Posts Tagged internal structure

Recent Postings from internal structure

Surface density effects in quenching: cause or effect?

There are very strong observed correlations between the specific star-formation rates (sSFR) of galaxies and their mean surface mass densities, {\Sigma}, as well as other aspects of their internal structure. These strong correlations have often been taken to indicate that the internal structure of a galaxy must play a major physical role, directly or indirectly, in the control of star-formation. In this paper we show by means of a very simple toy model that these correlations can arise naturally without any such physical role once the observed evolution of the size-mass relation for star-forming galaxies is taken into account. In particular, the model reproduces the sharp threshold in {\Sigma} between galaxies that are star-forming and those that are quenched, and the evolution of this threshold with redshift. Similarly, it produces iso-quenched-fraction contours in the ${f_Q(m,R_e)}$ plane that are almost exactly parallel to lines of constant {\Sigma} for centrals and shallower for satellites. It does so without any dependence on quenching on size or {\Sigma}, and without invoking any differences between centrals and satellites, beyond the different mass-dependences of their quenching laws. The toy-model also reproduces several other observations, including the sSFR gradients within galaxies and the appearance of inside-out build-up of passive galaxies. Finally, it is shown that curvature in the Main Sequence sSFR-mass relation can produce curvature in the apparent B/T ratios with mass. Our analysis therefore suggests that many of the strong correlations that are observed between galaxy structure and sSFR may well be a consequence of things unrelated to quenching and should not be taken as evidence of the physical processes that drive quenching.

Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes [Cross-Listing]

When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

Alpha Virginis: line-profile variations and orbital elements

Abridged: Alpha Virginis is a binary system whose proximity and brightness allow detailed investigations of the internal structure and evolution of stars undergoing time-variable tidal interactions. Previous studies have led to the conclusion that the internal structure of Spica's primary star may be more centrally condensed than predicted by theoretical models of single stars, raising the possibility that the interactions could lead to effects that are currently neglected in structure and evolution calculations. The key parameters in confirming this result are the values of the orbital eccentricity $e$, the apsidal period $U$, and the primary star's radius, R_1. We analyze the impact that line profile variability has on the derivation of its orbital elements and R_1. We use high SNR observations obtained in 2000, 2008, and 2013 to derive the orbital elements from fits to the radial velocity curves. We produce synthetic line profiles using an ab initio tidal interaction model. Results: The variations in the line profiles can be understood in terms of the tidal flows, whose large-scale structure is relatively fixed in the rotating binary system reference frame. Fits to the radial velocity curves yield $e$=0.108$\pm$0.014. However, the analogous RV curves from theoretical line profiles indicate that the distortion in the lines causes the fitted value of $e$ to depend on the argument of periastron; i.e., on the epoch of observation. As a result, the actual value of $e$ may be as high as 0.125. We find that $U$=117.9$\pm$1.8, which is in agreement with previous determinations. Using the value $R_1=6.8 R_\odot$ derived by Palate et al. (2013) the value of the observational internal structure constant $k_{2,obs}$ is consistent with theory. We confirm the presence of variability in the line profiles of the secondary star.

The effects of short-lived radionuclides and porosity on the early thermo-mechanical evolution of planetesimals

The thermal history and internal structure of chondritic planetesimals, assembled before the giant impact phase of chaotic growth, potentially yield important implications for the final composition and evolution of terrestrial planets. These parameters critically depend on the internal balance of heating versus cooling, which is mostly determined by the presence of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs), such as aluminum-26 and iron-60, as well as the heat conductivity of the material. The heating by SLRs depends on their initial abundances, the formation time of the planetesimal and its size. It has been argued that the cooling history is determined by the porosity of the granular material, which undergoes dramatic changes via compaction processes and tends to decrease with time. In this study we assess the influence of these parameters on the thermo-mechanical evolution of young planetesimals with both 2D and 3D simulations. Using the code family I2ELVIS/I3ELVIS we have run numerous 2D and 3D numerical finite-difference fluid dynamic models with varying planetesimal radius, formation time and initial porosity. Our results indicate that powdery materials lowered the threshold for melting and convection in planetesimals, depending on the amount of SLRs present. A subset of planetesimals retained a powdery surface layer which lowered the thermal conductivity and hindered cooling. The effect of initial porosity was small, however, compared to those of planetesimal size and formation time, which dominated the thermo-mechanical evolution and were the primary factors for the onset of melting and differentiation. We comment on the implications of this work concerning the structure and evolution of these planetesimals, as well as their behavior as possible building blocks of terrestrial planets.

Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 $\mu$s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular groun dstate hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular Quantum Electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

Nucleon Resonance Physics [Cross-Listing]

Recent results of meson photo-production at the existing electron machines with polarized real photon beams and the measurement of polarization observables of the final state baryons have provided high precision data that led to the discovery of new excited nucleon and $\Delta$ states using multi-channel partial wave analyses procedures. The internal structure of several prominent excited states has been revealed employing meson electroproduction processes. On the theoretical front, lattice QCD is now predicting the baryon spectrum with very similar characteristics as the constituent quark model, and continuum QCD, such as is represented in the Dyson-Schwinger Equations approach and in light front relativistic quark models, describes the non-perturbative behavior of resonance excitations at photon virtuality of $Q^2 > 1.5GeV^2$. In this talk I discuss the need to continue a vigorous program of nucleon spectroscopy and the study of the internal structure of excited states as a way to reveal the effective degrees of freedom underlying the excited states and their dependence on the distance scale probed.

