Posts Tagged internal structure

Recent Postings from internal structure

Neutron star structure in an in-medium modified chiral soliton model [Cross-Listing]

We study the internal structure of a static and spherically symmetric neutron star in the framework of an in-medium modified chiral soliton model. The Equations of State describing an infinite and asymmetric nuclear matter are obtained introducing the density dependent functions into the low energy free space Lagrangian of the model starting from the phenomenology of pionic atoms. The parametrizations of density dependent functions are related to the properties of isospin asymmetric nuclear systems at saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter $\rho_0\simeq 0.16$~fm$^{-3}$. Our results, corresponding to the compressibility of symmetric nuclear matter in the range $250\,\mbox{MeV}\le K_0\le 270\,\mbox{MeV}$ and the slop parameter value of symmetry energy in the range $30\,\mbox{MeV}\le L_S\le 50\,\mbox{MeV}$, are consistent with the results from other approaches and with the experimental indications. Using the modified Equations of State, near the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter $\rho_0$, the extrapolations to the high density and highly isospin asymmetric regions have been performed. The calculations showed that the properties of $\sim 1.4M_\odot$ and $\sim 2M_\odot$ neutron stars can be well reproduced in the framework of present approach.

Internal Structure of Asteroids Having Surface Shedding due to Rotational Instability

Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to such surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong enough core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.

The treatment of mixing in core helium burning models: I. Implications for asteroseismology

The detection of mixed oscillation modes offers a unique insight into the internal structure of core helium burning (CHeB) stars. The stellar structure during CHeB is very uncertain because the growth of the convective core, and/or the development of a semiconvection zone, is critically dependent on the treatment of convective boundaries. In this study we calculate a suite of stellar structure models and their non-radial pulsations to investigate why the predicted asymptotic g-mode $\ell = 1$ period spacing $\Delta\Pi_1$ is systematically lower than is inferred from Kepler field stars. We find that only models with large convective cores, such as those calculated with our newly proposed "maximal-overshoot" scheme, can match the average $\Delta\Pi_1$ reported. However, we also find another possible solution that is related to the method used to determine $\Delta\Pi_1$: mode trapping can raise the observationally inferred $\Delta\Pi_1$ well above its true value. Even after accounting for these two proposed resolutions to the discrepancy in average $\Delta\Pi_1$, models still predict more CHeB stars with low $\Delta\Pi_1$ ($ < 270$ s) than are observed. We establish two possible remedies for this: i) there may be a difficulty in determining $\Delta\Pi_1$ for early CHeB stars (when $\Delta\Pi_1$ is lowest) because of the effect that the sharp composition profile at the hydrogen burning shell has on the pulsations, or ii) the mass of the helium core at the flash is higher than predicted. Our conclusions highlight the need for the reporting of selection effects in asteroseismic population studies in order to safely use this information to constrain stellar evolution theory.

VIMOS mosaic integral-field spectroscopy of the bulge and disk of the early-type galaxy NGC 4697

We present an integral field study of the internal structure, kinematics and stellar population of the almost edge-on, intermediate luminosity ($L_ {*}$) elliptical galaxy NGC~4697. We build extended 2-dimensional (2D) maps of the stellar kinematics and line-strengths of the galaxy up to $\sim 0.7 $ effective radii (R$_{eff}$) using a mosaic of 8 VIMOS (VIsible Multi-Objects Spectrograph on the VLT) integral-field unit pointings. We find clear evidence for a rotation-supported structure along the major axis from the 2D kinematical maps, confirming the previous classification of this system as a `fast-rotator’. We study the correlations between the third and fourth Gauss-Hermite moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) $h_3$ and $h_4$ with the rotation parameter ($V/\sigma$), and compare our findings to hydrodynamical simulations. We find remarkable similarities to predictions from gas-rich mergers. Based on photometry, we perform a bulge/disk decomposition and study the stellar population properties of the two components. The bulge and the disk show different stellar populations, with the stars in the bulge being older (age$_{\rm bulge}=13.5^{+1.4}_{-1.4}$ Gyr, age$_{\rm disk}=10.5^{+1.6}_{-2.0}$Gyr) and more metal-poor ($\mathrm{[M/H]_{bulge}} = -0.17^{+0.12}_{-0.1}$, $\mathrm{[M/H]_{disk}}=-0.03^{+0.02}_{-0.1}$). The evidence of a later-formed, more metal-rich disk embedded in an older, more metal-poor bulge, together with the LOSVD structure, supports a mass assembly scenario dominated by gas-rich minor mergers and possibly with a late gas-rich major merger that left a previously rapidly rotating system unchanged. The bulge and the disk do not show signs of different stellar Initial Mass Function slopes, and both match well with a Milky Way-like IMF.

VIMOS mosaic integral-field spectroscopy of the bulge and disk of the early-type galaxy NGC 4697 [Replacement]

We present an integral field study of the internal structure, kinematics and stellar population of the almost edge-on, intermediate luminosity ($L_ {*}$) elliptical galaxy NGC 4697. We build extended 2-dimensional (2D) maps of the stellar kinematics and line-strengths of the galaxy up to $\sim 0.7 $ effective radii (R$_{eff}$) using a mosaic of 8 VIMOS (VIsible Multi-Objects Spectrograph on the VLT) integral-field unit pointings. We find clear evidence for a rotation-supported structure along the major axis from the 2D kinematical maps, confirming the previous classification of this system as a `fast-rotator’. We study the correlations between the third and fourth Gauss-Hermite moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) $h_3$ and $h_4$ with the rotation parameter ($V/\sigma$), and compare our findings to hydrodynamical simulations. We find remarkable similarities to predictions from gas-rich mergers. Based on photometry, we perform a bulge/disk decomposition and study the stellar population properties of the two components. The bulge and the disk show different stellar populations, with the stars in the bulge being older (age$_{\rm bulge}=13.5^{+1.4}_{-1.4}$ Gyr, age$_{\rm disk}=10.5^{+1.6}_{-2.0}$Gyr) and more metal-poor ($\mathrm{[M/H]_{bulge}} = -0.17^{+0.12}_{-0.1}$, $\mathrm{[M/H]_{disk}}=-0.03^{+0.02}_{-0.1}$). The evidence of a later-formed, more metal-rich disk embedded in an older, more metal-poor bulge, together with the LOSVD structure, supports a mass assembly scenario dominated by gas-rich minor mergers and possibly with a late gas-rich major merger that left a previously rapidly rotating system unchanged. The bulge and the disk do not show signs of different stellar Initial Mass Function slopes, and both match well with a Milky Way-like IMF.

