Posts Tagged high energy

Recent Postings from high energy

Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than $5\sigma$. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model) a extra-Galactic component derived from the astrophysical muonic neutrinos reconstructed in the Northern hemisphere. A good agreement between the expected astrophysical neutrino flux and the IceCube data is found for the full sky as well as for the Galactic plane region.

High energy scattering of Dirac particles on smooth potentials

The derivation of the Glauber type representation for the high energy scattering amplitude of particles of spin 1/2 is given within the framework of the Dirac equation in the Foldy Wouthuysen (FW) representation and two-component formalism. The differential cross sections on Yukawa and Gaussian potentials are also considered and discussed.

CGC/saturation approach for high energy soft interactions: $\mathbf{v_2}$ in proton-proton collisions

In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions, based on the CGC/saturation approach. We demonstrate that in our model which describes diffractive physics as well as multi-particle production at high energy, the density variation mechanism leads to the value of $v_2$ which is about $60\% \div 70\%$ of the measured $v_2$. Bearing in mind that in CGC/saturation approach there are two other mechanisms present: Bose enhancement in the wave function and local anisotropy, we believe that the azimuthal long range rapidity correlations in proton-proton collisions stem from the CGC/saturation physics, and not from quark-gluon plasma production.

High Energy Hadron Spin Flip Amplitude [Cross-Listing]

The high energy part of the hadron spin flip amplitude is examined in the framework of the new high energy general structure (HEGS) model of the elastic hadron scattering at high energies. The different forms of the hadron spin flip amplitude are compared in the impact parameters representation. It is shown that the existing experimental data of the proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energy in the region of the diffraction minimum and at large momentum transfer give support in the presence of the energy-independent part of the hadron spin flip amplitude with the momentum dependence proposed in the works by Galynskii-Kuraev.

Galactic sources of high energy neutrinos: Expectation from gamma-ray data

The recent results from ground based $\gamma$-ray detectors (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) provide a population of TeV galactic $\gamma$-ray sources which are potential sources of High Energy (HE) neutrinos. Since the $\gamma$-rays and $\nu$ -s are produced from decays of neutral and charged pions, the flux of TeV $\gamma$-rays can be used to estimate the upper limit of $\nu$ flux and vice versa; the detectability of $\nu$ flux implies a minimum flux of the accompanying $\gamma$-rays (assuming the internal and the external absorption of $\gamma$-rays is negligible). Using this minimum flux, it is possible to find the sources which can be detected with cubic-kilometer telescopes. I will discuss the possibility to detect HE neutrinos from powerful galactic accelerators, such as Supernova Remnants (SNRs) and Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) and show that likely only RX J1713.7-3946 , RX J0852.0-4622 and Vela X can be detected by current generation of instruments (IceCube and Km3Net). It will be shown also, that galactic binary systems could be promising sources of HE $\nu$ -s. In particular, $\nu$-s and $\gamma$-rays from Cygnus X-3 will be discussed during recent gamma-ray activity, showing that in the future such kind of activities could produce detectable flux of HE $\nu$-s

Discovering New Physics with Voronoi Tessellations [Cross-Listing]

High energy experimental data can be viewed as a sampling of the relevant phase space. We point out that one can apply Voronoi tessellations in order to understand the underlying probability distributions in this phase space. Interesting features in the data can then be discovered by studying the properties of the ensemble of Voronoi cells. For illustration, we demonstrate the detection of kinematic "edges" in two dimensions, which may signal physics beyond the standard model. We motivate the algorithm with some analytical results derived for perfect lattices, and show that the method is further improved with the addition of a few Voronoi relaxation steps via Lloyd's method.

Discovering New Physics with Voronoi Tessellations

High energy experimental data can be viewed as a sampling of the relevant phase space. We point out that one can apply Voronoi tessellations in order to understand the underlying probability distributions in this phase space. Interesting features in the data can then be discovered by studying the properties of the ensemble of Voronoi cells. For illustration, we demonstrate the detection of kinematic "edges" in two dimensions, which may signal physics beyond the standard model. We motivate the algorithm with some analytical results derived for perfect lattices, and show that the method is further improved with the addition of a few Voronoi relaxation steps via Lloyd's method.

