Posts Tagged gravitational action

Recent Postings from gravitational action

Gravitational action with null boundaries [Cross-Listing]

We present a complete discussion of the boundary term in the action functional of general relativity when the boundary includes null segments in addition to the more usual timelike and spacelike segments. We confirm that ambiguities appear in the contribution from a null segment, because it depends on an arbitrary choice of parametrization for the generators. We also show that similar ambiguities appear in the contribution from a codimension-two surface at which a null segment is joined to another (spacelike, timelike, or null) segment. The parametrization ambiguity can be tamed by insisting that the null generators be affinely parametrized; this forces each null contribution to the boundary action to vanish, but leaves intact the fredom to rescale the affine parameter by a constant factor on each generator. Once a choice of parametrization is made, the ambiguity in the joint contributions can be eliminated by formulating well-motivated rules that ensure the additivity of the gravitational action. Enforcing these rules, we calculate the time rate of change of the action when it is evaluated for a so-called "Wheeler-deWitt patch" of a black hole in asymptotically-anti de Sitter space. We recover a number of results cited in the literature, obtained with a less complete analysis.

Gravitational action with null boundaries

We present a complete discussion of the boundary term in the action functional of general relativity when the boundary includes null segments in addition to the more usual timelike and spacelike segments. We confirm that ambiguities appear in the contribution from a null segment, because it depends on an arbitrary choice of parametrization for the generators. We also show that similar ambiguities appear in the contribution from a codimension-two surface at which a null segment is joined to another (spacelike, timelike, or null) segment. The parametrization ambiguity can be tamed by insisting that the null generators be affinely parametrized; this forces each null contribution to the boundary action to vanish, but leaves intact the fredom to rescale the affine parameter by a constant factor on each generator. Once a choice of parametrization is made, the ambiguity in the joint contributions can be eliminated by formulating well-motivated rules that ensure the additivity of the gravitational action. Enforcing these rules, we calculate the time rate of change of the action when it is evaluated for a so-called "Wheeler-deWitt patch" of a black hole in asymptotically-anti de Sitter space. We recover a number of results cited in the literature, obtained with a less complete analysis.

2D quantum gravity on compact Riemann surfaces with non-conformal matter

We study the gravitational action induced by coupling two-dimensional non-conformal, massive matter to gravity on a compact Riemann surface. We express this gravitational action in terms of finite and well-defined quantities for any value of the mass. A small-mass expansion gives back the Liouville action in the massless limit, the Mabuchi and Aubin-Yau actions to first order, as well as an infinite series of higher-order contributions written in terms of purely geometric quantities.

2D quantum gravity on compact Riemann surfaces with non-conformal matter [Replacement]

We study the gravitational action induced by coupling two-dimensional non-conformal, massive matter to gravity on a compact Riemann surface. We express this gravitational action in terms of finite and well-defined quantities for any value of the mass. A small-mass expansion gives back the Liouville action in the massless limit, the Mabuchi and Aubin-Yau actions to first order, as well as an infinite series of higher-order contributions written in terms of purely geometric quantities.

Do we really live in four or in higher dimensions? [Cross-Listing]

In Einstein gravity, gravitational potential goes as $1/r^{d-3}$ in $d$ spacetime dimensions, which assumes the familiar $1/r$ form in four dimensions. On the other hand, it goes as $1/r^\alpha$ with $\alpha=(d-2m-1)/m$ in \emph{pure Lovelock gravity} involving only one $m$th order term of the Lovelock polynomial in the gravitational action. The latter offers a novel possibility of having $1/r$ potential for the dimension spectrum given by $d=3m+1$. Thus it turns out that in the two prototype gravitational settings of isolated objects like black holes and the universe as a whole -- cosmological models, there is \emph{no way to distinguish} between Einstein in four and $m$th order pure Lovelock in $3m+1$ dimensions, i.e., in particular $m=1$ four dimensional Einstein and $m=2$ seven dimensional pure Gauss-Bonnet gravity. As envisaged in higher dimensional theory, all matter fields, e.g., Electromagnetic field, remain confined to the usual four dimensions while gravity is however free to propagate in higher dimensions. But it cannot distinguish between any two members of the dimension spectrum, then one wonders, do we really live in four or in higher dimensions?

Do we really live in four or in higher dimensions?