Internal structure of spiral arms traced with [CII]: Unraveling the WIM, HI, and molecular emission lanes

The spiral arm tangencies are ideal lines of sight in which to determine the distribution of interstellar gas components in the spiral arms and study the influence of spiral density waves on the interarm gas in the Milky Way. We present a large scale (~15deg) position-velocity map of the Galactic plane in [CII] from l = 326.6 to 341.4deg observed with Herschel HIFI. We use [CII] l-v maps along with those for Hi and 12CO to derive the average spectral line intensity profiles over the longitudinal range of each tangency. Using the VLSR of the emission features, we locate the [CII], HI, and 12CO emissions along a cross cut of the spiral arm. In the spectral line profiles at the tangencies [CII] has two emission peaks, one associated with the compressed WIM and the other the molecular gas PDRs. When represented as a cut across the inner to outer edge of the spiral arm, the [CII]-WIM peak appears closest to the inner edge while 12CO and [CII] associated with molecular gas are at the outermost edge. HI has broader emission with an intermediate peak located nearer to that of 12CO. The velocity resolved spectral line data of the spiral arm tangencies unravel the internal structure in the arms locating the emission lanes within them. We interpret the excess [CII] near the tangent velocities as shock compression of the WIM induced by the spiral density waves and as the innermost edge of spiral arms. For the Norma and Perseus arms, we estimate widths of ~250 pc in [CII]-WIM and ~400 pc in 12CO and overall spiral arm widths of ~500 pc in [CII] and 12CO emissions. The electron densities in the WIM are ~ 0.5 cm^-3, about an order of magnitude higher than the average for the disk. The enhanced electron density in the WIM is a result of compression of the WIM by the spiral density wave potential.

Towards an Understanding of the Correlations in Jet Substructure [Replacement]

Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.

Towards an Understanding of the Correlations in Jet Substructure

Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.

Convection and Mixing in Giant Planet Evolution

The primordial internal structures of gas giant planets are unknown. Often giant planets are modeled under the assumption that they are adiabatic, convective, and homogeneously mixed, but this is not necessarily correct. In this work, we present the first self-consistent calculation of convective transport of both heat and material as the planets evolve. We examine how planetary evolution depends on the initial composition and its distribution, whether the internal structure changes with time, and if so, how it affects the evolution. We consider various primordial distributions, different compositions, and different mixing efficiencies and follow the distribution of heavy elements in a Jupiter-mass planet as it evolves. We show that a heavy-element core cannot be eroded by convection if there is a sharp compositional change at the core-envelope boundary. If the heavy elements are initially distributed within the planet according to some compositional gradient, mixing occurs in the outer regions resulting in a compositionally homogeneous outer envelope. Mixing of heavy materials that are injected in a convective gaseous envelope are found to mix efficiently. Our work demonstrates that the primordial internal structure of a giant planet plays a substantial role in determining its long-term evolution and that giant planets can have non-adiabatic interiors. These results emphasize the importance of coupling formation, evolution, and internal structure models of giant planets self-consistently.

Convection and Mixing in Giant Planet Evolution [Replacement]

The primordial internal structures of gas giant planets are unknown. Often giant planets are modeled under the assumption that they are adiabatic, convective, and homogeneously mixed, but this is not necessarily correct. In this work, we present the first self-consistent calculation of convective transport of both heat and material as the planets evolve. We examine how planetary evolution depends on the initial composition and its distribution, whether the internal structure changes with time, and if so, how it affects the evolution. We consider various primordial distributions, different compositions, and different mixing efficiencies and follow the distribution of heavy elements in a Jupiter-mass planet as it evolves. We show that a heavy-element core cannot be eroded by convection if there is a sharp compositional change at the core-envelope boundary. If the heavy elements are initially distributed within the planet according to some compositional gradient, mixing occurs in the outer regions resulting in a compositionally homogeneous outer envelope. Mixing of heavy materials that are injected in a convective gaseous envelope are found to mix efficiently. Our work demonstrates that the primordial internal structure of a giant planet plays a substantial role in determining its long-term evolution and that giant planets can have non-adiabatic interiors. These results emphasize the importance of coupling formation, evolution, and internal structure models of giant planets self-consistently.

Magnetic Field Tomography in Nearby Galaxies with the Square Kilometre Array

Magnetic fields play an important role in shaping the structure and evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies, but the details of this relationship remain unclear. With SKA1, the 3D structure of galactic magnetic fields and its connection to star formation will be revealed. A highly sensitive probe of the internal structure of the magnetoionized ISM is the partial depolarization of synchrotron radiation from inside the volume. Different configurations of magnetic field and ionized gas within the resolution element of the telescope lead to frequency-dependent changes in the observed degree of polarization. The results of spectro-polarimetric observations are tied to physical structure in the ISM through comparison with detailed modeling, supplemented with the use of new analysis techniques that are being actively developed and studied within the community such as Rotation Measure Synthesis. The SKA will enable this field to come into its own and begin the study of the detailed structure of the magnetized ISM in a sample of nearby galaxies, thanks to its extraordinary wideband capabilities coupled with the combination of excellent surface brightness sensitivity and angular resolution.

