Posts Tagged gravitational effect

Recent Postings from gravitational effect

Free motion around black holes with discs or rings: between integrability and chaos - III [Cross-Listing]

We continue the study of time-like geodesic dynamics in exact static, axially and reflection symmetric space-times describing the fields of a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by thin discs or rings. In the first paper of this series, the rise (and decline) of geodesic chaos with ring/disc mass and position and with test particle energy was revealed on Poincar\’e sections and on time series of position or velocity and their power spectra. In the second paper we compared these results with those obtained by two recurrence methods, focusing on "sticky" orbits whose different parts show different degrees of chaoticity. Here we complement the analysis by using several Lyapunov-type coefficients which quantify the rate of orbital divergence. After comparing the results with those obtained by the previous methods, we specifically consider a system involving a black hole surrounded by a small thin disc or a large ring, having in mind the configuration which probably occurs in galactic nuclei. Within the range of parameters which roughly corresponds to our Galactic center, we found that the black-hole accretion disc does not have a significant gravitational effect on the dynamics of free motion at larger radii, while the inner circumnuclear molecular ring (concentrated above 1 parsec radius) can only induce some irregularity in motion of stars ("particles") on smaller radii if its mass reaches 10 to 30% of the central black hole (which is the upper estimate given in the literature), if it is sufficiently compact (which does not hold but maybe for its inner rim) and if the stars can get to its close vicinity. The outer dust ring between 60 and 100 parsecs appears to be less important for the geodesic dynamics in its interior.

A Way Forward for Cosmic Shear: Monte-Carlo Control Loops

Weak lensing by large scale structure or ‘cosmic shear’ is a potentially powerful cosmological probe to shed new light on Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Modified Gravity. It is based on the weak distortions induced by large-scale structures on the observed shapes of distant galaxies through gravitational lensing. While the potentials of this purely gravitational effect are great, results from this technique have been hampered because the measurement of this weak effect is difficult and limited by systematics effects. In particular, a demanding step is the measurement of the weak lensing shear from wide field CCD images of galaxies. We describe the origin of the problem and propose a way forward for cosmic shear. Our proposed approach is based on Monte-Carlo Control Loops and draws upon methods widely used in particle physics and engineering. We describe the control loop scheme and show how it provides a calibration method based on fast image simulations tuned to reproduce the statistical properties of a specific cosmic shear data set. Through a series of iterative loops and diagnostic tests, the Monte Carlo image simulations are made robust to perturbations on modeling input parameters and thus to systematic effects. We discuss how this approach can make the problem tractable and unleash to full potential of cosmic shear for cosmology.

A Way Forward for Cosmic Shear: Monte-Carlo Control Loops [Replacement]

Weak lensing by large scale structure or ‘cosmic shear’ is a potentially powerful cosmological probe to shed new light on Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Modified Gravity. It is based on the weak distortions induced by large-scale structures on the observed shapes of distant galaxies through gravitational lensing. While the potentials of this purely gravitational effect are great, results from this technique have been hampered because the measurement of this weak effect is difficult and limited by systematics effects. In particular, a demanding step is the measurement of the weak lensing shear from wide field CCD images of galaxies. We describe the origin of the problem and propose a way forward for cosmic shear. Our proposed approach is based on Monte-Carlo Control Loops and draws upon methods widely used in particle physics and engineering. We describe the control loop scheme and show how it provides a calibration method based on fast image simulations tuned to reproduce the statistical properties of a specific cosmic shear data set. Through a series of iterative loops and diagnostic tests, the Monte Carlo image simulations are made robust to perturbations on modeling input parameters and thus to systematic effects. We discuss how this approach can make the problem tractable and unleash to full potential of cosmic shear for cosmology.

Cosmology from clustering of Lyman-alpha galaxies: breaking non-gravitational Lyman-alpha radiative transfer degeneracies using the bispectrum

Large surveys for Lyman-alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies have been proposed as a new method for measuring clustering of the galaxy population at high redshift with the goal of determining cosmological parameters. However, Lyman-alpha radiative transfer effects may modify the observed clustering of LAE galaxies in a way that mimics gravitational effects, potentially reducing the precision of cosmological constraints. For example, the effect of the linear redshift-space distortion on the power spectrum of LAE galaxies is potentially degenerate with Lyman-alpha radiative transfer effects owing to the dependence of observed flux on intergalactic medium velocity gradients. In this paper, we show that the three-point function (bispectrum) can distinguish between gravitational and non-gravitational effects, and thus breaks these degeneracies, making it possible to recover cosmological parameters from LAE galaxy surveys. Constraints on the angular diameter distance and the Hubble expansion rate can also be improved by combining power spectrum and bispectrum measurements.

Unifying static analysis of gravitational structures with a scale-dependent scalar field gravity as alternative to dark matter

We investigate the gravitational effect of a scalar field within scalar-tensor gravity as an alternative of the dark matter. Motivated by results of chameleon models, $f(R)$ gravity and symmetron models, we study a phenomenological scenario where the scalar field has a mass and a coupling constant to the ordinary matter which scale with the local properties of the considered astrophysical system. We analyze the compatibility of this "alternative gravity" scenario at galaxy and galaxy cluster scales. Main results are: 1) the velocity dispersion of elliptical galaxies can be fit remarkably well by a scalar field, with model significance similar to the one obtained if a classical Navarro-Frenk-White dark halo profile is considered; 2) in particular, the analysis of the stellar dynamics and the gas equilibrium on elliptical galaxies has shown that the scalar field can couple with ordinary matter with different strength (different coupling constants) depending on the clustering state of matter components; 3) spiral galaxies and clusters of galaxies combined together show evident correlations among theory parameters (coupling constants and scalar field interaction length) which suggests the generality of the results at all scales and the way toward an unification of the theory for all gravitating systems; 4) the gravitational effects of the scalar field and its viability as an alternative to the dark matter are confirmed by some preliminary test on strong lensing at galaxy cluster scales.