In Einstein gravity, gravitational potential goes as $1/r^{d-3}$ in $d$ spacetime dimensions, which assumes the familiar $1/r$ form in four dimensions. On the other hand, it goes as $1/r^\alpha$ with $\alpha=(d-2m-1)/m$ in \emph{pure Lovelock gravity} involving only one $m$th order term of the Lovelock polynomial in the gravitational action. The latter offers a novel possibility of having $1/r$ potential for the dimension spectrum given by $d=3m+1$. Thus it turns out that in the two prototype gravitational settings of isolated objects like black holes and the universe as a whole -- cosmological models, there is \emph{no way to distinguish} between Einstein in four and $m$th order pure Lovelock in $3m+1$ dimensions, i.e., in particular $m=1$ four dimensional Einstein and $m=2$ seven dimensional pure Gauss-Bonnet gravity. As envisaged in higher dimensional theory, all matter fields, e.g., Electromagnetic field, remain confined to the usual four dimensions while gravity is however free to propagate in higher dimensions. But it cannot distinguish between any two members of the dimension spectrum, then one wonders, do we really live in four or in higher dimensions?

A Unified Evolution of the Universe

We present a unified evolution of the universe from very early times until the present epoch by including both the leading local correction $R^2$ and the leading non-local term $R\frac{1}{\square^2}R$ to the classical gravitational action. We find that the inflationary phase driven by $R^2$ term gracefully exits in a transitory regime characterized by coherent oscillations of the Hubble parameter. The universe then naturally enters into a radiation dominated epoch followed by a matter dominated era. At sufficiently late times after radiation-matter equality, the non-local term starts to dominate inducing an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We further exhibit the fact that both the leading local and non-local terms can be obtained within the covariant effective field theory of gravity. Our scenario thus provides a unified picture of inflation and dark energy in a single framework by means of a purely gravitational action without the usual need of a scalar field.

A Unified Evolution of the Universe [Replacement]

We present a unified evolution of the universe from very early times until the present epoch by including both the leading local correction $R^2$ and the leading non-local term $R\frac{1}{\square^2}R$ to the classical gravitational action. We find that the inflationary phase driven by $R^2$ term gracefully exits in a transitory regime characterized by coherent oscillations of the Hubble parameter. The universe then naturally enters into a radiation dominated epoch followed by a matter dominated era. At sufficiently late times after radiation-matter equality, the non-local term starts to dominate inducing an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We further exhibit the fact that both the leading local and non-local terms can be obtained within the covariant effective field theory of gravity. Our scenario thus provides a unified picture of inflation and dark energy in a single framework by means of a purely gravitational action without the usual need of a scalar field.

Exact Scalar-Tensor Cosmological Solutions via Noether Symmetry [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we investigate the Noether symmetries of a generalized scalar-tensor, Brans-Dicke type cosmological model, in which we consider explicit scalar field dependent couplings to the Ricci scalar, and to the scalar field kinetic energy, respectively. We also include the scalar field self-interaction potential into the gravitational action. From the condition of the vanishing of the Lie derivative of the gravitational cosmological Lagrangian with respect to a given vector field we obtain three cosmological solutions describing the time evolution of a spatially flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker Universe filled with a scalar field. The cosmological properties of the solutions are investigated in detail, and it is shown that they can describe a large variety of cosmological evolutions, including models that experience a smooth transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase.

Exact Scalar-Tensor Cosmological Solutions via Noether Symmetry

In this paper, we investigate the Noether symmetries of a generalized scalar-tensor, Brans-Dicke type cosmological model, in which we consider explicit scalar field dependent couplings to the Ricci scalar, and to the scalar field kinetic energy, respectively. We also include the scalar field self-interaction potential into the gravitational action. From the condition of the vanishing of the Lie derivative of the gravitational cosmological Lagrangian with respect to a given vector field we obtain three cosmological solutions describing the time evolution of a spatially flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker Universe filled with a scalar field. The cosmological properties of the solutions are investigated in detail, and it is shown that they can describe a large variety of cosmological evolutions, including models that experience a smooth transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase.

Relativistic Stars in dRGT Massive Gravity [Replacement]

We study relativistic stars in the simplest model of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity which describes the massive graviton without ghost propagating mode. We consider the hydrostatic equilibrium, and obtain the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the constraint equation coming from the potential terms in the gravitational action. We give analytical and numerical results for quark and neutron stars and discuss the deviations compared with General Relativity and $F(R)$ gravity. It is shown that theory under investigation leads to small deviation from the General Relativity in terms of density profiles and mass-radius relation. Nevertheless, such deviation may be observable in future astrophysical probes.

Relativistic Stars in dRGT Massive Gravity [Replacement]

We study relativistic stars in the simplest model of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity which describes the massive graviton without ghost propagating mode. We consider the hydrostatic equilibrium, and obtain the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the constraint equation coming from the potential terms in the gravitational action. We give analytical and numerical results for quark and neutron stars and discuss the deviations compared with General Relativity and $F(R)$ gravity. It is shown that theory under investigation leads to small deviation from the General Relativity in terms of density profiles and mass-radius relation. Nevertheless, such deviation may be observable in future astrophysical probes.

