Posts Tagged intermediate value

Recent Postings from intermediate value

Reggeon Field Theory for Large Pomeron Loops [Cross-Listing]

We analyze the range of applicability of the high energy Reggeon Field Theory $H_{RFT}$ derived in [1]. We show that this theory is valid as long as at any intermediate value of rapidity $\eta$ throughout the evolution at least one of the colliding objects is dilute. Importantly, at some values of $\eta$ the dilute object could be the projectile, while at others it could be the target, so that $H_{RFT}$ does not reduce to either $H_{JIMWLK}$ or $H_{KLWMIJ}$. When both objects are dense, corrections to the evolution not accounted for in [1] become important. The same limitation applies to other approaches to high energy evolution available today, such as for example [3] and [4]. We also show that, in its regime of applicability $H_{RFT}$ can be simplified. We derive the simpler version of $H_{RFT}$ and in the large $N_c$ limit rewrite it in terms of the Reggeon creation and annihilation operators. The resulting $H_{RFT}$ is explicitly self dual and provides the generalization of the Pomeron calculus developed in [4] by including higher Reggeons in the evolution. It is applicable for description of `large’ Pomeron loops, namely Reggeon graphs where all the splittings occur close in rapidity to one dilute object (projectile), while all the merging close to the other one (target). Additionally we derive, in the same regime expressions for single and double inclusive gluon production (where the gluons are not separated by a large rapidity interval) in terms of the Reggeon degrees of freedom.

Reggeon Field Theory for Large Pomeron Loops

We analyze the range of applicability of the high energy Reggeon Field Theory $H_{RFT}$ derived in [1]. We show that this theory is valid as long as at any intermediate value of rapidity $\eta$ throughout the evolution at least one of the colliding objects is dilute. Importantly, at some values of $\eta$ the dilute object could be the projectile, while at others it could be the target, so that $H_{RFT}$ does not reduce to either $H_{JIMWLK}$ or $H_{KLWMIJ}$. When both objects are dense, corrections to the evolution not accounted for in [1] become important. The same limitation applies to other approaches to high energy evolution available today, such as for example [3] and [4]. We also show that, in its regime of applicability $H_{RFT}$ can be simplified. We derive the simpler version of $H_{RFT}$ and in the large $N_c$ limit rewrite it in terms of the Reggeon creation and annihilation operators. The resulting $H_{RFT}$ is explicitly self dual and provides the generalization of the Pomeron calculus developed in [4] by including higher Reggeons in the evolution. It is applicable for description of `large’ Pomeron loops, namely Reggeon graphs where all the splittings occur close in rapidity to one dilute object (projectile), while all the merging close to the other one (target). Additionally we derive, in the same regime expressions for single and double inclusive gluon production (where the gluons are not separated by a large rapidity interval) in terms of the Reggeon degrees of freedom.

Magnetic catalysis of a charged Bose-Einstein condensate [Cross-Listing]

We study the condensation phenomenon for a system of charged bosons in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that condensation happens for a definite critical temperature instead of through a diffuse phase transition. The essential ingredient, overlooked in previous analyses and accounted for in this work, is the treatment of the plasma screening effects by means of resummation. We compute the critical temperature, for the case the condensate is made of charged pions and for typical densities found in compact astrophysical objects, for small and large values of the magnetic field. We show that the magnetic field catalyzes the onset of condensation at very small and at large values of the magnetic field and that, for intermediate values, the critical temperature for condensation is lower than for the zero magnetic field case.

Magnetic catalysis of a charged Bose-Einstein condensate [Replacement]

We study the condensation phenomenon for a system of charged bosons in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that condensation happens for a definite critical temperature instead of through a diffuse phase transition. The essential ingredient, overlooked in previous analyses and accounted for in this work, is the treatment of the plasma screening effects by means of resummation. We compute the critical temperature, for the case in which the condensate is made of charged pions and for typical densities found in compact astrophysical objects, for small and large values of the magnetic field. We show that the magnetic field catalyzes the onset of condensation at very small and at large values of the magnetic field, and that for intermediate values, the critical temperature for condensation is lower than for the zero magnetic field case.

Magnetic catalysis of a charged Bose-Einstein condensate [Replacement]

We study the condensation phenomenon for a system of charged bosons in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that condensation happens for a definite critical temperature instead of through a diffuse phase transition. The essential ingredient, overlooked in previous analyses and accounted for in this work, is the treatment of the plasma screening effects by means of resummation. We compute the critical temperature, for the case in which the condensate is made of charged pions and for typical densities found in compact astrophysical objects, for small and large values of the magnetic field. We show that the magnetic field catalyzes the onset of condensation at very small and at large values of the magnetic field, and that for intermediate values, the critical temperature for condensation is lower than for the zero magnetic field case.

