Posts Tagged gravitational action

Recent Postings from gravitational action

Friedmann model with viscous cosmology in modified $f(R,T)$ gravity theory [Replacement]

In this paper, we introduce bulk viscosity in the formalism of modified gravity theory in which the gravitational action contains a general function $f(R,T)$, where $R$ and $T$ denote the curvature scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively within the framework of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model. As an equation of state for prefect fluid, we take $p=(\gamma-1)\rho$, where $0 \leq \gamma \leq 2$ and viscous term as a bulk viscosity due to isotropic model, of the form $\zeta =\zeta_{0}+\zeta_{1}H$, where $\zeta_{0}$ and $\zeta_{1}$ are constants, and $H$ is the Hubble parameter. The exact non-singular solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained with non- viscous and viscous fluids, respectively by assuming a simplest particular model of the form of $f(R,T) = R+2f(T)$, where $f(T)=\alpha T$ ( $\alpha$ is a constant). A big-rip singularity is also observed for $\gamma<0$ at a finite value of cosmic time under certain constraints. We study all possible scenarios with the possible positive and negative ranges of $\alpha$ to analyze the expansion history of the universe. It is observed that the universe accelerates or exhibits transition from decelerated phase to accelerated phase under certain constraints of $\zeta_0$ and $\zeta_1$. We compare the viscous models with the non-viscous one through the graph plotted between scale factor and cosmic time and find that bulk viscosity plays the major role in the expansion of the universe. A similar graph is plotted for deceleration parameter with non-viscous and viscous fluids and find a transition from decelerated to accelerated phase with some form of bulk viscosity.

Superluminal Gravitational Waves

The quantum gravity effects of vacuum polarization of gravitons propagating in a curved spacetime cause the quantum vacuum to act as a dispersive medium with a refractive index. Due to this dispersive medium gravitons acquire superluminal velocities. The dispersive medium is produced by higher derivative curvature contributions to the effective gravitational action. It is shown that in a Friedmann-Lema\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the early universe near the Planck time $t_{\rm PL}\gtrsim 10^{-43}\,{\rm sec}$, the speed of gravitational waves $c_g\gg c_{g0}=c_0$, where $c_{g0}$ and $c_0$ are the speeds of gravitational waves and light today. The large speed of gravitational waves stretches their wavelengths to super-horizon sizes, allowing them to be observed in B-polarization experiments.

$R^2\log R$ quantum corrections and the inflationary observables [Cross-Listing]

We study a model of inflation with terms quadratic and logarithmic in the Ricci scalar, where the gravitational action is $f(R)=R+\alpha R^2+\beta R^2 \ln R$. These terms are expected to arise from one loop corrections involving matter fields in curved space-time. The spectral index $n_s$ and the tensor to scalar ratio yield $10^{-4}\lesssim r\lesssim0.03$ and $0.94\lesssim n_s \lesssim 0.99$. i.e. $r$ is an order of magnitude bigger or smaller than the original Starobinsky model which predicted $r\sim 10^{-3}$. Further enhancement of $r$ gives a scale invariant $n_s\sim 1$ or higher. Other inflationary observables are $d n_s/d\ln k \gtrsim -5.2 \times 10^{-4},\, \mu \lesssim 2.1 \times 10^{-8} ,\, y \lesssim 2.6 \times 10^{-9}$. Despite the enhancement in $r$, if the recent BICEP2 measurement stands, this model is disfavoured.

$R^2\log R$ quantum corrections and the inflationary observables [Cross-Listing]

We study a model of inflation with terms quadratic and logarithmic in the Ricci scalar, where the gravitational action is $f(R)=R+\alpha R^2+\beta R^2 \ln R$. These terms are expected to arise from one loop corrections involving matter fields in curved space-time. The spectral index $n_s$ and the tensor to scalar ratio yield $10^{-4}\lesssim r\lesssim0.03$ and $0.94\lesssim n_s \lesssim 0.99$. i.e. $r$ is an order of magnitude bigger or smaller than the original Starobinsky model which predicted $r\sim 10^{-3}$. Further enhancement of $r$ gives a scale invariant $n_s\sim 1$ or higher. Other inflationary observables are $d n_s/d\ln k \gtrsim -5.2 \times 10^{-4},\, \mu \lesssim 2.1 \times 10^{-8} ,\, y \lesssim 2.6 \times 10^{-9}$. Despite the enhancement in $r$, if the recent BICEP2 measurement stands, this model is disfavoured.

$R^2\log R$ quantum corrections and the inflationary observables

We study a model of inflation with terms quadratic and logarithmic in the Ricci scalar, where the gravitational action is $f(R)=R+\alpha R^2+\beta R^2 \ln R$. These terms are expected to arise from one loop corrections involving matter fields in curved space-time. The spectral index $n_s$ and the tensor to scalar ratio yield $10^{-4}\lesssim r\lesssim0.03$ and $0.94\lesssim n_s \lesssim 0.99$. i.e. $r$ is an order of magnitude bigger or smaller than the original Starobinsky model which predicted $r\sim 10^{-3}$. Further enhancement of $r$ gives a scale invariant $n_s\sim 1$ or higher. Other inflationary observables are $d n_s/d\ln k \gtrsim -5.2 \times 10^{-4},\, \mu \lesssim 2.1 \times 10^{-8} ,\, y \lesssim 2.6 \times 10^{-9}$. Despite the enhancement in $r$, if the recent BICEP2 measurement stands, this model is disfavoured.

Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes. We also suggest natural microscopic (non) gravitational sources of these corrections and demonstrate that they lead generally to a nonzero and positive $\alpha$. Furthermore we argue, that within this framework, the tensor modes probe theories of grand unification with a large scalar field content.

Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes. We also suggest natural microscopic (non) gravitational sources of these corrections and demonstrate that they lead generally to a nonzero and positive $\alpha$. Furthermore we argue, that within this framework, the tensor modes probe theories of grand unification with a large scalar field content.

Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes. We also suggest natural microscopic (non) gravitational sources of these corrections and demonstrate that they lead generally to a nonzero and positive $\alpha$. Furthermore we argue, that within this framework, the tensor modes probe theories of grand unification with a large scalar field content.

Entropy of isolated horizon from surface term of gravitational action

Starting from the surface term of gravitational action, one can construct a Virasoro algebra with central extension, with which the horizon entropy can be derived by using Cardy formula. This approach gives a new routine to calculate and interpret the horizon entropy. In this paper, we generalize this approach to a more general case, the isolated horizon, which contains non-stationary spacetimes beyond stationary ones. By imposing appropriate boundary conditions near the horizon, the full set of diffeomorphism is restricted to a subset where the corresponding Noether charges form a Virasoro algebra with central extension. Then by using the Cardy formula, we can derive the entropy of the isolated horizon.

Entropy of isolated horizon from surface term of gravitational action [Cross-Listing]

Starting from the surface term of gravitational action, one can construct a Virasoro algebra with central extension, with which the horizon entropy can be derived by using Cardy formula. This approach gives a new routine to calculate and interpret the horizon entropy. In this paper, we generalize this approach to a more general case, the isolated horizon, which contains non-stationary spacetimes beyond stationary ones. By imposing appropriate boundary conditions near the horizon, the full set of diffeomorphism is restricted to a subset where the corresponding Noether charges form a Virasoro algebra with central extension. Then by using the Cardy formula, we can derive the entropy of the isolated horizon.

Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations [Replacement]

The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell’s RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and the conformal anomalies as well near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show that at all orders of the perturbation they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and \begin{eqnarray*} E_D=G_4 +(D-4)\chi(D)H^2 -4\chi(D) \nabla^2 H, \end{eqnarray*} where $G_4$ is the usual Euler density, $H=R/(D-1)$ is the rescaled scalar curvature and $\chi(D)$ is a finite function of $D$ only. The number of the dimensionless gravitational couplings is also reduced to two. $\chi(D)$ can be determined order by order in series of $D-4$, whose first several coefficients are calculated. It has a universal value of $1/2$ at $D=4$. The familiar ambiguous $\nabla^2 R$ term is fixed. At the $D \to 4$ limit, the conformal anomaly $E_D$ just yields the combination $E_4=G_4-2\nabla^2 R/3$, which induces Riegert’s effective action.

Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations [Replacement]

The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell’s RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and the conformal anomalies as well near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show that at all orders of the perturbation they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and $E_D=G_4 +(D-4)\chi(D)H^2 -4\chi(D) \nabla^2 H$, where $G_4$ is the usual Euler density, $H=R/(D-1)$ is the rescaled scalar curvature and $\chi(D)$ is a finite function of $D$ only. The number of the dimensionless gravitational couplings is also reduced to two. $\chi(D)$ can be determined order by order in series of $D-4$, whose first several coefficients are calculated. It has a universal value of $1/2$ at $D=4$. The familiar ambiguous $\nabla^2 R$ term is fixed. At the $D \to 4$ limit, the conformal anomaly $E_D$ just yields the combination $E_4=G_4-2\nabla^2 R/3$, which induces Riegert’s effective action.

Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations [Replacement]

The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell’s RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and the conformal anomalies as well near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show that at all orders of the perturbation they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and $E_D=G_4 +(D-4)\chi(D)H^2 -4\chi(D) \nabla^2 H$, where $G_4$ is the usual Euler density, $H=R/(D-1)$ is the rescaled scalar curvature and $\chi(D)$ is a finite function of $D$ only. The number of the dimensionless gravitational couplings is also reduced to two. $\chi(D)$ can be determined order by order in series of $D-4$, whose first several coefficients are calculated. It has a universal value of $1/2$ at $D=4$. The familiar ambiguous $\nabla^2 R$ term is fixed. At the $D \to 4$ limit, the conformal anomaly $E_D$ just yields the combination $E_4=G_4-2\nabla^2 R/3$, which induces Riegert’s effective action.

Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations [Replacement]

The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell’s RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and the conformal anomalies as well near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show that at all orders of the perturbation they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and $E_D=G_4 +(D-4)\chi(D)H^2 -4\chi(D) \nabla^2 H$, where $G_4$ is the usual Euler density, $H=R/(D-1)$ is the rescaled scalar curvature and $\chi(D)$ is a finite function of $D$ only. The number of the dimensionless gravitational couplings is also reduced to two. $\chi(D)$ can be determined order by order in series of $D-4$, whose first several coefficients are calculated. It has a universal value of $1/2$ at $D=4$. The familiar ambiguous $\nabla^2 R$ term is fixed. At the $D \to 4$ limit, the conformal anomaly $E_D$ just yields the combination $E_4=G_4-2\nabla^2 R/3$, which induces Riegert’s effective action.

Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations

The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell’s RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and conformal anomalies near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show at all orders of the perturbation that they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and \begin{eqnarray*} E_D=G_4 +(D-4)\chi(D)H^2 -4\chi(D) \nabla^2 H, \end{eqnarray*} where $G_4$ is the usual Euler density, $H=R/(D-1)$ is the rescaled scalar curvature and $\chi(D)$ is a finite function of $D$ only. The number of the dimensionless gravitational couplings is also reduced to two. $\chi(D)$ can be determined order by order in series of $D-4$, whose first several coefficients are calculated. It has a universal value of $1/2$ at $D=4$. The familiar ambiguous $\nabla^2 R$ term is fixed. At the $D \to 4$ limit, the conformal anomaly $E_D$ just yields the combination $E_4=G_4-2\nabla^2 R/3$, which induces Riegert’s effective action.