Relativistic Stars in dRGT Massive Gravity [Replacement]

We study relativistic stars in the simplest model of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity which describes the massive graviton without ghost propagating mode. We consider the hydrostatic equilibrium, and obtain the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the constraint equation coming from the potential terms in the gravitational action. We give analytical and numerical results for quark and neutron stars and discuss the deviations compared with General Relativity and $F(R)$ gravity. It is shown that theory under investigation leads to small deviation from the General Relativity in terms of density profiles and mass-radius relation. Nevertheless, such deviation may be observable in future astrophysical probes.

Relativistic Stars in dRGT Massive Gravity

We study relativistic stars in the simplest model of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity which describes the massive graviton without ghost propagating mode. We consider the hydrostatic equilibrium, and obtain the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the constraint equation coming from the potential terms in the gravitational action. We give analytical and numerical results for quark and neutron stars and discuss the deviations compared with General Relativity and $F(R)$ gravity. It is shown that theory under investigation leads to small deviation from the General Relativity in terms of density profiles and mass-radius relation. Nevertheless, such deviation may be observable in future astrophysical probes.

Relativistic Stars in dRGT Massive Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We study relativistic stars in the simplest model of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity which describes the massive graviton without ghost propagating mode. We consider the hydrostatic equilibrium, and obtain the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the constraint equation coming from the potential terms in the gravitational action. We give analytical and numerical results for quark and neutron stars and discuss the deviations compared with General Relativity and $F(R)$ gravity. It is shown that theory under investigation leads to small deviation from the General Relativity in terms of density profiles and mass-radius relation. Nevertheless, such deviation may be observable in future astrophysical probes.

Relativistic Stars in dRGT Massive Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We study relativistic stars in the simplest model of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity which describes the massive graviton without ghost propagating mode. We consider the hydrostatic equilibrium, and obtain the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the constraint equation coming from the potential terms in the gravitational action. We give analytical and numerical results for quark and neutron stars and discuss the deviations compared with General Relativity and $F(R)$ gravity. It is shown that theory under investigation leads to small deviation from the General Relativity in terms of density profiles and mass-radius relation. Nevertheless, such deviation may be observable in future astrophysical probes.

Synchronized helicity oscillations: a link between planetary tides and the solar cycle?

Recent years have seen an increased interest in the question whether the gravitational action of planets could have an influence on the solar dynamo. Without discussing the observational validity of the claimed correlations, we ask for a possible physical mechanism which might link the weak planetary forces with solar dynamo action. We focus on the helicity oscillations which were recently found in simulations of the current-driven, kink-type Tayler instability which is characterized by an m=1 azimuthal dependence. We show how these helicity oscillations can be resonantly excited by some m=2 perturbation that reflects a tidal oscillation. Specifically, we speculate that the 11.07 years tidal oscillation induced by the Venus-Earth-Jupiter system may lead to a 1:1 resonant excitation of the oscillation of the alpha effect. Finally, in the framework of a reduced, zero-dimensional alpha-Omega dynamo model we recover a 22.14 years cycle of the solar dynamo.

Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action [Replacement]

We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action [Replacement]

We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action [Replacement]

We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

G-branes [Cross-Listing]

We introduce a new kind of space-filling brane, which we term G-brane because its action is a descendant of the gravitational action. The G-brane is different from the Dirac or Nambu space-filling branes, and has interesting formal properties in any spacetime dimension D, which are exhibited. For D greater or equal than three, the G-brane possesses only gauge degrees of freedom, just as the Dirac or Nambu branes. For D=3 the G-brane yields a reformulation of gravitation theory in which the Hamiltonian constraints can be solved explicitly, while keeping the spacetime structure manifest. For D=2 the G-brane provides a realization of the conformal algebra in terms of two scalar fields and their conjugates, which possesses a classical central charge. In the G-brane reformulation of (2+1) gravity, the boundary degrees of freedom of the gravitational field in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter space appear as "matter" coupled to the (1+1) G-brane on the boundary.

Space-filling branes of gravitational ancestry [Replacement]

We introduce a new kind of space-filling brane, which we term "G-brane" because its action is a descendant of the gravitational action. The G-brane may be thought of as the remanent of the gravitational field when the propagating gravitons are removed. The G-brane is different from the Dirac or Nambu space-filling branes. Its properties in any spacetime dimension D are exhibited. When the spacetime dimension D is greater than or equal to three, the G-brane does not possess propagating degrees of freedom, just as the Dirac or Nambu branes. For D=3 the G-brane yields a reformulation of gravitation theory in which the Hamiltonian constraints can be solved explicitly, while keeping the spacetime structure manifest. For D=2 the G-brane provides a realization of the conformal algebra, i.e. a conformal field theory, in terms of two scalar fields and their conjugates, which possesses a classical central charge. In the G-brane reformulation of (2+1) gravity, the boundary degrees of freedom of the gravitational field in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space appear as "matter" coupled to the (1+1) G-brane on the boundary.