Perspective of monochromatic gamma-ray line detection with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station [Replacement]

HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution ($\sim1\%$ for electrons and photons and $20\%$ for nuclei) and a large geometry factor ($>3\, m^2sr$ for electrons and diffuse photons and $>2\, m^2sr$ for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic $\gamma$-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic $\gamma$-ray searches at energies between $\sim10$ to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD.

Perspective of monochromatic gamma-ray line detection with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station [Replacement]

HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution ($\sim1\%$ for electrons and photons and $20\%$ for nuclei) and a large geometry factor ($>3\, m^2sr$ for electrons and diffuse photons and $>2\, m^2sr$ for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic $\gamma$-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic $\gamma$-ray searches at energies between $\sim10$ to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD.

Perspective of monochromatic gamma-ray line detection with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station

HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution ($\sim1\%$ for electrons and photons and $20\%$ for nuclei) and a large geometry factor ($>3\, m^2sr$ for electrons and diffuse photons and $>2\, m^2sr$ for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic $\gamma$-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic $\gamma$-ray searches at energies between $\sim10$ to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD.

Perspective of monochromatic gamma-ray line detection with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station [Replacement]

HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution ($\sim1\%$ for electrons and photons and $20\%$ for nuclei) and a large geometry factor ($>3\,{ m^2\,sr}$ for electrons and diffuse photons and $>2\,{ m^2\,sr}$ for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic $\gamma$-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic $\gamma$-ray searches at energies between $\sim10$ to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD.

Perspective of monochromatic gamma-ray line detection with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station [Cross-Listing]

HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution ($\sim1\%$ for electrons and photons and $20\%$ for nuclei) and a large geometry factor ($>3\, m^2sr$ for electrons and diffuse photons and $>2\, m^2sr$ for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic $\gamma$-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic $\gamma$-ray searches at energies between $\sim10$ to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD.

Perspective of monochromatic gamma-ray line detection with the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station [Replacement]

HERD is the High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection instrument proposed to operate onboard China's space station in the 2020s. It is designed to detect energetic cosmic ray nuclei, leptons and photons with a high energy resolution ($\sim1\%$ for electrons and photons and $20\%$ for nuclei) and a large geometry factor ($>3\,{ m^2\,sr}$ for electrons and diffuse photons and $>2\,{ m^2\,sr}$ for nuclei). In this work we discuss the capability of HERD to detect monochromatic $\gamma$-ray lines, based on simulations of the detector performance. It is shown that HERD will be one of the most sensitive instruments for monochromatic $\gamma$-ray searches at energies between $\sim10$ to a few hundred GeV. Above hundreds of GeV, Cherenkov telescopes will be more sensitive due to their large effective area. As a specific example, we show that a good portion of the parameter space of a supersymmetric dark matter model can be probed with HERD.

Second large-scale Monte Carlo study for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) represents the next generation of ground based instruments for Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy. It is expected to improve on the sensitivity of current instruments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 200 TeV. In order to achieve these ambitious goals Monte Carlo (MC) simulations play a crucial role, guiding the design of CTA. Here, results of the second large-scale MC production are reported, providing a realistic estimation of feasible array candidates for both Northern and Sourthern Hemisphere sites performance, placing CTA capabilities into the context of the current generation of High Energy $\gamma$-ray detectors.