Understanding tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets from their core to their surface

Tidal dissipation in planetary interiors is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. Tidal dissipation in planets is intrinsically related to their internal structure. In particular, fluid and solid layers behave differently under tidal forcing. Therefore, their respective dissipation reservoirs have to be compared. In this work, we compute separately the contributions of the potential dense rocky/icy core and of the convective fluid envelope of gaseous giant planets, as a function of core size and mass. We demonstrate that in general both mechanisms must be taken into account.

Tracing early stellar evolution with asteroseismology: pre-main sequence stars in NGC 2264

Asteroseismology has been proven to be a successful tool to unravel details of the internal structure for different types of stars in various stages of their main sequence and post-main sequence evolution. Recently, we found a relation between the detected pulsation properties in a sample of 34 pre-main sequence (pre-MS) delta Scuti stars and the relative phase in their pre-MS evolution. With this we are able to demonstrate that asteroseismology is similarly powerful if applied to stars in the earliest stages of evolution before the onset of hydrogen core burning.

Internal structure of exotic hadrons by high-energy exclusive reactions

We propose to use high-energy exclusive reactions for probing internal structure of exotic hadron candidates. First, the constituent counting rule of perturbative QCD can be used for finding internal configurations of an exotic hadron candidate. It is because the number of constituents ($n$), which participate in the exclusive reaction, is found by the scaling behavior of the cross section $d\sigma/dt \propto 1/s^{n-2}$ at large momentum transfer, where $s$ is the center-of-mass energy squared. As an example, we show that the internal structure of $\Lambda \, (1405)$ should be found, for example, by the reaction $\pi^- + p \to K^0 + \Lambda (1405)$. Second, the internal structure of exotic hadron candidates should be investigated by hadron tomography with generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs) in exclusive reactions. Exotic nature should be reflected in the GPDs which contain two factors, longitudinal parton distributions as indicated by the constituent counting rule and transverse form factors as suggested by the hadron size. The GDAs should be investigated by the two-photon process $\gamma^* \gamma \to h\bar h$, for example $h=f_0$ or $a_0$, in electron-positron annihilation. Since the GDAs contain information on a time-like form factor, exotic nature should be found by studying the $h\bar h$ invariant mass dependence of the cross section. The internal structure of exotic hadron candidates should be clarified by the exclusive reactions at facilities such as J-PARC and KEKB.

Internal structure of exotic hadrons by high-energy exclusive reactions [Replacement]

We propose to use high-energy exclusive reactions for probing internal structure of exotic hadron candidates. First, the constituent counting rule of perturbative QCD can be used for finding internal configurations of an exotic hadron candidate. It is because the number of constituents ($n$), which participate in the exclusive reaction, is found by the scaling behavior of the cross section $d\sigma/dt \propto 1/s^{n-2}$ at large momentum transfer, where $s$ is the center-of-mass energy squared. As an example, we show that the internal structure of $\Lambda \, (1405)$ should be found, for example, by the reaction $\pi^- + p \to K^0 + \Lambda (1405)$. Second, the internal structure of exotic hadron candidates should be investigated by hadron tomography with generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs) in exclusive reactions. Exotic nature should be reflected in the GPDs which contain two factors, longitudinal parton distributions as indicated by the constituent counting rule and transverse form factors as suggested by the hadron size. The GDAs should be investigated by the two-photon process $\gamma^* \gamma \to h\bar h$, for example $h=f_0$ or $a_0$, in electron-positron annihilation. Since the GDAs contain information on a time-like form factor, exotic nature should be found by studying the $h\bar h$ invariant mass dependence of the cross section. The internal structure of exotic hadron candidates should be clarified by the exclusive reactions at facilities such as J-PARC and KEKB.

Baryon effects on the internal structure of LCDM halos in the EAGLE simulations [Replacement]

We investigate the internal structure and density profiles of halos of mass $10^{10}-10^{14}~M_\odot$ in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These follow the formation of galaxies in a $\Lambda$CDM Universe and include a treatment of the baryon physics thought to be relevant. The EAGLE simulations reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function, as well as many other properties of the galaxy population as a function of time. We find significant differences between the masses of halos in the EAGLE simulations and in simulations that follow only the dark matter component. Nevertheless, halos are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile at radii larger than ~5% of the virial radius but, closer to the centre, the presence of stars can produce cuspier profiles. Central enhancements in the total mass profile are most important in halos of mass $10^{12}-10^{13}M_\odot$, where the stellar fraction peaks. Over the radial range where they are well resolved, the resulting galaxy rotation curves are in very good agreement with observational data for galaxies with stellar mass $M_*<5\times10^{10}M_\odot$. We present an empirical fitting function that describes the total mass profiles and show that its parameters are strongly correlated with halo mass.

Modeling cosmic void statistics

Understanding the internal structure and spatial distribution of cosmic voids is crucial when considering them as probes of cosmology. We present recent advances in modeling void density- and velocity-profiles in real space, as well as void two-point statistics in redshift space, by examining voids identified via the watershed transform in state-of-the-art $\Lambda$CDM n-body simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The simple and universal characteristics that emerge from these statistics indicate the self-similarity of large-scale structure and suggest cosmic voids to be among the most pristine objects to consider for future studies on the nature of dark energy, dark matter and modified gravity.