Hybrid inflation in high-scale supersymmetry [Cross-Listing]

In hybrid inflation, the inflaton generically has a tadpole due to gravitational effects in supergravity, which significantly changes the inflaton dynamics in high-scale supersymmetry. We point out that the tadpole can be cancelled if there is a supersymmetry breaking singlet with gravitational couplings, and in particular, the cancellation is automatic in no-scale supergravity. We consider the LARGE volume scenario as a concrete example and discuss the compatibility between the hybrid inflation and the moduli stabilization. We also point out that the dark radiation generated by the overall volume modulus decay naturally relaxes a tension between the observed spectral index and the prediction of the hybrid inflation.

A longitudinal gauge degree of freedom and the Pais Uhlenbeck field [Cross-Listing]

We show that a longitudinal gauge degree of freedom for a vector field is equivalent to a Pais-Uhlenbeck scalar field. With the help of this equivalence, we can determine natural interactions of this field with scalars and fermions. Since the theory has a global U(1) symmetry, we have the usual conserved current of the charged fields, thanks to which the dynamics of the scalar field is not modified by the interactions. We use this fact to consistently quantize the theory even in the presence of interactions. We argue that such a degree of freedom can only be excited by gravitational effects like the inflationary era of the early universe and may play the role of dark energy in the form of an effective cosmological constant whose value is linked to the inflation scale.

Gravitational effects of condensate dark matter on compact stellar objects

We study the gravitational effect of non-self-annihilating dark matter on compact stellar objects. The self-interaction of condensate dark matter can give high accretion rate of dark matter onto stars. Phase transition to condensation state takes place when the dark matter density exceeds the critical value. A compact degenerate dark matter core is developed and alter the structure and stability of the stellar objects. Condensate dark matter admixed neutron stars is studied through the two-fuid TOV equation. The existence of condensate dark matter deforms the mass-radius relation of neutron stars and lower their maximum baryonic masses and radii. The possible effects on the Gamma-ray Burst rate in high redshift are discussed.

Linking accretion flow and particle acceleration in jets. I. New relativistic magnetohydrodynamical jet solutions including gravity

We present a new, approximate method for modelling the acceleration and collimation of relativistic jets in the presence of gravity. This method is self-similar throughout the computational domain where gravitational effects are negligible and, where significant, self-similar within a flux tube. These solutions are applicable to jets launched from a small region (e.g., near the inner edge of an accretion disk). As implied by earlier work, the flow can converge onto the rotation axis, potentially creating a collimation shock. In this first version of the method, we derive the gravitational contribution to the relativistic equations by analogy with non-relativistic flow. This approach captures the relativistic kinetic gravitational mass of the flowing plasma, but not that due to internal thermal and magnetic energies. A more sophisticated treatment, derived from the basic general relativistic magnetohydrodynamical equations, is currently being developed. Here we present an initial exploration of parameter space, describing the effects the model parameters have on flow solutions and the location of the collimation shock. These results provide the groundwork for new, semi-analytic models of relativistic jets which can constrain conditions near the black hole by fitting the jet break seen increasingly in X-ray binaries.

Wide Binary Effects on Asymmetries in Asymptotic Giant Branch Circumstellar Envelopes

Observations of increasingly higher spatial resolution reveal the existence of asymmetries in the circumstellar envelopes of a small fraction of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Although there is no general consensus for their origin, a binary companion star may be responsible. Within this framework, we investigate the gravitational effects associated with a sufficiently wide binary system, where Roche lobe overflow is unimportant, on the outflowing envelopes of AGB stars using three dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The effects due to individual binary components are separately studied, enabling investigation of the stellar and circumstellar characteristics in detail. The reflex motion of the AGB star alters the wind velocity distribution, thereby, determining the overall shape of the outflowing envelope. On the other hand, the interaction of the companion with the envelope produces a gravitational wake, which exhibits a vertically thinner shape. The two patterns overlap and form clumpy structures. To illustrate the diversity of shapes, we present the numerical results as a function of inclination angle. Not only is spiral structure produced by the binary interaction, but arc patterns are also found that represent the former structure when viewed at different inclinations. The arcs reveal a systematic shift of their centers of curvature for cases when the orbital speed of the AGB star is comparable to its wind speed. They take on the shape of a peanut for inclinations nearly edge-on. In the limit of slow orbital motion of the AGB star relative to the wind speed, the arc pattern becomes nearly spherically symmetric. We find that the aspect ratio of the overall oblate shape of the pattern is an important diagnostic probe of the binary as it can be used to constrain the orbital velocity of the AGB star, and moreover the binary mass ratio.

Gyroscopic Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We propose a new framework for multi-field inflation in which a nearly constant potential energy is maintained during inflation before decreasing rapidly, in a manner analogous to a classical top spinning upright for a long time before falling down. We provide the simplest realization of such dynamics as a well-controlled, weakly-coupled effective field theory with a global shift symmetry. Nonperturbative quantum gravitational effects, which break global symmetries, are suppressed in this model. Primordial gravitational waves may be within experimental reach.

Too massive neutron stars: The role of dark matter?

The maximum mass of a neutron star is generally determined by the equation of state of the star material. In this study, we take into account dark matter particles, assumed to behave like fermions with a free parameter to account for the interaction strength among the particles, as a possible constituent of neutron stars. We find dark matter inside the star would soften the equation of state more strongly than that of hyperons, and reduce largely the maximum mass of the star. However, the neutron star maximum mass is sensitive to the particle mass of dark matter, and a very high neutron star mass larger than 2 times solar mass could be achieved when the particle mass is small enough. Such kind of dark-matter- admixed neutron stars could explain the recent measurement of the Shapiro delay in the radio pulsar PSR J1614-2230, which yielded a neutron star mass of 2 times solar mass that may be hardly reached when hyperons are considered only, as in the case of the microscopic Brueckner theory. Furthermore, in this particular case, we point out that the dark matter around a neutron star should also contribute to the mass measurement due to its pure gravitational effect. However, our numerically calculation illustrates that such contribution could be safely ignored because of the usual diluted dark matter environment assumed. We conclude that a very high mass measurement of about 2 times solar mass requires a really stiff equation of state in neutron stars, and find a strong upper limit (<= 0.64 GeV) for the particle mass of non-self- annihilating dark matter based on the present model.