Redshift measurement of Fermi Blazars for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

Blazars are active galactic nuclei, and the most numerous High Energy (HE) and Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitters. Their optical emission is often dominated by non-thermal, and, in the case of BL Lacs, featureless continuum radiation. This renders the determination of their redshift extremely difficult. Indeed, as of today only about 50 % of gamma-ray blazars have a measured spectroscopic redshift. The knowledge of redshift is fundamental because it allows the precise modeling of the VHE emission and also of its interaction with the extragalactic background light (EBL). The beginning of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) operations in the near future will allow the detection of several hundreds of new BL Lacs. Using the first Fermi catalogue of sources above 10 GeV (1FHL), we performed simulations which demonstrate that at least half of the 1FHL BL Lacs detectable by CTA will not have a measured redshift. Indeed the organization of observing campaigns to measure the redshift of these blazars has been recognized as a necessary support for the AGN Key Science Project of CTA. Taking advantage of the recent success of an X-shooter GTO observing campaign, we thus devised an observing campaign to measure the redshifts of as many as possible of these candidates. The main characteristic of this campaign with respect to previous ones will be the use of higher resolution spectrographs and of 8 meter class telescopes. We are starting submitting proposals for these observations. In this paper we will briefly describe the selection of the candidates, the characteristics of these observation and the expected results.

Holographic Approach to Deep Inelastic Scattering at Small-x at High Energy

We focus on a holographic approach to DIS at small-x in high energy where scattering is dominated by exchanging a Reggeized Graviton in $AdS_5$. We emphasize the importance of confinement, which corresponds to a deformation of $AdS_5$ geometry in the IR. This approach provides an excellent fit to the combined HERA data at small $x$. We also discuss the connection of Pomeron/Odderon intercepts in the conformal limit with anomalous dimensions in strong coupling.

High energy cosmic ray self-confinement close to extragalactic sources

The ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed at the Earth are most likely accelerated in extra-galactic sources. For the typical luminosities invoked for such sources, the electric current associated to the flux of cosmic rays that leave them is large. The associated plasma instabilities create magnetic fluctuations that can efficiently scatter particles. We argue that this phenomenon forces cosmic rays to be self-confined in the source proximity for energies $E<E_{\rm cut}$, where $E_{\rm cut}\approx 10^{7} L_{44}^{2/3}$ GeV for low background magnetic fields ($B_{0}\ll nG$). For larger values of $B_{0}$, cosmic rays are confined close to their sources for energies $E<E_{\rm cut}\approx 2\times 10^{8} \lambda_{10} L_{44}^{1/4} B_{-10}^{1/2}$ GeV, where $B_{-10}$ is the field in units of $0.1$ nG, $\lambda_{10}$ is its coherence lengths in units of 10 Mpc and $L_{44}$ is the source luminosity in units of $10^{44}$ erg/s.

MACHETE: A transit Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope to survey half of the Very High Energy $\gamma$-ray sky

Current Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes for Very High Energy $\gamma$-ray astrophysics are pointing instruments with a Field of View up to a few tens of sq deg. We propose to build an array of two non-steerable (drift) telescopes. Each of the telescopes would have a camera with a FOV of 5$\times$60 sq deg oriented along the meridian. About half of the sky drifts through this FOV in a year. We have performed a Montecarlo simulation to estimate the performance of this instrument. We expect it to survey this half of the sky with an integral flux sensitivity of $\sim$0.77\% of the steady flux of the Crab Nebula in 5 years, an analysis energy threshold of $\sim$150 GeV and an angular resolution of $\sim$0.1$^{\circ}$. For astronomical objects that transit over the telescope for a specific night, we can achieve an integral sensitivity of 12\% of the Crab Nebula flux in a night, making it a very powerful tool to trigger further observations of variable sources using steerable IACTs or instruments at other wavelengths.

Gamma-ray bounds from EAS detectors and heavy decaying dark matter constraints [Cross-Listing]

The very high energy Galactic gamma-ray sky is partially opaque in the (0.1-10) PeV energy range. In the light of the recently detected high energy neutrino flux by IceCube, a comparable very high energy gamma-ray flux is expected in any scenario with a sizable Galactic contribution to the neutrino flux. Here we elaborate on the peculiar energy and anisotropy features imposed upon these very high energy gamma-rays by the absorption on the cosmic microwave background photons and Galactic interstellar light. As a notable application of our considerations, we study the prospects of probing the PeV-scale decaying DM scenario, proposed as a possible source of IceCube neutrinos, by extensive air shower (EAS) cosmic ray experiments.