G-branes

We introduce a new kind of space-filling brane, which we term G-brane because its action is a descendant of the gravitational action. The G-brane is different from the Dirac or Nambu space-filling branes, and has interesting formal properties in any spacetime dimension D, which are exhibited. For D greater or equal than three, the G-brane possesses only gauge degrees of freedom, just as the Dirac or Nambu branes. For D=3 the G-brane yields a reformulation of gravitation theory in which the Hamiltonian constraints can be solved explicitly, while keeping the spacetime structure manifest. For D=2 the G-brane provides a realization of the conformal algebra in terms of two scalar fields and their conjugates, which possesses a classical central charge. In the G-brane reformulation of (2+1) gravity, the boundary degrees of freedom of the gravitational field in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter space appear as "matter" coupled to the (1+1) G-brane on the boundary.

Space-filling branes of gravitational ancestry [Replacement]

We introduce a new kind of space-filling brane, which we term "G-brane" because its action is a descendant of the gravitational action. The G-brane may be thought of as the remanent of the gravitational field when the propagating gravitons are removed. The G-brane is different from the Dirac or Nambu space-filling branes. Its properties in any spacetime dimension D are exhibited. When the spacetime dimension D is greater than or equal to three, the G-brane does not possess propagating degrees of freedom, just as the Dirac or Nambu branes. For D=3 the G-brane yields a reformulation of gravitation theory in which the Hamiltonian constraints can be solved explicitly, while keeping the spacetime structure manifest. For D=2 the G-brane provides a realization of the conformal algebra, i.e. a conformal field theory, in terms of two scalar fields and their conjugates, which possesses a classical central charge. In the G-brane reformulation of (2+1) gravity, the boundary degrees of freedom of the gravitational field in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space appear as "matter" coupled to the (1+1) G-brane on the boundary.

Space-filling branes of gravitational ancestry [Replacement]

We introduce a new kind of space-filling brane, which we term "G-brane" because its action is a descendant of the gravitational action. The G-brane may be thought of as the remanent of the gravitational field when the propagating gravitons are removed. The G-brane is different from the Dirac or Nambu space-filling branes. Its properties in any spacetime dimension D are exhibited. When the spacetime dimension D is greater than or equal to three, the G-brane does not possess propagating degrees of freedom, just as the Dirac or Nambu branes. For D=3 the G-brane yields a reformulation of gravitation theory in which the Hamiltonian constraints can be solved explicitly, while keeping the spacetime structure manifest. For D=2 the G-brane provides a realization of the conformal algebra, i.e. a conformal field theory, in terms of two scalar fields and their conjugates, which possesses a classical central charge. In the G-brane reformulation of (2+1) gravity, the boundary degrees of freedom of the gravitational field in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space appear as "matter" coupled to the (1+1) G-brane on the boundary.

String duality transformations in $f(R)$ gravity from Noether symmetry approach [Replacement]

We select $f(R)$ gravity models that undergo scale factor duality transformations. As a starting point, we consider the tree-level effective gravitational action of bosonic String Theory coupled with the dilaton field. This theory inherits the Busher's duality of its parent String Theory. Using conformal transformations of the metric tensor, it is possible to map the tree-level dilaton-graviton string effective action into $f(R)$ gravity, relating the dilaton field to the Ricci scalar curvature. Furthermore, the duality can be framed under the standard of Noether symmetries and exact cosmological solutions are derived. Using suitable changes of variables, the string-based $f(R)$ Lagrangians are shown in cases where the duality transformation becomes a parity inversion.

String duality transformations in $f(R)$ gravity from Noether symmetry approach [Replacement]

We select $f(R)$ gravity models that undergo scale factor duality transformations. As a starting point, we consider the tree-level effective gravitational action of bosonic String Theory coupled with the dilaton field. This theory inherits the Busher's duality of its parent String Theory. Using conformal transformations of the metric tensor, it is possible to map the tree-level dilaton-graviton string effective action into $f(R)$ gravity, relating the dilaton field to the Ricci scalar curvature. Furthermore, the duality can be framed under the standard of Noether symmetries and exact cosmological solutions are derived. Using suitable changes of variables, the string-based $f(R)$ Lagrangians are shown in cases where the duality transformation becomes a parity inversion.