Self-Scattering for Dark Matter with an Excited State [Replacement]

Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter — for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited — has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic s-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the s-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

Self-Scattering for Dark Matter with an Excited State [Cross-Listing]

Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter — for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited — has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic $s$-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the $s$-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

Self-Scattering for Dark Matter with an Excited State

Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter — for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited — has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic $s$-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the $s$-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

Self-Scattering for Dark Matter with an Excited State [Replacement]

Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter — for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited — has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic s-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the s-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

Characterization and mapping of surface physical properties of Mars from CRISM multi-angular data: application to Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum

The analysis of the surface texture from the particle (grain size, shape and internal structure) to its organization (surface roughness) provides information on the geological processes. CRISM multi-angular observations (varied emission angles) allow to characterize the surface scattering behavior which depends on the composition but also the material physical properties (e.g., grain size, shape, internal structure, the surface roughness). After an atmospheric correction by the Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of the Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations, the surface reflectances at different geometries are analyzed by inverting the Hapke photometric model depending on the single scattering albedo, the 2-term phase function, the macroscopic roughness and the 2-term opposition effects. Surface photometric maps are created to observe the spatial variations of surface scattering properties as a function of geological units at the CRISM spatial resolution (200m/pixel). An application at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites located at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum where orbital and in situ observations are available, is presented. Complementary orbital observations (e.g. CRISM spectra, THermal EMission Imaging System, High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images) are used for interpreting the estimated Hapke photometric parameters in terms of physical properties. The in situ observations are used as ground truth to validate the interpretations. Varied scattering properties are observed inside a CRISM observation (5x10km) suggesting that the surfaces are controlled by local geological processes (e.g. volcanic resurfacing, aeolian and impact processes) rather than regional or global. Consistent results with the in situ observations are observed thus validating the approach and the use of photometry for the characterization of Martian surface physical properties.

Characterization and mapping of surface physical properties of Mars from CRISM multi-angular data: application to Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum [Replacement]

The analysis of the surface texture from the particle (grain size, shape and internal structure) to its organization (surface roughness) provides information on the geological processes. CRISM multi-angular observations (varied emission angles) allow to characterize the surface scattering behavior which depends on the composition but also the material physical properties (e.g., grain size, shape, internal structure, the surface roughness). After an atmospheric correction by the Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of the Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations, the surface reflectances at different geometries are analyzed by inverting the Hapke photometric model depending on the single scattering albedo, the 2-term phase function, the macroscopic roughness and the 2-term opposition effects. Surface photometric maps are created to observe the spatial variations of surface scattering properties as a function of geological units at the CRISM spatial resolution (200m/pixel). An application at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites located at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum where orbital and in situ observations are available, is presented. Complementary orbital observations (e.g. CRISM spectra, THermal EMission Imaging System, High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images) are used for interpreting the estimated Hapke photometric parameters in terms of physical properties. The in situ observations are used as ground truth to validate the interpretations. Varied scattering properties are observed inside a CRISM observation (5x10km) suggesting that the surfaces are controlled by local geological processes (e.g. volcanic resurfacing, aeolian and impact processes) rather than regional or global. Consistent results with the in situ observations are observed thus validating the approach and the use of photometry for the characterization of Martian surface physical properties.

Toward Realistic and Practical No-Hair Relations for Neutron Stars in the Non-Relativistic Limit [Replacement]

The gravitational properties of astrophysical objects depend sensitively on their internal structure. In Newtonian theory, the gravitational potential of a rotating star can be fully described by an infinite number of multipole moments of its mass distribution. Recently, this infinite number of moments for uniformly-rotating stars were shown semi-analytically to be expressible in terms of just the first three: the mass, the spin, and the quadrupole moment of the star. The relations between the various lower multipole moments were additionally shown to depend weakly on the equation of state, when considering neutron stars and assuming single polytropic equations of state. Here we extend this result in two ways. First, we show that the universality also holds for realistic equations of state, thus relaxing the need to use single polytropes. Second, we derive purely analytical universal relations by perturbing the equations of structure about an $n=0$ polytrope that reproduce semi-analytic results to $\mathcal{O}(1\%)$. We also find that the linear-order perturbation vanishes in some cases, which provides further evidence and a deeper understanding of the universality.

The Kepler-10 planetary system revisited by HARPS-N: A hot rocky world and a solid Neptune-mass planet

Kepler-10b was the first rocky planet detected by the Kepler satellite and con- firmed with radial velocity follow-up observations from Keck-HIRES. The mass of the planet was measured with a precision of around 30%, which was insufficient to constrain models of its internal structure and composition in detail. In addition to Kepler-10b, a second planet transiting the same star with a period of 45 days was sta- tistically validated, but the radial velocities were only good enough to set an upper limit of 20 Mearth for the mass of Kepler-10c. To improve the precision on the mass for planet b, the HARPS-N Collaboration decided to observe Kepler-10 intensively with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo on La Palma. In to- tal, 148 high-quality radial-velocity measurements were obtained over two observing seasons. These new data allow us to improve the precision of the mass determina- tion for Kepler-10b to 15%. With a mass of 3.33 +/- 0.49 Mearth and an updated radius of 1.47 +0.03 -0.02 Rearth, Kepler-10b has a density of 5.8 +/- 0.8 g cm-3, very close to the value -0.02 predicted by models with the same internal structure and composition as the Earth. We were also able to determine a mass for the 45-day period planet Kepler-10c, with an even better precision of 11%. With a mass of 17.2 +/- 1.9 Mearth and radius of 2.35 +0.09 -0.04 Rearth, -0.04 Kepler-10c has a density of 7.1 +/- 1.0 g cm-3. Kepler-10c appears to be the first strong evidence of a class of more massive solid planets with longer orbital periods.

Phenomenology of hadron structure --- why low energy physics matters

The description of the internal structure of hadrons is one of the main goal of QCD. At moderate energy scales, the hadronic representation succeeds to the partonic description, rendering challenging the description of the dynamics of scattering processes and hadronic structure. The information on the hadron structure is embodied in the long distance contributions which are defined as Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). PDFs are a key framework for connecting the low and high-energy regimes, in that the knowledge on non- perturbative QCD carries important consequences at the high-energy level. We here review recent progress in the description of the proton, from complementary approaches such as fits of PDFs, phenomenological analyses and experimental predictions in view of the JeffersonLab upgrade and applications for high-energy colliders.