Astrophysical and cosmological probes of dark matter [Replacement]

Dark matter has been introduced to explain mass deficits noted at different astronomical scales, in galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters, superclusters and even across the full horizon. Dark matter makes itself felt only through its gravitational effects. This review summarizes phenomenologically all the astrophysical and cosmological probes that have been used to give evidence for its existence.

Astrophysical and cosmological probes of dark matter

Dark matter has been introduced to explain mass deficits noted at different astronomical scales, in galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters, superclusters and even across the full horizon. Dark matter makes itself felt only through its gravitational effects. This review summarizes phenomenologically all the astrophysical and cosmological probes that have been used to give evidence for its existence.

Astrophysical and cosmological probes of dark matter [Replacement]

Dark matter has been introduced to explain mass deficits noted at different astronomical scales, in galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters, superclusters and even across the full horizon. Dark matter makes itself felt only through its gravitational effects. This review summarizes phenomenologically all the astrophysical and cosmological probes that have been used to give evidence for its existence.

An evidence for indirect detection of dark matter from galaxy clusters in Fermi-LAT data [Replacement]

Firm evidence for the DM existence is coming from various gravitational effects in astrophysics and cosmology. Unfortunately the direct and indirect searches for DM particles have all given either negative or contradictory results. A notable exception to this result is the recent evidence for gamma-ray excess with energy 130 GeV in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. This excess originates predominately from a small region in the Galactic centre and may have a double peak structure. Here we report on searches for spectral features in Fermi-LAT gamma-rays from regions corresponding to nearby galaxy clusters determined by the magnitude of their signal line-of-sight integrals (J-factors). Using recently updated Fermi LAT energy resolution, we observe a double peak-like excess at photon energies 110 GeV and 130 GeV over the diffuse power-law background with global statistical significance up to 3.6\sigma, confirming independently the earlier claims of excess from the Galactic centre. Interpreting this result as a signal of DM annihilations into two channels with monochromatic final-state photons, and fixing the annihilation cross section from Galactic centre data, we determine the annihilation boost factor due to galaxy cluster subhaloes.

Behavior of Jupiter Non-Trojan Co-Orbitals

Searching for the non-Trojan Jupiter co-orbitals we have numerically integrated orbits of 3\,160 asteroids and 24 comets discovered by October 2010 and situated within and close to the planet co-orbital region. Using this sample we have been able to select eight asteroids and three comets and have analyzed their orbital behavior in a great detail. Among them we have identified five new Jupiter co-orbitals: \cu, \sa, \ql, \gh, and \Larsen, as well as we have analyzed six previously identified co-orbitals: \hr, \ug, \qq, \aee, \wc\ and \ar. \cu\ is currently on a quasi-satellite orbit with repeatable transitions into the tadpole state. Similar behavior shows \gh\ which additionally librates in a compound tadpole-quasi-satellite orbit. \ql\ and \Larsen\ are the co-orbitals of Jupiter which are temporarily moving in a horseshoe orbit occasionally interrupted by a quasi-satellite behavior. \sa\ is moving in a pure horseshoe orbit. Orbits of the latter three objects are unstable and according to our calculations, these objects will leave the horseshoe state in a few hundred years. Two asteroids, \qq\ and \aee, are long-lived quasi-satellites of Jupiter. They will remain in this state for a few thousand years at least. The comets \ar\ and \wc\ are also quasi-satellites of Jupiter. However, the non-gravitational effects may be significant in the motion of these comets. We have shown that \wcs\ is moving in a quasi-satellite orbit and will stay in this regime to at least 2500 year. Asteroid \hr\ will be temporarily captured in a quasi-satellite orbit near 2050 and we have identified another one object which shows similar behavior – the asteroid \ug, although, its guiding center encloses the origin, it is not a quasi-satellite. The orbits of these two objects can be accurately calculated for a few hundred years forward and backward.

Planck-scale effects on WIMP dark matter [Cross-Listing]

Weakly Interactive Massive Particles are among the most motivated candidates invoked to solve the Dark Matter puzzle. The stability of Dark Matter (DM) typically results from a global protective symmetry. However, the presence of gravitational effects may cause its explicit breaking. We show that this provides a new source of signal for indirect DM searches as well as the embedding of a large class of decaying Dark Matter models into the WIMP paradigm.

Planck-scale effects on WIMP dark matter [Replacement]

Weakly Interactive Massive Particles are among the most motivated candidates invoked to solve the Dark Matter puzzle. The stability of Dark Matter (DM) typically results from a global protective symmetry. However, the presence of gravitational effects may cause its explicit breaking. We study the presence of such effects on WIMPs and show that in addition to providing a new source of signal for indirect DM searches and an interplay with direct detection, a large class of decaying Dark Matter models can be embedded into the WIMP paradigm. Taking into account the recent limits on DM lifetimes, we show that forbidding only the dimension five (Planck–suppressed) operators is generally sufficient to ensure the validity of the WIMP candidate.

