Posts Tagged gamma ray

Recent Postings from gamma ray

Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre

Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.

Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre [Cross-Listing]

Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.

$Fermi$ GBM Observations of V404 Cyg During its 2015 Outburst

V404 Cygni was discovered in 1989 by the $Ginga$ X-ray satellite during its only previously observed X-ray outburst and soon after confirmed as a black hole binary. On June 15, 2015, the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) triggered on a new outburst of V404 Cygni. We present 13 days of GBM observations of this latest outburst including Earth occultation flux measurements, spectral and temporal analysis. The Earth occultation fluxes reached 30 Crab with detected emission to 100 keV and determined, via hardness ratios, that the source was in a hard state. At high luminosity, spectral analysis between 8 and 300 keV showed that the electron temperature decreased with increasing luminosity. This is expected if the protons and electrons are in thermal equilibrium during an outburst with the electrons cooled by the Compton scattering of softer seed photons from the disk. However, the implied seed photon temperatures are unusually high, suggesting a contribution from another source, such as the jet. No evidence of state transitions is seen during this time period. Temporal analysis reveals the rich harmonic content of the outburst and confirmed that the source was in a hard state.

Constraints On Holographic Cosmological Models From Gamma Ray Bursts

We use Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) data to put additional constraints on a set of holographic dark energy models. GRBs are the most energetic events in the Universe and provide a complementary probe of dark energy by allowing the measurement of cosmic expansion history that extends to redshifts greater than 6 and they are complementary to SNIa test. We found that the LCDM model is the best fit to the data, although a preliminary statistical analysis seems to indicate that the holographic models studied show interesting agreement with observations, except Ricci Scale CPL model. These results show the importance of GRBs measurements to provide additional observational constraints to alternative cosmological models, which are necessary to clarify the way in the paradigm of dark energy or potential alternatives.

Constraints On Holographic Cosmological Models From Gamma Ray Bursts [Replacement]

We use Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) data to put additional constraints on a set of holographic dark energy models. GRBs are among the most complex, energetic and regular astrophysical events known universe providing us the opportunity to obtain information from the history of cosmic expansion up to about redshift of $z\sim 6$ offering us a complementary observational test to determine the nature of dark energy and they are also complementary to SNIa test. We found that the $\Lambda CDM$ model is the best fit to the data, although a preliminary statistical analysis seems to indicate that the holographic models studied show interesting agreement with observations, except \textit{Ricci Scale CPL} model. These results show the importance of GRBs measurements to provide additional observational constraints to alternative cosmological models, which are necessary to clarify the way in the paradigm of dark energy or potential alternatives.

Novel Features of Gamma Ray from Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

In this study, we present some general and novel features of gamma ray from dark matter. We find that gamma-ray spectra with sharp features exist in a wide class of dark matter models and mimic the gamma line signals. The generated gamma rays would generally have polynomial-type spectra or power-law with positive index. We illustrate our results in a model-independent framework with generic kinematic analysis. Similar results can also apply for cosmic rays or neutrino cases.

Novel Features of Gamma Ray from Dark Matter

In this study, we present some general and novel features of gamma ray from dark matter. We find that gamma-ray spectra with sharp features exist in a wide class of dark matter models and mimic the gamma line signals. The generated gamma rays would generally have polynomial-type spectra or power-law with positive index. We illustrate our results in a model-independent framework with generic kinematic analysis. Similar results can also apply for cosmic rays or neutrino cases.

Calibration of Gamma-ray Burst Polarimeter POLAR

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the strongest explosions in the universe which might be associated with creation of black holes. Magnetic field structure and burst dynamics may influence polarization of the emitted gamma-rays. Precise polarization detection can be an ultimate tool to unveil the true GRB mechanism. POLAR is a space-borne Compton scattering detector for precise measurements of the GRB polarization. It consists of a 40$\times$40 array of plastic scintillator bars read out by 25 multi-anode PMTs (MaPMTs). It is scheduled to be launched into space in 2016 onboard of the Chinese space laboratory TG2. We present a dedicated methodology for POLAR calibration and some calibration results based on the combined use of the laboratory radioactive sources and polarized X-ray beams from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. They include calibration of the energy response, computation of the energy conversion factor vs. high voltage as well as determination of the threshold values, crosstalk contributions and polarization modulation factors.