Gamma-ray bounds from EAS detectors and heavy decaying dark matter constraints

The very high energy Galactic gamma-ray sky is partially opaque in the (0.1-10) PeV energy range. In the light of the recently detected high energy neutrino flux by IceCube, a comparable very high energy gamma-ray flux is expected in any scenario with a sizable Galactic contribution to the neutrino flux. Here we elaborate on the peculiar energy and anisotropy features imposed upon these very high energy gamma-rays by the absorption on the cosmic microwave background photons and Galactic interstellar light. As a notable application of our considerations, we study the prospects of probing the PeV-scale decaying DM scenario, proposed as a possible source of IceCube neutrinos, by extensive air shower (EAS) cosmic ray experiments.

High energy $\gamma$-ray emission from PSR B1259$-$63 during 2014 and 2010 periastron passages

PSR B1259$-$63/SS 2883 is a $\gamma$-ray binary system composed of a radio pulsar in a long (1236.7 days) and elliptical ($e\sim0.87$) orbit around a Be star. In its 2010 periastron passage, multiwavelength emission from radio to TeV was observed, and an unexpected GeV flare was detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Here we present the results of the LAT monitoring of PSR B1259$-$63 during its most recent 2014 periastron passage. We confirm that the GeV flare is recurrent within the orbit. The comparison of the 2014 and 2010 periastron passages shows overall similarities of flare durations, average flux levels, and spectra. In contrast, the detailed time evolutions of the two flares present interesting differences. Indeed, the light curves of the two flares show both a different structure and peak energy flux ($9.6 \pm1.8 \times 10^{-10}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and $7.1 \pm1.3 \times 10^{-10}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, respectively in 2010 and 2014). While the tail of the 2010 flare the flux decayed exponentially, in 2014 it persisted at a high level. The interpretation of these differences as well as of the flare themselves is subject of debate.

Cascade Model of an Anomaly in Blazar Spectra at Very High Energy

It is well known that the effect of gamma-ray absorption on extragalactic background light (EBL) is weakly expressed in the spectra of some blazars. It is shown that a secondary component generated by electromagnetic cascades might considerably decrease the statistical significance of this anomaly. Observational results indicate the existence of the cascade component in the spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources, thus supporting the proposed model.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos [Cross-Listing]

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos [Cross-Listing]

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos [Replacement]

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos [Replacement]

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos [Replacement]

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos [Replacement]

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos [Replacement]

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos [Replacement]

High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.

High Energy Elastic pp Scattering in Additive Quark Model

High energy $pp$ elastic scattering is treated in the framework of Additive Quark Model. The reasonable agreement with experimental data is achieved with natural parameters for the strong matter distribution inside proton.

High Energy Elastic pp Scattering in Additive Quark Model [Replacement]

High energy $pp$ and $p\bar p$ elastic scattering is treated in the framework of Additive Quark Model. The reasonable agreement with experimental data is achieved with the natural parameters for the strong matter distribution inside proton.

Cross Section to Multiplicity Ratios at Very High Energy [Replacement]

Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio sigma^{el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

Cross Section to Multiplicity Ratios at Very High Energy [Replacement]

Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio sigma^{el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

Astrophysical constraints on Planck scale dissipative phenomena

The emergence of a classical spacetime from any quantum gravity model is still a subtle and only partially understood issue. If indeed space-time is arising as some sort of large scale condensate of more fundamental objects then it is natural to expect that matter, being a collective excitations of the spacetime constituents, will present modified kinematics at sufficiently high energies. We consider here the phenomenology of the dissipative effects necessarily arising in such a picture. Adopting dissipative hydrodynamics as a general framework for the description of the energy exchange between collective excitations and the spacetime fundamental degrees of freedom, we discuss how rates of decays for elementary particles can be derived from dispersion relations and used to provide strong constraints on the base of current astrophysical observations of high energy particles.

