Posts Tagged initial condition

Recent Postings from initial condition

Magnetorotational Instability Can Sustain Turbulence From Tangled Small-Scale Fields

The initial conditions used in previous magnetorotational instability (MRI) simulations always consisted of a significant large or system-scale component, even if random. However it is of both conceptual and practical interest to assess whether the MRI can sustain when the initial field is turbulent, correlated on scales much smaller than the given system. More generally, we also study what minimum conditions the initial random small-scale field must have for the MRI to sustain the turbulence. The ubiquitous presence of turbulent or random flows in the high magnetic Reynolds number astrophysical plasmas in galaxies or stars for example, leads to a small-scale dynamo (SSD). This can generate random magnetic fields in the plasma that eventually enters an accretion disk. To simulate this scenario, we take the random field generated by the SSD as the input initial condition to a shearing box simulation that has uniform shear and rotation but with the forcing turned off. We find that the system becomes unstable to the MRI which then sustains the turbulence. The saturated stresses, large scale fields and power spectra in such simulations match the standard MRI simulation with an initial vertical large scale mode with zero net flux. For Gaussian random field initial conditions, the MRI does not grow. For MRI to grow, we determine that there is both a minimum field strength and minimum field coherence, which can be met naturally by an initial field configuration generated by the SSD, the most common form of magnetic field generation in the universe.

Evolution to the Quark-Gluon Plasma [Cross-Listing]

Theoretical studies on the early-time dynamics in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed including pedagogical introductions on the initial condition with small-x gluons treated as a color glass condensate, the bottom-up thermalization scenario, plasma/glasma instabilities, basics of some formulations such as the kinetic equations and the classical statistical simulation. More detailed discussions follow to make an overview of recent developments on the fast isotropization, the onset of hydrodynamics, and the transient behavior of momentum spectral cascades.

Evolution to the Quark-Gluon Plasma

Theoretical studies on the early-time dynamics in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed including pedagogical introductions on the initial condition with small-x gluons treated as a color glass condensate, the bottom-up thermalization scenario, plasma/glasma instabilities, basics of some formulations such as the kinetic equations and the classical statistical simulation. More detailed discussions follow to make an overview of recent developments on the fast isotropization, the onset of hydrodynamics, and the transient behavior of momentum spectral cascades.

Evolution to the Quark-Gluon Plasma [Replacement]

Theoretical studies on the early-time dynamics in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed including pedagogical introductions on the initial condition with small-x gluons treated as a color glass condensate, the bottom-up thermalization scenario, plasma/glasma instabilities, basics of some formulations such as the kinetic equations and the classical statistical simulation. More detailed discussions follow to make an overview of recent developments on the fast isotropization, the onset of hydrodynamics, and the transient behavior of momentum spectral cascades.

Evolution to the Quark-Gluon Plasma [Replacement]

Theoretical studies on the early-time dynamics in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed including pedagogical introductions on the initial condition with small-x gluons treated as a color glass condensate, the bottom-up thermalization scenario, plasma/glasma instabilities, basics of some formulations such as the kinetic equations and the classical statistical simulation. More detailed discussions follow to make an overview of recent developments on the fast isotropization, the onset of hydrodynamics, and the transient behavior of momentum spectral cascades.

Initial Conditions for Inflation - A Short Review [Replacement]

I give a brief review of the status of research on the nature of initial conditions required to obtain a period of cosmological inflation. It is shown that there is good evidence that in the case of large field models, the inflationary slow-roll trajectory is a local attractor in initial condition space, whereas it is not in the case of small field models.

Initial Conditions for Inflation - A Short Review [Cross-Listing]

I give a brief review of the status of research on the nature of initial conditions required to obtain a period of cosmological inflation. It is shown that there is good evidence that in the case of large field models, the inflationary slow-roll trajectory is a local attractor in initial condition space, whereas it is not in the case of small field models.

Initial Conditions for Inflation - A Short Review [Replacement]

I give a brief review of the status of research on the nature of initial conditions required to obtain a period of cosmological inflation. It is shown that there is good evidence that in the case of large field models, the inflationary slow-roll trajectory is a local attractor in initial condition space, whereas it is not in the case of small field models.

Initial Conditions for Inflation - A Short Review [Replacement]

I give a brief review of the status of research on the nature of initial conditions required to obtain a period of cosmological inflation. It is shown that there is good evidence that in the case of large field models, the inflationary slow-roll trajectory is a local attractor in initial condition space, whereas it is not in the case of small field models.