Probing vacuum birefringence under a high-intensity laser field with gamma-ray polarimetry at the GeV scale [Cross-Listing]

Probing vacuum structures deformed by high intense fields is of great interest in general. In the context of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the vacuum exposed by a linearly polarized high-intensity laser field is expected to show birefringence. We consider the combination of a 10 PW laser system to pump the vacuum and 1 GeV gamma-rays to probe the birefringent effect. The vacuum birefringence can be measured via the polarization flip of the probe gamma-rays. We discuss the design of the gamma-ray polarimeter and then evaluate the measurability of the reduction of the degree of linear polarization due to the appearance of birefringence. We found that the measurement is indeed feasible given a realistic set of laser parameters and achievable pulse statistics.

Search of MeV-GeV counterparts of TeV sources with AGILE in pointing mode

Context. Known TeV sources detected by major Cerenkov telescopes are investigated to identify possible MeV-GeV gamma-ray counterparts. Aims. A systematic study of the known sources in the web-based TeVCat Catalog has been performed to search for possible gamma-ray counterpart on the AGILE data collected during the first period of operations in observing pointing mode. Methods. For each TeV source, a search for a possible gamma-ray counterpart based on a multi-source Maximum Likelihood algorithm is performed on the AGILE data taken with the GRID instrument from July 2007 to October 2009. Results. In case of high-significance detection, the average gamma-ray flux is estimated. For the cases of low-significance detection the 95 % Confidence Level (C.L.) flux upper limit is given. 52 TeV sources out of 152 (corresponding to ~34 % of the analysed sample) show a significant excess in the AGILE data covering the pointing observation period. Conclusions. This analysis found 26 new AGILE sources with respect to the AGILE reference catalogs, 15 of which are Galactic, 7 are extragalactic and 4 are unidentified. Detailed tables with all available information on the analysed sources are presented.

Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum are reviewed, from Gamma-ray to radio, such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in Gamma-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and II based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio and many others, as well as most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS) and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era. Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics play an important role in using and analysis of big data for new discoveries.

The Gamma-Ray Emitting Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS 2004-447 II. The Radio View

Gamma-ray detected radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (g-NLS1) galaxies constitute a small but interesting sample of the gamma-ray loud AGN. The radio-loudest g-NLS1 known, PKS 2004-447, is located in the southern hemisphere and is monitored in the radio regime by the multiwavelength monitoring program TANAMI. We aim for the first detailed study of the radio morphology and long-term radio spectral evolution of PKS 2004-447, which are essential to understand the diversity of the radio properties of g-NLS1s. The TANAMI VLBI monitoring program uses the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa to monitor the jets of radio-loud active galaxies in the southern hemisphere. Lower resolution radio flux density measurements at multiple radio frequencies over four years of observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The TANAMI VLBI image at 8.4 GHz shows an extended one-sided jet with a dominant compact VLBI core. Its brightness temperature is consistent with equipartition, but it is an order of magnitude below other g-NLS1s with the sample value varying over two orders of magnitude. We find a compact morphology with a projected large-scale size <11 kpc and a persistent steep radio spectrum with moderate flux-density variability. PKS 2004-447 appears to be a unique member of the g-NLS1 sample. It exhibits blazar-like features, such as a flat featureless X-ray spectrum and a core dominated, one-sided parsec-scale jet with indications for relativistic beaming. However, the data also reveal properties atypical for blazars, such as a radio spectrum and large-scale size consistent with Compact-Steep-Spectrum (CSS) objects, which are usually associated with young radio sources. These characteristics are unique among all g-NLS1s and extremely rare among gamma-ray loud AGN.

Gamma Ray Bursts as Neutrino Sources

Gamma-ray burst sources appear to fulfill all the conditions for being efficient cosmic ray accelerators, and being extremely compact, are also expected to produce multi-GeV to PeV neutrinos. I review the basic model predictions for the expected neutrino fluxes in classical GRBs as well as in low luminosity and choked bursts, discussing the recent IceCube observational constraints and implications from the observed diffuse neutrino flux.