Accurate and homogeneous abundance patterns in solar-type stars of the solar neighbourhood: a chemo-chronological analysis

We report the abundances of C, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, and Sm in 25 solar-type stars in the solar neighbourhood, and their correlations with ages, kinematics, and orbital parameters. The spectroscopic analysis, based high resolution and high S/N ratio data, was differential to the Sun and applied to atomic line EWs and to C and C2 spectral synthesis. We performed a statistical study using a tree clustering analysis, searching for groups of stars sharing similar abundance patterns. We derived Teff, log(g), and [Fe/H] with errors of 30 K, 0.13 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively. The average error in [X/Fe] is 0.06 dex. Ages were derived from theoretical HR diagrams and memberships in kinematical moving groups. We identified four stellar groups: with over-solar abundances ( = +0.26 dex), under-solar abundances ( = -0.24 dex), and intermediate values ( = -0.06 and +0.06 dex) but with distinct chemical patterns. Stars sharing solar metallicity, age, and Galactic orbit possibly have non-solar abundance, an effect either of chemical heterogeneity in their natal clouds or migration. A trend of [Cu/Fe] with [Ba/Fe] seems to exist, in agreement with previous claims in the literature, and maybe also of [Sm/Fe] with [Ba/Fe]. No such correlation involving C, Na, Mn, and Zn is observed. [Mg/Fe], [Sc/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] increase with age. [Mn/Fe] and [Cu/Fe] first increase towards younger stars up to the solar age, and then decrease, a result we interpret as possibly related to time-varying yields of SN Ia and the weak s-process. [Sr/Fe], [Y/Fe], [Sr/Mg], [Y/Mg], [Sr/Zn], and [Y/Zn] linearly increase towards younger stars. [Zr/Fe], [Ce/Fe], [Nd/Fe], [Ba/Mg], [Ba/Zn], and [Sr,Y,Ba/Sm] increase but only for stars younger than the Sun. The steepest negative age relation is due to [Ba/Fe], but only for stars younger than the Sun.

Lambda over Kaon Enhancement in Heavy Ion Collisions at Several TeV [Cross-Listing]

We introduced recently a new theoretical scheme which accounts for hydrodynamically expanding bulk matter, jets, and the interaction between the two. Important for the particle production at intermediate values of transverse momentum (p_t) are jet-hadrons produced inside the fluid. They pick up quarks and antiquarks (or diquarks) from the thermal matter rather than creating them via the Schwinger mechanism — the usual mechanism of hadron production from string fragmentation. These hadrons carry plasma properties (flavor, flow), but also the large momentum of the transversely moving string segment connecting quark and antiquark (or diquark). They therefore show up at quite large values of p_t, not polluted by soft particle production. We will show that this mechanism leads to a pronounced peak in the lambda / kaon ratio at intermediate p_t. The effect increases substantially with centrality, which reflects the increasing transverse size with centrality.

The Solar Flare Sulphur Abundance from RESIK Observations

The RESIK instrument on {\em CORONAS-F} spacecraft observed several sulphur X-ray lines in three of its four channels covering the wavelength range 3.8-6.1 \AA\ during solar flares. The fluxes are analyzed to give the sulphur abundance. Data are chosen for when the instrument parameters were optimized. The measured fluxes of the \ion{S}{15} $1s^2-1s4p$ ($w4$) line at 4.089 \AA\ gives $A({\rm S}) = 7.16 \pm 0.17$ (abundances on a logarithmic scale with $A({\rm H}) = 12$) which we consider to be the most reliable. Estimates from other lines range from 7.13 to 7.24. The preferred S abundance estimate is very close to recent photospheric abundance estimates and to quiet-Sun solar wind and meteoritic abundances. This implies no fractionation of sulphur by processes tending to enhance the coronal abundance from the photospheric that depend on the first ionization potential (FIP), or that sulphur, though its FIP has an intermediate value of 10.36 eV, acts like a “high-FIP” element.