Nucleon Resonance Physics

Recent results of meson photo-production at the existing electron machines with polarized real photon beams and the measurement of polarization observables of the final state baryons have provided high precision data that led to the discovery of new excited nucleon and $\Delta$ states using multi-channel partial wave analyses procedures. The internal structure of several prominent excited states has been revealed employing meson electroproduction processes. On the theoretical front, lattice QCD is now predicting the baryon spectrum with very similar characteristics as the constituent quark model, and continuum QCD, such as is represented in the Dyson-Schwinger Equations approach and in light front relativistic quark models, describes the non-perturbative behavior of resonance excitations at photon virtuality of $Q^2 > 1.5GeV^2$. In this talk I discuss the need to continue a vigorous program of nucleon spectroscopy and the study of the internal structure of excited states as a way to reveal the effective degrees of freedom underlying the excited states and their dependence on the distance scale probed.

Nucleon Resonance Physics [Cross-Listing]

Recent results of meson photo-production at the existing electron machines with polarized real photon beams and the measurement of polarization observables of the final state baryons have provided high precision data that led to the discovery of new excited nucleon and $\Delta$ states using multi-channel partial wave analyses procedures. The internal structure of several prominent excited states has been revealed employing meson electroproduction processes. On the theoretical front, lattice QCD is now predicting the baryon spectrum with very similar characteristics as the constituent quark model, and continuum QCD, such as is represented in the Dyson-Schwinger Equations approach and in light front relativistic quark models, describes the non-perturbative behavior of resonance excitations at photon virtuality of $Q^2 > 1.5GeV^2$. In this talk I discuss the need to continue a vigorous program of nucleon spectroscopy and the study of the internal structure of excited states as a way to reveal the effective degrees of freedom underlying the excited states and their dependence on the distance scale probed.

Nucleon Resonance Physics [Cross-Listing]

Recent results of meson photo-production at the existing electron machines with polarized real photon beams and the measurement of polarization observables of the final state baryons have provided high precision data that led to the discovery of new excited nucleon and $\Delta$ states using multi-channel partial wave analyses procedures. The internal structure of several prominent excited states has been revealed employing meson electroproduction processes. On the theoretical front, lattice QCD is now predicting the baryon spectrum with very similar characteristics as the constituent quark model, and continuum QCD, such as is represented in the Dyson-Schwinger Equations approach and in light front relativistic quark models, describes the non-perturbative behavior of resonance excitations at photon virtuality of $Q^2 > 1.5GeV^2$. In this talk I discuss the need to continue a vigorous program of nucleon spectroscopy and the study of the internal structure of excited states as a way to reveal the effective degrees of freedom underlying the excited states and their dependence on the distance scale probed.

Production of pentaquarks in $pA$-collisions

We argue that a hidden-charm pentaquark recently observed in weak decays of $\Lambda_{b}$ can be produced in proton-nucleus collisions without electroweak intermediaries. We analyze the production cross-section for several scenarios of internal structure and find that a cross-section is sizable. This process can be studied both in collider as well as in fixed-target experiments. In the former case, the pentaquarks are produced at very forward rapidities, whereas in the latter case, pentaquarks are produced with relatively small rapidities and can be easily detected via invariant mass distribution of a forward $J/\psi$ and a comoving proton. Additionally, the suggested process allows to check the existence of a neutral pentaquark $P_{c}^{0}$ (an isospin partner of $P_{c}^{+}$) predicted in several models. The rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of pentaquarks could provide comprehensive information about the $\bar{c}c$ component of this exotic baryon.

Production of pentaquarks in $pA$-collisions [Cross-Listing]

We argue that a hidden-charm pentaquark recently observed in weak decays of $\Lambda_{b}$ can be produced in proton-nucleus collisions without electroweak intermediaries. We analyze the production cross-section for several scenarios of internal structure and find that a cross-section is sizable. This process can be studied both in collider as well as in fixed-target experiments. In the former case, the pentaquarks are produced at very forward rapidities, whereas in the latter case, pentaquarks are produced with relatively small rapidities and can be easily detected via invariant mass distribution of a forward $J/\psi$ and a comoving proton. Additionally, the suggested process allows to check the existence of a neutral pentaquark $P_{c}^{0}$ (an isospin partner of $P_{c}^{+}$) predicted in several models. The rapidity and transverse momentum distributions of pentaquarks could provide comprehensive information about the $\bar{c}c$ component of this exotic baryon.

Nuclear structure of 140Te with N = 88: Structural symmetry and asymmetry in Te isotopes with respect to the double-shell closure Z = 50 and N = 82

We study for the first time the internal structure of 140Te through the beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy of 140Sb. The very neutron-rich 140Sb, Z = 51 and N = 89, ions were produced by the in-flight fission of 238U beam on a 9Be target at 345 MeV per nucleon at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory, RIKEN. The half-life and spin-parity of 140Sb are reported as 124(30) ms and (4-), respectively. In addition to the excited states of 140Te produced by the beta-decay branch, the beta-delayed one-neutron and two-neutron emission branches were also established. By identifying the first 2+ and 4+ excited states of 140Te, we found that Te isotopes persist their vibrator character with E(4+)/E(2+) = 2. We discuss the distinctive features manifest in this region, such as valence neutron symmetry and asymmetry, revealed in pairs of isotopes with the same neutron holes and particles with respect to N = 82.

