Posts Tagged initial condition

Recent Postings from initial condition

Classical and quantum effective theories

A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the Closed Time Path (CTP) scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions which describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their CTP extension is briefly discussed and few qualitative examples are mentioned.

Classical and quantum effective theories [Replacement]

A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the Closed Time Path (CTP) scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions which describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their CTP extension is briefly discussed and few qualitative examples are mentioned.

Effect of initial-state nucleon-nucleon correlations on collective flow in ultra-central heavy-ion collisions [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the effect of nucleon-nucleon correlations on the initial condition of ultra-central heavy ion collisions at LHC energies. We calculate the eccentricities of the MC-Glauber and IP-Glasma models in the 0–1% centrality class and show that they are considerably affected by the inclusion of such type of correlations. For an IP-Glasma initial condition, we further demonstrate that this effect survives the fluid-dynamical evolution of the system and can be observed in its final state azimuthal momentum anisotropy.

Dipole amplitude with uncertainty estimate from HERA data and applications in Color Glass Condensate phenomenology

We determine the initial condition for the small-$x$ evolution equation (BK) from the HERA deep inelastic scattering data using a new parametrization that also keeps the unintegrated gluon distribution positive. The obtained dipole amplitude and its uncertainty estimate can be used to compute single inclusive particle production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. We argue that one has to use consistently the proton transverse area measured in DIS and the total inelastic cross section when calculating the single inclusive cross section. This leads to a midrapidity nuclear modification factor $R_{pA}$ that approaches unity at large transverse momentum, independently of the center-of-mass energy.

Quantum cosmological consistency condition for inflation [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the quantum cosmological tunneling scenario for inflationary models. Within a path-integral approach, we derive the corresponding tunneling probability distribution. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as the initial condition for inflation and therefore as a quantum cosmological prediction for its energy scale. This energy scale is also a genuine prediction of any inflationary model by itself, as the primordial gravitons generated during inflation leave their imprint in the B-polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this way, one can derive a consistency condition for inflationary models that guarantees compatibility with a tunneling origin and can lead to a testable quantum cosmological prediction. The general method is demonstrated explicitly for the model of natural inflation.

Quantum cosmological consistency condition for inflation [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the quantum cosmological tunneling scenario for inflationary models. Within a path-integral approach, we derive the corresponding tunneling probability distribution. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as the initial condition for inflation and therefore as a quantum cosmological prediction for its energy scale. This energy scale is also a genuine prediction of any inflationary model by itself, as the primordial gravitons generated during inflation leave their imprint in the B-polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this way, one can derive a consistency condition for inflationary models that guarantees compatibility with a tunneling origin and can lead to a testable quantum cosmological prediction. The general method is demonstrated explicitly for the model of natural inflation.

Approach to equilibrium in weakly coupled nonabelian plasmas

We follow the time evolution of nonabelian gauge bosons from far-from-equilibrium initial conditions to thermal equilibrium by numerically solving an effective kinetic equation that becomes accurate in the weak coupling limit. We consider initial conditions that are either highly overoccupied or underoccupied. We find that overoccupied systems thermalize through a turbulent cascade reaching equilibrium in multiples of a thermalization time $t\approx 72./ (1-0.12\log \lambda)/\lambda^2 T$, whereas underoccupied systems undergo a "bottom-up" thermalization in a time $t\approx (34. +21. \ln(Q/T))/ (1-0.037\log \lambda)(Q/T)^{1/2}/\lambda^2 T$, where $Q$ is the characteristic momentum scale of the initial condition. We apply this result to model initial stages of heavy-ion collisions and find rapid thermalization roughly in a time $Qt \lesssim 10$ or $t\lesssim 1$ fm/c.