Initial Conditions for Inflation - A Short Review [Cross-Listing]

I give a brief review of the status of research on the nature of initial conditions required to obtain a period of cosmological inflation. It is shown that there is good evidence that in the case of large field models, the inflationary slow-roll trajectory is a local attractor in initial condition space, whereas it is not in the case of small field models.

Initial Conditions for Inflation - A Short Review [Replacement]

I give a brief review of the status of research on the nature of initial conditions required to obtain a period of cosmological inflation. It is shown that there is good evidence that in the case of large field models, the inflationary slow-roll trajectory is a local attractor in initial condition space, whereas it is not in the case of small field models.

Initial Conditions for Inflation - A Short Review [Cross-Listing]

I give a brief review of the status of research on the nature of initial conditions required to obtain a period of cosmological inflation. It is shown that there is good evidence that in the case of large field models, the inflationary slow-roll trajectory is a local attractor in initial condition space, whereas it is not in the case of small field models.

On the initial condition of inflationary fluctuations

It is usually assumed that the inflationary fluctuations start from the Bunch-Davies (BD) vacuum and the $i\varepsilon$ prescription is used when interactions are calculated. We show that those assumptions can be verified explicitly by calculating the loop corrections to the inflationary two-point and three-point correlation functions. Those loop corrections can be resumed to exponential factors, which suppress non-BD coefficients and behave as the $i\varepsilon$ factor for the case of the BD initial condition. A new technique of loop chain diagram resummation is developed for this purpose. For the non-BD initial conditions which is setup at finite time and has not fully decayed, explicit correction to the two-point and three-point correlation functions are calculated. Especially, non-Gaussianity in the folded limit is regularized due to the interactions.

Soliton splitting in quenched classical integrable systems [Cross-Listing]

We take a soliton solution of a classical non-linear integrable equation and quench (suddenly change) its non-linearity parameter. For that we multiply the amplitude or the width of a soliton by a numerical factor $\eta$ and take the obtained profile as a new initial condition. We find the values of $\eta$ at which the post-quench solution consists of only a finite number of solitons. The parameters of these solitons are found explicitly. Our approach is based on solving the direct scattering problem analytically. We demonstrate how it works for Kortewig-de-Vries, sine-Gordon and non-linear Schr\"odinger integrable equations.

Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry [Cross-Listing]

In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition of geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. This may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.

Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry

In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition of geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. This may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.

Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry [Replacement]

In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition of geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. This may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.

Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry [Replacement]

In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition of geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. This may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.

Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry [Replacement]

In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition of geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. This may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.

Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry [Replacement]

In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition of geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. This may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.

Kerr/Fluid Duality and Caustics of Null Geodesics on a Horizon

An equation for a viscous incompressible fluid on a spheroidal surface which is dual to the perturbation around the near-near horizon extreme Kerr (n-NHEK) black hole is derived. It is also shown that an expansion scalar $\theta$ of a congruence of null geodesics on the null horizon of the perturbed n-NHEK spacetime, which is dual to a viscous incompressible fluid, is not positive semi-definite, even if initial conditions on the velocity are smooth. Unless initial conditions are elaborated, caustics of null congruence will occur on the horizon in the future. A similar result is obtained for a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole spacetime which is dual to a viscous incompressible fluid on $S^2$. An initial condition that $\theta$ be positive semi-definite at any point on $S^2$ is a necessary condition for the existence of smooth solutions to incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on $S^2$.

Kerr/Fluid Duality and Singularity of Solutions to the Fluid Equation [Replacement]

An equation for a viscous incompressible fluid on a spheroidal surface which is dual to the perturbation around the near-near horizon extreme Kerr (n-NHEK) black hole is derived. It is also shown that an expansion scalar $\theta$ of a congruence of null geodesics on the null horizon of the perturbed n-NHEK spacetime, which is dual to a viscous incompressible fluid, is not positive semi-definite, even if initial conditions on the velocity are smooth. Unless initial conditions are elaborated, caustics of null congruence will occur on the horizon in the future. A similar result is obtained for a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole spacetime which is dual to a viscous incompressible fluid on $S^2$. An initial condition that $\theta$ be positive semi-definite at any point on $S^2$ is a necessary condition for the existence of smooth solutions to incompressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equation on $S^2$.

