The CMB octupole induced Q spectrum shows, instead, a cross-over frequency which depends on the cluster electron temperature, or on the minimum momentum p_1 as well as on the power-law spectral index of a non-thermal electron population. We discuss some possibilities to disentangle the quadrupole-induced Q spectrum from the octupole-induced one which allow to measure these quantities through the SZ effect polarization. We finally apply our model to the realistic case of the Bullet cluster and derive the visibility windows of the total, quandrupole-induced and octupole-induced Stoke parameter Q in the frequency ranges accessible to SKA, ALMA, MILLIMETRON and CORE++ experiments.

High energy electromagnetic cascades in extragalactic space: physics and features

Using the analytic modeling of the electromagnetic cascades compared with more precise numerical simulations we describe the physical properties of electromagnetic cascades developing in the universe on CMB and EBL background radiations. A cascade is initiated by very high energy photon or electron and the remnant photons at large distance have two-component energy spectrum, $\propto E^{-2}$ ($\propto E^{-1.9}$ in numerical simulations) produced at cascade multiplication stage, and $\propto E^{-3/2}$ from Inverse Compton electron cooling at low energies. The most noticeable property of the cascade spectrum in analytic modeling is 'strong universality', which includes the standard energy spectrum and the energy density of the cascade $\omega_{\rm cas}$ as its only numerical parameter. Using numerical simulations of the cascade spectrum and comparing it with recent Fermi LAT spectrum we obtained the upper limit on $\omega_{\rm cas}$ stronger than in previous works. The new feature of the analysis is "$E_{\max}$ rule". We investigate the dependence of $\omega_{\rm cas}$ on the distribution of sources, distinguishing two cases of universality: the strong and weak ones.

Equipartition and Cosmic Ray Energy Densities in Central Molecular Zones of Starbursts

The energy densities in magnetic fields and cosmic rays (CRs) in galaxies are often assumed to be in equipartition, allowing for an indirect estimate of the magnetic field strength from the observed radio synchrotron spectrum. However, both primary and secondary CRs contribute to the synchrotron spectrum, and the CR electrons also loose energy via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton. While classical equipartition formulae avoid these intricacies, there have been recent revisions that account for the extreme conditions in starbursts. Yet, the application of the equipartition formula to starburst environments also presupposes that timescales are long enough to reach equilibrium. Here, we test equipartition in the central molecular zones (CMZs) of nearby starburst galaxies by modeling the observed gamma-ray spectra, which provide a direct measure of the CR energy density, and the radio spectra, which provide a probe of the magnetic field strength. We find that in starbursts, the magnetic field energy density is significantly larger than the CR energy density, demonstrating that the equipartition argument is frequently invalid for CMZs.

Spectral signatures of compact sources in the inverse Compton catastrophe limit

The inverse Compton catastrophe is defined as a dramatic rise in the luminosity of inverse Compton scattered photons. It is described by a non-linear loop of radiative processes that sets in for high values of the electron compactness and is responsible for the efficient transfer of energy from electrons to photons, predominantly through inverse Compton scatterings. We search for the conditions that drive a magnetized non-thermal source to the inverse Compton catastrophe regime and study its multi-wavelength (MW) photon spectrum. We develop a generic analytical framework and use numerical calculations as a backup to the analytical predictions. We find that the escaping radiation from a source in the Compton catastrophe regime bears some unique features. The MW photon spectrum is a broken power law with a break at $\sim m_e c^2$ due to the onset of the Klein-Nishina suppression. The spectral index below the break energy depends on the electron and magnetic compactnesses logarithmically, while it is independent of the electron power-law index ($s$). The maximum radiating power emerges typically in the $\gamma$-ray regime, at energies $\sim m_e c^2$ ($\sim \gamma_{\max} m_e c^2$ ) for $s>2$ ($s\lesssim 2$), where $\gamma_{\max}$ is the maximum Lorentz factor of the injected electron distribution. We apply the principles of the inverse Compton catastrophe to blazars and $\gamma$-ray bursts using the analytical framework we developed, and show how these can be used to impose robust constraints on the source parameters.

Study of the X-ray emission mechanism of radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy

1H0323+342 is one of narrow-line radio-loud Seyfert 1 galaxies (RL-NLS1), which is a new class of gamma-ray emitting AGNs. Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) have a small-mass black hole, but its mass accretion rate is almost as high as Eddington limit. Therefore, by observing NLS1s, we can know the evolution of supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. Some of NLS1s are radio-loud and we call them RL-NLS1. From past observations, multi-wavelength spectrum of RL-NLS1s is similar to that of typical blazars; the synchrotron emission in the lower energy band up to the optical band, and inverse Compton scattering of low energy photons from disk, torus, and broad line region. X-ray band is a transittion region between the synchrotron and inverse Compton, and also there is a possible disk/corona emission. Therefore, we studied the energy-dependence of time variability of the X-ray emission of 1H0323+342, which have been observed by Suzaku in 2009 and 2013, in order to constrain the emission mechanism. We found that the lower energy below 1 keV and the higher energy above 7 keV show a different variability from the middle energy band, indicating at least two emission components in the X-ray band. X-ray spectrum is not a simple power-law, but requires an additional features; a broken power-law plus flat hard component, or a power-law plus a relativistic reflection component. Each spectral component seems to vary independently.