Dynamics of Linear Perturbations in the hybrid metric-Palatini gravity [Replacement]

In this work we focus on the evolution of the linear perturbations in the novel hybrid metric-Palatini theory achieved by adding a $f(\mathcal{R})$ function to the gravitational action. Working in the Jordan frame, we derive the full set of linearized evolution equations for the perturbed potentials and present them in the Newtonian and synchronous gauges. We also derive the Poisson equation, and perform the evolution of the lensing potential, $\Phi_{+}$, for a model with a background evolution indistinguishable from $\Lambda$CDM. In order to do so, we introduce a designer approach that allows to retrieve a family of functions $f(\mathcal{R})$ for which the effective equation of state is exactly $w_{\textrm{eff}} = -1$. We conclude, for this particular model, that the main deviations from standard General Relativity and the Cosmological Constant model arise in the distant past, with an oscillatory signature in the ratio between the Newtonian potentials, $\Phi$ and $\Psi$.

Dynamics of Linear Perturbations in the hybrid metric-Palatini gravity [Replacement]

In this work we focus on the evolution of the linear perturbations in the novel hybrid metric-Palatini theory achieved by adding a $f(\mathcal{R})$ function to the gravitational action. Working in the Jordan frame, we derive the full set of linearized evolution equations for the perturbed potentials and present them in the Newtonian and synchronous gauges. We also derive the Poisson equation, and perform the evolution of the lensing potential, $\Phi_{+}$, for a model with a background evolution indistinguishable from $\Lambda$CDM. In order to do so, we introduce a designer approach that allows to retrieve a family of functions $f(\mathcal{R})$ for which the effective equation of state is exactly $w_{\textrm{eff}} = -1$. We conclude, for this particular model, that the main deviations from standard General Relativity and the Cosmological Constant model arise in the distant past, with an oscillatory signature in the ratio between the Newtonian potentials, $\Phi$ and $\Psi$.

Free energy of a Lovelock holographic superconductor [Replacement]

We study thermodynamics of black hole solutions in Lanczos-Lovelock AdS gravity in d+1 dimensions coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics and a Stueckelberg scalar field. This class of theories is used in the context of gauge/gravity duality to describe a high-temperature superconductor in d dimensions. Larger number of coupling constants in the gravitational side is necessary to widen a domain of validity of physical quantities in a dual QFT. We regularize the gravitational action and find the finite conserved quantities for a planar black hole with scalar hair. Then we derive the quantum statistical relation in the Euclidean sector of the theory, and obtain the exact formula for the free energy of the superconductor in the holographic quantum field theory. Our result is analytic and it includes the effects of backreaction of the gravitational field. We further discuss on how this formula could be used to analyze second order phase transitions through the discontinuities of the free energy, in order to classify holographic superconductors in terms of the parameters in the theory.

Free energy of a Lovelock holographic superconductor [Replacement]

We study thermodynamics of black hole solutions in Lanczos-Lovelock AdS gravity in d+1 dimensions coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics and a Stueckelberg scalar field. This class of theories is used in the context of gauge/gravity duality to describe a high-temperature superconductor in d dimensions. Larger number of coupling constants in the gravitational side is necessary to widen a domain of validity of physical quantities in a dual QFT. We regularize the gravitational action and find the finite conserved quantities for a planar black hole with scalar hair. Then we derive the quantum statistical relation in the Euclidean sector of the theory, and obtain the exact formula for the free energy of the superconductor in the holographic quantum field theory. Our result is analytic and it includes the effects of backreaction of the gravitational field. We further discuss on how this formula could be used to analyze second order phase transitions through the discontinuities of the free energy, in order to classify holographic superconductors in terms of the parameters in the theory.

On the renormalization of the Gibbons-Hawking boundary term [Replacement]

The bulk (Einstein-Hilbert) and boundary (Gibbons-Hawking) terms in the gravitational action are generally renormalized differently when integrating out quantum fluctuations. The former is affected by nonminimal couplings, while the latter is affected by boundary conditions. We use the heat kernel method to analyze this behavior for a nonminimally coupled scalar field, the Maxwell field, and the graviton field. Allowing for Robin boundary conditions, we examine in which cases the renormalization preserves the ratio of boundary and bulk terms required for the effective action to possess a stationary point. The implications for field theory and black hole entropy computations are discussed.

Weyl-Cartan-Weitzenb\"ock gravity through Lagrange multiplier [Cross-Listing]

We consider an extension of the Weyl-Cartan-Weitzenb\"{o}ck (WCW) and teleparallel gravity, in which the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition of the exact cancellation of curvature and torsion in a Weyl-Cartan geometry is inserted into the gravitational action via a Lagrange multiplier. In the standard metric formulation of the WCW model, the flatness of the space-time is removed by imposing the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition in the Weyl-Cartan geometry, where the dynamical variables are the space-time metric, the Weyl vector and the torsion tensor, respectively. However, once the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition is imposed on the Weyl-Cartan space-time, the metric is not dynamical, and the gravitational dynamics and evolution is completely determined by the torsion tensor. We show how to resolve this difficulty, and generalize the WCW model, by imposing the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition on the action of the gravitational field through a Lagrange multiplier. The gravitational field equations are obtained from the variational principle, and they explicitly depend on the Lagrange multiplier. As a particular model we consider the case of the Riemann-Cartan space-times with zero non-metricity, which mimics the teleparallel theory of gravity. The Newtonian limit of the model is investigated, and a generalized Poisson equation is obtained, with the weak field gravitational potential explicitly depending on the Lagrange multiplier and on the Weyl vector. The cosmological implications of the theory are also studied, and three classes of exact cosmological models are considered.