Kerr/Fluid Duality and Caustics of Null Geodesics on a Horizon [Replacement]

An equation for a viscous incompressible fluid on a spheroidal surface which is dual to the perturbation around the near-near horizon extreme Kerr (n-NHEK) black hole is derived. It is also shown that an expansion scalar $\theta$ of a congruence of null geodesics on the null horizon of the perturbed n-NHEK spacetime, which is dual to a viscous incompressible fluid, is not positive semi-definite, even if initial conditions on the velocity are smooth. Unless initial conditions are elaborated, caustics of null congruence will occur on the horizon in the future. A similar result is obtained for a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole spacetime which is dual to a viscous incompressible fluid on $S^2$. An initial condition that $\theta$ be positive semi-definite at any point on $S^2$ is a necessary condition for the existence of smooth solutions to incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on $S^2$.

Dynamical fine-tuning of initial conditions for small field inflations [Cross-Listing]

Small-field inflation (SFI) is widely considered to be unnatural because an extreme fine-tuning of the initial condition is necessary for sufficiently large e-folding. In this paper, we show that the unnaturally-looking initial condition can be dynamically realised without any fine-tuning if the SFI occurs after rapid oscillations of the inflaton field and particle creations by preheating. In fact, if the inflaton field $\phi$ is coupled to another scalar field $\chi$ through the interaction $g^2 \chi^2 \phi^2$ and the vacuum energy during the small field inflation is given by $\lambda M^4$, the initial value can be dynamically set at $(\sqrt{\lambda}/g) M^2/M_{\rm pl}$, which is much smaller than the typical scale of the potential $M.$ This solves the initial condition problem in the new inflation model or some classes of the hilltop inflation models.

Dynamical fine-tuning of initial conditions for small field inflations

Small-field inflation (SFI) is widely considered to be unnatural because an extreme fine-tuning of the initial condition is necessary for sufficiently large e-folding. In this paper, we show that the unnaturally-looking initial condition can be dynamically realised without any fine-tuning if the SFI occurs after rapid oscillations of the inflaton field and particle creations by preheating. In fact, if the inflaton field $\phi$ is coupled to another scalar field $\chi$ through the interaction $g^2 \chi^2 \phi^2$ and the vacuum energy during the small field inflation is given by $\lambda M^4$, the initial value can be dynamically set at $(\sqrt{\lambda}/g) M^2/M_{\rm pl}$, which is much smaller than the typical scale of the potential $M.$ This solves the initial condition problem in the new inflation model or some classes of the hilltop inflation models.

Dynamical fine-tuning of initial conditions for small field inflations [Cross-Listing]

Small-field inflation (SFI) is widely considered to be unnatural because an extreme fine-tuning of the initial condition is necessary for sufficiently large e-folding. In this paper, we show that the unnaturally-looking initial condition can be dynamically realised without any fine-tuning if the SFI occurs after rapid oscillations of the inflaton field and particle creations by preheating. In fact, if the inflaton field $\phi$ is coupled to another scalar field $\chi$ through the interaction $g^2 \chi^2 \phi^2$ and the vacuum energy during the small field inflation is given by $\lambda M^4$, the initial value can be dynamically set at $(\sqrt{\lambda}/g) M^2/M_{\rm pl}$, which is much smaller than the typical scale of the potential $M.$ This solves the initial condition problem in the new inflation model or some classes of the hilltop inflation models.

Probing Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{S_{NN}}=2760$ GeV with spectators [Replacement]

There is event by event geometric as well as quantum fluctuations in the initial condition of heavy-ion collisions. The standard technique of analysing heavy-ion collisions in bins of centrality obtained from final state multiplicity averages out the various initial configurations and thus restricts the study to only a limited range of initial conditions. In this paper, we propose an additional binning in terms of total spectator neutrons in an event. This offers us a key control parameter to probe events with broader range of initial conditions providing us an opportunity to peep into events with rarer initial conditions which otherwise get masked when analysed by centrality binning alone. We find that the inclusion of spectator binning allows one to vary $\varepsilon_2$ and $\varepsilon_3$ independently. We observe that the standard scaling relation between $\displaystyle{v_2/\varepsilon_2}$ and $\frac{1}{S}\frac{dN_{\text{ch}}}{d\eta}$ exhibited by centrality bins is broken by the spectator neutron bins. However, the acoustic scaling relation between $\displaystyle{\ln\left( v_n/\varepsilon_n\right)}$ and transverse system size holds for both centrality as well as spectator bins for central to mid-central collisions. The introduction of the spectator binning allows us to tune over a wide range viscosity driven effects for events with varying initial states but similar final state multiplicity.