The structure of $f(R)$-brane model [Replacement]

Recently, a family of interesting analytical brane solutions were found in $f(R)$ gravity with $f(R)=R+\alpha R^2$ in Ref. [Phys. Lett. B 729, 127 (2014)]. In these solutions, inner brane structure can be turned on by tuning the value of the parameter $\alpha$. In this paper, we investigate how the parameter $\alpha$ affects the localization and the quasilocalization of the tensorial gravitons around these solutions. It is found that, in a range of $\alpha$, despite the brane has an inner structure, there is no graviton resonance. However, in some other regions of the parameter space, although the brane has no internal structure, the effective potential for the gravitational KK modes has a singular structure, and there exists a series of graviton resonant modes.

The structure of $f(R)$-brane model [Replacement]

Recently, a family of interesting analytical brane solutions were found in $f(R)$ gravity with $f(R)=R+\alpha R^2$ in Ref. [Phys. Lett. B 729, 127 (2014)]. In these solutions, inner brane structure can be turned on by tuning the value of the parameter $\alpha$. In this paper, we investigate how the parameter $\alpha$ affects the localization and the quasilocalization of the tensorial gravitons around these solutions. It is found that, in a range of $\alpha$, despite the brane has an inner structure, there is no graviton resonance. However, in some other regions of the parameter space, although the brane has no internal structure, the effective potential for the gravitational KK modes has a singular structure, and there exists a series of graviton resonant modes.

Density, porosity, mineralogy, and internal structure of cosmic dust and alteration of its properties during high velocity atmospheric entry [Replacement]

X-ray microtomography (XMT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis measurements were used to determine micrometeorite internal structure, mineralogy, crystallography, and physical properties at ~{\mu}m resolution. The study samples include unmelted, partially melted (scoriaceous) and completely melted (cosmic spherules) micrometeorites. This variety not only allows comparison of the mineralogy and porosity of these three micrometeorite types, but also reveals changes in meteoroid properties during atmospheric entry at various velocities. At low entry velocities, meteoroids do not melt, and their physical properties do not change. The porosity of unmelted micrometeorites varies considerably (0-12%) with one friable example having porosity around 50%. At higher velocities, the range of meteoroid porosity narrows, but average porosity increases (to 16-27%) due to volatile evaporation and partial melting (scoriaceous phase). Metal distribution seems to be mostly unaffected at this stage. At even higher entry velocities, complete melting follows the scoriaceous phase. Complete melting is accompanied by metal oxidation and redistribution, loss of porosity (1 $\pm$ 1%), and narrowing of the bulk (3.2 $\pm$ 0.5 g/cm$^{3}$) and grain (3.3 $\pm$ 0.5 g/cm$^{3}$) density range. Melted cosmic spherules with a barred olivine structure show an oriented crystallographic structure, whereas other subtypes do not.

Density, porosity, mineralogy, and internal structure of cosmic dust and alteration of its properties during high velocity atmospheric entry

X-ray microtomography (XMT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis measurements were used to determine micrometeorite internal structure, mineralogy, crystallography, and physical properties at ~{\mu}m resolution. The study samples include unmelted, partially melted (scoriaceous) and completely melted (cosmic spherules) micrometeorites. This variety not only allows comparison of the mineralogy and porosity of these three micrometeorite types, but also reveals changes in meteoroid properties during atmospheric entry at various velocities. At low entry velocities, meteoroids do not melt, and their physical properties do not change. The porosity of unmelted micrometeorites varies considerably (0-12%) with one friable example having porosity around 50%. At higher velocities, the range of meteoroid porosity narrows, but average porosity increases (to 16-27%) due to volatile evaporation and partial melting (scoriaceous phase). Metal distribution seems to be mostly unaffected at this stage. At even higher entry velocities, complete melting follows the scoriaceous phase. Complete melting is accompanied by metal oxidation and redistribution, loss of porosity (1 $\pm$ 1%), and narrowing of the bulk (3.2 $\pm$ 0.5 g/cm3) and grain (3.3 $\pm$ 0.5 g/cm3) density range. Melted cosmic spherules with a barred olivine structure show an oriented crystallographic structure, whereas other subtypes do not.

Dissecting the Red Sequence: The Bulge and Disc Colours of Early-Type Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

We explore the internal structure of red sequence galaxies in the Coma cluster across a wide range of luminosities ($-17>M_g>-22$) and cluster-centric radii ($0<r_{\rm{cluster}}<1.3 r_{200}$). We present the 2D bulge-disc decomposition of galaxies in deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope $u,g,i$ imaging using GALFIT. Rigorous filtering is applied to identify an analysis sample of 200 galaxies which are well described by an `archetypal’ S0 structure (central bulge + outer disc). We consider internal bulge and/or disc colour gradients by allowing component sizes to vary between bands. Gradients are required for $30\%$ of analysis sample galaxies. Bulge half-light radii are found to be uncorrelated with galaxy luminosity ($R_e \sim 1$ kpc, $n\sim2$) for all but the brightest galaxies ($M_g<-20.5$). The S0 discs are brighter (at fixed size, or smaller at fixed luminosity) than those of star-forming spirals. A similar colour-magnitude relation is found for both bulges and discs. The global red sequence for S0s in Coma hence results from a combination of both component trends. We measure an average bulge $-$ disc colour difference of $0.09\pm0.01$ mag in $g-i$, and $0.16\pm0.01$ mag in $u-g$. Using simple stellar population models, bulges are either $\sim2$-$3\times$ older, or $\sim2\times$ more metal-rich than discs. The trend towards bluer global S0 colours observed further from Coma’s core is driven by a significant correlation in disc colour with cluster-centric radius. An equivalent trend is detected in bulge colours at a marginal significance level. Our results therefore favour environment-mediated mechanisms of disc fading as the dominant factor in S0 formation.