Constraining an Expanding Locally Anisotropic metric from the Pioneer anomaly [Cross-Listing]

It is discussed the possibility of a fine-tuneable contribution to the two way Doppler acceleration either towards, either outwards the Sun for heliocentric distances above 20 AU by considering a background described by an Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) metric. This metric encodes both the standard local Schwarzschild gravitational effects and the cosmological Universe expansion effects allowing simultaneously to fine-tune other gravitational effects at intermediate scales, which may be tentatively interpreted as a covariant parameterization of either cold dark matter either gravitational interaction corrections. Are derived bounds for the ELA metric functional parameter by considering the bounds on the deviation from standard General Relativity imposed by the current updated limits for the Pioneer anomaly, taking in consideration both the natural outgassing and on-board radiation pressure, resulting in an average Doppler acceleration outwards the Sun of a_p = +0.4^{+2.1}_{-2.0} x 10^{-10} (m/s^2). It is also computed the mass-energy density for the ELA metric within the bounds obtained and are discussed the respective contributions to the cosmological mass-energy density which, for compatibility with the Lambda-CDM model, are included in Omega_{CDM}.

Special and General Relativistic Effects in Galactic Rotation Curves

The observed flat rotation curves of galaxies require either the presence of dark matter in Newtonian gravitational potentials or a significant modification to the theory of gravity at galactic scales. Detecting relativistic Doppler shifts and gravitational effects in the rotation curves offers a tool for distinguishing between predictions of gravity theories that modify the inertia of particles and those that modify the field equations. These higher-order effects also allow us in principle, to test whether dark matter particles obey the equivalence principle. We calculate here the magnitudes of the relativistic Doppler and gravitational shifts expected in realistic models of galaxies in a general metric theory of gravity. We identify a number of observable quantities that measure independently the special- and general-relativistic effects in each galaxy and suggest that both effects might be detected in a statistical sense by combining appropriately the rotation curves of a large number of galaxies.

Effects of the Modified Uncertainty Principle on the Inflation Parameters [Cross-Listing]

In this Letter we study the effects of the Modified Uncertainty Principle as proposed in [7] on the inflationary dynamics of the early universe in both standard and Randall-Sundrum type II scenarios. We find that the quantum gravitational effect increase the amplitude of density fluctuation, which is oscillatory in nature, with an increase in the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Effects of the Modified Uncertainty Principle on the Inflation Parameters [Replacement]

In this Letter we study the effects of the Modified Uncertainty Principle as proposed in [8] on the inflationary dynamics of the early universe in both standard and Randall-Sundrum type II scenarios. We find that the quantum gravitational effect increase the amplitude of density fluctuation, which is oscillatory in nature, with an increase in the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

Cosmological Redshift in FRW Metrics with Constant Spacetime Curvature

Cosmological redshift z grows as the Universe expands and is conventionally viewed as a third form of redshift, beyond the more traditional Doppler and gravitational effects seen in other applications of general relativity. In this paper, we examine the origin of redshift in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics with constant spacetime curvature, and show that—at least for the static spacetimes—the interpretation of z as due to the “stretching” of space is coordinate dependent. Namely, we prove that redshift may also be calculated solely from the effects of kinematics and gravitational acceleration. This suggests that its dependence on the expansion factor is simply a manifestation of the high degree of symmetry in FRW, and ought not be viewed as evidence in support of the idea that space itself is expanding.

Spacetime rotation-induced Landau quantization [Cross-Listing]

We investigate non-inertial and gravitational effects on quantum states in electromagnetic fields and present the analytic solution for energy eigenstates for the Schr\”odinger equation including non-inertial, gravitational and electromagnetic effects. We find that in addition to the Landau quantization the rotation of spacetime itself leads to the additional quantization, and that the energy levels for an electron are different from those for a proton at the level of gravitational corrections.

Radial migration of the Sun in galactic disk

Physics of the gravitational effect of the galactic bar and spiral structure is presented. Physical equations differ from the conventionally used equations. Application to the motion of the Sun is treated. The speed of the Sun is taken to be consistent with the Oort constants. Galactic radial migration of the Sun is less than +- 0.4 kpc for the four-armed spiral structure. The Sun remains about 75 % of its existence within galactocentric distances (7.8 – 8.2) kpc and the results are practically independent on the spiral structure strength. Thus, the radial distance changes only within 5 % from the value of 8 kpc. Galactic radial migration of the Sun is less than +- (0.3 – 1.2) kpc, for the two-armed spiral structure. The Sun remains (29 – 95) % of its existence within galactocentric distances (7.8 – 8.2) kpc and the results strongly depend on the spiral structure strength and the angular speed of the spiral arms. The radial distance changes within (3.8 – 15.0) % from the value of 8 kpc. If observational arguments prefer relevant radial migration of the Sun, then the Milky Way is characterized by the two-arm spiral structure.

Gravitational effects of the faraway matter on the rotation curves of spiral galaxies

It was recently shown that in cosmology the gravitational action of faraway matter has quite relevant effects, if retardation of the forces and discreteness of matter (with its spatial correlation) are taken into account. Indeed, far matter was found to exert, on a test particle, a force per unit mass of the order of 0.2 cH0 . It is shown here that such a force can account for the observed rotational velocity curves in spiral galaxies, if the force is assumed to be decorrelated beyond a sufficiently large distance, of the order of 1 kpc. In particular we fit the rotation curves of the galaxies NGC 3198, NGC 2403, UGC 2885 and NGC 4725 without any need of introducing dark matter at all. Two cases of galaxies presenting faster than keplerian decay are also considered.

A WDM model for the evolution of galactic halos

It is a well-known fact that the gravitational effect of dark matter in galaxies is only noticeable when the orbital accelerations drop below $a_0 \simeq 2\times 10^{-8}$ cm s$^{-1}$ (Milgrom’s Law). This peculiarity of the dynamic behaviour of galaxies was initially ascribed to a modification of Newtonian dynamics (MOND theory) and, consequently, it was used as an argument to criticize the dark matter hypothesis. In our model, warm dark matter is composed by collisionless Vlasov particles with a primordial typical velocity $\simeq 330$ km s$^{-1}$ and, consequently, they evaporated from galactic cores and reorganized in halos with a cusp at a finite distance from the galactic center (in contrast with Cold Dark Matter simulations which predict a cusp at the center of galaxies). This is confirmed by mean-field N-body simulations of the self-gravitating Vlasov dark matter particles in the potential well of the baryonic core. The rest mass of these particles, $\mu$, is determined from a kinetic theory of the early universe with a cosmological constant. We find that $\mu$ is in the range of a few keV. This result makes sterile neutrinos the best suited candidates for the main component of dark matter.