How galactic environment regulates star formation

In a new simple model I reconcile two contradictory views on the factors that determine the rate at which molecular clouds form stars -- internal structure vs. external, environmental influences -- providing a unified picture for the regulation of star formation in galaxies. In the presence of external pressure, the pressure gradient set up within a self-gravitating isothermal cloud leads to a non-uniform density distribution. Thus the local environment of a cloud influences its internal structure. In the simple equilibrium model, the fraction of gas at high density in the cloud interior is determined simply by the cloud surface density, which is itself inherited from the pressure in the immediate surroundings. This idea is tested using measurements of the properties of local clouds, which are found to show remarkable agreement with the simple equilibrium model. The model also naturally predicts the star formation relation observed on cloud scales and, at the same time, provides a mapping between this relation and the closer-to-linear molecular star formation relation measured on larger scales in galaxies. The key is that pressure regulates not only the molecular content of the ISM but also the cloud surface density. I provide a straightforward prescription for the pressure regulation of star formation that can be directly implemented in numerical models. Predictions for the dense gas fraction and star formation efficiency measured on large-scales within galaxies are also presented, establishing the basis for a new picture of star formation regulated by galactic environment.

Binary Love Relations

When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars imprint onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the gravitational wave model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately universal relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the gravitational wave model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between equation-of-state models, and improve tests of General Relativity and cosmology.

Binary Love Relations [Cross-Listing]

When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars imprint onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the gravitational wave model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately universal relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the gravitational wave model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between equation-of-state models, and improve tests of General Relativity and cosmology.

Measurement of the charged-pion polarisability at COMPASS

The electric (${\alpha}_{\pi}$) and the magnetic (${\beta}_{\pi}$) polarisabilities are fundamental properties of the pion characterising the rigidity of its internal structure. They have been precisely measured at the COMPASS experiment at CERN with a ${\pi}^{-}$ beam of 190~GeV/c assuming ${\alpha}_{\pi}+{\beta}_{\pi}=0$. Muons of the same momentum were used for controlling of systematic effects. The obtained result ${\alpha}_{\pi}=-{\beta}_{\pi}=(2.0\pm 0.6_{stat.}\pm 0.7_{syst.})\times 10^{-4} fm^3$ is in agreement with the prediction of the Chiral Perturbation Theory.

Measurement of the charged-pion polarisability at COMPASS [Cross-Listing]

The electric (${\alpha}_{\pi}$) and the magnetic (${\beta}_{\pi}$) polarisabilities are fundamental properties of the pion characterising the rigidity of its internal structure. They have been precisely measured at the COMPASS experiment at CERN with a ${\pi}^{-}$ beam of 190~GeV/c assuming ${\alpha}_{\pi}+{\beta}_{\pi}=0$. Muons of the same momentum were used for controlling of systematic effects. The obtained result ${\alpha}_{\pi}=-{\beta}_{\pi}=(2.0\pm 0.6_{stat.}\pm 0.7_{syst.})\times 10^{-4} fm^3$ is in agreement with the prediction of the Chiral Perturbation Theory.

Internal structure of Pluto and Charon with an iron core

Pluto has been observed by the New Horizons space probe to have some relatively fresh ice on the old ices covering most of the surface. Pluto was thought to consist of only a rocky core below the ice. Here I show that Pluto can have an iron core, as can also its companion Charon, which has recently been modelled to have one. The presence of an iron core means the giant impact origin calculations should be redone to include iron and thus higher temperatures. An iron core leads to the possibility of a different geology. An originally molten core becomes solid later, with contraction and a release of latent heat. The space vacated allows the upper rock layers to flow downwards at some locations at the surface of the core, and some of the ice above the rock to descend, filling the spaces left by the rock motion downwards. These phenomena can lead to the forces recently deforming the icy surface of Pluto, and in a lesser way, of Charon.

Incomplete cooling down of Saturn's A ring at solar equinox: Implication for seasonal thermal inertia and internal structure of ring particles

At the solar equinox in August 2009, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini showed the lowest Saturn's ring temperatures ever observed. Detailed radiative transfer models show that the observed equinox temperatures of Saturn's A ring are much higher than model predictions as long as only the flux from Saturn is taken into account. This indicates that the A ring was not completely cooled down at the equinox. We develop a simple seasonal model for ring temperatures and first assume that the internal density and the thermal inertia of a ring particle are uniform with depth. The particle size is estimated to be 1-2 m. The seasonal thermal inertia is found to be 30-50 Jm$^{-2}$K$^{-1}$s$^{-1/2}$ in the middle A ring whereas it is $\sim$ 10 Jm$^{-2}$K$^{-1}$s$^{-1/2}$ or as low as the diurnal thermal inertia in the inner and outermost regions of the A ring. An additional internal structure model, in which a particle has a high density core surrounded by a fluffy regolith mantle, shows that the core radius relative to the particle radius is about 0.9 for the middle A ring and is much less for the inner and outer regions of the A ring. This means that the radial variation of the internal density of ring particles exists across the A ring. Some mechanisms may be confining dense particles in the middle A ring against viscous diffusion. Alternatively, the (middle) A ring might have recently formed ($<$ 10$^{8}$ yr) by destruction of an icy satellite, so that dense particles have not yet diffused over the A ring and regolith mantles of particles have not grown thick. Our model results also indicate that the composition of the core is predominantly water ice, not rock.