Quark deconfinement and the duration of short Gamma Ray Bursts [Cross-Listing]

We propose a model for short duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) based on the formation of a quark star after the merger of two neutron stars. We assume that the sGRB central engine is a proto-magnetar, which has been previously invoked to explain the plateau-like X-ray emission observed following both long and short GRBs. Here, we show that: i) a few milliseconds after the merger it is possible to form a stable and massive star made in part of quarks; ii) during the early cooling phase of the incompletely formed quark star, the flux of baryons ablated from the surface by neutrinos is large and it does not allow the outflow to achieve a bulk Lorentz factor high enough to produce a GRB; iii) after the quark burning front reaches the stellar surface, baryon ablation ceases and the jet becomes too baryon poor to produce a GRB; iv) however, between these two phases a GRB can be produced over the finite timescale required for the baryon pollution to cease; a characteristic timescale of the order of $\sim 0.1 $ s naturally results from the time the conversion front needs to cover the distance between the rotational pole and the latitude of the last closed magnetic field line; v) we predict a correlation between the luminosity of the sGRB and its duration, consistent with the data; vi) our model also predicts a delay of the order of ten seconds between the time of the merger event and the sGRB, allowing for the possibility of precursor emission and implying that the jet will encounter the dense cocoon formed immediately after the merger.

Quark deconfinement and the duration of short Gamma Ray Bursts [Cross-Listing]

We propose a model for short duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) based on the formation of a quark star after the merger of two neutron stars. We assume that the sGRB central engine is a proto-magnetar, which has been previously invoked to explain the plateau-like X-ray emission observed following both long and short GRBs. Here, we show that: i) a few milliseconds after the merger it is possible to form a stable and massive star made in part of quarks; ii) during the early cooling phase of the incompletely formed quark star, the flux of baryons ablated from the surface by neutrinos is large and it does not allow the outflow to achieve a bulk Lorentz factor high enough to produce a GRB; iii) after the quark burning front reaches the stellar surface, baryon ablation ceases and the jet becomes too baryon poor to produce a GRB; iv) however, between these two phases a GRB can be produced over the finite timescale required for the baryon pollution to cease; a characteristic timescale of the order of $\sim 0.1 $ s naturally results from the time the conversion front needs to cover the distance between the rotational pole and the latitude of the last closed magnetic field line; v) we predict a correlation between the luminosity of the sGRB and its duration, consistent with the data; vi) our model also predicts a delay of the order of ten seconds between the time of the merger event and the sGRB, allowing for the possibility of precursor emission and implying that the jet will encounter the dense cocoon formed immediately after the merger.

Quark deconfinement and the duration of short Gamma Ray Bursts

We propose a model for short duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) based on the formation of a quark star after the merger of two neutron stars. We assume that the sGRB central engine is a proto-magnetar, which has been previously invoked to explain the plateau-like X-ray emission observed following both long and short GRBs. Here, we show that: i) a few milliseconds after the merger it is possible to form a stable and massive star made in part of quarks; ii) during the early cooling phase of the incompletely formed quark star, the flux of baryons ablated from the surface by neutrinos is large and it does not allow the outflow to achieve a bulk Lorentz factor high enough to produce a GRB; iii) after the quark burning front reaches the stellar surface, baryon ablation ceases and the jet becomes too baryon poor to produce a GRB; iv) however, between these two phases a GRB can be produced over the finite timescale required for the baryon pollution to cease; a characteristic timescale of the order of $\sim 0.1 $ s naturally results from the time the conversion front needs to cover the distance between the rotational pole and the latitude of the last closed magnetic field line; v) we predict a correlation between the luminosity of the sGRB and its duration, consistent with the data; vi) our model also predicts a delay of the order of ten seconds between the time of the merger event and the sGRB, allowing for the possibility of precursor emission and implying that the jet will encounter the dense cocoon formed immediately after the merger.