Running coupling effects in the evolution of jet quenching

We study the consequences of including the running of the QCD coupling in the equation describing the evolution of the jet quenching parameter $\hat q$ in the double logarithmic approximation. To start with, we revisit the case of a fixed coupling, for which we obtain exact solutions valid for generic values of the transverse momentum (above the medium saturation scale) and corresponding to various initial conditions. In the case of a running coupling, we construct approximate solutions in the form of truncated series obtained via successive iterations, whose convergence is well under control. We thus deduce the dominant asymptotic behavior of the renormalized $\hat q$ in the limit of a large evolution time $Y\equiv\ln(L/\lambda)$, with $L$ the size of the medium and $\lambda$ the typical wavelength of a medium constituent. We show that the asymptotic expansion is universal with respect to the choice of the initial condition at $Y=0$ and, moreover, it is remarkably similar to the corresponding expansion for the saturation momentum of a shockwave (a large nucleus). As expected, the running of the coupling significantly slows down the increase of $\hat q$ with $Y$ in the asymptotic regime at $Y\gg 1$. For the phenomenologically interesting value $Y\simeq 3$, we find an enhancement factor close to 3, independently of the initial condition and for both fixed and running coupling.

Complexified Starobinsky Inflation in Supergravity in the Light of Recent BICEP2 Result

Motivated by the recent observation of the $B$-mode signal in the cosmic microwave background by BICEP2, we stuty the Starobinsky-type inflation model in the framework of old-minimal supergravity, where the inflaton field in the original (non-supersymmetric) Starobinsky inflation model becomes a complex field. We study how the inflaton evolves on the two-dimensional field space, varying the initial condition. We show that (i) one of the scalar fields has a very steep potential once the trajectory is off from that of the original Starobinsky inflation, and that (ii) the $B$-mode signal observed by BICEP2 is too large to be consistent with the prediction of the model irrespective of the initial condition. Thus, the BICEP2 result strongly disfavors the complexified Starobinsky inflation in supergravity.

Complexified Starobinsky Inflation in Supergravity in the Light of Recent BICEP2 Result [Cross-Listing]

Motivated by the recent observation of the $B$-mode signal in the cosmic microwave background by BICEP2, we stuty the Starobinsky-type inflation model in the framework of old-minimal supergravity, where the inflaton field in the original (non-supersymmetric) Starobinsky inflation model becomes a complex field. We study how the inflaton evolves on the two-dimensional field space, varying the initial condition. We show that (i) one of the scalar fields has a very steep potential once the trajectory is off from that of the original Starobinsky inflation, and that (ii) the $B$-mode signal observed by BICEP2 is too large to be consistent with the prediction of the model irrespective of the initial condition. Thus, the BICEP2 result strongly disfavors the complexified Starobinsky inflation in supergravity.

Complexified Starobinsky Inflation in Supergravity in the Light of Recent BICEP2 Result [Cross-Listing]

Motivated by the recent observation of the $B$-mode signal in the cosmic microwave background by BICEP2, we stuty the Starobinsky-type inflation model in the framework of old-minimal supergravity, where the inflaton field in the original (non-supersymmetric) Starobinsky inflation model becomes a complex field. We study how the inflaton evolves on the two-dimensional field space, varying the initial condition. We show that (i) one of the scalar fields has a very steep potential once the trajectory is off from that of the original Starobinsky inflation, and that (ii) the $B$-mode signal observed by BICEP2 is too large to be consistent with the prediction of the model irrespective of the initial condition. Thus, the BICEP2 result strongly disfavors the complexified Starobinsky inflation in supergravity.

Complexified Starobinsky Inflation in Supergravity in the Light of Recent BICEP2 Result [Cross-Listing]

Motivated by the recent observation of the $B$-mode signal in the cosmic microwave background by BICEP2, we stuty the Starobinsky-type inflation model in the framework of old-minimal supergravity, where the inflaton field in the original (non-supersymmetric) Starobinsky inflation model becomes a complex field. We study how the inflaton evolves on the two-dimensional field space, varying the initial condition. We show that (i) one of the scalar fields has a very steep potential once the trajectory is off from that of the original Starobinsky inflation, and that (ii) the $B$-mode signal observed by BICEP2 is too large to be consistent with the prediction of the model irrespective of the initial condition. Thus, the BICEP2 result strongly disfavors the complexified Starobinsky inflation in supergravity.

Complexified Starobinsky Inflation in Supergravity in the Light of Recent BICEP2 Result [Replacement]

Motivated by the recent observation of the B-mode signal in the cosmic microwave background by BICEP2, we stuty the Starobinsky-type inflation model in the framework of old-minimal supergravity, where the inflaton field in the original (non-supersymmetric) Starobinsky inflation model becomes a complex field. We study how the inflaton evolves on the two-dimensional field space, varying the initial condition. We show that (i) one of the scalar fields has a very steep potential once the trajectory is off from that of the original Starobinsky inflation, and that (ii) the B-mode signal observed by BICEP2 is too large to be consistent with the prediction of the model irrespective of the initial condition. Thus, the BICEP2 result strongly disfavors the complexified Starobinsky inflation in supergravity.