Time-dependent Modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

A spatially independent model that calculates the time evolution of the electron spectrum in a spherically expanding pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is presented, allowing one to make broadband predictions for the PWN's non-thermal radiation. The source spectrum of electrons injected at the termination shock of the PWN is chosen to be a broken power law. In contrast to previous PWN models of a similar nature, the source spectrum has a discontinuity in intensity at the transition between the low and high-energy components. To test the model, it is applied to the young PWN G21.5--0.9, where it is found that a discontinuous source spectrum can model the emission at all wavelengths better than a continuous one. The model is also applied to the unidentified sources HESS J1427--608 and HESS J1507--622. Parameters are derived for these two candidate nebulae that are consistent with the values predicted for other PWNe. For HESS J1427--608 a present-day magnetic field of $B\s{age}=0.4\,\mu\text{G}$ is derived. As a result of the small present-day magnetic field, this source has a low synchrotron luminosity, while remaining bright at GeV/TeV energies. It is therefore possible to interpret HESS J1427--608 within the ancient PWN scenario. For the second candidate PWN HESS J1507--622, a present-day magnetic field of $B\s{age}=1.7\,\mu\text{G}$ is derived. Furthermore, for this candidate PWN a scenario is favoured in the present paper in which HESS J1507--622 has been compressed by the reverse shock of the supernova remnant.

The Crab pulsar wind nebula: our laboratory of the non-thermal Universe

The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as "Crab") have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. In this article, we review our current understanding of pulsar wind nebulae and discuss the importance of the Crab to our general understanding of high-energy phenomena, in the context of these exciting developments.

Yakutsk array radio emission registration results in the energy range of 3*10^16-5*10^18 eV

This paper presents the set of measurements of ultra-high energy air shower radio emission at frequency 32 MHz in period of 2008-2012. The showers are selected by geomagnetic and azimuth angles and then by the energy in three intervals: 3*10^16 3*10^17 eV, 3*10^17 6*10^17 eV and 6*10^17 5*10^18 eV. In each energy interval average lateral distribution function using mathematically averaged data from antennas with di?fferent directions are plotted. In the paper, using experimental data the dependence of radio signal averaged amplitude from geomagnetic angle, the shower axis distance and the energy are determined. Depth of maximum of cosmic ray showers Xmax for the given energy range is evaluated. The evaluation is made according QGSJET model calculations and average lateral distribution function shape.

Anisotropy test of the axion-like particle Universe opacity effect: a case for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

The Universe opacity to gamma rays is still an open question, in particular anomalies may have been observed. Assuming that such anomalies find their origin in conventional physics like intrinsic source spectra or the density of the extragalactic background light, they would be evenly distributed over the sky. If they exist, axion-like particles (ALPs) would have a potential effect on the opacity of the Universe to gamma rays, possibly related to the anomalies in the spectral indices of distant gamma-ray sources. In the scenario where ALPs from distant sources convert back to photons in the Galactic magnetic field, their effect on the opacity is expected to depend on the position of the sources. In that case the anomaly is expected to exhibit peculiar correlations on the sky. We propose a method to test the origin of the opacity anomaly, based on angular correlations of spectral softening anomalies. Such a diagnosis requires a wide-field survey of high-energy gamma-ray sources over a broad range of energy. The future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is perfectly suited to perform such a study. It is shown that while the current sample of sources is not large enough to base conclusions on, with this method CTA will be sensitive to ALP couplings to gamma rays of the order of 3e-11 GeV^-1 for ALP masses below 1e-8 eV.

Remote control and telescope auto-alignment system for multiangle LIDAR under development at CEILAP, Argentina [Cross-Listing]

At CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET), a multiangle LIDAR is under development to monitor aerosol extinction coefficients in the frame of the CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) Project. This is an initiative to build the next generation of ground-based instruments to collect very high energy gamma-ray radiation (>10 GeV). The atmospheric conditions are very important for CTA observations, and LIDARs play an important role in the measurement of the aerosol optical depth at any direction. The LIDAR being developed at CEILAP was conceived to operate in harsh environmental conditions during the shifts, and these working conditions may produce misalignments. To minimize these effects, the telescopes comprising the reception unit are controlled by a self-alignment system. This paper describes the self-alignment method and hardware automation.