Production of secondary particles and nuclei in cosmic rays collisions with the insterstellar gas using the FLUKA code [Replacement]

The measured fluxes of secondary particles produced by the interactions of Cosmic Rays (CRs) with the astronomical environment play a crucial role in understanding the physics of CR transport. In this work we present a comprehensive calculation of the secondary hadron, lepton, gamma-ray and neutrino yields produced by the inelastic interactions between several species of stable or long-lived cosmic rays projectiles (p, D, T, 3He, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, 9Be, 10Be, 10B, 11B, 12C, 13C, 14C, 14N, 15N, 16O, 17O, 18O, 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si) and different target gas nuclei (p, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, 28Si and 40Ar). The yields are calculated using FLUKA, a simulation package designed to compute the energy distributions of secondary products with large accuracy in a wide energy range. The present results provide, for the first time, a complete and self-consistent set of all the relevant inclusive cross sections regarding the whole spectrum of secondary products in nuclear collisions. We cover, for the projectiles, a kinetic energy range extending from $0.1 GeV/n$ up to $100 TeV/n$ in the lab frame. In order to show the importance of our results for multi-messenger studies about the physics of CR propagation, we evaluate the propagated spectra of Galactic secondary nuclei, leptons, and gamma rays produced by the interactions of CRs with the insterstellar gas, exploiting the numerical codes DRAGON and GammaSky. We show that, adopting our cross section database, we are able to provide a good fit of a complete sample of CR observables, including: leptonic and hadronic spectra measured at Earth, the local interstellar spectra measured by Voyager, and the gamma-ray emissivities from Fermi-LAT collaboration. We also show a set of gamma-ray and neutrino full-sky maps and spectra.

X-ray flares in GRBs: general considerations and photospheric origin [Replacement]

Observations of X-ray flares from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) imply strong constraints on possible physical models. We provide a general discussion of these. In particular, we show that in order to account for the relatively flat and weak optical flux during the X-ray flares, the size of the emitting region should be $\lesssim 3\times 10^{14}$cm. The bolometric luminosity of flares also strongly constrain the energy budget, and are inconsistent with late time activity of a central engine powered by the spin-down of a magnetar. We provide a simple toy model according to which flares are produced by an outflow of modest Lorentz factor (a few tens instead of hundreds) that is launched more or less simultaneously with the highly relativistic jet which produced the prompt gamma-ray emission. The "slower" moving outflow produces the flare as it reaches its photosphere. The existence of such a component would naturally resolve the observational challenges imposed by flares, outlined in this work.

X-ray flares in GRBs: general considerations and photospheric origin

Observations of X-ray flares from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) imply strong constraints on possible physical models. We provide a general discussion of these. In particular, we show that in order to account for the relatively flat and weak optical flux during the X-ray flares, the size of the emitting region should be $\lesssim 3\times 10^{14}$cm. The bolometric luminosity of flares also strongly constrain the energy budget, and are inconsistent with late time activity of a central engine powered by the spin-down of a magnetar. We provide a simple toy model according to which flares are produced by an outflow of modest Lorentz factor (a few tens instead of hundreds) that is launched more or less simultaneously with the highly relativistic jet which produced the prompt gamma-ray emission. The "slower" moving outflow produces the flare as it reaches its photosphere. The existence of such a component would naturally resolve the observational challenges imposed by flares, outlined in this work.

Constraining the GRB-magnetar model by means of the Galactic pulsar population

A large fraction of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) displays an X-ray plateau phase within <10^{5} s from the prompt emission, proposed to be powered by the spin-down energy of a rapidly spinning newly born magnetar. In this work we use the properties of the Galactic neutron star population to constrain the GRB-magnetar scenario. We re-analyze the X-ray plateaus of all Swift GRBs with known redshift, between January 2005 and August 2014. From the derived initial magnetic field distribution for the possible magnetars left behind by the GRBs, we study the evolution and properties of a simulated GRB-magnetar population using numerical simulations of magnetic field evolution, coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of Pulsar Population Synthesis in our Galaxy. We find that if the GRB X-ray plateaus are powered by the rotational energy of a newly formed magnetar, the current observational properties of the Galactic magnetar population are not compatible with being formed within the GRB scenario (regardless of the GRB type or rate at z=0). Direct consequences would be that we should allow the existence of magnetars and "super-magnetars" having different progenitors, and that Type Ib/c SNe related to Long GRBs form systematically neutron stars with higher initial magnetic fields. We put an upper limit of <16 "super-magnetars" formed by a GRB in our Galaxy in the past Myr (at 99% c.l.). This limit is somewhat smaller than what roughly expected from Long GRB rates, although the very large uncertainties do not allow us to draw strong conclusion in this respect.