Complexified Starobinsky Inflation in Supergravity in the Light of Recent BICEP2 Result [Replacement]

Motivated by the recent observation of the B-mode signal in the cosmic microwave background by BICEP2, we stuty the Starobinsky-type inflation model in the framework of old-minimal supergravity, where the inflaton field in the original (non-supersymmetric) Starobinsky inflation model becomes a complex field. We study how the inflaton evolves on the two-dimensional field space, varying the initial condition. We show that (i) one of the scalar fields has a very steep potential once the trajectory is off from that of the original Starobinsky inflation, and that (ii) the B-mode signal observed by BICEP2 is too large to be consistent with the prediction of the model irrespective of the initial condition. Thus, the BICEP2 result strongly disfavors the complexified Starobinsky inflation in supergravity.

Complexified Starobinsky Inflation in Supergravity in the Light of Recent BICEP2 Result [Replacement]

Motivated by the recent observation of the B-mode signal in the cosmic microwave background by BICEP2, we stuty the Starobinsky-type inflation model in the framework of old-minimal supergravity, where the inflaton field in the original (non-supersymmetric) Starobinsky inflation model becomes a complex field. We study how the inflaton evolves on the two-dimensional field space, varying the initial condition. We show that (i) one of the scalar fields has a very steep potential once the trajectory is off from that of the original Starobinsky inflation, and that (ii) the B-mode signal observed by BICEP2 is too large to be consistent with the prediction of the model irrespective of the initial condition. Thus, the BICEP2 result strongly disfavors the complexified Starobinsky inflation in supergravity.

Complexified Starobinsky Inflation in Supergravity in the Light of Recent BICEP2 Result [Replacement]

Motivated by the recent observation of the B-mode signal in the cosmic microwave background by BICEP2, we stuty the Starobinsky-type inflation model in the framework of old-minimal supergravity, where the inflaton field in the original (non-supersymmetric) Starobinsky inflation model becomes a complex field. We study how the inflaton evolves on the two-dimensional field space, varying the initial condition. We show that (i) one of the scalar fields has a very steep potential once the trajectory is off from that of the original Starobinsky inflation, and that (ii) the B-mode signal observed by BICEP2 is too large to be consistent with the prediction of the model irrespective of the initial condition. Thus, the BICEP2 result strongly disfavors the complexified Starobinsky inflation in supergravity.

Proposal for a running coupling JIMWLK equation

In the CGC framework the initial stages of a heavy ion collision at high energy are described as "glasma" field configurations. The initial condition for these evolving fields depends, in the CGC effective theory, on a probability distribution for color charges. The energy dependence of this distribution can be calculated from the JIMWLK renormalization group equation. We discuss recent work on a practical implementation of the running coupling constant in the Langevin method of solving the JIMWLK equation.

Q2-evolution of parton densities at small x values. Effective scale for combined H1 and ZEUS F2 data

We use the Bessel-inspired behavior of the structure function F2 at small x, obtained for a flat initial condition in the DGLAP evolution equations. We fix the scale of the coupling constant, which eliminates the singular part of anomalous dimesnions at the next-to-leading order of approximation. The approach together with the "frozen" and analytic modifications of the strong coupling constant is used to study the precise combined H1 and ZEUS data for the structure function F2 published recently.

Anisotropic Inflation with the non-Vacuum Initial State [Cross-Listing]

In this work we study models of anisotropic inflation with the generalized non-vacuum initial states for the inflaton field and the gauge field. The effects of non Bunch-Davies initial condition on the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum are calculated. We show that the non Bunch-Davies initial state can help to reduce the fine-tuning on the anisotropic power spectrum while reducing the level of anisotropic bispectrum.

Toward inflation models compatible with the no-boundary proposal [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we investigate various inflation models in the context of the no-boundary proposal. We propose that a good inflation model should satisfy three conditions: observational constraints, plausible initial conditions, and naturalness of the model. For various inflation models, we assign the probability to each initial condition using the no-boundary proposal and define a quantitative standard, typicality, to check whether the model satisfies the observational constraints with probable initial conditions. There are three possible ways to satisfy the typicality criterion: there was pre-inflation near the high energy scale, the potential is finely tuned or the inflationary field space is unbounded, or there are sufficient number of fields that contribute to inflation. The no-boundary proposal rejects some of naive inflation models, explains some of traditional doubts on inflation, and possibly, can have observational consequences.