Computation of correlation matrices for tetraquark candidates with $J^P = 0^+$ and flavor structure $q_1 \bar{q_2} q_3 \bar{q}_3$

The conjecture that several recently observed mesons have a structure, which is not dominated by an ordinary quark-antiquark pair, but by a four-quark structure, is being actively investigated both theoretical and experimentally. Such a state may be characterized as a mesonic molecule or as a diquark-antidiquark pair. Lattice QCD provides a theoretically sound framework to study such states. To quantitatively investigate the internal structure of such mesons, one needs to precisely compute correlation matrices containing several interpolating operators including two and four quarks. Here we discuss certain technical aspects of such correlation matrices suited to study tetraquark candidates with $J^P = 0^+$ and flavor structure $q_1 \bar{q_2} q_3 \bar{q}_3$, e.g.\ the $a_0(980)$ meson, the $D_{s0}^\ast$ meson and some of the charged $c \bar{c}$ $X$ states. Some numerical results for the $a_0(980)$ meson are presented.

Defocused Observations of Selected Exoplanet Transits with T100 in TUBITAK National Observatory of Turkey (TUG)

It is crucial to determine masses and radii of extrasolar planets with high precision to have constraints on their chemical composition, internal structure and thereby their formation and evolution. In order to achieve this goal, we apply the defocus technique in the observations of selected planetary systems with the 1 m Turkish telescope T100 in TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG). With this contribution, we aim to present preliminary analyses of transit light curves of the selected exoplanets KELT-3b, HAT-P-10b/WASP-11b, HAT-P-20b, and HAT-P-22b, observed with this technique using T100.

Neutron star structure in an in-medium modified chiral soliton model [Cross-Listing]

We study the internal structure of a static and spherically symmetric neutron star in the framework of an in-medium modified chiral soliton model. The Equations of State describing an infinite and asymmetric nuclear matter are obtained introducing the density dependent functions into the low energy free space Lagrangian of the model starting from the phenomenology of pionic atoms. The parametrizations of density dependent functions are related to the properties of isospin asymmetric nuclear systems at saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter $\rho_0\simeq 0.16$~fm$^{-3}$. Our results, corresponding to the compressibility of symmetric nuclear matter in the range $250\,\mbox{MeV}\le K_0\le 270\,\mbox{MeV}$ and the slop parameter value of symmetry energy in the range $30\,\mbox{MeV}\le L_S\le 50\,\mbox{MeV}$, are consistent with the results from other approaches and with the experimental indications. Using the modified Equations of State, near the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter $\rho_0$, the extrapolations to the high density and highly isospin asymmetric regions have been performed. The calculations showed that the properties of $\sim 1.4M_\odot$ and $\sim 2M_\odot$ neutron stars can be well reproduced in the framework of present approach.

Internal Structure of Asteroids Having Surface Shedding due to Rotational Instability

Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to such surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong enough core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.

The treatment of mixing in core helium burning models - I. Implications for asteroseismology [Replacement]

The detection of mixed oscillation modes offers a unique insight into the internal structure of core helium burning (CHeB) stars. The stellar structure during CHeB is very uncertain because the growth of the convective core, and/or the development of a semiconvection zone, is critically dependent on the treatment of convective boundaries. In this study we calculate a suite of stellar structure models and their non-radial pulsations to investigate why the predicted asymptotic g-mode $\ell = 1$ period spacing $\Delta\Pi_1$ is systematically lower than is inferred from Kepler field stars. We find that only models with large convective cores, such as those calculated with our newly proposed "maximal-overshoot" scheme, can match the average $\Delta\Pi_1$ reported. However, we also find another possible solution that is related to the method used to determine $\Delta\Pi_1$: mode trapping can raise the observationally inferred $\Delta\Pi_1$ well above its true value. Even after accounting for these two proposed resolutions to the discrepancy in average $\Delta\Pi_1$, models still predict more CHeB stars with low $\Delta\Pi_1$ ($ < 270$ s) than are observed. We establish two possible remedies for this: i) there may be a difficulty in determining $\Delta\Pi_1$ for early CHeB stars (when $\Delta\Pi_1$ is lowest) because of the effect that the sharp composition profile at the hydrogen burning shell has on the pulsations, or ii) the mass of the helium core at the flash is higher than predicted. Our conclusions highlight the need for the reporting of selection effects in asteroseismic population studies in order to safely use this information to constrain stellar evolution theory.

The treatment of mixing in core helium burning models: I. Implications for asteroseismology

The detection of mixed oscillation modes offers a unique insight into the internal structure of core helium burning (CHeB) stars. The stellar structure during CHeB is very uncertain because the growth of the convective core, and/or the development of a semiconvection zone, is critically dependent on the treatment of convective boundaries. In this study we calculate a suite of stellar structure models and their non-radial pulsations to investigate why the predicted asymptotic g-mode $\ell = 1$ period spacing $\Delta\Pi_1$ is systematically lower than is inferred from Kepler field stars. We find that only models with large convective cores, such as those calculated with our newly proposed "maximal-overshoot" scheme, can match the average $\Delta\Pi_1$ reported. However, we also find another possible solution that is related to the method used to determine $\Delta\Pi_1$: mode trapping can raise the observationally inferred $\Delta\Pi_1$ well above its true value. Even after accounting for these two proposed resolutions to the discrepancy in average $\Delta\Pi_1$, models still predict more CHeB stars with low $\Delta\Pi_1$ ($ < 270$ s) than are observed. We establish two possible remedies for this: i) there may be a difficulty in determining $\Delta\Pi_1$ for early CHeB stars (when $\Delta\Pi_1$ is lowest) because of the effect that the sharp composition profile at the hydrogen burning shell has on the pulsations, or ii) the mass of the helium core at the flash is higher than predicted. Our conclusions highlight the need for the reporting of selection effects in asteroseismic population studies in order to safely use this information to constrain stellar evolution theory.