Weyl-Cartan-Weitzenb\"ock gravity through Lagrange multiplier [Replacement]

We consider an extension of the Weyl-Cartan-Weitzenb\"{o}ck (WCW) and teleparallel gravity, in which the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition of the exact cancellation of curvature and torsion in a Weyl-Cartan geometry is inserted into the gravitational action via a Lagrange multiplier. In the standard metric formulation of the WCW model, the flatness of the space-time is removed by imposing the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition in the Weyl-Cartan geometry, where the dynamical variables are the space-time metric, the Weyl vector and the torsion tensor, respectively. However, once the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition is imposed on the Weyl-Cartan space-time, the metric is not dynamical, and the gravitational dynamics and evolution is completely determined by the torsion tensor. We show how to resolve this difficulty, and generalize the WCW model, by imposing the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition on the action of the gravitational field through a Lagrange multiplier. The gravitational field equations are obtained from the variational principle, and they explicitly depend on the Lagrange multiplier. As a particular model we consider the case of the Riemann-Cartan space-times with zero non-metricity, which mimics the teleparallel theory of gravity. The Newtonian limit of the model is investigated, and a generalized Poisson equation is obtained, with the weak field gravitational potential explicitly depending on the Lagrange multiplier and on the Weyl vector. The cosmological implications of the theory are also studied, and three classes of exact cosmological models are considered.

Incorporating gravity into trace dynamics: the induced gravitational action [Replacement]

We study the incorporation of gravity into the trace dynamics framework for classical matrix-valued fields, from which we have proposed that quantum field theory is the emergent thermodynamics, with state vector reduction arising from fluctuation corrections to this thermodynamics. We show that the metric must be incorporated as a classical, not a matrix-valued, field, with the source for gravity the exactly covariantly conserved trace stress-energy tensor of the matter fields. We then study corrections to the classical gravitational action induced by the dynamics of the matrix-valued matter fields, by examining the average over the trace dynamics canonical ensemble of the matter field action, in the presence of a general background metric. Using constraints from global Weyl scaling and three-space general coordinate transformations, we show that to zeroth order in derivatives of the metric, the induced gravitational action in the preferred rest frame of the trace dynamics canonical ensemble must have the form $$ \Delta S=\int d^4x (^{(4)}g)^{1/2}(g_{00})^{-2} A\big(g_{0i} g_{0j} g^{ij}/g_{00}, D^ig_{ij}D^j/g_{00}, g_{0i}D^i/g_{00}\big), $$ with $D^i$ is defined through the co-factor expansion of $^{(4)}g$ by $^{(4)}g/{^{(3)}g}=g_{00}+g_{0i}D^i$, and with $A(x,y,z)$ a general function of its three arguments. This action has "chameleon-like" properties: For the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, it {\it exactly} reduces to a cosmological constant, but for the Schwarzschild metric it diverges as $(1-2M/r)^{-2}$ near the Schwarzschild radius, indicating that it will substantially affect the horizon structure.

Incorporating gravity into trace dynamics: the induced gravitational action [Replacement]

We study the incorporation of gravity into the trace dynamics framework for classical matrix-valued fields, from which we have proposed that quantum field theory is the emergent thermodynamics, with state vector reduction arising from fluctuation corrections to this thermodynamics. We show that the metric must be incorporated as a classical, not a matrix-valued, field, with the source for gravity the exactly covariantly conserved trace stress-energy tensor of the matter fields. We then study corrections to the classical gravitational action induced by the dynamics of the matrix-valued matter fields, by examining the average over the trace dynamics canonical ensemble of the matter field action, in the presence of a general background metric. Using constraints from global Weyl scaling and three-space general coordinate transformations, we show that to zeroth order in derivatives of the metric, the induced gravitational action in the preferred rest frame of the trace dynamics canonical ensemble must have the form $$ \Delta S=\int d^4x (^{(4)}g)^{1/2}(g_{00})^{-2} A\big(g_{0i} g_{0j} g^{ij}/g_{00}, D^ig_{ij}D^j/g_{00}, g_{0i}D^i/g_{00}\big), $$ with $D^i$ defined through the co-factor expansion of $^{(4)}g$ by $^{(4)}g/{^{(3)}g}=g_{00}+g_{0i}D^i$, and with $A(x,y,z)$ a general function of its three arguments. This action has "chameleon-like" properties: For the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, it {\it exactly} reduces to a cosmological constant, but for the Schwarzschild metric it diverges as $(1-2M/r)^{-2}$ near the Schwarzschild radius, indicating that it will substantially affect the horizon structure.

Incorporating gravity into trace dynamics: the induced gravitational action [Replacement]

We study the incorporation of gravity into the trace dynamics framework for classical matrix-valued fields, from which we have proposed that quantum field theory is the emergent thermodynamics, with state vector reduction arising from fluctuation corrections to this thermodynamics. We show that the metric must be incorporated as a classical, not a matrix-valued, field, with the source for gravity the exactly covariantly conserved trace stress-energy tensor of the matter fields. We then study corrections to the classical gravitational action induced by the dynamics of the matrix-valued matter fields, by examining the average over the trace dynamics canonical ensemble of the matter field action, in the presence of a general background metric. Using constraints from global Weyl scaling and three-space general coordinate transformations, we show that to zeroth order in derivatives of the metric, the induced gravitational action in the preferred rest frame of the trace dynamics canonical ensemble must have the form $$ \Delta S=\int d^4x (^{(4)}g)^{1/2}(g_{00})^{-2} A\big(g_{0i} g_{0j} g^{ij}/g_{00}, D^ig_{ij}D^j/g_{00}, g_{0i}D^i/g_{00}\big), $$ with $D^i$ defined through the co-factor expansion of $^{(4)}g$ by $^{(4)}g/{^{(3)}g}=g_{00}+g_{0i}D^i$, and with $A(x,y,z)$ a general function of its three arguments. This action has "chameleon-like" properties: For the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, it {\it exactly} reduces to a cosmological constant, but for the Schwarzschild metric it diverges as $(1-2M/r)^{-2}$ near the Schwarzschild radius, indicating that it will substantially affect the horizon structure.