Peculiar anisotropic stationary spherically symmetric solution of Einstein equations [Replacement]

Motivated by studies on gravitational lenses, we present an exact solution of the field equations of general relativity, which is static and spherically symmetric, has no mass but has a non-vanishing spacelike components of the stress-energy-momentum tensor. In spite of its strange nature, this solution provides with non-trivial descriptions of gravitational effects. We show that the main aspects found in the \emph{dark matter phenomena} can be satisfactorily described by this geometry. We comment on the relevance it could have to consider non-vanishing spacelike components of the stress-energy-momentum tensor ascribed to dark matter.

Peculiar anisotropic stationary spherically symmetric solution of Einstein equations [Cross-Listing]

Motivated by studies on gravitational lenses, we present an exact solution of the field equations of general relativity, which is static and spherically symmetric, has no mass but has a non-vanishing spacelike components of the stress-energy-momentum tensor. In spite of its strange nature, this solution provides with non-trivial descriptions of gravitational effects. We show that the main aspects found in the \emph{dark matter phenomena} can be satisfactorily described by this geometry. We comment on the relevance it could have to consider non-vanishing spacelike components of the stress-energy-momentum tensor ascribed to dark matter.

Cosmic Super-Strings and Kaluza-Klein Modes [Cross-Listing]

Cosmic super-strings interact generically with a tower of relatively light and / or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. In this paper, we study the production of spin-2 KK particles by cusps on loops of cosmic F- and D-strings. We consider cosmic super-strings localized either at the bottom of a warped throat or in a flat internal space with large volume. The total energy emitted by cusps in KK modes is of the same order of magnitude in both cases, although the number of produced KK modes may differ significantly. The calculation lies within the regime of validity of the effective Nambu-Goto description, but the energy emitted in KK modes is comparable to the energy released in scalar and gauge fields by cusp annihilation on standard Abelian-Higgs cosmic strings. Nevertheless, KK emission by cosmic super-strings may have specific cosmological consequences. We show that it is constrained by the diffuse gamma ray background and by the photo-dissociation of light elements, in ranges of string tensions that are complementary to the ones that can be probed through the strings’ gravitational effects. For instance, in the case of large initial loop sizes ($\alpha \sim 0.1$) and when the loop number density is inversely proportional to the reconnection probability $p$, we find that these constraints rule out cosmic super-strings with tensions $\mu$ in the ranges $10^{-15} p^2 < G \mu < 10^{-14}$ for $p \sim 0.001 – 1$. Combined with the upper bounds on the string tension from pulsar observations, this leaves relatively little room for cosmic super-strings with small reconnection probabilities. KK modes are also expected to play an important role in the friction-dominated epoch of cosmic super-string evolution.

The origin of gas in the Extended Narrow Line Region of nearby Seyfert galaxies.I. NGC 7212

The Extended Narrow Line Region (ENLR) of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is a region of highly ionized gas with a size of few up to 15-20 kpc. When it shows a conical or bi-conical shape with the apexes pointing towards the active nucleus, this region is also called ionization cones. The ionization cones are an evidence of the Unified Model that predicts an anisotropic escape of ionizing photons from the nucleus confined to a cone by a dusty torus. Many details about the complex structure of the ENLR still remain unveiled, as for example the origin of the ionized gas. Here we present new results of a study of the physical and kinematical properties of the circumnuclear gas in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7212. Medium and high resolution integral field spectra and broad-band photometric data were collected and analysed in the frame of an observational campaign of nearby Seyfert galaxies, aiming to handle the complicated issue of the origin of the gas in the ENLR. This work is based on: (i) analysis of gas physical properties (density, temperature and metallicity), (ii) analysis of emission line ratios, and (iii) study of kinematics of gas and stars. By reconstructing the [O III]/Hbeta ionization map, we pointed out for the first time the presence of an ionization cone extended up to about 6 kpc, made by a large amount of low metallicity gas, kinematically disturbed and decoupled from stars, whose highly ionized component shows radial motions at multiple velocities proved by the complex profiles of the specral lines. Since NGC 7212 is a strongly interacting triple galaxy system, the gravitational effects are likely to be at the origin of the ENLR in this Seyfert galaxy.

Recent star formation history of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

We traced the age of the last star formation event (LSFE) in the inner Large & Small Magellanic Cloud (L&SMC) using the photometric data from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) and the Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS). The LSFE is estimated from the main-sequence turn off point in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of a region. Extinction corrected turn off magnitude is converted to age, which represents the LSFE in a region. The spatial map of the LSFE age shows that the star formation has shrunk to the central regions in the last 100Myr in both the galaxies. The location and age of LSFE is found to correlate well with those of the star cluster in both the Clouds. The SMC map shows two separate concentrations of young star formation. We detect peaks of star formation at 0-10, 90-100Myr in the LMC, and 0-10, 50- 60Myr in the SMC. The quenching of star formation in the LMC is found to be asymmetric with respect to the optical center such that most of the young star forming regions are located to the north and east. On deprojecting the data on the LMC plane, the recent star formation appears to be stretched in the north-east direction and the HI gas is found to be distributed preferentially in the North. The centroid is found to shift to north in 200-40Myr, and to north-east in the last 40Myr. In the SMC, we detect a shift in centroid of population of 500-40Myr in the direction of the LMC. We propose that the HI gas in the LMC is pulled to the north of the LMC in the last 200Myr due to the gravitational attraction of our Galaxy at the time of perigalactic passage. The shifted HI gas is preferentially compressed in the north during 200-40Myr and in the north-east in the last 40Myr, due to the motion of the LMC in the Galactic halo. The recent star formation in the SMC is due to the combined gravitational effect of the LMC and the perigalactic passage.