Probing Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{S_{NN}}=2760$ GeV with spectators [Cross-Listing]

There is event by event geometric as well as quantum fluctuations in the initial condition of heavy-ion collisions. The standard technique of analysing heavy-ion collisions in bins of centrality obtained from final state multiplicity averages out the various initial configurations and thus restricts the study to only a limited range of initial conditions. In this paper, we propose an additional binning in terms of total spectator neutrons in an event. This offers us a key control parameter to probe events with broader range of initial conditions providing us an opportunity to peep into events with rarer initial conditions which otherwise get masked when analysed by centrality binning alone. We find that the inclusion of spectator binning allows one to vary $\varepsilon_2$ and $\varepsilon_3$ independently. We observe that the standard scaling relation between $\displaystyle{v_2/\varepsilon_2}$ and $\frac{1}{S}\frac{dN_{\text{ch}}}{d\eta}$ exhibited by centrality bins is broken by the spectator neutron bins. However, the acoustic scaling relation between $\displaystyle{\ln\left( v_n/\varepsilon_n\right)}$ and transverse system size holds for both centrality as well as spectator bins for central to mid-central collisions. The introduction of the spectator binning allows us to tune over a wide range viscosity driven effects for events with varying initial states but similar final state multiplicity.

Probing Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{S_{NN}}=2760$ GeV with spectators [Replacement]

There is event by event geometric as well as quantum fluctuations in the initial condition of heavy-ion collisions. The standard technique of analysing heavy-ion collisions in bins of centrality obtained from final state multiplicity averages out the various initial configurations and thus restricts the study to only a limited range of initial conditions. In this paper, we propose an additional binning in terms of total spectator neutrons in an event. This offers us a key control parameter to probe events with broader range of initial conditions providing us an opportunity to peep into events with rarer initial conditions which otherwise get masked when analysed by centrality binning alone. We find that the inclusion of spectator binning allows one to vary $\varepsilon_2$ and $\varepsilon_3$ independently. We observe that the standard scaling relation between $\displaystyle{v_2/\varepsilon_2}$ and $\frac{1}{S}\frac{dN_{\text{ch}}}{d\eta}$ exhibited by centrality bins is broken by the spectator neutron bins. However, the acoustic scaling relation between $\displaystyle{\ln\left( v_n/\varepsilon_n\right)}$ and transverse system size holds for both centrality as well as spectator bins for central to mid-central collisions. The introduction of the spectator binning allows us to tune over a wide range viscosity driven effects for events with varying initial states but similar final state multiplicity.

Probing Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{S_{NN}}=2760$ GeV with spectators [Cross-Listing]

There is event by event geometric as well as quantum fluctuations in the initial condition of heavy-ion collisions. The standard technique of analysing heavy-ion collisions in bins of centrality obtained from final state multiplicity averages out the various initial configurations and thus restricts the study to only a limited range of initial conditions. In this paper, we propose an additional binning in terms of total spectator neutrons in an event. This offers us a key control parameter to probe events with broader range of initial conditions providing us an opportunity to peep into events with rarer initial conditions which otherwise get masked when analysed by centrality binning alone. We find that the inclusion of spectator binning allows one to vary $\varepsilon_2$ and $\varepsilon_3$ independently. We observe that the standard scaling relation between $\displaystyle{v_2/\varepsilon_2}$ and $\frac{1}{S}\frac{dN_{\text{ch}}}{d\eta}$ exhibited by centrality bins is broken by the spectator neutron bins. However, the acoustic scaling relation between $\displaystyle{\ln\left( v_n/\varepsilon_n\right)}$ and transverse system size holds for both centrality as well as spectator bins for central to mid-central collisions. The introduction of the spectator binning allows us to tune over a wide range viscosity driven effects for events with varying initial states but similar final state multiplicity.

Probing Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{S_{NN}}=2760$ GeV with spectators [Replacement]

There is event by event geometric as well as quantum fluctuations in the initial condition of heavy-ion collisions. The standard technique of analysing heavy-ion collisions in bins of centrality obtained from final state multiplicity averages out the various initial configurations and thus restricts the study to only a limited range of initial conditions. In this paper, we propose an additional binning in terms of total spectator neutrons in an event. This offers us a key control parameter to probe events with broader range of initial conditions providing us an opportunity to peep into events with rarer initial conditions which otherwise get masked when analysed by centrality binning alone. We find that the inclusion of spectator binning allows one to vary $\varepsilon_2$ and $\varepsilon_3$ independently. We observe that the standard scaling relation between $\displaystyle{v_2/\varepsilon_2}$ and $\frac{1}{S}\frac{dN_{\text{ch}}}{d\eta}$ exhibited by centrality bins is broken by the spectator neutron bins. However, the acoustic scaling relation between $\displaystyle{\ln\left( v_n/\varepsilon_n\right)}$ and transverse system size holds for both centrality as well as spectator bins for central to mid-central collisions. The introduction of the spectator binning allows us to tune over a wide range viscosity driven effects for events with varying initial states but similar final state multiplicity.