Incorporating gravity into trace dynamics: the induced gravitational action [Replacement]

We study the incorporation of gravity into the trace dynamics framework for classical matrix-valued fields, from which we have proposed that quantum field theory is the emergent thermodynamics, with state vector reduction arising from fluctuation corrections to this thermodynamics. We show that the metric must be incorporated as a classical, not a matrix-valued, field, with the source for gravity the exactly covariantly conserved trace stress-energy tensor of the matter fields. We then study corrections to the classical gravitational action induced by the dynamics of the matrix-valued matter fields, by examining the average over the trace dynamics canonical ensemble of the matter field action, in the presence of a general background metric. Using constraints from global Weyl scaling and three-space general coordinate transformations, we show that to zeroth order in derivatives of the metric, the induced gravitational action in the preferred rest frame of the trace dynamics canonical ensemble must have the form $$ \Delta S=\int d^4x (^{(4)}g)^{1/2}(g_{00})^{-2} A\big(g_{0i} g_{0j} g^{ij}/g_{00}, D^ig_{ij}D^j/g_{00}, g_{0i}D^i/g_{00}\big), $$ with $D^i$ is defined through the co-factor expansion of $^{(4)}g$ by $^{(4)}g/{^{(3)}g}=g_{00}+g_{0i}D^i$, and with $A(x,y,z)$ a general function of its three arguments. This action has "chameleon-like" properties: For the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, it {\it exactly} reduces to a cosmological constant, but for the Schwarzschild metric it diverges as $(1-2M/r)^{-2}$ near the Schwarzschild radius, indicating that it will substantially affect the horizon structure.

Incorporating gravity into trace dynamics: the induced gravitational action [Replacement]

We study the incorporation of gravity into the trace dynamics framework for classical matrix-valued fields, from which we have proposed that quantum field theory is the emergent thermodynamics, with state vector reduction arising from fluctuation corrections to this thermodynamics. We show that the metric must be incorporated as a classical, not a matrix-valued, field, with the source for gravity the exactly covariantly conserved trace stress-energy tensor of the matter fields. We then study corrections to the classical gravitational action induced by the dynamics of the matrix-valued matter fields, by examining the average over the trace dynamics canonical ensemble of the matter field action, in the presence of a general background metric. Using constraints from global Weyl scaling and three-space general coordinate transformations, we show that to zeroth order in derivatives of the metric, the induced gravitational action in the preferred rest frame of the trace dynamics canonical ensemble must have the form $$ \Delta S=\int d^4x (^{(4)}g)^{1/2}(g_{00})^{-2} A\big(g_{0i} g_{0j} g^{ij}/g_{00}, D^ig_{ij}D^j/g_{00}, g_{0i}D^i/g_{00}\big), $$ with $D^i$ is defined through the co-factor expansion of $^{(4)}g$ by $^{(4)}g/{^{(3)}g}=g_{00}+g_{0i}D^i$, and with $A(x,y,z)$ a general function of its three arguments. This action has "chameleon-like" properties: For the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, it {\it exactly} reduces to a cosmological constant, but for the Schwarzschild metric it diverges as $(1-2M/r)^{-2}$ near the Schwarzschild radius, indicating that it will substantially affect the horizon structure.

Further matters in space-time geometry: $f(R,T,R_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu})$ gravity [Replacement]

We consider a gravitational model in which matter is non-minimally coupled to geometry, with the effective Lagrangian of the gravitational field being given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the trace of the matter energy-momentum tensor, and the contraction of the Ricci tensor with the matter energy-momentum tensor. The field equations of the model are obtained in the metric formalism, and the equation of motion of a massive test particle is derived. In this type of models the matter energy-momentum tensor is generally not conserved, and this non-conservation determines the appearance of an extra-force acting on the particles in motion in the gravitational field. The Newtonian limit of the model is also considered, and an explicit expression for the extra-acceleration which depends on the matter density is obtained in the small velocity limit for dust particles. We also analyze in detail the so-called Dolgov-Kawasaki instability, and obtain the stability conditions of the model with respect to local perturbations. A particular class of gravitational field equations can be obtained by imposing the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor. We derive the corresponding field equations for the conservative case by using a Lagrange multiplier method, from a gravitational action that explicitly contains an independent parameter multiplying the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. The cosmological implications of the model are investigated for both the conservative and non-conservative cases, and several classes of analytical solutions are obtained.

Further matters in space-time geometry: $f(R,T,R_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu})$ gravity [Cross-Listing]

We consider a gravitational model in which matter is non-minimally coupled to geometry, with the effective Lagrangian of the gravitational field being given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the trace of the matter energy-momentum tensor, and the contraction of the Ricci tensor with the matter energy-momentum tensor. The field equations of the model are obtained in the metric formalism, and the equation of motion of a massive test particle is derived. In this type of models the matter energy-momentum tensor is generally not conserved, and this non-conservation determines the appearance of an extra-force acting on the particles in motion in the gravitational field. The Newtonian limit of the model is also considered, and an explicit expression for the extra-acceleration which depends on the matter density is obtained in the small velocity limit for dust particles. We also analyze in detail the so-called Dolgov-Kawasaki instability, and obtain the stability conditions of the model with respect to local perturbations. A particular class of gravitational field equations can be obtained by imposing the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor. We derive the corresponding field equations for the conservative case by using a Lagrange multiplier method, from a gravitational action that explicitly contains an independent parameter multiplying the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. The cosmological implications of the model are investigated for both the conservative and non-conservative cases, and several classes of analytical solutions are obtained.