String duality transformations in $f(R)$ gravity from Noether symmetry approach

We select $f(R)$ gravity models that undergo scale factor duality transformations. As a starting point, we consider the tree-level effective gravitational action of bosonic String Theory coupled with the dilaton field. This theory inherits the Busher's duality of its parent String Theory. Using conformal transformations of the metric tensor, it is possible to map the effective one-loop bosonic string theory of gravity into $f(R)$ gravity, relating the dilaton field to the Ricci scalar curvature. Furthermore, the duality can be framed under the standard of Noether symmetries and exact cosmological solutions are derived. Using suitable changes of variables, the string-based $f(R)$ Lagrangians are shown in cases where the duality transformation becomes a parity inversion.

String duality transformations in $f(R)$ gravity from Noether symmetry approach [Cross-Listing]

We select $f(R)$ gravity models that undergo scale factor duality transformations. As a starting point, we consider the tree-level effective gravitational action of bosonic String Theory coupled with the dilaton field. This theory inherits the Busher's duality of its parent String Theory. Using conformal transformations of the metric tensor, it is possible to map the effective one-loop bosonic string theory of gravity into $f(R)$ gravity, relating the dilaton field to the Ricci scalar curvature. Furthermore, the duality can be framed under the standard of Noether symmetries and exact cosmological solutions are derived. Using suitable changes of variables, the string-based $f(R)$ Lagrangians are shown in cases where the duality transformation becomes a parity inversion.

Modified gravity in three dimensional metric-affine scenarios

We consider metric-affine scenarios where a modified gravitational action is sourced by electrovacuum fields in a three dimensional space-time. Such scenarios are supported by the physics of crystalline structures with microscopic defects and, in particular, those that can be effectively treated as bi-dimensional (like graphene). We first study the case of $f(R)$ theories, finding deviations near the center as compared to the solutions of General Relativity. We then consider Born-Infeld gravity, which has raised a lot of interest in the last few years regarding its applications in astrophysics and cosmology, and show that new features always arise at a finite distance from the center. Several properties of the resulting space-times, in particular in presence of a cosmological constant term, are discussed.

The quantum, the geon, and the crystal [Cross-Listing]

Effective geometries arising from a hypothetical discrete structure of space-time can play an important role in the understanding of the gravitational physics beyond General Relativity. To discuss this question, we make use of lessons from crystalline systems within solid state physics, where the presence of defects in the discrete microstructure of the crystal determine the kind of effective geometry needed to properly describe the system in the macroscopic continuum limit. In this work we study metric-affine theories with non-metricity and torsion, which are the gravitational analog of crystalline structures with point defects and dislocations. We consider a crystal-motivated gravitational action and show the presence of topologically non-trivial structures (wormholes) supported by an electromagnetic field. Their existence has important implications for the quantum foam picture and the effective gravitational geometries. We discuss how the dialogue between solid state physics systems and modified gravitational theories can provide useful insights on both sides.

The quantum, the geon, and the crystal

Effective geometries arising from a hypothetical discrete structure of space-time can play an important role in the understanding of the gravitational physics beyond General Relativity. To discuss this question, we make use of lessons from crystalline systems within solid state physics, where the presence of defects in the discrete microstructure of the crystal determine the kind of effective geometry needed to properly describe the system in the macroscopic continuum limit. In this work we study metric-affine theories with non-metricity and torsion, which are the gravitational analog of crystalline structures with point defects and dislocations. We consider a crystal-motivated gravitational action and show the presence of topologically non-trivial structures (wormholes) supported by an electromagnetic field. Their existence has important implications for the quantum foam picture and the effective gravitational geometries. We discuss how the dialogue between solid state physics systems and modified gravitational theories can provide useful insights on both sides.

From the early to the late time universe within $f(T,\mathcal{T})$ gravity

In this paper we perform the reconstruction scheme of the gravitational action within $f(T,\mathcal{T})$ gravity, where $T$ and $\mathcal{T}$ denote the torsion scalar and the trace of the energy momentum tensor, respectively. We particularly focus our attention on the case where the algebraic function $f(T,\mathcal{T})$ is decomposed as a sum of two functions $f_1(T)$ and $f_2(\mathcal{T})$, i.e, $f(T,\mathcal{T})=f_{1}(T)+f_{2}(\mathcal{T})$. The description is essentially based on the scale factor and then, we consider two interesting and realistic expressions of this parameter and reconstruct the action corresponding to each phase of the universe. Our results show that some $f(T,\mathcal{T})$ models are able to describe the evolution of the universe from the inflation phase to the late time dark energy dominated phase.

