Characterization and mapping of surface physical properties of Mars from CRISM multi-angular data: application to Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum
The analysis of the surface texture from the particle (grain size, shape and internal structure) to its organization (surface roughness) provides information on the geological processes. CRISM multi-angular observations (varied emission angles) allow to characterize the surface scattering behavior which depends on the composition but also the material physical properties (e.g., grain size, shape, internal structure, the surface roughness). After an atmospheric correction by the Multi-angle Approach for Retrieval of the Surface Reflectance from CRISM Observations, the surface reflectances at different geometries are analyzed by inverting the Hapke photometric model depending on the single scattering albedo, the 2-term phase function, the macroscopic roughness and the 2-term opposition effects. Surface photometric maps are created to observe the spatial variations of surface scattering properties as a function of geological units at the CRISM spatial resolution (200m/pixel). An application at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites located at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum where orbital and in situ observations are available, is presented. Complementary orbital observations (e.g. CRISM spectra, THermal EMission Imaging System, High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images) are used for interpreting the estimated Hapke photometric parameters in terms of physical properties. The in situ observations are used as ground truth to validate the interpretations. Varied scattering properties are observed inside a CRISM observation (5x10km) suggesting that the surfaces are controlled by local geological processes (e.g. volcanic resurfacing, aeolian and impact processes) rather than regional or global. Consistent results with the in situ observations are observed thus validating the approach and the use of photometry for the characterization of Martian surface physical properties.