Further matters in space-time geometry: $f(R,T,R_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu})$ gravity [Replacement]

We consider a gravitational model in which matter is non-minimally coupled to geometry, with the effective Lagrangian of the gravitational field being given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the trace of the matter energy-momentum tensor, and the contraction of the Ricci tensor with the matter energy-momentum tensor. The field equations of the model are obtained in the metric formalism, and the equation of motion of a massive test particle is derived. In this type of models the matter energy-momentum tensor is generally not conserved, and this non-conservation determines the appearance of an extra-force acting on the particles in motion in the gravitational field. The Newtonian limit of the model is also considered, and an explicit expression for the extra-acceleration which depends on the matter density is obtained in the small velocity limit for dust particles. We also analyze in detail the so-called Dolgov-Kawasaki instability, and obtain the stability conditions of the model with respect to local perturbations. A particular class of gravitational field equations can be obtained by imposing the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor. We derive the corresponding field equations for the conservative case by using a Lagrange multiplier method, from a gravitational action that explicitly contains an independent parameter multiplying the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. The cosmological implications of the model are investigated for both the conservative and non-conservative cases, and several classes of analytical solutions are obtained.

The Structure of the Gravitational Action and its relation with Horizon Thermodynamics and Emergent Gravity Paradigm [Cross-Listing]

If gravity is an emergent phenomenon, as suggested by several recent results, then the structure of the action principle for gravity should encode this fact. With this motivation we study several features of the Einstein-Hilbert action and establish direct connections with horizon thermodynamics. We begin by introducing the concept of holographically conjugate variables (HCVs) in terms of which the surface term in the action has a specific relationship with the bulk term. In addition to g_{ab} and its conjugate momentum \sqrt{-g} M^{cab}, this procedure allows us to (re)discover and motivate strongly the use of f^{ab}=\sqrt{-g}g^{ab} and its conjugate momentum N^c_{ab}. The gravitational action can then be interpreted as a momentum space action for these variables. We also show that many expressions in classical gravity simplify considerably in this approach. For example, the field equations can be written in a form analogous to Hamilton’s equations for a suitable Hamiltonian if we use these variables. More importantly, the variation of the surface term, evaluated on any null surface which acts a local Rindler horizon can be given a direct thermodynamic interpretation. The term involving the variation of the dynamical variable leads to T\delta S while the term involving the variation of the conjugate momentum leads to S\delta T. We have found this correspondence only for the choice of variables (g_{ab}, \sqrt{-g} M^{cab}) or (f^{ab}, N^c_{ab}). We use this result to provide a direct thermodynamical interpretation of the boundary condition in the action principle, when it is formulated in a spacetime region bounded by the null surfaces. We analyse these features from several different perspectives and provide a detailed description, which offers insights about the nature of classical gravity and emergent paradigm.

The Structure of the Gravitational Action and its relation with Horizon Thermodynamics and Emergent Gravity Paradigm [Replacement]

If gravity is an emergent phenomenon, as suggested by several recent results, then the structure of the action principle for gravity should encode this fact. With this motivation we study several features of the Einstein-Hilbert action and establish direct connections with horizon thermodynamics. We begin by introducing the concept of holographically conjugate variables (HCVs) in terms of which the surface term in the action has a specific relationship with the bulk term. In addition to g_{ab} and its conjugate momentum \sqrt{-g} M^{cab}, this procedure allows us to (re)discover and motivate strongly the use of f^{ab}=\sqrt{-g}g^{ab} and its conjugate momentum N^c_{ab}. The gravitational action can then be interpreted as a momentum space action for these variables. We also show that many expressions in classical gravity simplify considerably in this approach. For example, the field equations can be written in a form analogous to Hamilton’s equations for a suitable Hamiltonian if we use these variables. More importantly, the variation of the surface term, evaluated on any null surface which acts a local Rindler horizon can be given a direct thermodynamic interpretation. The term involving the variation of the dynamical variable leads to T\delta S while the term involving the variation of the conjugate momentum leads to S\delta T. We have found this correspondence only for the choice of variables (g_{ab}, \sqrt{-g} M^{cab}) or (f^{ab}, N^c_{ab}). We use this result to provide a direct thermodynamical interpretation of the boundary condition in the action principle, when it is formulated in a spacetime region bounded by the null surfaces. We analyse these features from several different perspectives and provide a detailed description, which offers insights about the nature of classical gravity and emergent paradigm.

The Structure of the Gravitational Action and its relation with Horizon Thermodynamics and Emergent Gravity Paradigm [Replacement]

If gravity is an emergent phenomenon, as suggested by several recent results, then the structure of the action principle for gravity should encode this fact. With this motivation we study several features of the Einstein-Hilbert action and establish direct connections with horizon thermodynamics. We begin by introducing the concept of holographically conjugate variables (HCVs) in terms of which the surface term in the action has a specific relationship with the bulk term. In addition to g_{ab} and its conjugate momentum \sqrt{-g} M^{cab}, this procedure allows us to (re)discover and motivate strongly the use of f^{ab}=\sqrt{-g}g^{ab} and its conjugate momentum N^c_{ab}. The gravitational action can then be interpreted as a momentum space action for these variables. We also show that many expressions in classical gravity simplify considerably in this approach. For example, the field equations can be written in a form analogous to Hamilton’s equations for a suitable Hamiltonian if we use these variables. More importantly, the variation of the surface term, evaluated on any null surface which acts a local Rindler horizon can be given a direct thermodynamic interpretation. The term involving the variation of the dynamical variable leads to T\delta S while the term involving the variation of the conjugate momentum leads to S\delta T. We have found this correspondence only for the choice of variables (g_{ab}, \sqrt{-g} M^{cab}) or (f^{ab}, N^c_{ab}). We use this result to provide a direct thermodynamical interpretation of the boundary condition in the action principle, when it is formulated in a spacetime region bounded by the null surfaces. We analyse these features from several different perspectives and provide a detailed description, which offers insights about the nature of classical gravity and emergent paradigm.