Toward inflation models compatible with the no-boundary proposal [Replacement]

In this paper, we investigate various inflation models in the context of the no-boundary proposal. We propose that a good inflation model should satisfy three conditions: observational constraints, plausible initial conditions, and naturalness of the model. For various inflation models, we assign the probability to each initial condition using the no-boundary proposal and define a quantitative standard, typicality, to check whether the model satisfies the observational constraints with probable initial conditions. There are three possible ways to satisfy the typicality criterion: there was pre-inflation near the high energy scale, the potential is finely tuned or the inflationary field space is unbounded, or there are sufficient number of fields that contribute to inflation. The no-boundary proposal rejects some of naive inflation models, explains some of traditional doubts on inflation, and possibly, can have observational consequences.

Toward inflation models compatible with the no-boundary proposal

In this paper, we investigate various inflation models in the context of the no-boundary proposal. We propose that a good inflation model should satisfy three conditions: observational constraints, plausible initial conditions, and naturalness of the model. For various inflation models, we assign the probability to each initial condition using the no-boundary proposal and define a quantitative standard, typicality, to check whether the model satisfies the observational constraints with probable initial conditions. There are three possible ways to satisfy the typicality criterion: there was pre-inflation near the high energy scale, the potential is finely tuned or the inflationary field space is unbounded, or there are sufficient number of fields that contribute to inflation. The no-boundary proposal rejects some of naive inflation models, explains some of traditional doubts on inflation, and possibly, can have observational consequences.

Toward inflation models compatible with the no-boundary proposal [Replacement]

In this paper, we investigate various inflation models in the context of the no-boundary proposal. We propose that a good inflation model should satisfy three conditions: observational constraints, plausible initial conditions, and naturalness of the model. For various inflation models, we assign the probability to each initial condition using the no-boundary proposal and define a quantitative standard, typicality, to check whether the model satisfies the observational constraints with probable initial conditions. There are three possible ways to satisfy the typicality criterion: there was pre-inflation near the high energy scale, the potential is finely tuned or the inflationary field space is unbounded, or there are sufficient number of fields that contribute to inflation. The no-boundary proposal rejects some of naive inflation models, explains some of traditional doubts on inflation, and possibly, can have observational consequences.

Note on the super inflation in loop quantum cosmology

Phenomenological effect of the super-inflation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is discussed. We investigate the case that the Universe is filled with the interacting field between massive scalar field and radiation. Considering the damping coefficient $\Gamma$ as a constant, the changes of the scale factor during super-inflation with four different initial conditions are discussed, and we find that the changes of the scale factor depends on the initial values of energy density of the scalar field and radiation at the bounce point. But no matter which initial condition is chosen, the radiation always dominated at the late time. Moreover, we investigate whether the super-inflation can provide enough e-folding number. For the super-inflation starts from the quantum bounce point, the initial value of Hubble parameter $H(t_i)\sim0$, then it is possible to solve the flatness problem and horizon problem. As an example, following the method of \cite{Amoros-prd} to calculate particle horizon on the condition that the radiation dominated at bounce point, and we find that the Universe has had enough time to be homogeneous and isotopic.

Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

The observed dark matter (DM) abundance can be created from a thermal bath after the interaction rate which keeps the DM particles in thermal equilibrium falls below the expansion rate of the Universe. DM can also be excited directly from the inflaton or moduli decay, along with the excitation of the Standard Model degrees of freedom. Here we discuss the evolution of the DM abundance from the very onset of its creation from the inflaton decay. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance can be set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial condition. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism, also independent of the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM becomes non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial condition. Also depending on its mass and interaction rate, the DM could remain relativistic, thus acting like a dark radiation, or could behave as a warm or cold relic. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance, and compare with complementary constraints derived from indirect search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical constraints from the unitarity of the scattering matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we also show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

Self-Sustained Turbulence without Dynamical Forcing: A Two-Dimensional Study of a Bistable Interstellar Medium