Probing Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{S_{NN}}=2760$ GeV with spectators [Replacement]

There is event by event geometric as well as quantum fluctuations in the initial condition of heavy-ion collisions. The standard technique of analysing heavy-ion collisions in bins of centrality obtained from final state multiplicity averages out the various initial configurations and thus restricts the study to only a limited range of initial conditions. In this paper, we propose an additional binning in terms of total spectator neutrons in an event. This offers us a key control parameter to probe events with broader range of initial conditions providing us an opportunity to peep into events with rarer initial conditions which otherwise get masked when analysed by centrality binning alone. We find that the inclusion of spectator binning allows one to vary $\varepsilon_2$ and $\varepsilon_3$ independently. We observe that the standard scaling relation between $\displaystyle{v_2/\varepsilon_2}$ and $\frac{1}{S}\frac{dN_{\text{ch}}}{d\eta}$ exhibited by centrality bins is broken by the spectator neutron bins. However, the acoustic scaling relation between $\displaystyle{\ln\left( v_n/\varepsilon_n\right)}$ and transverse system size holds for both centrality as well as spectator bins for central to mid-central collisions. The introduction of the spectator binning allows us to tune over a wide range viscosity driven effects for events with varying initial states but similar final state multiplicity.

Entropy and the Typicality of Universes

The universal validity of the second law of thermodynamics is widely attributed to a finely tuned initial condition of the universe. This creates a problem: why is the universe atypical? We suggest that the problem is an artefact created by inappropriate transfer of the traditional concept of entropy to the whole universe. Use of what we call the relational $N$-body problem as a model indicates the need to employ two distinct entropy-type concepts to describe the universe. One, which we call entaxy, is novel. It is scale-invariant and decreases as the observable universe evolves. The other is the algebraic sum of the dimensionful entropies of branch systems (isolated subsystems of the universe). This conventional additive entropy increases. In our model, the decrease of entaxy is fundamental and makes possible the emergence of branch systems and their increasing entropy. We have previously shown that all solutions of our model divide into two halves at a unique `Janus point' of maximum disorder. This constitutes a common past for two futures each with its own gravitational arrow of time. We now show that these arrows are expressed through the formation of branch systems within which conventional entropy increases. On either side of the Janus point, this increase is in the same direction in every branch system. We also show that it is only possible to specify unbiased solution-determining data at the Janus point. Special properties of these `mid-point data' make it possible to develop a rational theory of the typicality of universes whose governing law, as in our model, dictates the presence of a Janus point in every solution. If our self-gravitating universe is governed by such a law, then the second law of thermodynamics is a necessary direct consequence of it and does not need any special initial condition.

Entropy and the Typicality of Universes [Replacement]

The universal validity of the second law of thermodynamics is widely attributed to a finely tuned initial condition of the universe. This creates a problem: why is the universe atypical? We suggest that the problem is an artefact created by inappropriate transfer of the traditional concept of entropy to the whole universe. Use of what we call the relational $N$-body problem as a model indicates the need to employ two distinct entropy-type concepts to describe the universe. One, which we call entaxy, is novel. It is scale-invariant and decreases as the observable universe evolves. The other is the algebraic sum of the dimensionful entropies of branch systems (isolated subsystems of the universe). This conventional additive entropy increases. In our model, the decrease of entaxy is fundamental and makes possible the emergence of branch systems and their increasing entropy. We have previously shown that all solutions of our model divide into two halves at a unique `Janus point' of maximum disorder. This constitutes a common past for two futures each with its own gravitational arrow of time. We now show that these arrows are expressed through the formation of branch systems within which conventional entropy increases. On either side of the Janus point, this increase is in the same direction in every branch system. We also show that it is only possible to specify unbiased solution-determining data at the Janus point. Special properties of these `mid-point data' make it possible to develop a rational theory of the typicality of universes whose governing law, as in our model, dictates the presence of a Janus point in every solution. If our self-gravitating universe is governed by such a law, then the second law of thermodynamics is a necessary direct consequence of it and does not need any special initial condition.

Towards the physical vacuum of cosmic inflation

There have been long debates about the initial condition of inflationary perturbations. In this work we explicitly show the decay of excited states during inflation via interactions. For this purpose, we note that the folded shape non-Gaussianity can be interpreted as the decay of the non-Bunch-Davies initial condition. The one loop diagrams with non-Bunch-Davies propagators are calculated to uncover the decay of such excited states. The observed smallness of non-Gaussianity keeps the window open for probing inflationary initial conditions and trans-Planckian physics.