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight [Replacement]

We present a new extended gamma ray excess detected with the Fermi Satellite Large Area Telescope toward the Galactic Center that traces the morphology of infrared starlight emission. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is approximately consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight [Replacement]

We present a new extended gamma ray excess detected with the Fermi Satellite Large Area Telescope toward the Galactic Center that traces the morphology of infrared starlight emission. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is approximately consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight [Replacement]

We present a new extended gamma ray excess detected with the Fermi Satellite Large Area Telescope toward the Galactic Center that traces the morphology of infrared starlight emission. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is approximately consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight

We present a new extended gamma ray excess toward the Galactic Center that traces the 3.4 micron infrared emission morphology. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight [Cross-Listing]

We present a new extended gamma ray excess toward the Galactic Center that traces the 3.4 micron infrared emission morphology. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight [Replacement]

We present a new extended gamma ray excess detected with the Fermi Satellite Large Area Telescope toward the Galactic Center that traces the morphology of infrared starlight emission. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is approximately consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Inverse Compton light curves of blazars under non-linear, time-dependent synchrotron-self Compton cooling

Blazars exhibit flares with a doubling time scale on the order of minutes. Such rapid flares are theoretically challenging and several {models} have been put forward to explain the fast variability. In this paper we continue the discussion concerning the effects of non-linear, time-dependent synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling. In previous papers we were able to show that the non-linearity{, introduced by a time-dependent electron injection,} has severe consequences for both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and the monochromatic synchrotron light curve. The non-linear cooling introduces novel breaks in the SED, which are usually explained by complicated underlying electron distributions, while the much faster cooling of the SSC process {causes significant differences in the synchrotron light curves}. In this paper we calculate the inverse Compton light curves, taking into account both the SSC and the external Compton process. The light curves are calculated from the monochromatic intensities by introducing the retardation due to the finite size of the emission region and the geometry of the source. Even though some of the obvious effects of the SSC cooling are washed out by the retardation, there are still several observational constraints which could help to discriminate between the non-linear and the usual linear models, such as different flux states, temporal shapes or faster variability of the light curves at different energies.

Measurement of the Crab Nebula spectrum over three decades in energy with the MAGIC telescopes [Replacement]

The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. At low energies, MAGIC results, combined with Fermi-LAT data, show a flat and broad Inverse Compton peak. The overall fit to the data between 1 GeV and 30 TeV is not well described by a log-parabola function. We find that a modified log-parabola function with an exponent of 2.5 instead of 2 provides a good description of the data ($\chi^2=35/26$). Using systematic uncertainties of red the MAGIC and Fermi-LAT measurements we determine the position of the Inverse Compton peak to be at (53 $\pm$ 3stat + 31syst -13syst) GeV, which is the most precise estimation up to date and is dominated by the systematic effects. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV when systematic uncertainties are included in the flux measurement. We consider three state- of-the-art theoretical models to describe the overall spectral energy distribution of the Crab Nebula. The constant B-field model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the VHE spectral measurements presented in this work, having particular difficulty reproducing the broadness of the observed IC peak. Most probably this implies that the assumption of the homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the nebula is incorrect. On the other hand, the time-dependent 1D spectral model provides a good fit of the new VHE results when considering a 80 {\mu}G magnetic field. However, it fails to match the data when including the morphology of the nebula at lower wavelengths.

Measurement of the Crab Nebula spectrum over three decades in energy with the MAGIC telescopes [Replacement]

The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. At low energies, MAGIC results, combined with Fermi-LAT data, show a flat and broad Inverse Compton peak. The overall fit to the data between 1 GeV and 30 TeV is not well described by a log-parabola function. We find that a modified log-parabola function with an exponent of 2.5 instead of 2 provides a good description of the data ($\chi^2=35/26$). Using systematic uncertainties of red the MAGIC and Fermi-LAT measurements we determine the position of the Inverse Compton peak to be at (53 $\pm$ 3stat + 31syst -13syst) GeV, which is the most precise estimation up to date and is dominated by the systematic effects. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV when systematic uncertainties are included in the flux measurement. We consider three state- of-the-art theoretical models to describe the overall spectral energy distribution of the Crab Nebula. The constant B-field model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the VHE spectral measurements presented in this work, having particular difficulty reproducing the broadness of the observed IC peak. Most probably this implies that the assumption of the homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the nebula is incorrect. On the other hand, the time-dependent 1D spectral model provides a good fit of the new VHE results when considering a 80 {\mu}G magnetic field. However, it fails to match the data when including the morphology of the nebula at lower wavelengths.

Measurement of the Crab Nebula spectrum over three decades in energy with the MAGIC telescopes [Replacement]

The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. At low energies, MAGIC results, combined with Fermi-LAT data, show a flat and broad Inverse Compton peak. The overall fit to the data between 1 GeV and 30 TeV is not well described by a log-parabola function. We find that a modified log-parabola function with an exponent of 2.5 instead of 2 provides a good description of the data ($\chi^2=35/26$). Using systematic uncertainties of red the MAGIC and Fermi-LAT measurements we determine the position of the Inverse Compton peak to be at (53 $\pm$ 3stat + 31syst -13syst) GeV, which is the most precise estimation up to date and is dominated by the systematic effects. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV when systematic uncertainties are included in the flux measurement. We consider three state- of-the-art theoretical models to describe the overall spectral energy distribution of the Crab Nebula. The constant B-field model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the VHE spectral measurements presented in this work, having particular difficulty reproducing the broadness of the observed IC peak. Most probably this implies that the assumption of the homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the nebula is incorrect. On the other hand, the time-dependent 1D spectral model provides a good fit of the new VHE results when considering a 80 {\mu}G magnetic field. However, it fails to match the data when including the morphology of the nebula at lower wavelengths.