In this paper, the nonlinear evolution of a bistable interstellar medium is investigated using two-dimensional simulations with a realistic cooling rate, thermal conduction, and physical viscosity. The calculations are performed using periodic boundary conditions without any external dynamical forcing. As the initial condition, a spatially uniform unstable gas under thermal equilibrium is considered. At the initial stage, the unstable gas quickly segregates into two phases, or cold neutral medium (CNM) and warm neutral medium (WNM). Then, self-sustained turbulence is observed in which the CNM moves around in the WNM. We find that the interfacial medium (IFM) between the CNM and WNM plays an important role in sustaining the turbulence. The self-sustaining mechanism can be divided into two steps. First, thermal conduction drives fast flows streaming into concave CNM surfaces towards the WNM. The kinetic energy of the fast flows in the IFM is incorporated into that of the CNM through the phase transition. Second, turbulence inside the CNM deforms interfaces and forms other concave CNM surfaces, leading to fast flows in the IFM. This drives the first step again and a cycle is established by which turbulent motions are self-sustained.

A short note on gravity with tensor auxiliary fields [Cross-Listing]

We consider gravity coupled to a second metric in the strong coupling limit, where the second kinetic term is absent. This system belongs to the recently discussed class of models of "gravity with auxiliary fields" by Pani et al. We prove that, in vacuum, these theories are always equivalent to GR with a cosmological constant, even in the case where the auxiliary field equations contain identities leaving undetermined functions. In the situation where some functions are undetermined, the actual value of the cosmological constant is dictated by an initial condition, and not by the parameters in the action.

A new equilibrium torus solution and GRMHD initial conditions

General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations are providing influential models for black hole spin measurements, gamma ray bursts, and supermassive black hole feedback. Many of these simulations use the same initial condition: a rotating torus of fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium. A persistent concern is that simulation results sometimes depend on arbitrary features of the initial torus. For example, the Bernoulli parameter (which is related to outflows), appears to be controlled by the Bernoulli parameter of the initial torus. In this paper, we give a new equilibrium torus solution and describe two applications for the future. First, it can be used as a more physical initial condition for GRMHD simulations than earlier torus solutions. Second, it can be used in conjunction with earlier torus solutions to isolate the simulation results that depend on initial conditions. We assume axisymmetry, an ideal gas equation of state, constant entropy, and ignore self-gravity. We fix an angular momentum distribution and solve the relativistic Euler equations in the Kerr metric. The Bernoulli parameter, rotation rate, and geometrical thickness of the torus can be adjusted independently. Our torus tends to be more bound and have a larger radial extent than earlier torus solutions. While this paper was in preparation, several GRMHD simulations appeared based on our equilibrium torus. We believe it will continue to provide a more realistic starting point for future simulations.

The Dynamical State of The Serpens South Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud

We present the results of N$_2$H$^+$ ($J=1-0$) observations toward Serpens South, the nearest cluster-forming, infrared dark cloud. The physical quantities are derived by fitting the hyperfine structure of N$_2$H$^+$. The Herschel and 1.1-mm continuum maps show that a pc-scale filament fragments into three clumps with radii of $0.1-0.2$ pc and masses of $40-230M_\odot$. We find that the clumps contain smaller-scale ($\sim 0.04$ pc) structures, i.e., dense cores. We identify 70 cores by applying CLUMPFIND to the N$_2$H$^+$ data cube. In the central cluster-forming clump, the excitation temperature and line-width tend to be large, presumably due to protostellar outflow feedback and stellar radiation. However, for all the clumps, the virial ratios are evaluated to be $0.1-0.3$, indicating that the internal motions play only a minor role in the clump support. The clumps exhibit no free-fall, but low-velocity infall, and thus the clumps should be supported by additional forces. The most promising force is the globally-ordered magnetic field observed toward this region. We propose that the Serpens South filament was close to magnetically-critical and ambipolar diffusion triggered the cluster formation. We find that the northern clump, which shows no active star formation, has a mass and radius comparable to the central cluster-forming clump, and therefore, it is a likely candidate of a {\it pre-protocluster clump}. The initial condition for cluster formation is likely to be a magnetically-supported clump of cold, quiescent gas. This appears to contradict the accretion-driven turbulence scenario, for which the turbulence in the clumps is maintained by the accretion flow.