Inverse problem in Ionospheric Science: Prediction of solar soft-X-ray spectrum from Very Low Frequency Radiosonde results

X-rays and gamma-rays from astronomical sources such as solar flares are mostly absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. Resulting electron-ion production rate as a function of height depends on the intensity and wavelength of the injected spectrum and therefore the effects vary from one source to another. In other words, the ion density vs. altitude profile has the imprint of the incident photon spectrum. In this paper, we investigate whether we can invert the problem uniquely by deconvolution of the VLF amplitude signal to obtain the details of the injected spectrum. We find that it is possible to do this up to a certain accuracy. Our method is useful to carry out a similar exercise to infer the spectra of more energetic events such as the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters (SGRs) etc. by probing even the lower part of the atmosphere. We thus show that to certain extent, the Earth's atmosphere could be used as a gigantic detector of relatively strong events.

Fermionic Semi-Annihilating Dark Matter [Replacement]

Semi-annihilation is a generic feature of dark matter theories with symmetries larger than Z2. We investigate two examples with multi-component dark sectors comprised of an SU(2)L singlet or triplet fermion besides a scalar singlet. These are respectively the minimal fermionic semi-annihilating model, and the minimal case for a gauge-charged fermion. We study the relevant dark matter phenomenology, including the interplay of semi-annihilation and the Sommerfeld effect. We demonstrate that semi-annihilation in the singlet model can explain the gamma ray excess from the galactic center. For the triplet model we scan the parameter space, and explore how signals and constraints are modified by semi-annihilation. We find that the entire region where the model comprises all the observed dark matter is accessible to current and planned direct and indirect searches.

Fermionic Semi-Annihilating Dark Matter

Semi-annihilation is a generic feature of dark matter theories with symmetries larger than Z2. We investigate two examples with multi-component dark sectors comprised of an SU(2)L singlet or triplet fermion besides a scalar singlet. These are respectively the minimal fermionic semi-annihilating model, and the minimal case for a gauge-charged fermion. We study the relevant dark matter phenomenology, including the interplay of semi-annihilation and the Sommerfeld effect. We demonstrate that semi-annihilation in the singlet model can explain the gamma ray excess from the galactic center. For the triplet model we scan the parameter space, and explore how signals and constraints are modified by semi-annihilation. We find that the entire region where the model comprises all the observed dark matter is accessible to current and planned direct and indirect searches.

Fermionic Semi-Annihilating Dark Matter [Replacement]

Semi-annihilation is a generic feature of dark matter theories with symmetries larger than Z2. We investigate two examples with multi-component dark sectors comprised of an SU(2)L singlet or triplet fermion besides a scalar singlet. These are respectively the minimal fermionic semi-annihilating model, and the minimal case for a gauge-charged fermion. We study the relevant dark matter phenomenology, including the interplay of semi-annihilation and the Sommerfeld effect. We demonstrate that semi-annihilation in the singlet model can explain the gamma ray excess from the galactic center. For the triplet model we scan the parameter space, and explore how signals and constraints are modified by semi-annihilation. We find that the entire region where the model comprises all the observed dark matter is accessible to current and planned direct and indirect searches.

The first demonstration of the concept of "narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera"

The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed onboard the {\it ASTRO-H} satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60-600~keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10\% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75\% of the signals from the field-of-view are retained against the background rejection, which clearly demonstrates the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated effective area of 22.8~cm$^2$ meets the mission requirement even though not all of the operational parameters of the instrument have been fully optimized yet.

VHE observations of the gamma-ray binary system LS 5039 with H.E.S.S

LS 5039 is a gamma-ray binary system observed in a broad energy range, from radio to TeV energies. The binary system exhibits both flux and spectral modulation as a function of its orbital period. The X-ray and very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray fluxes display a maximum/minimum at inferior/superior conjunction, with spectra becoming respectively harder/softer, a behaviour that is completely reversed in the high-energy domain (HE, 0.1 < E < 100 GeV). The HE spectrum cuts off at a few GeV, with a new hard component emerging at E > 10 GeV that is compatible with the low-energy tail of the TeV emission. The low 10 - 100 GeV flux, however, makes the HE and VHE components difficult to reconcile with a scenario including emission from only a single particle population. We report on new observations of LS 5039 conducted with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) telescopes from 2006 to 2015. This new data set enables for an unprecedentedly-deep phase-folded coverage of the source at TeV energies, as well as an extension of the VHE spectral range down to ~120 GeV, which makes LS 5039 the first gamma-ray binary system in which a spectral overlap between satellite and ground-based gamma-ray observatories is obtained.