Measurement of the Crab Nebula spectrum over three decades in energy with the MAGIC telescopes [Replacement]

The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. At low energies, MAGIC results, combined with Fermi-LAT data, show a flat and broad Inverse Compton peak. The overall fit to the data between 1 GeV and 30 TeV is not well described by a log-parabola function. We find that a modified log-parabola function with an exponent of 2.5 instead of 2 provides a good description of the data ($\chi^2=35/26$). Using systematic uncertainties of red the MAGIC and Fermi-LAT measurements we determine the position of the Inverse Compton peak to be at (53 $\pm$ 3stat + 31syst -13syst) GeV, which is the most precise estimation up to date and is dominated by the systematic effects. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV when systematic uncertainties are included in the flux measurement. We consider three state- of-the-art theoretical models to describe the overall spectral energy distribution of the Crab Nebula. The constant B-field model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the VHE spectral measurements presented in this work, having particular difficulty reproducing the broadness of the observed IC peak. Most probably this implies that the assumption of the homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the nebula is incorrect. On the other hand, the time-dependent 1D spectral model provides a good fit of the new VHE results when considering a 80 {\mu}G magnetic field. However, it fails to match the data when including the morphology of the nebula at lower wavelengths.

Discovery of an extended X-ray jet in AP Librae

Chandra observations of the low-energy peaked BL Lac object AP Librae revealed the clear discovery of a non-thermal X-ray jet. AP Lib is the first low energy peaked BL Lac object with an extended non-thermal X-ray jet that shows emission into the VHE range. The X-ray jet has an extension of ~15'' (~ 14 kpc). The X-ray jet morphology is similar to the radio jet observed with VLA at 1.36 GHz emerging in south-east direction and bends by 50 degrees at a distance of 12'' towards north-east. The intensity profiles of the X-ray emission are studied consistent with those found in the radio range. The spectral analysis reveals that the X-ray spectra of the core and jet region are both inverse Compton dominated. This adds to a still small sample of BL Lac objects whose X-ray jets are IC dominated and thus more similar to the high luminosity FRII sources than to the low luminosity FRI objects, which are usually considered to be the parent population of the BL Lac objects.

Magnetic Field Amplification and Blazar Flares

Recent multiwavelength observations of PKS 0208-512 by SMARTS, Fermi, and Swift revealed that gamma-ray and optical light curves of this flat spectrum radio quasars are highly correlated, but with an exception of one large optical flare having no corresponding gamma-ray activity or even detection. On the other hand, recent advances in SNRs observations and plasma simulations both reveal that magnetic field downstream of astrophysical shocks can be largely amplified beyond simple shock compression. These amplifications, along with their associated particle acceleration, might contribute to blazar flares, including the peculiar flare of PKS 0208-512. Using our time dependent multizone blazar emission code, we evaluate several scenarios that may represent such phenomena. This code combines Monte Carlo method that tracks the radiative processes including inverse Compton scattering, and Fokker-Planck equation that follows the cooling and acceleration of particles. It is a comprehensive time dependent code that fully takes into account the light travel time effects. In this study, both the changes of the magnetic field and acceleration efficiency are explored as the cause of blazar flares. Under these assumption, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton scenarios produce distinct features that favor the external Compton scenario. The optical flares with/without gamma-ray counterparts can be explained by different allocations of energy between the magnetization and particle acceleration, which in turn can be affected by the relative orientation between the magnetic field and the shock flow. We compare the details of the observations and simulation, and highlight what implications this study has on our understanding of relativistic jets.

On the location of the gamma-ray emission region for 21 flat spectrum radio quasars with quasi-simultaneous observations [Replacement]

We try to infer the location of the GeV emission region for 21 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) with quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs), in which the SEDs of 21 FSRQs are reproduced by the one-zone leptonic model including the synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) and external Compton (EC) processes. We suggest that the X-ray emission could be produced by the SSC process and the GeV emission could come from the EC process. The EC emission could originate from the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of photons from the broad line region (BLR) and accretion disk or dust torus by the same electron population, which mainly depend on the location of the $\gamma$-ray emission region. We propose a method to constrain the location of the GeV emission region based on the spectral shapes. When the GeV emission is located within the BLR, the IC scattering could occur at the Klein-Nishina regime and produce a broken/steep spectrum in the GeV energy band. When the GeV emission is produced outside the BLR, the IC scattering could take place at the Thomson regime and the GeV spectrum would have the same spectral index as the optical-infrared spectrum. We infer that the location of the GeV emission region is inside the BLR for 5 FSRQs and beyond the BLR for 16 FSRQs. Our results show that the ratio of the magnetic field and electron energy density is close to equipartition condition for 21 FSRQs.

The Dynamics of Radio Galaxies and Double-Double Radio Galaxies

Relativistic and magnetised plasma ejected by radio loud AGNs through jets form the diffuse lobes of radio galaxies. The radiating particles (electron/electron-positron) in lobes emit in radio via the synchrotron process and X-ray via inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. The thermal environment around radio galaxies emits X-rays via the thermal bremsstrahlung process. By combining information from these processes we can measure physical conditions in and around the radio lobes and thus study the dynamics of radio galaxies, including double-double radio galaxies.