At what Rigidity does the Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays begin?

Observationally, it is difficult to establish at what rigidity the modulation of galactic cosmic rays (CRs) actually begins in the heliosphere. It should be possible to do if the relevant local interstellar CR spectra were known and reliable measurements were made between 10 GV and about 200 GV, inside and outside the heliosphere. Numerical models for solar modulation studies are based on simply assuming that CR modulation begins at a given spatial boundary and at rigidities between 30 to 50 GV, usually handled as an initial condition. The Stochastic Differential Equations approach to numerical modelling presents the opportunity to determine the level of modulation from high to low rigidities because an initial condition at a prescribed high rigidity is not required. We present the results of such an approach and show the percentage modulation of CR protons as a function of kinetic energy between 100 MeV and 250 GeV.

Effective Gravity and Homogenous Solutions [Cross-Listing]

Near the singularity, gravity should be modified to an effective theory, in the same sense as with the Euler-Heisenberg electrodynamics. This effective gravity surmounts to higher derivative theory, and as is well known, a much more reacher theory concerning the solution space. On the other hand, as a highly non linear theory, the understanding of this solution space must go beyond the linearized approach. In this talk we will present some results previously published by collaborators and myself, concerning solutions for vacuum spatially homogenous cases of Bianchi types $I$ and $VII_A$. These are the anisotropic generalizations of the cosmological spatially "flat", and "open" models respectively. The solutions present isotropisation in a weak sense depending on the initial condition. Also, depending on the initial condition, singular solutions are obtained.

Effective Gravity and Homogeneous Solutions [Replacement]

Near the singularity, gravity should be modified to an effective theory, in the same sense as with the Euler-Heisenberg electrodynamics. This effective gravity surmounts to higher derivative theory, and as is well known, a much more reacher theory concerning the solution space. On the other hand, as a highly non linear theory, the understanding of this solution space must go beyond the linearized approach. In this talk we will present some results previously published by collaborators and myself, concerning solutions for vacuum spatially homogenous cases of Bianchi types $I$ and $VII_A$. These are the anisotropic generalizations of the cosmological spatially "flat", and "open" models respectively. The solutions present isotropisation in a weak sense depending on the initial condition. Also, depending on the initial condition, singular solutions are obtained.

Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression

Context: In planetesimal formation theory, several barriers have been proposed, which are bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. To understand the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in the planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they become fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of the dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to the density of 10^{-3} g/cm^3 in coagulation, which is more compact than the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self gravity to 10^{-1} g/cm^3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerate the growth, they grow enough rapidly to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is < 6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables the icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression [Replacement]

Context: In planetesimal formation theory, several barriers have been proposed, which are bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. To understand the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in the planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they become fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of the dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to the density of 10^{-3} g/cm^3 in coagulation, which is more compact than the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self gravity to 10^{-1} g/cm^3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerate the growth, they grow enough rapidly to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is < 6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables the icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies [Cross-Listing]

We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of nu_e and anti-nu_e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1 <-> 2 allows for the usual bimodal instability ("flavor pendulum") in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy (IH) and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulum-like solution that occurs in NH where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial conditions, although this has been universally assumed.

Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies [Replacement]

We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of nu_e and anti-nu_e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1 <-> 2 allows for the usual bimodal instability ("flavor pendulum") in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy (IH) and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulum-like solution that occurs in NH where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial conditions, although this has been universally assumed.

Pre-slow roll initial conditions: large scale power suppression and infrared aspects during inflation

If the large scale anomalies in the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background are of primordial origin, they may herald modifications to the slow roll inflationary paradigm on the largest scales. We study the possibility that the origin of the large scale power suppression is a modification of initial conditions during slow roll as a result of a pre-slow roll phase during which the inflaton evolves rapidly. This stage is manifest in a potential in the equations for the Gaussian fluctuations during slow roll and modify the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations via an initial condition transfer function $\mathcal{T}(k)$. We provide a general analytical study of its large and small scale properties and analyze the impact of these initial conditions on the infrared aspects of typical scalar field theories. The infrared behavior of massless minimally coupled scalar field theories leads to the dynamical generation of mass and anomalous dimensions, both depend non-analytically on $\mathcal{T}(0)$. During inflation all quanta decay into many quanta even of the same field because of the lack of kinematic thresholds. The decay leads to a quantum entangled state of sub and superhorizon quanta with correlations across the horizon. We find the modifications of the decay width and the entanglement entropy from the initial conditions. In all cases, initial conditions from a "fast-roll" stage that lead to a suppression in the scalar power spectrum at large scales also result in a suppression of the dynamically generated masses, anomalous dimensions and decay widths