Spin connection as Lorentz gauge field: propagating torsion

We propose a modified gravitational action containing besides the Einstein-Hilbert term some quadratic contributions resembling the Yang-Mills lagrangian for the spin connections. We outline how a propagating torsion arises and we solve explicitly the linearised equations of motion on a Minkowski background. We identify among torsion components six degrees of freedom: one is carried by a pseudo-scalar particle, five by a tachyon field. By adding spinor fields, we point out how only the pseudo-scalar particle couples directly with fermions and we evaluate the associated coupling constant, which is suppressed by the ratio between fermion and Planck masses.

Spin connection as Lorentz gauge field: propagating torsion [Replacement]

We propose a modified gravitational action containing besides the Einstein-Cartan term some quadratic contributions resembling the Yang-Mills lagrangian for the Lorentz spin connections. We outline how a propagating torsion arises and we solve explicitly the linearised equations of motion on a Minkowski background. We identify among torsion components six degrees of freedom: one is carried by a pseudo-scalar particle, five by a tachyon field. By adding spinor fields and neglecting backreaction on the geometry, we point out how only the pseudo-scalar particle couples directly with fermions, but the resulting coupling constant is suppressed by the ratio between fermion and Planck masses. Including backreaction, we demonstrate how the tachyon field provides causality violation in the matter sector, via an interaction mediated by gravitational waves.

Spin Connection and Renormalization of Teleparallel Action

In general relativity, inertia and gravitation are both included in the Levi-Civita connection. As a consequence, the gravitational action, as well as the corresponding energy-momentum density, are always contaminated by spurious contributions coming from the inertial effects. Since these contributions can be removed only quasi-locally, one usually ends up with a quasi-local notion of energy and momentum. In teleparallel gravity, on the other hand, because the spin connection represents inertial effects only, it is possible to separate inertia from gravitation. Relying on this property, it is shown that to each tetrad there is naturally associated a spin connection that locally removes the inertial effects from the action, being thus possible to obtain local notions of energy and momentum. The use of the appropriate spin connection can be viewed as a renormalization process in the sense that the computation of energy and momentum naturally yields the physically relevant values.

Spin Connection and Renormalization of Teleparallel Action [Cross-Listing]

In general relativity, inertia and gravitation are both included in the Levi-Civita connection. As a consequence, the gravitational action, as well as the corresponding energy-momentum density, are always contaminated by spurious contributions coming from the inertial effects. Since these contributions can be removed only quasi-locally, one usually ends up with a quasi-local notion of energy and momentum. In teleparallel gravity, on the other hand, because the spin connection represents inertial effects only, it is possible to separate inertia from gravitation. Relying on this property, it is shown that to each tetrad there is naturally associated a spin connection that locally removes the inertial effects from the action, being thus possible to obtain local notions of energy and momentum. The use of the appropriate spin connection can be viewed as a renormalization process in the sense that the computation of energy and momentum naturally yields the physically relevant values.

Entropy function from the gravitational surface action for an extremal near horizon black hole

It is often argued that all the information of a gravitational theory is encoded in the surface term of the action; which means one can find several physical quantities just from the surface term without incorporating the bulk part of the action. This has been observed in various instances; e.g. derivation of the Einstein's equations, surface term calculated on the horizon leads to entropy, etc. Here I investigate the role of it in the context of entropy function and entropy of extremal near horizon black holes. Considering only the Gibbons-Hawking-York (GHY) surface term to define an entropy function for the extremal near horizon black hole solution, it is observed that the extremization of such function leads to the exact value of the horizon entropy. This analysis again supports the previous claim that there exists a "holographic" nature in the gravitational action - surface term contains the information of the bulk.

Entropy function from the gravitational surface action for an extremal near horizon black hole [Cross-Listing]

It is often argued that all the information of a gravitational theory is encoded in the surface term of the action; which means one can find several physical quantities just from the surface term without incorporating the bulk part of the action. This has been observed in various instances; e.g. derivation of the Einstein's equations, surface term calculated on the horizon leads to entropy, etc. Here I investigate the role of it in the context of entropy function and entropy of extremal near horizon black holes. Considering only the Gibbons-Hawking-York (GHY) surface term to define an entropy function for the extremal near horizon black hole solution, it is observed that the extremization of such function leads to the exact value of the horizon entropy. This analysis again supports the previous claim that there exists a "holographic" nature in the gravitational action - surface term contains the information of the bulk.