VIMOS mosaic integral-field spectroscopy of the bulge and disk of the early-type galaxy NGC 4697

We present an integral field study of the internal structure, kinematics and stellar population of the almost edge-on, intermediate luminosity ($L_ {*}$) elliptical galaxy NGC~4697. We build extended 2-dimensional (2D) maps of the stellar kinematics and line-strengths of the galaxy up to $\sim 0.7 $ effective radii (R$_{eff}$) using a mosaic of 8 VIMOS (VIsible Multi-Objects Spectrograph on the VLT) integral-field unit pointings. We find clear evidence for a rotation-supported structure along the major axis from the 2D kinematical maps, confirming the previous classification of this system as a `fast-rotator'. We study the correlations between the third and fourth Gauss-Hermite moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) $h_3$ and $h_4$ with the rotation parameter ($V/\sigma$), and compare our findings to hydrodynamical simulations. We find remarkable similarities to predictions from gas-rich mergers. Based on photometry, we perform a bulge/disk decomposition and study the stellar population properties of the two components. The bulge and the disk show different stellar populations, with the stars in the bulge being older (age$_{\rm bulge}=13.5^{+1.4}_{-1.4}$ Gyr, age$_{\rm disk}=10.5^{+1.6}_{-2.0}$Gyr) and more metal-poor ($\mathrm{[M/H]_{bulge}} = -0.17^{+0.12}_{-0.1}$, $\mathrm{[M/H]_{disk}}=-0.03^{+0.02}_{-0.1}$). The evidence of a later-formed, more metal-rich disk embedded in an older, more metal-poor bulge, together with the LOSVD structure, supports a mass assembly scenario dominated by gas-rich minor mergers and possibly with a late gas-rich major merger that left a previously rapidly rotating system unchanged. The bulge and the disk do not show signs of different stellar Initial Mass Function slopes, and both match well with a Milky Way-like IMF.

VIMOS mosaic integral-field spectroscopy of the bulge and disk of the early-type galaxy NGC 4697 [Replacement]

We present an integral field study of the internal structure, kinematics and stellar population of the almost edge-on, intermediate luminosity ($L_ {*}$) elliptical galaxy NGC 4697. We build extended 2-dimensional (2D) maps of the stellar kinematics and line-strengths of the galaxy up to $\sim 0.7 $ effective radii (R$_{eff}$) using a mosaic of 8 VIMOS (VIsible Multi-Objects Spectrograph on the VLT) integral-field unit pointings. We find clear evidence for a rotation-supported structure along the major axis from the 2D kinematical maps, confirming the previous classification of this system as a `fast-rotator'. We study the correlations between the third and fourth Gauss-Hermite moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) $h_3$ and $h_4$ with the rotation parameter ($V/\sigma$), and compare our findings to hydrodynamical simulations. We find remarkable similarities to predictions from gas-rich mergers. Based on photometry, we perform a bulge/disk decomposition and study the stellar population properties of the two components. The bulge and the disk show different stellar populations, with the stars in the bulge being older (age$_{\rm bulge}=13.5^{+1.4}_{-1.4}$ Gyr, age$_{\rm disk}=10.5^{+1.6}_{-2.0}$Gyr) and more metal-poor ($\mathrm{[M/H]_{bulge}} = -0.17^{+0.12}_{-0.1}$, $\mathrm{[M/H]_{disk}}=-0.03^{+0.02}_{-0.1}$). The evidence of a later-formed, more metal-rich disk embedded in an older, more metal-poor bulge, together with the LOSVD structure, supports a mass assembly scenario dominated by gas-rich minor mergers and possibly with a late gas-rich major merger that left a previously rapidly rotating system unchanged. The bulge and the disk do not show signs of different stellar Initial Mass Function slopes, and both match well with a Milky Way-like IMF.

Internal structure of spiral arms traced with [CII]: Unraveling the WIM, HI, and molecular emission lanes

The spiral arm tangencies are ideal lines of sight in which to determine the distribution of interstellar gas components in the spiral arms and study the influence of spiral density waves on the interarm gas in the Milky Way. We present a large scale (~15deg) position-velocity map of the Galactic plane in [CII] from l = 326.6 to 341.4deg observed with Herschel HIFI. We use [CII] l-v maps along with those for Hi and 12CO to derive the average spectral line intensity profiles over the longitudinal range of each tangency. Using the VLSR of the emission features, we locate the [CII], HI, and 12CO emissions along a cross cut of the spiral arm. In the spectral line profiles at the tangencies [CII] has two emission peaks, one associated with the compressed WIM and the other the molecular gas PDRs. When represented as a cut across the inner to outer edge of the spiral arm, the [CII]-WIM peak appears closest to the inner edge while 12CO and [CII] associated with molecular gas are at the outermost edge. HI has broader emission with an intermediate peak located nearer to that of 12CO. The velocity resolved spectral line data of the spiral arm tangencies unravel the internal structure in the arms locating the emission lanes within them. We interpret the excess [CII] near the tangent velocities as shock compression of the WIM induced by the spiral density waves and as the innermost edge of spiral arms. For the Norma and Perseus arms, we estimate widths of ~250 pc in [CII]-WIM and ~400 pc in 12CO and overall spiral arm widths of ~500 pc in [CII] and 12CO emissions. The electron densities in the WIM are ~ 0.5 cm^-3, about an order of magnitude higher than the average for the disk. The enhanced electron density in the WIM is a result of compression of the WIM by the spiral density wave potential.