The role of fast magnetic reconnection in acceleration zones of microquasars and AGNs

Fast magnetic reconnection events can be a very powerful mechanism operating at the jet launching region of microquasars and AGNs. We have recently found that the power released by reconnection between the magnetic field lines of the coronal inner disk region and the lines anchored into the black hole is able to accelerate relativistic particles through a first-order Fermi process and produce the observed radio luminosity from both microquasars and low luminous AGNs (LLAGNs). We also found that the observed correlation between the radio luminosity and the mass of these sources, spanning 10^9 orders of magnitude in mass, is naturally explained by this process. In this work, assuming that the gamma-ray emission is probably originated in the same acceleration zones that produce the radio emission, we have applied the scenario above to investigate the origin of the high energy outcomes from an extensive number of sources including high (HLAGNs) and LLAGNs, microquasars and GRBs. We find correlation of our model with the gamma emission only for microquasars and a few LLAGNs, while none of the HLAGNs or GRBs are fitted, neither in radio nor in gamma. We attribute the lack of correlation of the gamma emission for most of the LLAGNs to the fact that this processed emission doesn't depend only on the local magnetic field activity around the source/accretion disk, but also on other environmental factors like the photon and density fields. We conclude that the emission from the LLAGNs and microquasars comes from the nuclear region of their sources and therefore, can be driven by nuclear magnetic activity. However, in the case of the HLAGNs and GRBs, the nuclear emission is blocked by the surrounding density and photon fields and therefore, we can only see the jet emission further out.

A search for enhanced very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the March 2013 Crab Nebula flare

In March 2013, a flaring episode from the Crab Nebula lasting ~2 weeks was detected by the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope). VERITAS provides simultaneous observations throughout this period. During the flare, the Fermi-LAT detected a 20-fold increase in flux above the average synchrotron flux >100 MeV seen from the Crab Nebula. Simultaneous measurements with VERITAS are consistent with the non-variable long-term average Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Assuming a linear correlation between the very-high-energy flux change >1 TeV and the flux change seen in the Fermi-LAT band >100 MeV during the period of simultaneous observations, the linear correlation factor can be constrained to be at most 8.6 * 10^-3 with 95% confidence.

Testing chemical composition of highest energy comic rays

We study basic characteristics of distributions of the depths of shower maximum in air showers caused by cosmic rays with the highest energies. The consistency between their average values and widths, and their energy dependences are discussed within a simple phenomenological model of shower development independently of assumptions about detailed features of high--energy interactions. It is shown that reliable information on primary species can be derived within a partition method. We present examples demonstrating implications for the changes in mass composition of primary cosmic rays.

Hadronic interaction models and the angular distribution of cosmic ray muons

Muons serve as the best probes of the physics of hadronic interactions in the upper atmosphere because of their simple physics. All the properties of detected muons, such as their energy and angle of incidence, are governed by the properties of their parent hadrons. The angular distribution of the detected muons is a result of a superposition of multiple effects, and is governed by a number of parameters, such as the cutoff rigidity (magnetic field), atmospheric attenuation, interaction cross sections, production height, multiplicity and pseudorapidity. Since particle interactions are handled by the low and high-energy hadronic interaction models in air shower simulations, subtle differences in their physics should manifest in the differences in the angular distribution. Here, we compare air shower simulations with experimental data and investigate how the choice of hadronic interaction models in air shower simulations affects the angular distribution of cosmic ray muons.

Perturbations to aquatic photosynthesis due to high-energy cosmic ray induced muon flux in the extragalactic shock model

We modify a mathematical model of photosynthesis to quantify the perturbations that high energy muons could make on aquatic primary productivity. Then we apply this in the context of the extragalactic shock model, according to which Earth receives an enhanced dose of high-energy cosmic rays when it is at the galactic north. We obtain considerable reduction in the photosynthesis rates, consistent with potential drops in biodiversity.