A warm mode of gas accretion on forming galaxies

We present results from high–resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of a Milky–Way-sized halo, aimed at studying the effect of feedback on the nature of gas accretion. Simulations include a model of inter-stellar medium and star formation, in which SN explosions provide effective thermal feedback. We distinguish between gas accretion onto the halo, which occurs when gas particles cross the halo virial radius, and gas accretion onto the central galaxy, which takes place when gas particles cross the inner one-tenth of the virial radius. Gas particles can be accreted through three different channels, depending on the maximum temperature value, $T_{\rm max}$, reached during the particles’ past evolution: a cold channel for $T_{\rm max}10^6$K, and a warm one for intermediate values of $T_{\rm max}$. We find that the warm channel is at least as important as the cold one for gas accretion onto the central galaxy. This result is at variance with previous findings that the cold mode dominates gas accretion at high redshift. We ascribe this difference to the different supernova feedback scheme implemented in our simulations. While results presented so far in the literature are based on uneffective SN thermal feedback schemes and/or the presence of a kinetic feedback, our simulations include only effective thermal feedback. We argue that observational detections of a warm accretion mode in the high–redshift circum-galactic medium would provide useful constraints on the nature of the feedback that regulates star formation in galaxies.

How to make an ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy: tidal stirring of disky dwarfs with shallow dark matter density profiles

In recent years the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has unraveled a new population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) in the vicinity of the Milky Way (MW) whose origin is still a puzzle. Using a suite of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the formation of UFDs in the context of the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group (LG). Our simulations are designed to reproduce the tidal interactions between MW-sized host galaxies and rotationally supported dwarfs embedded in 10^9 M_sun dark matter (DM) halos. We explore a wide variety of inner density slopes \rho \propto r^{-\alpha} for the dwarf DM halos, ranging from core-like (\alpha = 0.2) to cuspy (\alpha = 1), and different dwarf orbital configurations. Our experiments demonstrate that UFDs can be produced via the tidal stirring of disky dwarfs on relatively tight orbits, consistent with a redshift of accretion by the host galaxy of z~1, and with intermediate values for the halo inner density slopes (\rho \propto r^{-0.6}). The inferred slopes are in excellent agreement with those resulting from both the modeling of the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies and recent cosmological simulations of dwarf galaxy formation. Comparing the properties of observed UFDs with those of their simulated counterparts, we find remarkable similarities in terms of basic observational parameters. We conclude that tidal stirring of rotationally supported dwarfs represents a viable mechanism for the formation of UFDs in the LG environment.

How to make an ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy: tidal stirring of disky dwarfs with shallow dark matter density profiles [Replacement]

In recent years the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has unraveled a new population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) in the vicinity of the Milky Way (MW) whose origin remains a puzzle. Using a suite of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the formation of UFDs in the context of the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group (LG). Our simulations are designed to reproduce the tidal interactions between MW-sized host galaxies and rotationally supported dwarfs embedded in 10^9 M_sun dark matter (DM) halos. We explore a variety of inner density slopes \rho \propto r^{-\alpha} for the dwarf DM halos, ranging from core-like (\alpha = 0.2) to cuspy (\alpha = 1), and different dwarf orbital configurations. Our experiments demonstrate that UFDs can be produced via tidal stirring of disky dwarfs on relatively tight orbits, consistent with a redshift of accretion by the host galaxy of z \sim 1, and with intermediate values for the halo inner density slopes (\rho \propto r^{-0.6}). The inferred slopes are in excellent agreement with those resulting from both the modeling of the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies and recent cosmological simulations of dwarf galaxy formation. Comparing the properties of observed UFDs with those of their simulated counterparts, we find remarkable similarities in terms of basic observational parameters. We conclude that tidal stirring of rotationally supported dwarfs represents a viable mechanism for the formation of UFDs in the LG environment.

The Impact of Circumplantary Jets on Transit Spectra and Timing Offsets for Hot-Jupiters

We present theoretical wavelength-dependent transit light curves for the giant planet HD209458b based on a number of state of the art 3D radiative hydrodynamical models. By varying the kinematic viscosity in the model we calculate observable signatures associated with the emergence of a super-rotating circumplanetary jet that strengthens with decreased viscosity. We obtain excellent agreement between our mid-transit transit spectra and existing data from Hubble and Spitzer, finding the best fit for intermediate values of viscosity. We further exploit dynamically driven differences between eastern and western hemispheres to extract the spectral signal imparted by a circumplanetary jet. We predict that: (i) the transit depth should decrease as the jet becomes stronger; (ii) the measured transit times should show timing offsets of up to 6 seconds at wavelengths with higher opacity, which increases with jet strength; (iii) wavelength-dependent differences between ingress and egress spectra increase with jet strength; (iv) the color-dependent transit shape should vary more strongly with wavelength for stronger jets. These techniques and trends should be valid for other hot Jupiters as well. Observations of transit timing offsets may be accessible with current instrumentation, though the other predictions may require the capabilities JWST and other future missions. Hydrodynamical models utilized solve the 3D Navier-Stokes equations together with decoupled thermal and radiative energy equations and wavelength dependent stellar heating.