Small particles in Pluto's environment: effects of the solar radiation pressure

Impacts of micrometeoroids on the surfaces of Nix and Hydra can produced dust particles and form a ring around Pluto. However, dissipative forces, such as the solar radiation pressure, can lead the particles into collisions in a very short period of time. In this work we investigate the orbital evolution of escaping ejecta under the effects of the radiation pressure force combined with the gravitational effects of Pluto,Charon, Nix and Hydra. The mass production rate from the surfaces of Nix and Hydra was obtained from analytical models. By comparing the lifetime of the survived particles, derived from our numerical simulations, and the mass of a putative ring mainly formed by the particles released from the surfaces of Nix and Hydra we could estimate the ring normal optical depth. The released particles, encompassing the orbits of Nix and Hydra, temporarily form a 16000 km wide ring. Collisions with the massive bodies, mainly due to the effects of the radiation pressure force, remove about 50% of the $1\mu$m particles in 1 year. A tenuous ring with a normal optical depth of $6 \times 10^{-11}$ can be maintained by the dust particles released from the surfaces of Nix and Hydra.

Small particles in Pluto's environment: effects of the solar radiation pressure [Replacement]

Impacts of micrometeoroids on the surfaces of Nix and Hydra can produced dust particles and form a ring around Pluto. However, dissipative forces, such as the solar radiation pressure, can lead the particles into collisions in a very short period of time. In this work we investigate the orbital evolution of escaping ejecta under the effects of the radiation pressure force combined with the gravitational effects of Pluto,Charon, Nix and Hydra. The mass production rate from the surfaces of Nix and Hydra was obtained from analytical models. By comparing the lifetime of the survived particles, derived from our numerical simulations, and the mass of a putative ring mainly formed by the particles released from the surfaces of Nix and Hydra we could estimate the ring normal optical depth. The released particles, encompassing the orbits of Nix and Hydra, temporarily form a 16000 km wide ring. Collisions with the massive bodies, mainly due to the effects of the radiation pressure force, remove about 50% of the $1\mu$m particles in 1 year. A tenuous ring with a normal optical depth of $6 \times 10^{-11}$ can be maintained by the dust particles released from the surfaces of Nix and Hydra.

Radiation-hydrodynamical modelling of Core-Collapse Supernovae: light curves and the evolution of photospheric velocity and temperature

We have developed a relativistic, radiation-hydrodynamics Lagrangian code, specifically tailored to simulate the evolution of the main observables (light curve, evolution of photospheric velocity and temperature) in core-collapse supernova (CC-SN) events. The distinctive features of the code are an accurate treatment of radiative transfer coupled to relativistic hydrodynamics, a self-consistent treatment of the evolution of the innermost ejecta taking into account the gravitational effects of the central compact remnant, and a fully implicit Lagrangian approach to the solution of the coupled non-linear finite difference system of equations. Our aim is to use it as numerical tool to perform calculations of grid of models to be compared with observation of CC-SNe. In this paper we present some testcase simulations and a comparison with observations of SN 1987A, as well as with the results obtained with other numerical codes. We also briefly discuss the influence of the main physical parameters (ejected mass, progenitor radius, explosion energy, amount of \chem{56}{Ni}) on the evolution of the ejecta, and the implications of our results in connection with the possibility to “standardize” hydrogen-rich CC-SNe for using them as candles to measure cosmological distances.

Graviton mass bounds from space-based gravitational-wave observations of massive black hole populations [Replacement]

Space-based gravitational-wave detectors, such as LISA or a similar ESA-led mission, will offer unique opportunities to test general relativity. We study the bounds that space-based detectors could place on the graviton Compton wavelength \lambda_g=h/(m_g c) by observing multiple inspiralling black hole binaries. We show that while observations of individual inspirals will yield mean bounds \lambda_g~3×10^15 km, the combined bound from observing ~50 events in a two-year mission is about ten times better: \lambda_g~3×10^16 km (m_g~4×10^-26 eV). The bound improves faster than the square root of the number of observed events, because typically a few sources provide constraints as much as three times better than the mean. This result is only mildly dependent on details of black hole formation and detector characteristics. The bound achievable in practice should be one order of magnitude better than this figure (and hence almost competitive with the static, model-dependent bounds from gravitational effects on cosmological scales), because our calculations ignore the merger/ringdown portion of the waveform. The observation that an ensemble of events can sensibly improve the bounds that individual binaries set on \lambda_g applies to any theory whose deviations from general relativity are parametrized by a set of global parameters.

Graviton mass bounds from space-based gravitational-wave observations of massive black hole populations [Cross-Listing]

Space-based gravitational-wave detectors, such as LISA or a similar ESA-led mission, will offer unique opportunities to test general relativity. We study the bounds that space-based detectors could place on the graviton Compton wavelength \lambda_g=h/(m_g c) by observing multiple inspiralling black hole binaries. We show that while observations of individual inspirals will yield mean bounds \lambda_g~3×10^15 km, the combined bound from observing several events in a two-year mission is about ten times better: \lambda_g~3×10^16 km (m_g~4×10^-26 eV). This result is only mildly dependent on details of black hole formation and detector characteristics. The bound achievable in practice should be one order of magnitude better than this figure (and hence almost competitive with the static, model-dependent bounds from gravitational effects on cosmological scales), because our calculations ignore the merger/ringdown portion of the waveform. The observation that an ensemble of events can sensibly improve the bounds that individual binaries set on \lambda_g applies to any theory whose deviations from general relativity are parametrized by a set of global parameters.