Numerical study of broadband spectra caused by internal shocks in magnetized relativistic jets of blazars

The internal-shocks scenario in relativistic jets has been used to explain the variability of blazars' outflow emission. Recent simulations have shown that the magnetic field alters the dynamics of these shocks producing a whole zoo of spectral energy density patterns. However, the role played by magnetization in such high-energy emission is still not entirely understood. With the aid of \emph{Fermi}'s second LAT AGN catalog, a comparison with observations in the $\gamma$-ray band was performed, in order to identify the effects of the magnetic field.

Average spectral properties of galactic X-ray binaries with 3 years of MAXI data

The energy spectra of X-ray binaries (XRBs) have been investigated during the last few decades with many observatories in different energy bands and with different energy resolutions. However, these studies are carried out in selected states of XRBs like during outbursts, transitions, quiescent states, and are always done in limited time windows of pointed observations. It is now possible to investigate the long term averaged spectra of a large number of X-ray binaries with the all sky monitor MAXI, which also has a broad energy band. Here we present the average spectral behaviour of a few representative XRBs. The long term averaged spectrum of Cyg X-1 is described by a sum of two power-laws having $\Gamma_{1}$ ~ 2.8 and $\Gamma_{2}$ ~ 1.2, along with a multi color disk blackbody having an inner disk temperature of 0.5 keV, GX 301-2 is described by a power-law with a high energy cut-off at $E_{c}$ ~ 15 keV and a blackbody component at 0.2 keV and that of Aql X-1 is described by a multi color disk blackbody at 2 keV and a power-law of $\Gamma$ ~ 2.2. We have also constructed the combined X-ray spectrum of the X-ray binaries in the Milky Way, which can be compared to the XRBs spectra of other galaxies observed with Chandra and XMM-Newton. These measurements are also relevant to investigate the X-ray interaction with the ISM and its contribution to the ionising X-ray background in the early universe.

First Results from NuSTAR Observations of Mkn 421

Mkn 421 is a nearby active galactic nucleus dominated at all wavelengths by a very broad non-thermal continuum thought to arise from a relativistic jet seen at a small angle to the line of sight. Its spectral energy distribution peaks in the X-ray and TeV gamma-ray bands, where the energy output is dominated by cooling of high-energy electrons in the jet. In order to study the electron distribution and its evolution, we carried out a dedicated multi-wavelength campaign, including extensive observations by the recently launched highly sensitive hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR, between December 2012 and May 2013. Here we present some initial results based on NuSTAR data from January through March 2013, as well as calibration observations conducted in 2012. Although the observations cover some of the faintest hard X-ray flux states ever observed for Mkn 421, the sensitivity is high enough to resolve intra-day spectral variability. We find that in this low state the dominant flux variations are smooth on timescales of hours, with typical intra-hour variations of less than 5%. We do not find evidence for either a cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum, or a rise towards a high-energy component, but rather that at low flux the spectrum assumes a power law shape with a photon index of approximately 3. The spectrum is found to harden with increasing brightness.

Probing the Galactic Origin of the IceCube Excess with Gamma-Rays

The IceCube Collaboration has recently reported evidence for a high-energy extraterrestrial neutrino flux. During two years of operation 28 events with energies between 30 TeV and 1.2 PeV were observed while only 10.6 events were expected from conventional atmospheric backgrounds. The hadronic interactions responsible for this IceCube excess will also produce a flux of high-energy gamma-rays that can serve as a probe of source direction and distance. We show that existing TeV to PeV diffuse gamma-ray limits support the interpretation that the IceCube excess is mostly of extragalactic origin and disfavor possible sub-dominant contributions from Galactic neutrino sources like remnants of supernovae and hypernovae. However, we point out that gamma-ray surveys are biased in the Northern Hemisphere whereas the IceCube data shows a weak preference for the Southern Sky. This emphasizes the importance of future diffuse TeV to PeV gamma-ray surveys in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in the extended region around the Galactic Center including the Fermi Bubbles.

 

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