The giant lobes of Centaurus A observed at 118 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array

We present new wide-field observations of Centaurus A (Cen A) and the surrounding region at 118 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) 32-tile prototype, with which we investigate the spectral-index distribution of Cen A's giant radio lobes. We compare our images to 1.4 GHz maps of Cen A and compute spectral indices using temperature-temperature plots and spectral tomography. We find that the morphologies at 118 MHz and 1.4 GHz match very closely apart from an extra peak in the southern lobe at 118 MHz, which provides tentative evidence for the existence of a southern counterpart to the northern middle lobe of Cen A. Our spatially-averaged spectral indices for both the northern and southern lobes are consistent with previous analyses, however we find significant spatial variation of the spectra across the extent of each lobe. Both the spectral-index distribution and the morphology at low radio frequencies support a scenario of multiple outbursts of activity from the central engine. Our results are consistent with inverse-Compton modelling of radio and gamma-ray data that supports a value for the lobe age of between 10 and 80 Myr.

Calculations of the Propagated LIS Electron Spectrum Which Describe the Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum below ~100 MeV Measured Beyond 122 AU at Voyager 1 and its Relationship to the PAMELA Electron Spectrum above 200 MeV [Cross-Listing]

The new Voyager measurements of cosmic ray electrons between 6-60 MeV beyond 122 AU are very sensitive indicators of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration in the galaxy at a very low modulation level. Using a Monte Carlo diffusion model with a source spectrum with a single spectral index of -2.2 at all energies we are able to fit this observed Voyager spectrum and the contemporary PAMELA electron spectrum over an energy range from 6 MeV to ~200 GeV. This spectrum has a break in it but this break is due to propagation effects, not changes in the primary spectrum. This break is gradual, starting at > 2 GeV where the spectrum is ~E^-3.2 and continuing down to ~100 MeV or below where the spectrum becomes ~E^-1.5. At the higher energies the loss terms due to synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton effects which are ~E^2.0 steepen the exponent of the source spectrum by 1.0. At lower energies, these terms become unimportant and the loss is governed by diffusion and escape from the galaxy. A diffusion term which is proportional to beta^-1 below ~0.32 GV (which also fit the H and He spectra measured at Voyager) and has a value = 3x1028 cm^2 x s^-1 at 1 GV and a boundary at +/-1 Kpc will fit the Voyager or other similar spectra at low energies.

Plasma effects on fast pair beams II. Reactive versus kinetic instability of parallel electrostatic wave

The interaction of TeV gamma rays from distant blazars with the extragalactic background light produces relativistic electron-positron pair beams by the photon-photon annihilation process. Using the linear instability analysis in the kinetic limit, which properly accounts for the longitudinal and the small but finite perpendicular momentum spread in the pair momentum distribution function, the growth rate of parallel propagating electrostatic oscillations in the intergalactic medium is calculated. Contrary to the claims of Miniati and Elyiv (2013) we find that neither the longitudinal nor the perpendicular spread in the relativistic pair distribution function do significantly affect the electrostatic growth rates. The maximum kinetic growth rate for no perpendicular spread is even about an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding reactive maximum growth rate. The reduction factors to the maximum growth rate due to the finite perpendicular spread in the pair distribution function are tiny, and always less than $10^{-4}$. We confirm the earlier conclusions by Broderick et al. (2012) and us, that the created pair beam distribution function is quickly unstable in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium. Therefore, there is no need to require the existence of small intergalactic magnetic fields to scatter the produced pairs, so that the explanation (made by several authors) of the FERMI non-detection of the inverse Compton scattered GeV gamma rays by a finite deflecting intergalactic magnetic field is not necessary. In particular, the various derived lower bounds for the intergalactic magnetic fields are invalid due to the pair beam instability argument.

Constraints on WIMP Annihilation for Contracted Dark Matter in the Inner Galaxy with the Fermi-LAT

We derive constraints on parameters of generic dark matter candidates by comparing theoretical predictions with the gamma-ray emission observed by the Fermi-LAT from the region around the Galactic Center. Our analysis is conservative since it simply requires that the expected dark matter signal does not exceed the observed emission. The constraints obtained in the likely case that the collapse of baryons to the Galactic Center is accompanied by the contraction of the dark matter are strong. In particular, we find that for bb and \tau+\tau- or W+W- dark matter annihilation channels, the upper limits on the annihilation cross section imply that the thermal cross section is excluded for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) mass smaller than about 700 and 500 GeV, respectively. For the \mu+ \mu- channel, where the effect of the inverse Compton scattering is important, depending on models of the Galactic magnetic field the exclusion of the thermal cross-section is for a WIMP mass smaller than about 150 to 400 GeV. The upper limits on the annihilation cross section of dark matter particles obtained are two orders of magnitude stronger than without contraction. In the latter case our results are compatible with the upper limits from the Galactic halo analysis reported by the Fermi-LAT collaboration for the case in which the same conservative approach without modeling of the astrophysical background is employed.

Revisiting the Light Curves of Gamma-ray Bursts in the Relativistic Turbulence Model

Rapid temporal variability has been widely observed in the light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One possible mechanism for such variability is related to the relativistic eddies in the jet. In this paper, we include the contribution of the inter-eddy medium together with the eddies to the gamma-ray emission. We show that the gamma-ray emission can either lead or lag behind the observed synchrotron emission, where the latter originates in the inter-eddy medium and provides most of seed photons for producing gamma-ray emission through the inverse-Compton scattering. As a consequence, we argue that the lead/lag found in non-stationary short-lived light curves may not reveal the intrinsic lead/lag of different emission components. In addition, our results may explain the lead of gamma-ray emission with respect to optical emission observed in GRB 080319B.

GeV Emission during X-Ray Flares from Late Internal Shocks: Application to GRB 100728A

Recently, the GeV radiation during the X-ray flare activity in GRB 100728A was detected by Feimi/LAT. Here we study the dynamics and emission properties of collision between two homogeneous shells based on the late internal shock model. The GeV photons can be produced from X-ray flare photons up-scattered by relativistic electrons accelerated by forward-reverse shocks, where involved radiative processes include synchrotron self-Compton and crossing inverse-Compton scattering. By analytical and numerical calculations, the observed spectral properties in GRB 100728A can be well explained.