Dust-correlated cm-wavelength continuum emission on translucent clouds {\zeta} Oph and LDN 1780

The diffuse cm-wave IR-correlated signal, the “anomalous” CMB foreground, is thought to arise in the dust in cirrus clouds. We present Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) cm-wave data of two translucent clouds, {\zeta} Oph and LDN 1780 with the aim of characterising the anomalous emission in the translucent cloud environment. In {\zeta} Oph, the measured brightness at 31 GHz is 2.4{\sigma} higher than an extrapolation from 5 GHz measurements assuming a free-free spectrum on 8 arcmin scales. The SED of this cloud on angular scales of 1{\odot} is dominated by free-free emission in the cm-range. In LDN 1780 we detected a 3 {\sigma} excess in the SED on angular scales of 1{\odot} that can be fitted using a spinning dust model. In this cloud, there is a spatial correlation between the CBI data and IR images, which trace dust. The correlation is better with near-IR templates (IRAS 12 and 25 {\mu}m) than with IRAS 100 {\mu}m, which suggests a very small grain origin for the emission at 31 GHz. We calculated the 31 GHz emissivities in both clouds. They are similar and have intermediate values between that of cirrus clouds and dark clouds. Nevertheless, we found an indication of an inverse relationship between emissivity and column density, which further supports the VSGs origin for the cm-emission since the proportion of big relative to small grains is smaller in diffuse clouds.

Stability analysis of the Martian obliquity during the Noachian era

We performed numerical simulations of the obliquity evolution of Mars during the Noachian era, at which time the giant planets were on drastically different orbits than today. For the preferred primordial configuration of the planets we find that there are two large zones where the Martian obliquity is stable and oscillates with an amplitude lower than 20$^\circ$. These zones occur at obliquities below 30$^\circ$ and above 60$^\circ$; intermediate values show either resonant or chaotic behaviour depending on the primordial orbits of the terrestrial planets.

Orbital Parameters of Binary Radio Pulsars : Revealing Their Structure, Formation, Evolution and Dynamic History

Orbital parameters of binary radio pulsars reveal the history of the pulsars’ formation and evolution including dynamic interactions with other objects. Advanced technology has enabled us to determine these orbital parameters accurately in most of the cases. Determination of post-Keplerian parameters of double neutron star binaries (especially of the double pulsar) provide clean tests of GTR and in the future may lead us to constrain the dense matter EoS. For binary pulsars with MS or WD companions, knowledge about the values of the orbital parameters as well as of the spin periods and the masses of the pulsars and the companions might be useful to understand the evolutionary history of the systems. As accreting neutron star binaries lead to orbit circularization due to the tidal coupling during accretion, their descendants i.e. binary MSPs are expected to be in circular orbits. On the other hand, dense stellar environments inside globular clusters (GCs) cause different types of interactions of single stars with pulsar binaries. These interactions can impart high eccentricities to the pulsar binaries. So it is quite common to get eccentric millisecond pulsar binaries in GCs and we find that "fly-by" causes intermediate values of eccentricities while "exchange" or "merger" causes high values of eccentricities. We also show that "ionization" is not much effective in the present stage of GCs. Even in the absence of such kinds of stellar interactions, a millisecond pulsar can have an eccentric orbit as a result of Kozai resonance if the pulsar binary is a member of a hierarchical triple system. PSR J1903+0327 is the only one eccentric millisecond pulsar binary in the galactic disk where stellar interactions are negligible. The possibility of this system to be a member of a hierarchical triple system or past association of a GC have been studied and found to be less likely.

Orbital Parameters of Binary Radio Pulsars : Revealing Their Structure, Formation, Evolution and Dynamic History [Replacement]

Orbital parameters of binary radio pulsars reveal the history of the pulsars’ formation and evolution including dynamic interactions with other objects. Advanced technology has enabled us to determine these orbital parameters accurately in most of the cases. Determination of post-Keplerian parameters of double neutron star binaries (especially of the double pulsar) provide clean tests of GTR and in the future may lead us to constrain the dense matter EoS. For binary pulsars with MS or WD companions, knowledge about the values of the orbital parameters as well as of the spin periods and the masses of the pulsars and the companions might be useful to understand the evolutionary history of the systems. As accreting neutron star binaries lead to orbit circularization due to the tidal coupling during accretion, their descendants i.e. binary MSPs are expected to be in circular orbits. On the other hand, dense stellar environments inside globular clusters (GCs) cause different types of interactions of single stars with pulsar binaries. These interactions can impart high eccentricities to the pulsar binaries. So it is quite common to get eccentric millisecond pulsar binaries in GCs and we find that “fly-by” causes intermediate values of eccentricities while “exchange” or “merger” causes high values of eccentricities. We also show that “ionization” is not much effective in the present stage of GCs. Even in the absence of such kinds of stellar interactions, a millisecond pulsar can have an eccentric orbit as a result of Kozai resonance if the pulsar binary is a member of a hierarchical triple system. PSR J1903+0327 is the only one eccentric millisecond pulsar binary in the galactic disk where stellar interactions are negligible. The possibility of this system to be a member of a hierarchical triple system or past association of a GC have been studied and found to be less likely.