Odyssey 2 : A mission toward Neptune and Triton to test General Relativity [Cross-Listing]

Odyssey 2 will be proposed in December 2010 for the next call of M3 missions for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. This mission, under a Phase 0 study performed by CNES, will aim at Neptune and Triton. Two sets of objectives will be pursued. The first one is to perform a set of gravitation experiments at the Solar System scale. Experimental tests of gravitation have always shown good agreement with General Relativity. There are however drivers to continue testing General Relativity, and to do so at the largest possible scales. From a theoretical point of view, Einstein’s theory of gravitation shows inconsistencies with a quantum description of Nature and unified theories predict deviations from General Relativity. From an observational point of view, as long as dark matter and dark energy are not observed through other means than their gravitational effects, they can be considered as a manifestation of a modification of General Relativity at cosmic scales. The scientific objectives are to: (i) test the gravitation law at the Solar System scale; (ii) measure the Eddington parameter; and (iii) investigate the navigation anomalies during fly-bys. To fulfil these objectives, the following components are to be on board the spacecraft: (i) the Gravity Advanced Package (GAP), which is an electrostatic accelerometer to which a rotating stage is added; (ii) radio-science; (iii) laser ranging, to improve significantly the measure of the Eddington parameter. The second set of objectives is to enhance our knowledge of Neptune and Triton. Several instruments dedicated to planetology are foreseen: camera, spectrometer, dust and particle detectors, and magnetometer. Depending on the ones kept, the mission could provide information on the gravity field, the atmosphere and the magnetosphere of the two bodies as well as on the surface geology of Triton and on the nature of the planetary rings around Neptune.

Quantum fluctuations in planar domain-wall space-times: A possible origin of primordial preferred direction [Replacement]

We study the gravitational effects of a planar domain wall on quantum fluctuations of a massless scalar field during inflation. By obtaining an exact solution of the scalar field equation in de Sitter space, we show that the gravitational effects of the domain wall break the rotational invariance of the primordial power spectrum without affecting the translational invariance. The strength of rotational violation is determined by one dimensionless parameter $\beta$, which is a function of two physical parameters, the domain wall surface tension $\sigma$ and cosmological constant $\Lambda$. In the limit of small $\beta$, the leading effect of rotational violation of the primordial power spectrum is scale-invariant.

Quantum fluctuations in planar domain-wall space-times: A possible origin of primordial preferred direction [Replacement]

We study the gravitational effects of a planar domain wall on quantum fluctuations of a massless scalar field during inflation. By obtaining an exact solution of the scalar field equation in de Sitter space, we show that the gravitational effects of the domain wall break the rotational invariance of the primordial power spectrum without affecting the translational invariance. The strength of rotational violation is determined by one dimensionless parameter $\beta$, which is a function of two physical parameters, the domain wall surface tension $\sigma$ and cosmological constant $\Lambda$. In the limit of small $\beta$, the leading effect of rotational violation of the primordial power spectrum is scale-invariant.

Quantum fluctuations in planar domain-wall space-times: A possible origin of primordial preferred direction [Cross-Listing]

We study the gravitational effects of a planar domain wall on quantum fluctuations of a massless scalar field during inflation. By obtaining an exact solution of the scalar field equation in de Sitter space, we show that the gravitational effects of the domain wall break the rotational invariance of the primordial power spectrum without affecting the translational invariance. The strength of rotational violation is determined by one dimensionless parameter $\beta$, which is a function of two physical parameters, the domain wall surface tension $\sigma$ and cosmological constant $\Lambda$. In the limit of small $\beta$, the leading effect of rotational violation of the primordial power spectrum is scale-invariant.

Oscillons After Inflation

Oscillons are massive, long-lived, localized excitations of a scalar field. We show that in a large class of well-motivated single-field models, inflation is followed by self-resonance, leading to copious oscillon generation and a lengthy period of oscillon domination. These models are characterized by an inflaton potential which has a quadratic minimum and is shallower than quadratic away from the minimum. This set includes both string monodromy models and a class of supergravity inspired scenarios, and is in good agreement with the current central values of the concordance cosmology parameters. We assume that the inflaton is weakly coupled to other fields, so as not to quickly drain energy from the oscillons or prevent them from forming. An oscillon-dominated universe has a greatly enhanced primordial power spectrum on very small scales relative to that seen with a quadratic potential, possibly leading to novel gravitational effects in the early universe.

Oscillons After Inflation [Replacement]

Oscillons are massive, long-lived, localized excitations of a scalar field. We show that in a large class of well-motivated single-field models, inflation is followed by self-resonance, leading to copious oscillon generation and a lengthy period of oscillon domination. These models are characterized by an inflaton potential which has a quadratic minimum and is shallower than quadratic away from the minimum. This set includes both string monodromy models and a class of supergravity inspired scenarios, and is in good agreement with the current central values of the concordance cosmology parameters. We assume that the inflaton is weakly coupled to other fields, so as not to quickly drain energy from the oscillons or prevent them from forming. An oscillon-dominated universe has a greatly enhanced primordial power spectrum on very small scales relative to that seen with a quadratic potential, possibly leading to novel gravitational effects in the early universe.

Hydrodynamic Interaction between the Be Star and the Pulsar in the TeV Binary PSR B1259-63/LS 2883

We study the interaction between the Be star and the pulsar in the TeV binary PSR B1259-63/LS 2883, using 3-D SPH simulations of the tidal and wind interactions in this Be-pulsar system. We first run a simulation without pulsar wind nor Be wind, taking into account only the gravitational effect of the pulsar on the Be disk. In this simulation, the gas particles are ejected at a constant rate from the equatorial surface of the Be star, which is tilted in a direction consistent with multi-waveband observations. We run the simulation until the Be disk is fully developed and starts to repeat a regular tidal interaction with the pulsar. Then, we turn on the pulsar wind and the Be wind. Given the uncertainty about the spectral type of the Be star in this system, we run two simulations with different wind mass-loss rates for the Be star, one for a conventional B2V type and the other for a significantly earlier spectral type. Although the global shape of the interaction surface between the pulsar wind and the Be wind agrees with the analytical solution, the effect of the pulsar wind on the Be disk is profound. In both simulations, the pulsar wind strips off an outer part of the Be disk on the side of the pulsar, truncating the disk at a radius significantly smaller than the pulsar orbit. Our results, therefore, rule out the idea that the pulsar passes through the Be disk around periastron, which has been assumed in the previous studies. It also turns out that the location of the contact discontinuity can be significantly different between phases when the pulsar wind directly hits the Be disk and those when the pulsar wind collides with the Be wind. It is thus important to adequately take into account the circumstellar environment of the Be star, in order to construct a satisfactory model for this prototypical TeV binary, and models for TeV binaries with Be stars, in general.