Pre-slow roll initial conditions: large scale power suppression and infrared aspects during inflation [Replacement]

If the large scale anomalies in the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background are of primordial origin, they may herald modifications to the slow roll inflationary paradigm on the largest scales. We study the possibility that the origin of the large scale power suppression is a modification of initial conditions during slow roll as a result of a pre-slow roll phase during which the inflaton evolves rapidly. This stage is manifest in a potential in the equations for the Gaussian fluctuations during slow roll and modify the power spectra of scalar perturbations via an initial condition transfer function $\mathcal{T}(k)$. We provide a general analytical study of its large and small scale properties and analyze the impact of these initial conditions on the infrared aspects of typical test scalar fields. The infrared behavior of massless minimally coupled test scalar field theories leads to the dynamical generation of mass and anomalous dimensions, both depend non-analytically on $\mathcal{T}(0)$. During inflation all quanta decay into many quanta even of the same field because of the lack of kinematic thresholds. The decay leads to a quantum entangled state of sub and superhorizon quanta with correlations across the horizon. We find the modifications of the decay width and the entanglement entropy from the initial conditions. In all cases, initial conditions from a “fast-roll” stage that lead to a suppression in the scalar power spectrum at large scales also result in a suppression of the dynamically generated masses, anomalous dimensions and decay widths.

Pre-slow roll initial conditions: large scale power suppression and infrared aspects during inflation [Replacement]

If the large scale anomalies in the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background are of primordial origin, they may herald modifications to the slow roll inflationary paradigm on the largest scales. We study the possibility that the origin of the large scale power suppression is a modification of initial conditions during slow roll as a result of a pre-slow roll phase during which the inflaton evolves rapidly. This stage is manifest in a potential in the equations for the Gaussian fluctuations during slow roll and modify the power spectra of scalar perturbations via an initial condition transfer function $\mathcal{T}(k)$. We provide a general analytical study of its large and small scale properties and analyze the impact of these initial conditions on the infrared aspects of typical test scalar fields. The infrared behavior of massless minimally coupled test scalar field theories leads to the dynamical generation of mass and anomalous dimensions, both depend non-analytically on $\mathcal{T}(0)$. During inflation all quanta decay into many quanta even of the same field because of the lack of kinematic thresholds. The decay leads to a quantum entangled state of sub and superhorizon quanta with correlations across the horizon. We find the modifications of the decay width and the entanglement entropy from the initial conditions. In all cases, initial conditions from a “fast-roll” stage that lead to a suppression in the scalar power spectrum at large scales also result in a suppression of the dynamically generated masses, anomalous dimensions and decay widths.

Pre-slow roll initial conditions: large scale power suppression and infrared aspects during inflation [Replacement]

If the large scale anomalies in the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background are of primordial origin, they may herald modifications to the slow roll inflationary paradigm on the largest scales. We study the possibility that the origin of the large scale power suppression is a modification of initial conditions during slow roll as a result of a pre-slow roll phase during which the inflaton evolves rapidly. This stage is manifest in a potential in the equations for the Gaussian fluctuations during slow roll and modify the power spectra of scalar perturbations via an initial condition transfer function $\mathcal{T}(k)$. We provide a general analytical study of its large and small scale properties and analyze the impact of these initial conditions on the infrared aspects of typical test scalar fields. The infrared behavior of massless minimally coupled test scalar field theories leads to the dynamical generation of mass and anomalous dimensions, both depend non-analytically on $\mathcal{T}(0)$. During inflation all quanta decay into many quanta even of the same field because of the lack of kinematic thresholds. The decay leads to a quantum entangled state of sub and superhorizon quanta with correlations across the horizon. We find the modifications of the decay width and the entanglement entropy from the initial conditions. In all cases, initial conditions from a “fast-roll” stage that lead to a suppression in the scalar power spectrum at large scales also result in a suppression of the dynamically generated masses, anomalous dimensions and decay widths.