Radiative damping and emission signatures of strong superluminal waves in pulsar winds [Replacement]

We analyse the damping by radiation reaction and by Compton drag of strong, superluminal electromagnetic waves in the context of pulsar winds. The associated radiation signature is found by estimating the efficiency and the characteristic radiation frequencies. Applying these estimates to the gamma-ray binary containing PSR B1259-63, we show that the GeV flare observed by Fermi-LAT can be understood as inverse Compton emission by particles scattering photons from the companion star, if the pulsar wind termination shock acquires a precursor of superluminal waves roughly 30 days after periastron. This constrains the mass-loading factor of the wind $\mu=L/\dot{N}mc^2$ (where $L$ is the luminosity and $\dot{N}$ the rate of loss of electrons and positrons) to be roughly $6\times 10^4$.

Radiative damping and emission signatures of strong superluminal waves in pulsar winds

We analyse the damping by radiation reaction and by Compton drag of strong, superluminal electromagnetic waves in the context of pulsar winds. The associated radiation signature is found by estimating the efficiency and the characteristic radiation frequencies. Applying these estimates to the gamma-ray binary containing PSR B1259-63, we show that the GeV flare observed by Fermi-LAT can be understood as inverse Compton emission by particles scattering photons from the companion star, if the pulsar wind termination shock acquires a precursor of superluminal waves roughly 30 days after periastron. This constrains the mass-loading factor of the wind $\mu=L/\dot{N}mc^2$ (where $L$ is the luminosity and $\dot{N}$ the rate of loss of electrons and positrons) to be roughly $6\times 10^4$.

Implications of Plasma Beam Instabilities for the Statistics of the Fermi Hard Gamma-ray Blazars and the Origin of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

Fermi has been instrumental in constraining the luminosity function and redshift evolution of gamma-ray bright blazars. This includes limits upon the spectrum and anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB), redshift distribution of nearby Fermi active galactic nuclei (AGN), and the construction of a log(N)-log(S) relation. Based upon these, it has been argued that the evolution of the gamma-ray bright blazar population must be much less dramatic than that of other AGN. However, critical to such claims is the assumption that inverse Compton cascades reprocess emission above a TeV into the Fermi energy range, substantially enhancing the strength of the observed limits. Here we demonstrate that in the absence of such a process, due, e.g., to the presence of virulent plasma beam instabilities that preempt the cascade, a population of TeV-bright blazars that evolve similarly to quasars is consistent with the population of hard gamma-ray blazars observed by Fermi. Specifically, we show that a simple model for the properties and luminosity function is simultaneously able to reproduce their log(N)-log(S) relation, local redshift distribution, and contribution to the EGRB and its anisotropy without any free parameters. Insofar the naturalness of a picture in which the hard gamma-ray blazar population exhibits the strong redshift evolution observed in other tracers of the cosmological history of accretion onto halos is desirable, this lends support for the absence of the inverse Compton cascades and the existence of the beam plasma instabilities.

Diffuse TeV Gamma-Ray Emission in the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey

Diffuse gamma-ray emission has long been established as the most prominent feature in the GeV sky. Although the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique has been successful in revealing a large population of discrete TeV gamma-ray sources, a thorough investigation of diffuse emission at TeV energies is still pending. Data from the Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) obtained by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have now achieved a sensitivity and coverage adequate for probing signatures of diffuse emission in the energy range of ~100 GeV to a few TeV. Gamma-rays are produced in cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium (aka "sea of cosmic rays") and in inverse Compton scattering on cosmic photon fields. This inevitably leads to guaranteed gamma-ray emission related to the gas content along the line-of-sight. Further contributions relate to those gamma-ray sources that fall below the current detection threshold and the aforementioned inverse Compton emission. Based on the H.E.S.S. GPS, we present the first observational assessment of diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission. The observation is compared with corresponding flux predictions based on the HI (LAB data) and CO (as a tracer of H2, NANTEN data) gas distributions. Consequences for unresolved source contributions and the anticipated level of inverse Compton emission are discussed.

Fermi Rules Out the IC/CMB Model for the Large Scale Jet X-ray Emission of 3C 273

The source of the X-ray emission associated with the large-scale jets of powerful radio quasars has been a source of debate in recent years, with two competing interpretations: either the X-rays are of synchrotron origin, arising from a different electron energy distribution than that producing the radio- to-optical synchrotron component, or they are due to inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) by relativistic electrons in a powerful relativistic jet with bulk Lorentz factor Gamma ~10 - 20. These two models imply radically different conditions in the large scale jet in terms of jet speed, kinetic power, and maximum energy of the particle acceleration mechanism, with important implications for the impact of the jet on the larger-scale environment. A large part of the X-ray origin debate has centered on the well-studied source 3C 273. Here we present new observations from Fermi which put an upper limit on the gamma-ray flux from the large-scale jet of 3C 273 (from 3 - 10 GeV) of 4.85x10^-13 erg s^-1 cm^-2. This upper limit violates by almost a factor of ten the flux expected from the IC/CMB X-ray model found by extrapolation of the UV to X-ray spectrum of knot A, thus ruling out the IC/CMB interpretation entirely for this source. Further, the upper limit from Fermi puts a limit on the Doppler beaming factor of at least delta <9, assuming equipartition fields, and possibly as low as delta <5 assuming no major deceleration of the jet from knots A through D1.