Open and closed boundaries in large-scale convective dynamos [Replacement]

Context. Earlier work has suggested that large-scale dynamos can reach and maintain equipartition field strengths on a dynamical time scale only if magnetic helicity of the fluctuating field can be shed from the domain through open boundaries. Aims. Our aim is to test this scenario in convection-driven dynamos by comparing results for open and closed boundary conditions. Methods. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent compressible convection with shear and rotation are used to study the effects of boundary conditions on the excitation and saturation of large-scale dynamos. Open (vertical-field) and closed (perfect-conductor) boundary conditions are used for the magnetic field. The shear flow is such that the contours of shear are vertical, crossing the outer surface, and are thus ideally suited for driving a shear-induced magnetic helicity flux. Results. We find that for given shear and rotation rate, the growth rate of the magnetic field is larger if open boundary conditions are used. The growth rate first increases for small magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, but then levels off at an approximately constant value for intermediate values of Rm. For large enough Rm, a small-scale dynamo is excited and the growth rate of the field in this regime increases as Rm^(1/2). Regarding the nonlinear regime, the saturation level of the energy of the total magnetic field is independent of Rm when open boundaries are used. In the case of perfect conductor boundaries, the saturation level first increases as a function of Rm, but then decreases proportional to Rm^(-1) for Rm > 30, indicative of catastrophic quenching. These results suggest that the shear-induced magnetic helicity flux is efficient in alleviating catastrophic quenching when open boundaries are used. The horizontally averaged mean field is still weakly decreasing as a function of Rm even for open boundaries.

Asteroids Were Born Big

How big were the first planetesimals? We attempt to answer this question by conducting coagulation simulations in which the planetesimals grow by mutual collisions and form larger bodies and planetary embryos. The size frequency distribution (SFD) of the initial planetesimals is considered a free parameter in these simulations, and we search for the one that produces at the end objects with a SFD that is consistent with asteroid belt constraints. We find that, if the initial planetesimals were small (e.g. km-sized), the final SFD fails to fulfill these constraints. In particular, reproducing the bump observed at diameter D~100km in the current SFD of the asteroids requires that the minimal size of the initial planetesimals was also ~100km. This supports the idea that planetesimals formed big, namely that the size of solids in the proto-planetary disk “jumped” from sub-meter scale to multi-kilometer scale, without passing through intermediate values. Moreover, we find evidence that the initial planetesimals had to have sizes ranging from 100 to several 100km, probably even 1,000km, and that their SFD had to have a slope over this interval that was similar to the one characterizing the current asteroids in the same size-range. This result sets a new constraint on planetesimal formation models and opens new perspectives for the investigation of the collisional evolution in the asteroid and Kuiper belts as well as of the accretion of the cores of the giant planets.

The spin dependence of the Blandford-Znajek effect

The interaction of large scale magnetic fields with the event horizon of rotating black holes (the Blandford-Znajek [1977] mechanism) forms the basis for some models of the most relativistic jets. We explore a scenario in which the central inward "plunging" region of the accretion flow enhances the trapping of large scale poloidal field on the black hole. The study is carried out using a fully relativistic treatment in Kerr spacetime, with the focus being to determine the spin dependence of the Blandford-Znajek effect. We find that large scale magnetic fields are enhanced on the black hole compared to the inner accretion flow and that the ease with which this occurs for lower prograde black hole spin, produces a spin dependence in the Blandford-Znajek effect that has attractive applications to recent observations. Among these is the correlation between inferred accretion rate and nuclear jet power observed by Allen et al. (2006) in X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies. If the black hole rotation in these elliptical galaxies is in the prograde sense compared with that of the inner accretion disk, we show that both the absolute value and the uniformity of the implied jet-production efficiency can be explained by the flux-trapping model. The basic scenario that emerges from this study is that a range of intermediate values of black hole spins could be powering these AGN. We also suggest that the jets in the most energetic radio-galaxies may be powered by accretion onto {\it retrograde} rapidly-rotating black holes.

 

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