Pre-slow roll initial conditions: large scale power suppression and infrared aspects during inflation [Replacement]

If the large scale anomalies in the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background are of primordial origin, they may herald modifications to the slow roll inflationary paradigm on the largest scales. We study the possibility that the origin of the large scale power suppression is a modification of initial conditions during slow roll as a result of a pre-slow roll phase during which the inflaton evolves rapidly. This stage is manifest in a potential in the equations for the Gaussian fluctuations during slow roll and modify the power spectra of scalar perturbations via an initial condition transfer function $\mathcal{T}(k)$. We provide a general analytical study of its large and small scale properties and analyze the impact of these initial conditions on the infrared aspects of typical test scalar fields. The infrared behavior of massless minimally coupled test scalar field theories leads to the dynamical generation of mass and anomalous dimensions, both depend non-analytically on $\mathcal{T}(0)$. During inflation all quanta decay into many quanta even of the same field because of the lack of kinematic thresholds. The decay leads to a quantum entangled state of sub and superhorizon quanta with correlations across the horizon. We find the modifications of the decay width and the entanglement entropy from the initial conditions. In all cases, initial conditions from a “fast-roll” stage that lead to a suppression in the scalar power spectrum at large scales also result in a suppression of the dynamically generated masses, anomalous dimensions and decay widths.

Discussion on the Cosmological Vacuum Energy

The present discussion contribution is some remarks concerning and review of the proposal by one of us (C. Balazs) to explain the cosmological constant by a/the principle of entropy. Used without further comment this principle of entropy could easily lead to untrustable {\em nonlocalities}, but taking into account that the long range correlations are rather to be understood as due to initial condition set up the model for the cosmological constant being small by one of us becomes quite viable.

Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Replacement]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple $1/2 m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Replacement]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple $1/2 m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Cross-Listing]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple $\frac{1}{2}m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Replacement]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple $1/2 m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Replacement]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple $1/2 m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Replacement]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple ${1}{2}m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

Reconciliation of High Energy Scale Models of Inflation with Planck [Replacement]

The inflationary cosmology paradigm is very successful in explaining the CMB anisotropy to the percent level. Besides the dependence on the inflationary model, the power spectra, spectral tilt and non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature fluctuations also depend on the initial state of inflation. Here, we examine to what extent these observables are affected by our ignorance in the initial condition for inflationary perturbations, due to unknown new physics at a high scale $M$. For initial states that satisfy constraints from backreaction, we find that the amplitude of the power spectra could still be significantly altered, while the modification in bispectrum remains small. For such initial states, $M$ has an upper bound of a few tens of $H$, with $H$ being the Hubble parameter during inflation. We show that for $M\sim 20 H$, such initial states always (substantially) suppress the tensor to scalar ratio. In particular we show that a general choice of initial conditions can satisfactorily reconcile the simple $1/2 m^2 \phi^2$ chaotic model with the Planck data.

Revisiting the interacting model of new agegraphic dark energy

In this paper, a new version of the interacting model of new agegraphic dark energy (INADE) is proposed and analyzed in detail. The interaction between dark energy and dark matter is reconsidered. The interaction term $Q=bH_0\rho_{\rm de}^\alpha\rho_{\rm dm}^{1-\alpha}$ is adopted, which abandons the Hubble expansion rate $H$ and involves both $\rho_{\rm de}$ and $\rho_{\rm dm}$. Moreover, the new initial condition for the agegraphic dark energy is used, which solves the problem of accommodating baryon matter and radiation in the model. The solution of the model can be given using an iterative algorithm. A concrete example for the calculation of the model is given. Furthermore, the model is constrained by using the combined Planck data (Planck+BAO+SNIa+$H_0$) and the combined WMAP-9 data (WMAP+BAO+SNIa+$H_0$). Three typical cases are considered: (A) $Q=bH_0\rho_{\rm de}$, (B) $Q=bH_0\sqrt{\rho_{\rm de}\rho_{\rm dm}}$, and (C) $Q=bH_0\rho_{\rm dm}$, which correspond to $\alpha=1$, 1/2, and 0, respectively. The departures of the models from the $\Lambda$CDM model are measured by the $\Delta$BIC and $\Delta$AIC values. It is shown that the INADE model is better than the NADE model in the fit, and the INADE(A) model is the best in fitting data among the three cases.

 

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