Ionization Break-Out from Millisecond Pulsar Wind Nebulae: an X-ray Probe of the Origin of Superluminous Supernovae

Magnetic spin-down of a millisecond neutron star has been proposed as the power source of hydrogen-poor "superluminous" supernovae (SLSNe-I). However, producing an unambiguous test that can distinguish this model from alternatives, such as circumstellar interaction, has proven challenging. After the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind inflates a hot cavity behind the expanding stellar ejecta: the nascent millisecond pulsar wind nebula. Electron/positron pairs injected by the wind cool through inverse Compton scattering and synchrotron emission, producing a pair cascade and hard X-ray spectrum inside the nebula. These X-rays ionize the inner exposed side of the ejecta, driving an ionization front that propagates outwards with time. Under some conditions this front can breach the ejecta surface within months after the optical supernova peak, allowing ~0.1-1 keV photons to escape the nebula unattenuated with a characteristic luminosity L_X ~ 1e43-1e45 erg/s. This "ionization break-out" may explain the luminous X-ray emission observed from the transient SCP 06F, providing direct evidence that this SLSN was indeed engine-powered. Luminous break-out requires a low ejecta mass and that the spin-down time of the pulsar be comparable to the photon diffusion timescale at optical maximum, the latter condition similar to that required for a supernova with a high optical fluence. These relatively special requirements may explain why most SLSNe-I are not accompanied by detectable X-ray emission. Global asymmetry of the supernova ejecta increases the likelihood of an early break-out along the direction of lowest density. Atomic states with lower threshold energies are more readily ionized at earlier times near optical maximum, allowing UV break-out across a wider range of pulsar and ejecta properties than X-ray break-out, possibly contributing to the blue/UV colors of SLSNe-I.

Bremsstrahlung gamma rays from light Dark Matter

We discuss the often-neglected role of bremsstrahlung processes on the interstellar gas in computing indirect signatures of Dark Matter (DM) annihilation in the Galaxy, particularly for light DM candidates in the phenomenologically interesting O(10) GeV mass range. Especially from directions close to the Galactic Plane, the expected gamma-ray spectrum is altered via two effects: directly, by the photons emitted in the bremsstrahlung process on the interstellar gas by energetic electrons which are among the DM annihilation byproducts; indirectly, by the modification of the same electron spectrum, due to the additional energy loss process in the diffusion-loss equation (e.g. the resulting inverse Compton emission is altered). We quantify the importance of the bremsstrahlung emission in the GeV energy range, showing that it is the dominant component of the gamma-ray spectrum for some cases. We also find that, in regions in which bremsstrahlung dominates energy losses, the related gamma-ray emission is only moderately sensitive to possible large variations in the gas density. Still, we stress that, for computing precise spectra in the (sub-)GeV range, it is important to obtain a reliable description of the inner Galaxy gas distribution as well as to compute self-consistently the gamma emission and the solution to the diffusion-loss equation. For example, these are crucial issues to quantify and interpret meaningfully gamma-ray map `residuals' in terms of (light) DM annihilations.

Fermi Bubbles under Dark Matter Scrutiny. Part I: Astrophysical Analysis [Cross-Listing]

The quest for Dark Matter signals in the gamma-ray sky is one of the most intriguing and exciting challenges in astrophysics. In this paper we perform the analysis of the energy spectrum of the \textit{Fermi bubbles} at different latitudes, making use of the gamma-ray data collected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. By exploring various setups for the full-sky analysis we achieve stable results in all the analyzed latitudes. At high latitude, $|b|=20^{\circ}-50^{\circ}$, the \textit{Fermi bubbles} energy spectrum can be reproduced by gamma-ray photons generated by inverse Compton scattering processes, assuming the existence of a population of high-energy electrons. At low latitude, $|b|=10^{\circ}-20^{\circ}$, the presence of a bump at $E_{\gamma}\sim 1-4$ GeV, reveals the existence of an extra component compatible with Dark Matter annihilation. Our best-fit candidate corresponds to annihilation into $b\bar{b}$ with mass $M_{\rm DM}= 61.8^{+6.9}_{-4.9}$ GeV and cross section $<\sigma v> = 3.30^{+0.69}_{-0.49}\times 10^{-26}$ cm$^{3}$s$^{-1}$. In addition, using the energy spectrum of the \textit{Fermi bubbles}, we derive new conservative but stringent upper limits on the Dark Matter annihilation cross section.

High-Energy Radiation from Remnants of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

We study high-energy emission from the mergers of neutron star binaries as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves aside from short gamma-ray bursts. The mergers entail significant mass ejection, which interacts with the surrounding medium to produce similar but brighter remnants than supernova remnants in a few years. We show that electrons accelerated in the remnants can produce synchrotron radiation in X-rays detectable at $\sim 100$ Mpc by current generation telescopes and inverse Compton emission in gamma rays detectable by the \emph{Fermi} Large Area Telescopes and the Cherenkov Telescope Array under favorable conditions. The remnants may have already appeared in high-energy surveys such as the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image and the \emph{Fermi} Large Area Telescope as unidentified sources. We also suggest that the merger remnants could be the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays beyond the knee energy, $\sim 10^{15}$ eV, in the cosmic-ray spectrum.

StellarICs: Stellar and solar Inverse Compton emission package

StellarICs is software to compute gamma-ray emission from inverse-Compton scattering by cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere and in the photospheres of stars. It includes a set of cosmic-ray spectra and a formulation of their modulation, but it can be used for any user-defined modulation model and lepton spectra. Inverse-Compton emission provides a unique probe of cosmic-ray leptons in the heliosphere between the earth and the sun. The software is publicly available and it is under continuing development.