Finite-Time Singularities in $k=0$ FLRW Cosmologies [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we consider a spatially flat FLRW cosmological model with matter obeying a barotropic equation of state $p = w \mu$, $-1<w\leq1$, and a cosmological constant, $\Lambda$. We use Osgood's criterion to establish three cases when such models admit finite-time singularities. The first case is for an arbitrary initial condition, with a negative cosmological constant, and phantom energy $w < -1$. We show that except for a very fine-tuned choice of the initial condition $\theta_{0}$, the universe will develop a finite-time singularity. The second case we consider is for a nonnegative cosmological constant, phantom energy, and the expansion scalar being larger than that of the flat-space de Sitter solution, and show that such models only expand forever for $\Lambda = 0$. In all other cases, the universe model develops a finite-time singularity. The final case we consider is for a nonnegative cosmological constant, a matter source with $-1 < w \leq 1$, and an expansion scalar that is asymptotically that of the de Sitter universe. We show that such models will only expand forever when $\Lambda = 0$, otherwise, they will develop a finite-time singularity. This is significant, since the inflationary epoch is a subset of this domain. However, as we show, the inclusion of a bulk viscosity term in the Einstein field equations eliminates this singularity, and the universe expands forever. This could have interesting implications for the role of bulk viscosity in dynamical models of the universe.

Finite-Time Singularities in $k=0$ FLRW Cosmologies

In this paper, we consider a spatially flat FLRW cosmological model with matter obeying a barotropic equation of state $p = w \mu$, $-1<w\leq1$, and a cosmological constant, $\Lambda$. We use Osgood's criterion to establish three cases when such models admit finite-time singularities. The first case is for an arbitrary initial condition, with a negative cosmological constant, and phantom energy $w < -1$. We show that except for a very fine-tuned choice of the initial condition $\theta_{0}$, the universe will develop a finite-time singularity. The second case we consider is for a nonnegative cosmological constant, phantom energy, and the expansion scalar being larger than that of the flat-space de Sitter solution, and show that such models only expand forever for $\Lambda = 0$. In all other cases, the universe model develops a finite-time singularity. The final case we consider is for a nonnegative cosmological constant, a matter source with $-1 < w \leq 1$, and an expansion scalar that is asymptotically that of the de Sitter universe. We show that such models will only expand forever when $\Lambda = 0$, otherwise, they will develop a finite-time singularity. This is significant, since the inflationary epoch is a subset of this domain. However, as we show, the inclusion of a bulk viscosity term in the Einstein field equations eliminates this singularity, and the universe expands forever. This could have interesting implications for the role of bulk viscosity in dynamical models of the universe.

Finite-Time Singularities in $k=0$ FLRW Cosmologies [Replacement]

In this paper, we consider a spatially flat FLRW cosmological model with matter obeying a barotropic equation of state $p = w \mu$, $-1<w\leq1$, and a cosmological constant, $\Lambda$. We use Osgood's criterion to establish three cases when such models admit finite-time singularities. The first case is for an arbitrary initial condition, with a negative cosmological constant, and phantom energy $w < -1$. We show that except for a very fine-tuned choice of the initial condition $\theta_{0}$, the universe will develop a finite-time singularity. The second case we consider is for a nonnegative cosmological constant, phantom energy, and the expansion scalar being larger than that of the flat-space de Sitter solution, and show that such models only expand forever for $\Lambda = 0$. In all other cases, the universe model develops a finite-time singularity. The final case we consider is for a nonnegative cosmological constant, a matter source with $-1 < w \leq 1$, and an expansion scalar that is asymptotically that of the de Sitter universe. We show that such models will only expand forever when $\Lambda = 0$, otherwise, they will develop a finite-time singularity. This is significant, since the inflationary epoch is a subset of this domain. However, as we show, the inclusion of a bulk viscosity term in the Einstein field equations eliminates this singularity, and the universe expands forever. This could have interesting implications for the role of bulk viscosity in dynamical models of the universe.