Towards an Understanding of the Correlations in Jet Substructure

Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.

Towards an Understanding of the Correlations in Jet Substructure [Replacement]

Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.

Towards an Understanding of the Correlations in Jet Substructure [Replacement]

Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.

Towards an Understanding of the Correlations in Jet Substructure [Replacement]

Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.

Convection and Mixing in Giant Planet Evolution

The primordial internal structures of gas giant planets are unknown. Often giant planets are modeled under the assumption that they are adiabatic, convective, and homogeneously mixed, but this is not necessarily correct. In this work, we present the first self-consistent calculation of convective transport of both heat and material as the planets evolve. We examine how planetary evolution depends on the initial composition and its distribution, whether the internal structure changes with time, and if so, how it affects the evolution. We consider various primordial distributions, different compositions, and different mixing efficiencies and follow the distribution of heavy elements in a Jupiter-mass planet as it evolves. We show that a heavy-element core cannot be eroded by convection if there is a sharp compositional change at the core-envelope boundary. If the heavy elements are initially distributed within the planet according to some compositional gradient, mixing occurs in the outer regions resulting in a compositionally homogeneous outer envelope. Mixing of heavy materials that are injected in a convective gaseous envelope are found to mix efficiently. Our work demonstrates that the primordial internal structure of a giant planet plays a substantial role in determining its long-term evolution and that giant planets can have non-adiabatic interiors. These results emphasize the importance of coupling formation, evolution, and internal structure models of giant planets self-consistently.

Convection and Mixing in Giant Planet Evolution [Replacement]

The primordial internal structures of gas giant planets are unknown. Often giant planets are modeled under the assumption that they are adiabatic, convective, and homogeneously mixed, but this is not necessarily correct. In this work, we present the first self-consistent calculation of convective transport of both heat and material as the planets evolve. We examine how planetary evolution depends on the initial composition and its distribution, whether the internal structure changes with time, and if so, how it affects the evolution. We consider various primordial distributions, different compositions, and different mixing efficiencies and follow the distribution of heavy elements in a Jupiter-mass planet as it evolves. We show that a heavy-element core cannot be eroded by convection if there is a sharp compositional change at the core-envelope boundary. If the heavy elements are initially distributed within the planet according to some compositional gradient, mixing occurs in the outer regions resulting in a compositionally homogeneous outer envelope. Mixing of heavy materials that are injected in a convective gaseous envelope are found to mix efficiently. Our work demonstrates that the primordial internal structure of a giant planet plays a substantial role in determining its long-term evolution and that giant planets can have non-adiabatic interiors. These results emphasize the importance of coupling formation, evolution, and internal structure models of giant planets self-consistently.

Magnetic Field Tomography in Nearby Galaxies with the Square Kilometre Array

Magnetic fields play an important role in shaping the structure and evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies, but the details of this relationship remain unclear. With SKA1, the 3D structure of galactic magnetic fields and its connection to star formation will be revealed. A highly sensitive probe of the internal structure of the magnetoionized ISM is the partial depolarization of synchrotron radiation from inside the volume. Different configurations of magnetic field and ionized gas within the resolution element of the telescope lead to frequency-dependent changes in the observed degree of polarization. The results of spectro-polarimetric observations are tied to physical structure in the ISM through comparison with detailed modeling, supplemented with the use of new analysis techniques that are being actively developed and studied within the community such as Rotation Measure Synthesis. The SKA will enable this field to come into its own and begin the study of the detailed structure of the magnetized ISM in a sample of nearby galaxies, thanks to its extraordinary wideband capabilities coupled with the combination of excellent surface brightness sensitivity and angular resolution.

Understanding tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets from their core to their surface

Tidal dissipation in planetary interiors is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. Tidal dissipation in planets is intrinsically related to their internal structure. In particular, fluid and solid layers behave differently under tidal forcing. Therefore, their respective dissipation reservoirs have to be compared. In this work, we compute separately the contributions of the potential dense rocky/icy core and of the convective fluid envelope of gaseous giant planets, as a function of core size and mass. We demonstrate that in general both mechanisms must be taken into account.

Tracing early stellar evolution with asteroseismology: pre-main sequence stars in NGC 2264

Asteroseismology has been proven to be a successful tool to unravel details of the internal structure for different types of stars in various stages of their main sequence and post-main sequence evolution. Recently, we found a relation between the detected pulsation properties in a sample of 34 pre-main sequence (pre-MS) delta Scuti stars and the relative phase in their pre-MS evolution. With this we are able to demonstrate that asteroseismology is similarly powerful if applied to stars in the earliest stages of evolution before the onset of hydrogen core burning.