Palatini approach to modified f(R) gravity and its bi-metric structure [Cross-Listing]

f(R) gravity theories in the Palatini formalism has been recently used as an alternative way to explain the observed late-time cosmic acceleration with no need of invoking either dark energy or extra spatial dimension. However, its applications have shown that some subtleties of these theories need a more profound examination. Here we are interested in the conformal aspects of the Palatini approach in extended theories of gravity. As is well known, extremization of the gravitational action a la Palatini, naturally "selects" a new metric h related to the metric g of the subjacent manifold by a conformal transformation. The related conformal function is given by the derivative of f(R). In this work we examine the conformal symmetries of the flat (k=0) FLRW spacetime and find that its Conformal Killing Vectors are directly linked to the new metric h and also that each vector yields a different conformal function.

Smoking guns of a bounce in modified theories of gravity through the spectrum of the gravitational waves [Replacement]

We present an inflationary model preceded by a bounce in a metric theory a l\’{a} $f(R)$ where $R$ is the scalar curvature of the space-time. The model is asymptotically de Sitter such that the gravitational action tends asymptotically to a Hilbert-Einstein action, therefore modified gravity affects only the early stages of the universe. We then analyse the spectrum of the gravitational waves through the method of the Bogoliubov coefficients by two means: taking into account the gravitational perturbations due to the modified gravitational action in the $f(R)$ setup and by simply considering those perturbations inherent to the standard Hilbert-Einstein action. We show that there are distinctive (oscillatory) signals on the spectrum for very low frequencies; i.e. corresponding to modes that are currently entering the horizon.

Smoking guns of a bounce in modified theories of gravity through the spectrum of the gravitational waves

We present an inflationary model preceded by a bounce in a metric theory a l\’{a} $f(R)$ where $R$ is the scalar curvature of the space-time. The model is asymptotically de Sitter such that the gravitational action tends asymptotically to a Hilbert-Einstein action, therefore modified gravity affects only the early stages of the universe. We then analyse the spectrum of the gravitational waves through the method of the Bogoliubov coefficients by two means: taking into account the gravitational perturbations due to the modified gravitational action in the $f(R)$ setup and by simply considering those perturbations inherent to the standard Hilbert-Einstein action. We show that there are distinctive (oscillatory) signals on the spectrum for very low frequencies; i.e. corresponding to modes that are currently entering the horizon.

Unimodular Constraint on global scale Invariance [Replacement]

We study global scale invariance along with the unimodular gravity in the vacuum. The global scale invariant gravitational action which follows the unimodular general coordinate transformations is considered without invoking any scalar field. This is generalization of conformal theory described in the Ref. \cite{Mannheim}. The possible solutions for the gravitational potential under static linear field approximation are discussed. The new modified solution has additional corrections to the Schwarzschild solution which describe the galactic rotational curve. A comparative study of unimodular theory with conformal theory is also presented. Furthermore, the cosmological solution is studied and it is shown that the unimodular constraint preserve the de Sitter solution explaining the dark energy of the universe.

Unimodular Constraint on global scale Invariance

The global scale invariance along with the unimodular gravity in the vacuum is studied in this paper. The global scale invariant gravitational action which follows the unimodular general coordinate transformations is considered without invoking any scalar field. The possible solutions for the gravitational potential under linear field approximation for the allowed values of the introduced parameters of the theory are discussed. The modified solution has additional corrections along with the Schwarzschild solution. A comparative study of unimodular theory with conformal theory is also presented. Furthermore, the cosmological solution is studied and it is shown that the unimodular constraint preserve the de Sitter solution.

A tensor instability in the Eddington inspired Born-Infeld Theory of Gravity [Cross-Listing]

In this paper we consider an extension to Eddington’s proposal for the gravitational action. We study tensor perturbations of a homogeneous and isotropic space-time in the Eddington regime, where modifications to Einstein gravity are strong. We find that the tensor mode is linearly unstable deep in the Eddington regime and discuss its cosmological implications.

A tensor instability in the Eddington inspired Born-Infeld Theory of Gravity [Replacement]

In this paper we consider an extension to Eddington’s proposal for the gravitational action. We study tensor perturbations of a homogeneous and isotropic space-time in the Eddington regime, where modifications to Einstein gravity are strong. We find that the tensor mode is linearly unstable deep in the Eddington regime and discuss its cosmological implications.

Renormalization group scale-setting from the action - a road to modified gravity theories [Replacement]

The renormalization group (RG) corrected gravitational action in Einstein-Hilbert and other truncations is considered. The running scale of the renormalization group is treated as a scalar field at the level of the action and determined in a scale-setting procedure recently introduced by Koch and Ramirez for the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. The scale-setting procedure is elaborated for other truncations of the gravitational action and applied to several phenomenologically interesting cases. It is shown how the logarithmic dependence of the Newton’s coupling on the RG scale leads to exponentially suppressed effective cosmological constant and how the scale-setting in particular RG corrected gravitational theories yields the effective $f(R)$ modified gravity theories with negative powers of the Ricci scalar $R$. The scale-setting at the level of the action at the non-gaussian fixed point in Einstein-Hilbert and more general truncations is shown to lead to universal effective action quadratic in Ricci tensor.

Renormalization group scale-setting from the action - a road to modified gravity theories [Cross-Listing]

The renormalization group (RG) corrected gravitational action in Einstein-Hilbert and other truncations is considered. The running scale of the renormalization group is treated as a scalar field at the level of the action and determined in a scale-setting procedure recently introduced by Koch and Ramirez for the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. The scale-setting procedure is elaborated for other truncations of the gravitational action and applied to several phenomenologically interesting cases. It is shown how the logarithmic dependence of the Newton’s coupling on the RG scale leads to exponentially suppressed effective cosmological constant and how the scale-setting in particular RG corrected gravitational theories yields the effective $f(R)$ modified gravity theories with negative powers of the Ricci scalar $R$. The scale-setting at the level of the action at the non-gaussian fixed point in Einstein-Hilbert and more general truncations is shown to lead to universal effective action quadratic in Ricci tensor. Recently obtained analytical solutions for the quadratic action in $R$ are summarized as an illustration of the dynamics at the non-gaussian fixed point.