Search for Very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from Galactic globular clusters with H.E.S.S

Globular clusters (GCs) are established emitters of high-energy (HE, 100 MeV<E<100 GeV) \gamma-ray radiation which could originate from the cumulative emission of the numerous millisecond pulsars (msPSRs) in the clusters' cores or from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of relativistic leptons accelerated in the GC environment. GCs could also constitute a new class of sources in the very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) \gamma-ray regime, judging from the recent detection of emission from the direction of Terzan 5 with the H.E.S.S. telescope array. To search for VHE \gamma-ray sources associated with other GCs, and to put constraints on leptonic emission models, we systematically analyzed the observations towards 15 GCs taken with H.E.S.S. We searched for individual sources of VHE \gamma-rays from each GC in our sample and also performed a stacking analysis combining the data from all GCs to investigate the hypothesis of a population of faint emitters. Assuming IC emission as the source of emission from Terzan 5, we calculated the expected \gamma-ray flux for each of the 15 GCs, based on their number of millisecond pulsars, their optical brightness and the energy density of background photon fields. We did not detect significant emission from any of the 15 GCs. The obtained flux upper limits allow to rule out the simple IC/msPSR scaling model for NGC 6388 and NGC 7078. The upper limits derived from the stacking analyses are factors between 2 and 50 below the flux predicted by the simple leptonic model, depending on the assumed source extent and the dominant target photon fields. Therefore, Terzan 5 still remains exceptional among all GCs, as the VHE \gamma-ray emission either arises from extra-ordinarily efficient leptonic processes, or from a recent catastrophic event, or is even unrelated to the GC itself.

On the origin of GeV emission in gamma-ray bursts

The most common progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are massive stars with strong stellar winds. We show that the GRB blast wave in the wind should emit a bright GeV flash. It is produced by inverse Compton scattering of the prompt MeV radiation (emitted at smaller radii) which streams through the external blast wave. Some of the prompt photons are scattered and many scattered photons convert to electron-positron pairs. The inverse-Compton flash is bright due to the huge e+- enrichment of the medium. GeV emission generated by this mechanism lasts much longer than the prompt GRB because of a broader angular distribution of scattered photons. At late times, the blast wave switches to normal synchrotron-self-Compton cooling. The mechanism is demonstrated by a detailed transfer simulation. The observed prompt MeV radiation is taken as an input of the simulation; we use GRB 080916C as an example. The result reproduces the GeV flash observed by the Fermi telescope. It explains the delayed onset, the steep rise, the peak flux, the time of the peak, the long smooth decline, and the spectral slope of GeV emission. The wind density required to reproduce all these features is typical of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our simulation predicts strong TeV emission 1 min after the burst trigger; then the cutoff of the observed high-energy spectrum must be shaped by extragalactic background light absorption. In addition, a bright optical counterpart of the GeV flash is expected for plausible values of the magnetic field; such double (optical+GeV) flashes may be observed with Fermi and optical robotic telescopes.

I. Inverse Compton origin of pulsar \gamma-ray emission. II. Reconnection model of Crab flares

I. There is growing evidence that pulsars' high energy emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. II. The particles producing Crab flares, and possibly most of the Crab Nebula's high energy emission, are accelerated via reconnection events, and not at shock via Fermi mechanisms.

PKS 1510-089 - a rare example of a flat spectrum radio quasar with very high energy emission

The blazar PKS 1510-089 is an example of the so-called flat spectrum radio quasars for which no very high energy emission is expected due to the Klein-Nishina effects and strong absorption in the broad line region. Recent detection of at least three such blazars by Cherenkov telescopes has forced a revision of our understanding of these objects. We have aimed to model the observed spectral energy distribution of PKS 1510-089 during the high energy and very high energy flares in March 2009. We have applied the single zone internal shock scenario to reproduce the multiwavelength spectrum of PKS 1510-089. We have followed the evolution of the electrons as they propagate along the jet and emit synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation. We have considered two sources of external photons: the dusty torus and the broad line region. We have also examined the effects of the absorption of the high energy photons both in the broad line region and on extragalactic background light. We have successfully modeled the observed spectrum of PKS 1510-089. In our model, the highest energy emission is the result of the Comptonization of the infrared photons from the dusty torus, thus avoiding Klein-Nishina regime, while the bulk of the emission in the GeV range is still dominated by the Comptonization of radiation coming from the broad line region.

X-ray emission around the z=4.1 radio galaxy TNJ1338-1942 and the potential role of far-infrared photons in AGN Feedback

We report the discovery in an 80-ks observation of spatially-extended X-ray emission around the high-redshift radio galaxy TNJ1388-1942 (z=4.11) with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission extends over a ~30-kpc diameter region and although it is less extended than the GHz-radio lobes, it is roughly aligned with them. We suggest that the X-ray emission arises from Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of photons by relativistic electrons around the radio galaxy. At z=4.11 this is the highest redshift detection of IC emission around a radio galaxy. We investigate the hypothesis that in this compact source, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which is ~700x more intense than at z~0 is nonetheless not the relevant seed photon field for the bulk of the IC emission. Instead, we find a tentative correlation between the IC emission and far-infrared luminosities of compact, far-infrared luminous high-redshift radio galaxies (those with lobe lengths of <100kpc). Based on these results we suggest that in the earliest phases of the evolution of radio-loud AGN at very high redshift, the far-infrared photons from the co-eval dusty starbursts occuring within these systems may make a significant contribution to their IC X-ray emission and so contribute to the feedback in these massive high-redshift galaxies.