Internal structure of exotic hadrons by high-energy exclusive reactions

We propose to use high-energy exclusive reactions for probing internal structure of exotic hadron candidates. First, the constituent counting rule of perturbative QCD can be used for finding internal configurations of an exotic hadron candidate. It is because the number of constituents ($n$), which participate in the exclusive reaction, is found by the scaling behavior of the cross section $d\sigma/dt \propto 1/s^{n-2}$ at large momentum transfer, where $s$ is the center-of-mass energy squared. As an example, we show that the internal structure of $\Lambda \, (1405)$ should be found, for example, by the reaction $\pi^- + p \to K^0 + \Lambda (1405)$. Second, the internal structure of exotic hadron candidates should be investigated by hadron tomography with generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs) in exclusive reactions. Exotic nature should be reflected in the GPDs which contain two factors, longitudinal parton distributions as indicated by the constituent counting rule and transverse form factors as suggested by the hadron size. The GDAs should be investigated by the two-photon process $\gamma^* \gamma \to h\bar h$, for example $h=f_0$ or $a_0$, in electron-positron annihilation. Since the GDAs contain information on a time-like form factor, exotic nature should be found by studying the $h\bar h$ invariant mass dependence of the cross section. The internal structure of exotic hadron candidates should be clarified by the exclusive reactions at facilities such as J-PARC and KEKB.

Internal structure of exotic hadrons by high-energy exclusive reactions [Replacement]

We propose to use high-energy exclusive reactions for probing internal structure of exotic hadron candidates. First, the constituent counting rule of perturbative QCD can be used for finding internal configurations of an exotic hadron candidate. It is because the number of constituents ($n$), which participate in the exclusive reaction, is found by the scaling behavior of the cross section $d\sigma/dt \propto 1/s^{n-2}$ at large momentum transfer, where $s$ is the center-of-mass energy squared. As an example, we show that the internal structure of $\Lambda \, (1405)$ should be found, for example, by the reaction $\pi^- + p \to K^0 + \Lambda (1405)$. Second, the internal structure of exotic hadron candidates should be investigated by hadron tomography with generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs) in exclusive reactions. Exotic nature should be reflected in the GPDs which contain two factors, longitudinal parton distributions as indicated by the constituent counting rule and transverse form factors as suggested by the hadron size. The GDAs should be investigated by the two-photon process $\gamma^* \gamma \to h\bar h$, for example $h=f_0$ or $a_0$, in electron-positron annihilation. Since the GDAs contain information on a time-like form factor, exotic nature should be found by studying the $h\bar h$ invariant mass dependence of the cross section. The internal structure of exotic hadron candidates should be clarified by the exclusive reactions at facilities such as J-PARC and KEKB.

Baryon effects on the internal structure of LCDM halos in the EAGLE simulations [Replacement]

We investigate the internal structure and density profiles of halos of mass $10^{10}-10^{14}~M_\odot$ in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These follow the formation of galaxies in a $\Lambda$CDM Universe and include a treatment of the baryon physics thought to be relevant. The EAGLE simulations reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function, as well as many other properties of the galaxy population as a function of time. We find significant differences between the masses of halos in the EAGLE simulations and in simulations that follow only the dark matter component. Nevertheless, halos are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile at radii larger than ~5% of the virial radius but, closer to the centre, the presence of stars can produce cuspier profiles. Central enhancements in the total mass profile are most important in halos of mass $10^{12}-10^{13}M_\odot$, where the stellar fraction peaks. Over the radial range where they are well resolved, the resulting galaxy rotation curves are in very good agreement with observational data for galaxies with stellar mass $M_*<5\times10^{10}M_\odot$. We present an empirical fitting function that describes the total mass profiles and show that its parameters are strongly correlated with halo mass.

Modeling cosmic void statistics

Understanding the internal structure and spatial distribution of cosmic voids is crucial when considering them as probes of cosmology. We present recent advances in modeling void density- and velocity-profiles in real space, as well as void two-point statistics in redshift space, by examining voids identified via the watershed transform in state-of-the-art $\Lambda$CDM n-body simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The simple and universal characteristics that emerge from these statistics indicate the self-similarity of large-scale structure and suggest cosmic voids to be among the most pristine objects to consider for future studies on the nature of dark energy, dark matter and modified gravity.

Self-Scattering for Dark Matter with an Excited State [Replacement]

Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter --- for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited --- has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic s-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the s-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

Self-Scattering for Dark Matter with an Excited State [Replacement]

Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter --- for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited --- has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic s-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the s-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

Self-Scattering for Dark Matter with an Excited State [Cross-Listing]

Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter --- for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited --- has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic $s$-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the $s$-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

Self-Scattering for Dark Matter with an Excited State

Self-interacting dark matter scenarios have recently attracted much attention, as a possible means to alleviate the tension between N-body simulations and observations of the dark matter distribution on galactic and sub-galactic scales. The presence of internal structure for the dark matter --- for example, a nearly-degenerate state in the spectrum that could decay, or be collisionally excited or de-excited --- has also been proposed as a possible means to address these discrepancies. Such internal structure can be a source of interesting signatures in direct and indirect dark matter searches, for example providing a novel explanation for the 3.5 keV line recently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We analyze a simple model of dark matter self-scattering including a nearly-degenerate excited state, and develop an accurate analytic approximation for the elastic and inelastic $s$-wave cross sections, which is valid outside the perturbative regime provided the particle velocity is sufficiently low (this condition is also required for the $s$-wave to dominate over higher partial waves). We anticipate our results will be useful in incorporating inelastic self-scattering into N-body simulations, in order to study the quantitative impact of nearly-degenerate states in the dark matter spectrum on galactic structure and dynamics, and in computing the indirect signatures of multi-state dark matter.