Dissecting the Red Sequence: The Bulge and Disc Colours of Early-Type Galaxies in the Coma Cluster [Replacement]

We explore the internal structure of red sequence galaxies in the Coma cluster across a wide range of luminosities ($-17>M_g>-22$) and cluster-centric radii ($0<r_{\rm{cluster}}<1.3 r_{200}$). We present the 2D bulge-disc decomposition of galaxies in deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope $u,g,i$ imaging using GALFIT. Rigorous filtering is applied to identify an analysis sample of 200 galaxies which are well described by an `archetypal’ S0 structure (central bulge + outer disc). We consider internal bulge and/or disc colour gradients by allowing component sizes to vary between bands. Gradients are required for $30\%$ of analysis sample galaxies. Bulge half-light radii are found to be uncorrelated with galaxy luminosity ($R_e \sim 1$ kpc, $n\sim2$) for all but the brightest galaxies ($M_g<-20.5$). The S0 discs are brighter (at fixed size, or smaller at fixed luminosity) than those of star-forming spirals. A similar colour-magnitude relation is found for both bulges and discs. The global red sequence for S0s in Coma hence results from a combination of both component trends. We measure an average bulge $-$ disc colour difference of $0.09\pm0.01$ mag in $g-i$, and $0.16\pm0.01$ mag in $u-g$. Using simple stellar population models, bulges are either $\sim2$-$3\times$ older, or $\sim2\times$ more metal-rich than discs. The trend towards bluer global S0 colours observed further from Coma’s core is driven by a significant correlation in disc colour with cluster-centric radius. An equivalent trend is detected in bulge colours at a marginal significance level. Our results therefore favour environment-mediated mechanisms of disc fading as the dominant factor in S0 formation.

Exotic hadron production in hard exclusive reactions

We consider hard exclusive production of exotic hadrons to study their internal structure. Revisiting the constituent-counting rule for the large-angle exclusive scattering, we discuss general features expected for the production cross section of exotic hadrons whose leading Fock states are given by multi-quark states other than the ordinary baryon ($qqq$) or meson ($q\bar{q}$) states.We take the production of $\Lambda(1405)$ as an example and propose to study its partonic configuration from the asymptotic scaling of the cross section, which is measurable at J-PARC. We also discuss the production of a pair of the light-hadrons such as $f_0(980)$s and $a_0(980)$s in $\gamma^*\gamma$ collisions in the framework of QCD factorization, in which the cross section is expressed as a convolution of the perturbative coefficients and the generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs). We demonstrate how the internal structure of $f_0(980)$ or $a_0(980)$ can be explored by measuring the GDAs at $e^+e^-$ experiments such as the B-factories.

Exotic hadron production in hard exclusive reactions [Replacement]

We consider hard exclusive production of exotic hadrons to study their internal structure. Revisiting the constituent-counting rule for the large-angle exclusive scattering, we discuss general features expected for the production cross section of exotic hadrons whose leading Fock states are given by multi-quark states other than the ordinary baryon ($qqq$) or meson ($q\bar{q}$) states.We take the production of $\Lambda(1405)$ as an example and propose to study its partonic configuration from the asymptotic scaling of the cross section, which is measurable at J-PARC. We also discuss the production of a pair of the light-hadrons such as $f_0(980)$s and $a_0(980)$s in $\gamma^*\gamma$ collisions in the framework of QCD factorization, in which the cross section is expressed as a convolution of the perturbative coefficients and the generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs). We demonstrate how the internal structure of $f_0(980)$ or $a_0(980)$ can be explored by measuring the GDAs at $e^+e^-$ experiments such as the B-factories.

Systematic Problems With Using Dark Matter Simulations to Model Stellar Halos

The limits of available computing power have forced models for the structure of stellar halos to adopt one or both of the following simplifying assumptions: (1) stellar mass can be "painted" onto dark matter particles in progenitor satellites; (2) pure dark matter simulations that do not form a luminous galaxy can be used. We estimate the magnitude of the systematic errors introduced by these assumptions using a controlled set of stellar halo models where we independently vary whether we look at star particles or painted dark matter particles, and whether we use a simulation in which a baryonic disk galaxy forms or a matching pure dark matter simulation that does not form a baryonic disk. We find that the "painting" simplification reduces the halo concentration and internal structure, predominantly because painted dark matter particles have different kinematics than star particles even when both are buried deep in the potential well of the satellite. The simplification of using pure dark matter simulations reduces the concentration further, but increases the internal structure, and results in a more prolate stellar halo. These differences can be a factor of 1.5-7 in concentration (as measured by the half-mass radius) and 2-7 in internal density structure. Given this level of systematic uncertainty, one should be wary of overinterpreting differences between observations and the current generation of stellar halo models based on dark matter only simulations when such differences are less than an order of magnitude.

Inferring mode inertias in evolved solar-like stars

Asteroseismology of evolved solar-like stars is experiencing a growing interest due to the wealth of observational data from space-borne instruments such as the \emph{CoRoT} and \emph{Kepler} spacecraft. In particular, the recent detection of mixed modes, which probe both the innermost and uppermost layers of stars, paves the way for inferring the internal structure of stars along their evolution through the subgiant and red giant phases. Mixed modes can also place stringent constraints on the physics of such stars and on their global properties (mass, age, etc…). Here, using two \emph{Kepler} stars (KIC 4351319 and KIC 6442183), we demonstrate that measurements of mixed mode characteristics allow us to estimate the mode inertias, providing a new and additional diagnostics on the mode trapping and subsequently on the internal structure of evolved stars. We however stress that the accuracy may be sensitive to non-adiabatic effects.