A new interpretation of the far-infrared - radio correlation and the expected breakdown at high redshift

(Abrigded) Observations of galaxies up to z 2 show a tight correlation between far-infrared and radio continuum emission. We explain the far-infrared - radio continuum correlation by relating star formation and magnetic field strength in terms of turbulent magnetic field amplification, where turbulence is injected by supernova explosions from massive stars. We calculate the expected amount of turbulence in galaxies based on their star formation rates, and infer the expected magnetic field strength due to turbulent dynamo amplification. We estimate the timescales for cosmic ray energy losses via synchrotron emission, inverse Compton scattering, ionization and bremsstrahlung emission, probing up to which redshift strong synchrotron emission can be maintained. We find that the correlation between star formation rate and magnetic field strength in the local Universe can be understood as a result of turbulent magnetic field amplification. If the typical gas density in the interstellar medium increases at high z, we expect an increase of the magnetic field strength and the radio emission, as indicated by current observations. Such an increase would imply a modification of the far-infrared - radio correlation. We expect a breakdown when inverse Compton losses start dominating over synchrotron emission. For a given star formation surface density, we calculate the redshift where the breakdown occurs, yielding z (Sigma_SFR/0.0045 M_solar kpc^{-2} yr^{-1})^{1/(6-alpha/2)}. In this relation, the parameter \alpha describes the evolution of the characteristic ISM density in galaxies as (1+z)^\alpha. Both the possible raise of the radio emission at high redshift and the final breakdown of the far-infrared -- radio correlation at a critical redshift will be probed by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, while the typical ISM density in galaxies will be probed with ALMA.

A new interpretation of the far-infrared - radio correlation and the expected breakdown at high redshift [Replacement]

(Abrigded) Observations of galaxies up to z 2 show a tight correlation between far-infrared and radio continuum emission. We explain the far-infrared - radio continuum correlation by relating star formation and magnetic field strength in terms of turbulent magnetic field amplification, where turbulence is injected by supernova explosions from massive stars. We calculate the expected amount of turbulence in galaxies based on their star formation rates, and infer the expected magnetic field strength due to turbulent dynamo amplification. We estimate the timescales for cosmic ray energy losses via synchrotron emission, inverse Compton scattering, ionization and bremsstrahlung emission, probing up to which redshift strong synchrotron emission can be maintained. We find that the correlation between star formation rate and magnetic field strength in the local Universe can be understood as a result of turbulent magnetic field amplification. If the typical gas density in the interstellar medium increases at high z, we expect an increase of the magnetic field strength and the radio emission, as indicated by current observations. Such an increase would imply a modification of the far-infrared - radio correlation. We expect a breakdown when inverse Compton losses start dominating over synchrotron emission. For a given star formation surface density, we calculate the redshift where the breakdown occurs, yielding z (Sigma_SFR/0.0045 M_solar kpc^{-2} yr^{-1})^{1/(6-alpha/2)}. In this relation, the parameter \alpha describes the evolution of the characteristic ISM density in galaxies as (1+z)^\alpha. Both the possible raise of the radio emission at high redshift and the final breakdown of the far-infrared -- radio correlation at a critical redshift will be probed by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, while the typical ISM density in galaxies will be probed with ALMA.

Gamma-rays from millisecond pulsar population within the central stellar cluster in the Galactic Center

It was proposed that the central dense stellar cluster in the Galactic Center, containing the mass of $\sim$4 times larger than that of the central black hole, had been formed as a result of a merging of several massive globular clusters. These globular clusters are expected to provide a large number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) within the central parsec of the Galactic Center. We propose that the GeV $\gamma$-ray emission observed from the Galactic Center is in fact a cumulative effect of the emission from several globular clusters captured by the Galactic Center black hole. Moreover, the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters accelerate leptons in their wind zones to energies of the order of a few tens of TeV injecting them into the dense infrared and optical radiation region present within the central parsec. We calculate the expected TeV $\gamma$-ray emission produced by these leptons by the Inverse Compton Scattering process in the soft radiation field. It is shown that this emission can be responsible for the multi-TeV $\gamma$-rays observed by the Cherenkov telescopes from the Galactic Center for reasonable densities of the soft radiation, diffusion models for the propagation of leptons, their injection parameters (fluxes and spectral proprieties). If the energy conversion efficiency from the pulsars to the relativistic leptons is of the order of 10%, then about a thousand of MSPs have to be present in the central cluster in the Galactic Center.

Notes on non-thermal X-ray radiation of radio supernova remnant W50 and collimated radiation of SS433

Diffuse X-ray emission of the radio nebula W50 along the line of the of jets of the microquasar SS433 has a non-thermal power law component. This could be the inverse-Compton scattered emission of the SS433 accretion disk funnel, which is collimated in a cone before the scattering off relativistic electrons - so called emission cone, hypothetical and invisible directly. This model would remove the synchrotron model problems of the X-ray emission: of acceleration of the emitting electrons to extreme Lorenz factors $\gamma > 10^9$ in the mildly relativistic SS433 jets and morphological difference of W50 in the synchrotron radio and X-ray bands. Our study of the comptonization model showed up that in the case of the minimal factor $\gamma_{\rm min}$ of the order 1 the energy of the relativistic particles, which upscatter the cone photons, is close to or exceeds total energy of the nebula - the case of inapplicability of the model. In the case of $\gamma_{\rm min} > 10$ the cone emission is comptonized beyond the 1 - 10\,keV band, consequently the existing observational data are non-sensitive to the emission cone.

 

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