Characterization and mapping of surface physical properties of Mars from CRISM multi-angular data: application to Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum [Replacement]

The analysis of the surface texture from the particle (grain size, shape and internal structure) to its organization (surface roughness) provides information on the geological processes. CRISM multi-angular observations (varied emission angles) allow to characterize the surface scattering behavior which depends on the composition but also the material physical properties (e.g., grain size, shape, internal structure, the surface roughness). After an atmospheric correction by the Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of the Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations, the surface reflectances at different geometries are analyzed by inverting the Hapke photometric model depending on the single scattering albedo, the 2-term phase function, the macroscopic roughness and the 2-term opposition effects. Surface photometric maps are created to observe the spatial variations of surface scattering properties as a function of geological units at the CRISM spatial resolution (200m/pixel). An application at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites located at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum where orbital and in situ observations are available, is presented. Complementary orbital observations (e.g. CRISM spectra, THermal EMission Imaging System, High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images) are used for interpreting the estimated Hapke photometric parameters in terms of physical properties. The in situ observations are used as ground truth to validate the interpretations. Varied scattering properties are observed inside a CRISM observation (5x10km) suggesting that the surfaces are controlled by local geological processes (e.g. volcanic resurfacing, aeolian and impact processes) rather than regional or global. Consistent results with the in situ observations are observed thus validating the approach and the use of photometry for the characterization of Martian surface physical properties.

Characterization and mapping of surface physical properties of Mars from CRISM multi-angular data: application to Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum

The analysis of the surface texture from the particle (grain size, shape and internal structure) to its organization (surface roughness) provides information on the geological processes. CRISM multi-angular observations (varied emission angles) allow to characterize the surface scattering behavior which depends on the composition but also the material physical properties (e.g., grain size, shape, internal structure, the surface roughness). After an atmospheric correction by the Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of the Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations, the surface reflectances at different geometries are analyzed by inverting the Hapke photometric model depending on the single scattering albedo, the 2-term phase function, the macroscopic roughness and the 2-term opposition effects. Surface photometric maps are created to observe the spatial variations of surface scattering properties as a function of geological units at the CRISM spatial resolution (200m/pixel). An application at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites located at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum where orbital and in situ observations are available, is presented. Complementary orbital observations (e.g. CRISM spectra, THermal EMission Imaging System, High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images) are used for interpreting the estimated Hapke photometric parameters in terms of physical properties. The in situ observations are used as ground truth to validate the interpretations. Varied scattering properties are observed inside a CRISM observation (5x10km) suggesting that the surfaces are controlled by local geological processes (e.g. volcanic resurfacing, aeolian and impact processes) rather than regional or global. Consistent results with the in situ observations are observed thus validating the approach and the use of photometry for the characterization of Martian surface physical properties.

Toward Realistic and Practical No-Hair Relations for Neutron Stars in the Non-Relativistic Limit [Replacement]

The gravitational properties of astrophysical objects depend sensitively on their internal structure. In Newtonian theory, the gravitational potential of a rotating star can be fully described by an infinite number of multipole moments of its mass distribution. Recently, this infinite number of moments for uniformly-rotating stars were shown semi-analytically to be expressible in terms of just the first three: the mass, the spin, and the quadrupole moment of the star. The relations between the various lower multipole moments were additionally shown to depend weakly on the equation of state, when considering neutron stars and assuming single polytropic equations of state. Here we extend this result in two ways. First, we show that the universality also holds for realistic equations of state, thus relaxing the need to use single polytropes. Second, we derive purely analytical universal relations by perturbing the equations of structure about an $n=0$ polytrope that reproduce semi-analytic results to $\mathcal{O}(1\%)$. We also find that the linear-order perturbation vanishes in some cases, which provides further evidence and a deeper understanding of the universality.

The Kepler-10 planetary system revisited by HARPS-N: A hot rocky world and a solid Neptune-mass planet

Kepler-10b was the first rocky planet detected by the Kepler satellite and con- firmed with radial velocity follow-up observations from Keck-HIRES. The mass of the planet was measured with a precision of around 30%, which was insufficient to constrain models of its internal structure and composition in detail. In addition to Kepler-10b, a second planet transiting the same star with a period of 45 days was sta- tistically validated, but the radial velocities were only good enough to set an upper limit of 20 Mearth for the mass of Kepler-10c. To improve the precision on the mass for planet b, the HARPS-N Collaboration decided to observe Kepler-10 intensively with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo on La Palma. In to- tal, 148 high-quality radial-velocity measurements were obtained over two observing seasons. These new data allow us to improve the precision of the mass determina- tion for Kepler-10b to 15%. With a mass of 3.33 +/- 0.49 Mearth and an updated radius of 1.47 +0.03 -0.02 Rearth, Kepler-10b has a density of 5.8 +/- 0.8 g cm-3, very close to the value -0.02 predicted by models with the same internal structure and composition as the Earth. We were also able to determine a mass for the 45-day period planet Kepler-10c, with an even better precision of 11%. With a mass of 17.2 +/- 1.9 Mearth and radius of 2.35 +0.09 -0.04 Rearth, -0.04 Kepler-10c has a density of 7.1 +/- 1.0 g cm-3. Kepler-10c appears to be the first strong evidence of a class of more massive solid planets with longer orbital periods.

 

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