Gravitational radiation in massless-particle collisions [Cross-Listing]

The angular and frequency characteristics of the gravitational radiation emitted in collisions of massless particles is studied perturbatively in the context of classical General Relativity for small values of the ratio $\alpha\equiv 2 r_S/b$ of the Schwarzschild radius over the impact parameter. The particles are described with their trajectories, while the contribution of the leading nonlinear terms of the gravitational action is also taken into account. The old quantum results are reproduced in the zero frequency limit $\omega\ll 1/b$. The radiation efficiency $\epsilon \equiv E_{\rm rad}/2E$ outside a narrow cone of angle $\alpha$ in the forward and backward directions with respect to the initial particle trajectories is given by $\epsilon \sim \alpha^2$ and is dominated by radiation with characteristic frequency $\omega \sim {\mathcal O}(1/r_S)$.

Gravitational radiation in massless-particle collisions [Replacement]

The angular and frequency characteristics of the gravitational radiation emitted in collisions of massless particles is studied perturbatively in the context of classical General Relativity for small values of the ratio $\alpha\equiv 2 r_S/b$ of the Schwarzschild radius over the impact parameter. The particles are described with their trajectories, while the contribution of the leading nonlinear terms of the gravitational action is also taken into account. The old quantum results are reproduced in the zero frequency limit $\omega\ll 1/b$. The radiation efficiency $\epsilon \equiv E_{\rm rad}/2E$ outside a narrow cone of angle $\alpha$ in the forward and backward directions with respect to the initial particle trajectories is given by $\epsilon \sim \alpha^2$ and is dominated by radiation with characteristic frequency $\omega \sim {\mathcal O}(1/r_S)$.

Gravitational radiation in massless-particle collisions [Replacement]

The angular and frequency characteristics of the gravitational radiation emitted in collisions of massless particles is studied perturbatively in the context of classical General Relativity for small values of the ratio $\alpha\equiv 2 r_S/b$ of the Schwarzschild radius over the impact parameter. The particles are described with their trajectories, while the contribution of the leading nonlinear terms of the gravitational action is also taken into account. The old quantum results are reproduced in the zero frequency limit $\omega\ll 1/b$. The radiation efficiency $\epsilon \equiv E_{\rm rad}/2E$ outside a narrow cone of angle $\alpha$ in the forward and backward directions with respect to the initial particle trajectories is given by $\epsilon \sim \alpha^2$ and is dominated by radiation with characteristic frequency $\omega \sim {\mathcal O}(1/r_S)$.

Gravitational radiation in massless-particle collisions

The angular and frequency characteristics of the gravitational radiation emitted in collisions of massless particles is studied perturbatively in the context of classical General Relativity for small values of the ratio $\alpha\equiv 2 r_S/b$ of the Schwarzschild radius over the impact parameter. The particles are described with their trajectories, while the contribution of the leading nonlinear terms of the gravitational action is also taken into account. The old quantum results are reproduced in the zero frequency limit $\omega\ll 1/b$. The radiation efficiency $\epsilon \equiv E_{\rm rad}/2E$ outside a narrow cone of angle $\alpha$ in the forward and backward directions with respect to the initial particle trajectories is given by $\epsilon \sim \alpha^2$ and is dominated by radiation with characteristic frequency $\omega \sim {\mathcal O}(1/r_S)$.

A Boundary Term for the Gravitational Action with Null Boundaries [Replacement]

Constructing a well-posed variational principle is a non-trivial issue in general relativity. For spacelike and timelike boundaries, one knows that the addition of the Gibbons-Hawking-York (GHY) counter-term will make the variational principle well-defined. This result, however, does not directly generalize to null boundaries on which the 3-metric becomes degenerate. In this work, we address the following question: What is the counter-term that may be added on a null boundary to make the variational principle well-defined? We propose the boundary integral of $2 \sqrt{-g} \left( \Theta+\kappa \right)$ as an appropriate counter-term for a null boundary. We also conduct a preliminary analysis of the variations of the metric on the null boundary and conclude that isolating the degrees of freedom that may be fixed for a well-posed variational principle requires a deeper investigation.

Constraining the gravitational action with CMB tensor anisotropies [Cross-Listing]

We present a complete analysis of the imprint of tensor anisotropies on the Cosmic Microwave Background for a class of f(R) gravity theories within the PPF-CAMB framework. We derive the equations, both for the cosmological background and gravitational wave perturbations, required to obtain the standard temperature and polarization power spectra, taking care to include all effects which arise from f(R) modifications of both the background and the perturbation equations. For R^n gravity, we show that for n different from 2, the initial conditions in the radiation dominated era are the same as those found in General Relativity. We also find that by doing simulations which involve either modifying the background evolution while keeping the perturbation equations fixed or fixing the background to be the Lambda-CDM model and modifying the perturbation equations, the dominant contribution to deviations from General Relativity in the temperature and polarization spectra can be attributed to modifications in the background. This demonstrates the importance of using the correct background in perturbative studies of f(R) gravity. Finally an enhancement in the B-modes power spectra is observed which may allow for lower inflationary energy scales.