Finite-Time Singularities in $k=0$ FLRW Cosmologies [Replacement]

In this paper, we consider a spatially flat FLRW cosmological model with matter obeying a barotropic equation of state $p = w \mu$, $-1<w\leq1$, and a cosmological constant, $\Lambda$. We use Osgood's criterion to establish three cases when such models admit finite-time singularities. The first case is for an arbitrary initial condition, with a negative cosmological constant, and phantom energy $w < -1$. We show that except for a very fine-tuned choice of the initial condition $\theta_{0}$, the universe will develop a finite-time singularity. The second case we consider is for a nonnegative cosmological constant, phantom energy, and the expansion scalar being larger than that of the flat-space de Sitter solution, and show that such models only expand forever for $\Lambda = 0$. In all other cases, the universe model develops a finite-time singularity. The final case we consider is for a nonnegative cosmological constant, a matter source with $-1 < w \leq 1$, and an expansion scalar that is asymptotically that of the de Sitter universe. We show that such models will only expand forever when $\Lambda = 0$, otherwise, they will develop a finite-time singularity. This is significant, since the inflationary epoch is a subset of this domain. However, as we show, the inclusion of a bulk viscosity term in the Einstein field equations eliminates this singularity, and the universe expands forever. This could have interesting implications for the role of bulk viscosity in dynamical models of the universe.

Standard 1D solar atmosphere as initial condition for MHD simulations and switch-on effects

Many applications in Solar physics need a 1D atmospheric model as initial condition or as reference for inversions of observational data. The VAL atmospheric models are based on observations and are widely used since decades. Complementary to that, the FAL models implement radiative hydrodynamics and showed the shortcomings of the VAL models since almost equally long time. In this work, we present a new 1D layered atmosphere that spans not only from the photosphere to the transition region, but from the solar interior up to far in the corona. We also discuss typical mistakes that are done when switching on simulations based on such an initial condition and show how the initial condition can be equilibrated so that a simulation can start smoothly. The 1D atmosphere we present here served well as initial condition for HD and MHD simulations and should also be considered as reference data for solving inverse problems.

Nonassociative Weyl star products [Replacement]

Deformation quantization is a formal deformation of the algebra of smooth functions on some manifold. In the classical setting, the Poisson bracket serves as an initial conditions, while the associativity allows to proceed to higher orders. Some applications to string theory require deformation in the direction of a quasi-Poisson bracket (that does not satisfy the Jacobi identity). This initial condition is incompatible with associativity, it is quite unclear which restrictions can be imposed on the deformation. We show that for any quasi-Poisson bracket the deformation quantization exists and is essentially unique if one requires (weak) hermiticity and the Weyl condition. We also propose an iterative procedure that allows to compute the star product up to any desired order.

What initial condition of inflation would suppress the large-scale CMB spectrum? [Replacement]

There is an apparent power deficit relative to the $\Lambda$CDM prediction of the CMB spectrum at large scales, which, though not yet statistically significant, persists from WMAP to Planck data. Proposals that invoke some form of initial condition for the inflation have been made to address this apparent power suppression, albeit with conflicting conclusions. By studying the curvature perturbations of a scalar field in the FLRW universe parameterized by the equation of state parameter $w$, we find that the large-scale spectrum at the end of inflation reflects the super-horizon spectrum of the initial state. The large-scale spectrum is suppressed if the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in a super-inflation ($w < -1$) or positive-pressure ($w > 0$) era. In the latter case, there is however no causal mechanism to establish the initial adiabatic vacuum. On the other hand, as long as the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in an era with $-1 < w < 0$, even if there exists an intermediate positive-pressure era, the large-scale spectrum would be enhanced rather than suppressed. We further calculate the spectrum of a two-stage inflation model with a two-field potential and show that the result agrees with that obtained from the ad hoc single-field analysis.

What initial condition of inflation would suppress the large-scale CMB spectrum? [Cross-Listing]

There is an apparent power deficit relative to the $\Lambda$CDM prediction of the CMB spectrum at large scales, which, though not yet statistically significant, persists from WMAP to Planck data. Proposals that invoke some form of initial condition for the inflation have been made to address this apparent power suppression, albeit with conflicting conclusions. By studying the curvature perturbation spectrum of a scalar field in the FLRW Universe, we show that if the Universe begins in the era with positive or phantom pressure, the large-scale spectrum is suppressed, provided the Universe approaches to the adiabatic vacuum at small scales. It is noted that the large-scale spectrum could not be generated by causal mechanisms in the decelerating Universe since the super-horizon scales are initially across causally disconnected regions. On the other hand, as long as the Universe begins in the negative-pressure era, even if there is an intermediate era with positive-pressure, the large-scale spectrum would be enhanced rather than suppressed. The spectrum of the two-stage inflation model with a given two-field potential is further calculated, showing agreement with the conclusions obtained from the ad hoc single-field analysis.