Three-Hair Newtonian Relations for Rotating Stars

Astrophysical black holes can be completely described by their mass and spin due to the no-hair theorem. This was not expected to hold for stars because of their internal structure. We analytically find that arbitrarily uniformly rotating stars can still be completely described by only three numbers (mass, spin and quadrupole moment) in the Newtonian limit. Surprisingly, this description is approximately universal (independent of internal structure) for low multipole order, analytically confirming previous numerical results in full general relativity.

Three-Hair Newtonian Relations for Rotating Stars [Cross-Listing]

Astrophysical black holes can be completely described by their mass and spin due to the no-hair theorem. This was not expected to hold for stars because of their internal structure. We analytically find that arbitrarily uniformly rotating stars can still be completely described by only three numbers (mass, spin and quadrupole moment) in the Newtonian limit. Surprisingly, this description is approximately universal (independent of internal structure) for low multipole order, analytically confirming previous numerical results in full general relativity.

Direct detection of dark matter in universal bound states [Replacement]

We study the signatures for internal structure of dark matter in direct detection experiments in the context of asymmetric self-interacting dark matter. The self-interaction cross section of two dark matter particles at low energies is assumed to come close to saturating the S-wave unitarity bound, which requires the presence of a resonance near their scattering threshold. The universality of S-wave near-threshold resonances then implies that the low-energy scattering properties of a two-body bound state of dark matter particles are completely determined by its binding energy, irrespective of the underlying microphysics. The form factor for elastic scattering of the bound state from a nucleus and the possibility of breakup of the bound state produce new signatures in the nuclear recoil energy spectrum. If these features are observed in experiments, it will give a smoking-gun signature for the internal structure of dark matter.

Direct detection of dark matter in universal bound states [Replacement]

We study the signatures for internal structure of dark matter in direct detection experiments in the context of asymmetric self-interacting dark matter. The self-interaction cross section of two dark matter particles at low energies is assumed to come close to saturating the S-wave unitarity bound, which requires the presence of a resonance near their scattering threshold. The universality of S-wave near-threshold resonances then implies that the low-energy scattering properties of a two-body bound state of dark matter particles are completely determined by its binding energy, irrespective of the underlying microphysics. The form factor for elastic scattering of the bound state from a nucleus and the possibility of breakup of the bound state produce new signatures in the nuclear recoil energy spectrum. If these features are observed in experiments, it will give a smoking-gun signature for the internal structure of dark matter.

Impact of the frequency dependence of tidal Q on the evolution of planetary systems

Context. Tidal dissipation in planets and in stars is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of planetary systems. Aims. Tidal dissipation properties are intrisically linked to the internal structure and the rheology of studied celestial bodies. The resulting dependence of the dissipation upon the tidal frequency is strongly different in the cases of solids and fluids. Methods. We compute the tidal evolution of a two-body coplanar system, using the tidal quality factor’s frequency-dependencies appropriate to rocks and to convective fluids. Results. The ensuing orbital dynamics comes out smooth or strongly erratic, dependent on how the tidal dissipation depends upon frequency. Conclusions. We demonstrate the strong impact of the internal structure and of the rheology of the central body on the orbital evolution of the tidal perturber. A smooth frequency-dependence of the tidal dissipation renders a smooth orbital evolution while a peaked dissipation can furnish erratic orbital behaviour.

Giant Planet Formation, Evolution, and Internal Structure

The large number of detected giant exoplanets offers the opportunity to improve our understanding of the formation mechanism, evolution, and interior structure of gas giant planets. The two main models for giant planet formation are core accretion and disk instability. There are substantial differences between these formation models, including formation timescale, favorable formation location, ideal disk properties for planetary formation, early evolution, planetary composition, etc. First, we summarize the two models including their substantial differences, advantages, and disadvantages, and suggest how theoretical models should be connected to available (and future) data. We next summarize current knowledge of the internal structures of solar- and extrasolar- giant planets. Finally, we suggest the next steps to be taken in giant planet exploration.

Stellar Magnetic Dynamos and Activity Cycles

Using a new uniform sample of 824 solar and late-type stars with measured X-ray luminosities and rotation periods we have studied the relationship between rotation and stellar activity that is believed to be a probe of the underlying stellar dynamo. Using an unbiased subset of the sample we calculate the power law slope of the unsaturated regime of the activity — rotation relationship as $L_X/L_{bol}\propto Ro^\beta$, where $\beta=-2.70\pm0.13$. This is inconsistent with the canonical $\beta = -2$ slope to a confidence of 5$\sigma$ and argues for an interface-type dynamo. We map out three regimes of coronal emission as a function of stellar mass and age, using the empirical saturation threshold and theoretical super-saturation thresholds. We find that the empirical saturation timescale is well correlated with the time at which stars transition from the rapidly rotating convective sequence to the slowly rotating interface sequence in stellar spin-down models. This may be hinting at fundamental changes in the underlying stellar dynamo or internal structure. We also present the first discovery of an X-ray unsaturated, fully convective M star, which may be hinting at an underlying rotation – activity relationship in fully convective stars hitherto not observed. Finally we present early results from a blind search for stellar X-ray cycles that can place valuable constraints on the underlying ubiquity of solar-like activity cycles.

Kinematic Morphology of Large-scale Structure: Evolution from Potential to Rotational Flow

As an alternative way of describing the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. Before shell-crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with cosmic web structure, because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell-crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell-crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of these phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariants space.