Quantum corrections to gravity and their implications for cosmology and astrophysics

The quantum contributions to the gravitational action are relatively easy to calculate in the higher derivative sector of the theory. However, the applications to the post-inflationary cosmology and astrophysics require the corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action and to the cosmological constant, and those we can not derive yet in a consistent and safe way. At the same time, if we assume that these quantum terms are covariant and that they have relevant magnitude, their functional form can be defined up to a single free parameter, which can be defined on the phenomenological basis. It turns out that the quantum correction may lead, in principle, to surprisingly strong and interesting effects in astrophysics and cosmology.

Weyl-Cartan-Weitzenb\"{o}ck gravity [Cross-Listing]

We consider a gravitational model in a Weyl-Cartan space-time, in which the Weitzenb\”{o}ck condition of the vanishing of the sum of the curvature and torsion scalar is also imposed. Moreover, a kinetic term for the torsion is also included in the gravitational action. The field equations of the model are obtained from a Hilbert-Einstein type variational principle, and they lead to a complete description of the gravitational field in terms of two fields, the Weyl vector and the torsion, respectively, defined in a curved background. The cosmological applications of the model are investigated for a particular choice of the free parameters in which the torsion vector is proportional to the Weyl vector. Depending on the numerical values of the parameters of the cosmological model, a large variety of dynamic evolutions can be obtained, ranging from inflationary/accelerated expansions to non-inflationary behaviors. In particular we show that a de Sitter type late time evolution can be naturally obtained from the field equations of the model. Therefore the present model leads to the possibility of a purely geometrical description of the dark energy, in which the late time acceleration of the Universe is determined by the intrinsic geometry of the space-time.

Weyl-Cartan-Weitzenb\"{o}ck gravity as a generalization of teleparallel gravity [Replacement]

We consider a gravitational model in a Weyl-Cartan space-time, in which the Weitzenb\"{o}ck condition of the vanishing of the sum of the curvature and torsion scalar is also imposed. Moreover, a kinetic term for the torsion is also included in the gravitational action. The field equations of the model are obtained from a Hilbert-Einstein type variational principle, and they lead to a complete description of the gravitational field in terms of two fields, the Weyl vector and the torsion, respectively, defined in a curved background. The cosmological applications of the model are investigated for a particular choice of the free parameters in which the torsion vector is proportional to the Weyl vector. Depending on the numerical values of the parameters of the cosmological model, a large variety of dynamic evolutions can be obtained, ranging from inflationary/accelerated expansions to non-inflationary behaviors. In particular we show that a de Sitter type late time evolution can be naturally obtained from the field equations of the model. Therefore the present model leads to the possibility of a purely geometrical description of the dark energy, in which the late time acceleration of the Universe is determined by the intrinsic geometry of the space-time.

On the stability of the cosmological solutions in f(R,G) gravity [Replacement]

Modified gravity is one of the most promising candidates for explaining the current accelerating expansion of the Universe, and even its unification with the inflationary epoch. Nevertheless, the wide range of models capable to explain the phenomena of dark energy, imposes that current research focuses on a more precise study of the possible effects of modified gravity may have on both cosmological and local levels. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of a type of modified gravity, the so-called f(R,G) gravity and we perform a deep analysis on the stability of important cosmological solutions. This not only can help to constrain the form of the gravitational action, but also facilitate a better understanding of the behavior of the perturbations in this class of higher order theories of gravity, which will lead to a more precise analysis of the full spectrum of cosmological perturbations in future.

On the stability of the cosmological solutions in $f(R,G)$ gravity [Cross-Listing]

Modified gravity is one of the most promising candidates for explaining the current accelerating expansion of the Universe, and even its unification with the inflationary epoch. Nevertheless, the wide range of models capable to explain the phenomena of dark energy, imposes that current research focuses on a more precise study of the possible effects of modified gravity may have on both cosmological and local levels. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of a type of modified gravity, the so-called $f(R,G)$ gravity and we perform a deep analysis on the stability of important cosmological solutions. This not only can help to constrain the form of the gravitational action, but also facilitate a better understanding of the behavior of the perturbations in this class of higher order theories of gravity, which will lead to a more precise analysis of the full spectrum of cosmological perturbations in future.

Gravitational effects of the faraway matter on the rotation curves of spiral galaxies

It was recently shown that in cosmology the gravitational action of faraway matter has quite relevant effects, if retardation of the forces and discreteness of matter (with its spatial correlation) are taken into account. Indeed, far matter was found to exert, on a test particle, a force per unit mass of the order of 0.2 cH0 . It is shown here that such a force can account for the observed rotational velocity curves in spiral galaxies, if the force is assumed to be decorrelated beyond a sufficiently large distance, of the order of 1 kpc. In particular we fit the rotation curves of the galaxies NGC 3198, NGC 2403, UGC 2885 and NGC 4725 without any need of introducing dark matter at all. Two cases of galaxies presenting faster than keplerian decay are also considered.

Towards singularity and ghost free theories of gravity [Cross-Listing]

We present the most general ghost-free gravitational action in a Minkowski vacuum. Apart from the much studied f(R) models, this includes a large class of non-local actions with improved UV behavior, which nevertheless recover Einstein’s general relativity in the IR.

Towards singularity and ghost free theories of gravity [Replacement]

We present the most general covariant ghost-free gravitational action in a Minkowski vacuum. Apart from the much studied f(R) models, this includes a large class of non-local actions with improved UV behavior, which nevertheless recover Einstein’s general relativity in the IR.

 

You need to log in to vote

The blog owner requires users to be logged in to be able to vote for this post.

Alternatively, if you do not have an account yet you can create one here.

Powered by Vote It Up

^ Return to the top of page ^