What initial condition of inflation would suppress the large-scale CMB spectrum? [Replacement]

There is an apparent power deficit relative to the $\Lambda$CDM prediction of the CMB spectrum at large scales, which, though not yet statistically significant, persists from WMAP to Planck data. Proposals that invoke some form of initial condition for the inflation have been made to address this apparent power suppression, albeit with conflicting conclusions. By studying the curvature perturbations of a scalar field in the FLRW universe parameterized by the equation of state parameter $w$, we find that the large-scale spectrum at the end of inflation reflects the super-horizon spectrum of the initial state. The large-scale spectrum is suppressed if the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in a super-inflation ($w < -1$) or positive-pressure ($w > 0$) era. In the latter case, there is however no causal mechanism to establish the initial adiabatic vacuum. On the other hand, as long as the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in an era with $-1 < w < 0$, even if there exists an intermediate positive-pressure era, the large-scale spectrum would be enhanced rather than suppressed. We further calculate the spectrum of a two-stage inflation model with a two-field potential and show that the result agrees with that obtained from the ad hoc single-field analysis.

What initial condition of inflation would suppress the large-scale CMB spectrum?

There is an apparent power deficit relative to the $\Lambda$CDM prediction of the CMB spectrum at large scales, which, though not yet statistically significant, persists from WMAP to Planck data. Proposals that invoke some form of initial condition for the inflation have been made to address this apparent power suppression, albeit with conflicting conclusions. By studying the curvature perturbation spectrum of a scalar field in the FLRW Universe, we show that if the Universe begins in the era with positive or phantom pressure, the large-scale spectrum is suppressed, provided the Universe approaches to the adiabatic vacuum at small scales. It is noted that the large-scale spectrum could not be generated by causal mechanisms in the decelerating Universe since the super-horizon scales are initially across causally disconnected regions. On the other hand, as long as the Universe begins in the negative-pressure era, even if there is an intermediate era with positive-pressure, the large-scale spectrum would be enhanced rather than suppressed. The spectrum of the two-stage inflation model with a given two-field potential is further calculated, showing agreement with the conclusions obtained from the ad hoc single-field analysis.

What initial condition of inflation would suppress the large-scale CMB spectrum? [Replacement]

There is an apparent power deficit relative to the $\Lambda$CDM prediction of the CMB spectrum at large scales, which, though not yet statistically significant, persists from WMAP to Planck data. Proposals that invoke some form of initial condition for the inflation have been made to address this apparent power suppression, albeit with conflicting conclusions. By studying the curvature perturbations of a scalar field in the FLRW universe, we find that the large-scale spectrum at the end of inflation reflects the super-horizon spectrum of the initial state. The large-scale spectrum is suppressed if the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in a super-inflation or positive-pressure era. In the latter case, there is however no causal mechanism to establish the initial adiabatic vacuum. On the other hand, as long as the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in a negative-pressure era, even if there exists an intermediate positive-pressure era, the large-scale spectrum would be enhanced rather than suppressed. We further calculate the spectrum of a two-stage inflation model with a two-field potential and show that the result agrees with that obtained from the \emph{ad hoc} single-field analysis.

Quantum mechanics allows setting initial conditions at a cosmological singularity: Gowdy model example [Replacement]

It is shown that the initial conditions in the quasi-Heisenberg quantization scheme can be set at the initial cosmological singularity per se. This possibility is provided by finiteness of some quantities, namely momentums of the dynamical variables, at a singularity, in spite of infinity of the dynamical variables themselves. The uncertainty principle allows avoiding a necessity to set values of the dynamical variables at singularity, as a wave packet can be expressed through the finite momentums. Influence of the initial condition set in the singularity in such a way to a number of gravitons under a vacuum state, arising during later evolution, is addressed as well. It is shown that, even choosing of some special state at the singularity minimizing late time expansion rate, some amount of gravitons still appear in the late time evolution.

Transients in finite inflation

We test a model of inflation with a fast-rolling kinetic dominated initial condition against data from Planck using MCMC. We choose a m^2 {\phi}^2 potential and perform a full numerical calculation of both the scalar and tensor primordial power spectra. We find a slight improvement in fit for this model over the standard eternal slow roll case.

Transients in finite inflation [Cross-Listing]

We test a model of inflation with a fast-rolling kinetic dominated initial condition against data from Planck using MCMC. We choose a m^2 {\phi}^2 potential and perform a full numerical calculation of both the scalar and tensor primordial power spectra. We find a slight improvement in fit for this model over the standard eternal slow roll case.

Transients in finite inflation [Cross-Listing]

We test a model of inflation with a fast-rolling kinetic dominated initial condition against data from Planck using MCMC. We choose a m^2 {\phi}^2 potential and perform a full numerical calculation of both the scalar and tensor primordial power spectra. We find a slight improvement in fit for this model over the standard eternal slow roll case.

 

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