Flux-tube structure from vertical magnetic flux concentrations

Strongly stratified hydromagnetic turbulence has previously been found to produce magnetic flux concentrations if the domain is large enough compared with the size of turbulent eddies. Mean-field simulations (MFS) using parameterizations of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses show a negative effective magnetic pressure instability and have been able to reproduce many aspects of direct numerical simulations (DNS) regarding the growth rate of this large-scale instability, shape of the resulting magnetic structures, and their height as a function of magnetic field strength. Unlike the case of an imposed horizontal field, for a vertical one, magnetic flux concentrations of equipartition strength with the turbulence can be reached. This results in magnetic spots that are reminiscent of sunspots. Here we want to find out under what conditions magnetic flux concentrations with vertical field occur and what their internal structure is. We use a combination of MFS, DNS, and implicit large-eddy simulations to characterize the resulting magnetic flux concentrations in forced isothermal turbulence with an imposed vertical magnetic field. We confirm earlier results that in the kinematic stage of the large-scale instability the horizontal wavelength of structures is about 10 times the density scale height. At later times, even larger structures are being produced in a fashion similar to inverse spectral transfer in helically driven turbulence. Using turbulence simulations, we find that magnetic flux concentrations occur for different values of the Mach number between 0.1 and 0.7. DNS and MFS show magnetic flux tubes with mean-field energies comparable to the turbulent kinetic energy. The resulting vertical magnetic flux tubes are being confined by downflows along the tubes and corresponding inflow from the sides, which keep the field concentrated.

Double mode radial pulsations among RR Lyrae stars

The detection of a second radial mode in the RR Lyr type star puts strong constrain on its internal structure. We present 59 new Galactic double mode RR Lyr stars found in the LINEAR survey data with the fundamental radial mode and the first overtone exited (RRd stars). These stars may be useful for constraining the mass-metallicity relation for field horizontal branch stars. We present the updated Petersen diagram and the distribution of the fundamental mode periods in the Galactic RRd stars.

Formation and internal structure of superdense dark matter clumps and ultracompact minihaloes

We discuss the formation mechanisms and structure of the superdense dark matter clumps (SDMC) and ultracompact minihaloes (UCMH) and outline the differences between these types of DM objects. We define as SDMC the gravitationally bounded DM objects which have come into virial equilibrium at the radiation-dominated (RD) stage of the universe evolution. Such objects can form from the isocurvature (entropy) density perturbations or from the peaks in the spectrum of curvature (adiabatic) perturbation. The axion miniclusters (Kolb and Tkachev 1994) are the example of the former model. The system of central compact mass (e.g. in the form of SDMC or primordial black hole (PBH)) with the outer DM envelope formed in the process of secondary accretion we refer to as UCMH. Therefore, the SDMC can serve as the seed for the UCMH in some scenarios. Recently, the SDMC and UCMH were considered in the many works, and we try to systematize them here. We consider also the effect of asphericity of the initial density perturbation in the gravitational evolution, which decreases the SDMC amount and, as the result, suppresses the gamma-ray signal from DM annihilation.

Non-isothermal filaments in equilibrium

The physical properties of the so-called Ostriker isothermal filament (Ostriker 1964) have been classically used as benchmark to interpret the stability of the filaments observed in nearby clouds. However, recent continuum studies have shown that the internal structure of the filaments depart from the isothermality, typically exhibiting radially increasing temperature gradients. The presence of internal temperature gradients within filaments suggests that the equilibrium configuration of these objects should be therefore revisited. The main goal of this work is to theoretically explore how the equilibrium structure of a filament changes in a non-isothermal configuration. We solve the hydrostatic equilibrium equation assuming temperature gradients similar to those derived from observations. We obtain a new set of equilibrium solutions for non-isothermal filaments with both linear and asymptotically constant temperature gradients. Our results show that, for sufficiently large internal temperature gradients, a non-isothermal filament could present significantly larger masses per unit length and shallower density profiles than the isothermal filament without collapsing by its own gravity. We conclude that filaments can reach an equilibrium configuration under non-isothermal conditions. Detailed studies of both the internal mass distribution and temperature gradients within filaments are then needed in order to judge the physical state of filaments.

Remapping dark matter halo catalogues between cosmological simulations

We present and test a method for modifying the catalogue of dark matter haloes produced from a given cosmological simulation, so that it resembles the result of a simulation with an entirely different set of parameters. This extends the method of Angulo & White (2010), which rescales the full particle distribution from a simulation. Working directly with the halo catalogue offers an advantage in speed, and also allows modifications of the internal structure of the haloes to account for nonlinear differences between cosmologies. Our method can be used directly on a halo catalogue in a self contained manner without any additional information about the overall density field: although the large-scale displacement field is required by the method, this can be inferred from the halo catalogue alone. We show proof of concept of our method by rescaling a matter-only simulation with no baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) features to a more standard LCDM model containing a cosmological constant and a BAO signal. In conjunction with the halo occupation approach, this method provides a basis for the rapid generation of mock galaxy samples spanning a wide range of cosmological parameters.

Rotating hybrid compact stars

Starting from equations of state of nucleonic and color-superconducting quark matter and assuming a first-order phase transition between these, we construct an equation of state of stellar matter which contains three phases: a nucleonic phase, as well as two-flavor and three-flavor color-superconducting phases of quarks. Static sequences of the corresponding hybrid stars include massive members with masses $\sim 2 M_{\odot}$ and radii in the range $13\le R\le 16$ km. We investigate the integral parameters of rapidly rotating stars, and obtain evolutionary sequences that correspond to constant rest-mass stars spinning down by electromagnetic and gravitational radiation. Physically new "transitional" sequences are revealed that are distinguished by a phase transition from nucleonic to color-superconducting matter for some configurations that are located between the static and Keplerian limits. The "snapshots" of internal structure of the star, displaying the growth or shrinkage of superconducting volume as the star’s spin changes, are displayed for constant rest mass stars. We further obtain evolutionary sequences of rotating supermassive compact stars and construct pre-collapse models that can be used as initial data to simulate a collapse of color-superconducting hybrid stars to a black hole.

 

You need to log in to vote

The blog owner requires users to be logged in to be able to vote for this post.

Alternatively, if you do not have an account yet you can create one here.

Powered by Vote It Up

^ Return to the top of page ^