Constraining the gravitational action with CMB tensor anisotropies

We present a complete analysis of the imprint of tensor anisotropies on the Cosmic Microwave Background for a class of f(R) gravity theories within the PPF-CAMB framework. We derive the equations, both for the cosmological background and gravitational wave perturbations, required to obtain the standard temperature and polarization power spectra, taking care to include all effects which arise from f(R) modifications of both the background and the perturbation equations. For R^n gravity, we show that for n different from 2, the initial conditions in the radiation dominated era are the same as those found in General Relativity. We also find that by doing simulations which involve either modifying the background evolution while keeping the perturbation equations fixed or fixing the background to be the Lambda-CDM model and modifying the perturbation equations, the dominant contribution to deviations from General Relativity in the temperature and polarization spectra can be attributed to modifications in the background. This demonstrates the importance of using the correct background in perturbative studies of f(R) gravity. Finally an enhancement in the B-modes power spectra is observed which may allow for lower inflationary energy scales.

Constraining the gravitational action with CMB tensor anisotropies [Cross-Listing]

We present a complete analysis of the imprint of tensor anisotropies on the Cosmic Microwave Background for a class of f(R) gravity theories within the PPF-CAMB framework. We derive the equations, both for the cosmological background and gravitational wave perturbations, required to obtain the standard temperature and polarization power spectra, taking care to include all effects which arise from f(R) modifications of both the background and the perturbation equations. For R^n gravity, we show that for n different from 2, the initial conditions in the radiation dominated era are the same as those found in General Relativity. We also find that by doing simulations which involve either modifying the background evolution while keeping the perturbation equations fixed or fixing the background to be the Lambda-CDM model and modifying the perturbation equations, the dominant contribution to deviations from General Relativity in the temperature and polarization spectra can be attributed to modifications in the background. This demonstrates the importance of using the correct background in perturbative studies of f(R) gravity. Finally an enhancement in the B-modes power spectra is observed which may allow for lower inflationary energy scales.

Entropy vs Gravitational Action: Do Total Derivatives Matter? [Replacement]

The total derivatives in the gravitational action are usually disregarded as non-producing any non-trivial dynamics. In the context of the gravitational entropy, within Wald's approach, these terms are considered irrelevant as non-contributing to the entropy. On the other hand, the total derivatives are usually present in the trace anomaly in dimensions higher than 2. As the trace anomaly is related to the logarithmic term in the entanglement entropy it is natural to ask whether the total derivatives make any essential contribution to the entropy or they can be totally ignored. In this note we analyze this question for some particular examples of total derivatives. Rather surprisingly, in all cases that we consider the total derivatives produce non-trivial contributions to the entropy. Some of them are non-vanishing even if the extrinsic curvature of the surface is zero. We suggest that this may explain the earlier observed discrepancy between the holographic entanglement entropy and Wald's entropy.

Entropy vs Gravitational Action: Do Total Derivatives Matter? [Replacement]

The total derivatives in the gravitational action are usually disregarded as non-producing any non-trivial dynamics. In the context of the gravitational entropy, within Wald's approach, these terms are considered irrelevant as non-contributing to the entropy. On the other hand, the total derivatives are usually present in the trace anomaly in dimensions higher than 2. As the trace anomaly is related to the logarithmic term in the entanglement entropy it is natural to ask whether the total derivatives make any essential contribution to the entropy or they can be totally ignored. In this note we analyze this question for some particular examples of total derivatives. Rather surprisingly, in all cases that we consider the total derivatives produce non-trivial contributions to the entropy. Some of them are non-vanishing even if the extrinsic curvature of the surface is zero. We suggest that this may explain the earlier observed discrepancy between the holographic entanglement entropy and Wald's entropy.

Entropy vs Gravitational Action: Do Total Derivatives Matter? [Replacement]

The total derivatives in the gravitational action are usually disregarded as non-producing any non-trivial dynamics. In the context of the gravitational entropy, within Wald's approach, these terms are considered irrelevant as non-contributing to the entropy. On the other hand, the total derivatives are usually present in the trace anomaly in dimensions higher than 2. As the trace anomaly is related to the logarithmic term in the entanglement entropy it is natural to ask whether the total derivatives make any essential contribution to the entropy or they can be totally ignored. In this note we analyze this question for some particular examples of total derivatives. Rather surprisingly, in all cases that we consider the total derivatives produce non-trivial contributions to the entropy. Some of them are non-vanishing even if the extrinsic curvature of the surface is zero. We suggest that this may explain the earlier observed discrepancy between the holographic entanglement entropy and Wald's entropy.

 

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