Hydrodynamic Interaction between the Be Star and the Pulsar in the TeV Binary PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 [Replacement]

We study the interaction between the Be star and the pulsar in the TeV binary PSR B1259-63/LS 2883, using 3-D SPH simulations of the tidal and wind interactions in this Be-pulsar system. We first run a simulation without pulsar wind nor Be wind, taking into account only the gravitational effect of the pulsar on the Be disk. In this simulation, the gas particles are ejected at a constant rate from the equatorial surface of the Be star, which is tilted in a direction consistent with multi-waveband observations. We run the simulation until the Be disk is fully developed and starts to repeat a regular tidal interaction with the pulsar. Then, we turn on the pulsar wind and the Be wind. We run two simulations with different wind mass-loss rates for the Be star, one for a B2V type and the other for a significantly earlier spectral type. Although the global shape of the interaction surface between the pulsar wind and the Be wind agrees with the analytical solution, the effect of the pulsar wind on the Be disk is profound. The pulsar wind strips off an outer part of the Be disk, truncating the disk at a radius significantly smaller than the pulsar orbit. Our results, therefore, rule out the idea that the pulsar passes through the Be disk around periastron, which has been assumed in the previous studies. It also turns out that the location of the contact discontinuity can be significantly different between phases when the pulsar wind directly hits the Be disk and those when the pulsar wind collides with the Be wind. It is thus important to adequately take into account the circumstellar environment of the Be star, in order to construct a satisfactory model for this prototypical TeV binary.

Neutrino Halos in Clusters of Galaxies and their Weak Lensing Signature

We study whether non-linear gravitational effects of relic neutrinos on the development of clustering and large-scale structure may be observable by weak gravitational lensing. We compute the density profile of relic massive neutrinos in a spherical model of a cluster of galaxies, for several neutrino mass schemes and cluster masses. Relic neutrinos add a small perturbation to the mass profile, making it more extended in the outer parts. In principle, this non-linear neutrino perturbation is detectable in an all-sky weak lensing survey such as EUCLID by averaging the shear profile of a large fraction of the visible massive clusters in the universe, or from its signature in the general weak lensing power spectrum or its cross-spectrum with galaxies. However, correctly modeling the distribution of mass in baryons and cold dark matter and suppressing any systematic errors to the accuracy required for detecting this neutrino perturbation is severely challenging.

Dark Matter Search Experiments

Astronomical and cosmological observations of the past 80 years build solid evidence that atomic matter makes up only a small fraction of the matter in the universe. The dominant fraction does not interact with electromagnetic radiation, does not absorb or emit light and hence is called Dark Matter. So far dark matter has revealed its existence only through gravitational effects. The strongest experimental effort to find other evidence and learn more about the nature of the dark matter particles concentrates around Weakly Interacting Massive Particles which are among the best motivated dark matter candidates. The two main groups of experiments in this field aim for indirect detection through annihilation products and direct detection via interactions with atomic matter respectively. The experimental sensitivity is starting to reach the parameter range which is preferred by theoretical considerations and we can expect to confirm or dismiss some of the most interesting theoretical models in the next few years.

Constraining the Milky Way Dark Matter Density Profile with Gamma-Rays with Fermi-LAT

We study the abilities of the Fermi-LAT instrument on board of the Fermi mission to simultaneously constrain the Milky Way dark matter density profile and some dark matter particle properties, as annihilation cross section, mass and branching ratio into dominant annihilation channels. A single dark matter density profile is commonly assumed to determine the capabilities of gamma-ray experiments to extract dark matter properties or to set limits on them. However, our knowledge of the Milky Way halo is far from perfect, and thus in general, the obtained results are too optimistic. Here, we study the effect these astrophysical uncertainties would have on the determination of dark matter particle properties and conversely, we show how gamma-ray searches could also be used to learn about the structure of the Milky Way halo, as a complementary tool to other type of observational data that study the gravitational effect caused by the presence of dark matter. In addition, we also show how these results would improve if external information on the annihilation cross section and on the local dark matter density were included and compare our results with the predictions from numerical simulations.

Constraining the Milky Way Dark Matter Density Profile with Gamma-Rays with Fermi-LAT [Replacement]

We study the abilities of the Fermi-LAT instrument on board of the Fermi mission to simultaneously constrain the Milky Way dark matter density profile and some dark matter particle properties, as annihilation cross section, mass and branching ratio into dominant annihilation channels. A single dark matter density profile is commonly assumed to determine the capabilities of gamma-ray experiments to extract dark matter properties or to set limits on them. However, our knowledge of the Milky Way halo is far from perfect, and thus in general, the obtained results are too optimistic. Here, we study the effect these astrophysical uncertainties would have on the determination of dark matter particle properties and conversely, we show how gamma-ray searches could also be used to learn about the structure of the Milky Way halo, as a complementary tool to other type of observational data that study the gravitational effect caused by the presence of dark matter. In addition, we also show how these results would improve if external information on the annihilation cross section and on the local dark matter density were included and compare our results with the predictions from numerical simulations.

 

You need to log in to vote

The blog owner requires users to be logged in to be able to vote for this post.

Alternatively, if you do not have an account yet you can create one here.

Powered by Vote It Up

^ Return to the top of page ^