Known Radio Pulsars Do Not Contribute to the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess [Cross-Listing]

Observations using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have found a significant gamma-ray excess surrounding the center of the Milky Way (GC). One possible interpretation of this excess invokes gamma-ray emission from an undiscovered population of either young or recycled pulsars densely clustered throughout the inner kiloparsec of the Milky Way. While these systems, by construction, have individual fluxes that lie below the point source sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT, they may already be observed in multiwavelength observations. Notably the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) catalog of radio pulsars includes 270 sources observed in the inner 10 degrees around the GC. We calculate the gamma-ray emission observed from these 270 sources and obtain three key results: (1) point source searches in the GC region produce a plethora of highly significant gamma-ray "hotspots", compared to searches far from the Galactic plane, (2) there is no statistical correlation between the positions of these gamma-ray hotspots and the locations of ATNF pulsars, and (3) the spectrum of the most statistically significant gamma-ray hotspots is substantially softer than the spectrum of the GC gamma-ray excess. These results place strong constraints on models where young pulsars produce the majority of the gamma-ray excess, and disfavor some models where millisecond pulsars produce the gamma-ray excess.

Known Radio Pulsars Do Not Contribute to the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess

Observations using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have found a significant gamma-ray excess surrounding the center of the Milky Way (GC). One possible interpretation of this excess invokes gamma-ray emission from an undiscovered population of either young or recycled pulsars densely clustered throughout the inner kiloparsec of the Milky Way. While these systems, by construction, have individual fluxes that lie below the point source sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT, they may already be observed in multiwavelength observations. Notably the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) catalog of radio pulsars includes 270 sources observed in the inner 10 degrees around the GC. We calculate the gamma-ray emission observed from these 270 sources and obtain three key results: (1) point source searches in the GC region produce a plethora of highly significant gamma-ray "hotspots", compared to searches far from the Galactic plane, (2) there is no statistical correlation between the positions of these gamma-ray hotspots and the locations of ATNF pulsars, and (3) the spectrum of the most statistically significant gamma-ray hotspots is substantially softer than the spectrum of the GC gamma-ray excess. These results place strong constraints on models where young pulsars produce the majority of the gamma-ray excess, and disfavor some models where millisecond pulsars produce the gamma-ray excess.

The scenario of two families of compact stars 2. Transition from hadronic to quark matter and explosive phenomena [Cross-Listing]

We will follow the two-families scenario described in the accompanying paper, in which compact stars having a very small radius and masses not exceeding about 1.5$M_\odot$ are made of hadrons, while more massive compact stars are quark stars. In the present paper we discuss the dynamics of the transition of a hadronic star into a quark star. We will show that the transition takes place in two phases: a very rapid one, lasting a few milliseconds, during which the central region of the star converts into quark matter and the process of conversion is accelerated by the existence of strong hydrodynamical instabilities, and a second phase, lasting about ten seconds, during which the process of conversion proceeds till the surface of the star via production and diffusion of strangeness. We will show that these two steps play a crucial role in the phenomenological implications of the model. We will discuss the possible implications of this scenario both for long and for short Gamma Ray Bursts, using the proto-magnetar model as the reference frame of our discussion. We will show that the process of quark deconfinement can be connected to specific observed features of the GRBs. In the case of long GRBs we will discuss the possibility that quark deconfinement is at the origin of the second peak present in quite a large fraction of bursts. Also we will discuss the possibility that long GRBs can take place in binary systems without being associated with a SN explosion. Concerning short GRBs, quark deconfinement can play the crucial role in limiting their duration. Finally we will shortly revisit the possible relevance of quark deconfinement in some specific type of Supernova explosions, in particular in the case of very massive progenitors.

Unexpected gamma-ray signal in the vicinity of 1ES 0229+200

We report on an unidentified gamma-ray signal found in the region around the BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200. It was recognized serendipitously in our analysis of 6.2 years of Fermi-LAT data at a distance less than 3{\deg} away from the blazar. The observed excess of counts manifests itself as an unexpected local maximum in the test statistic map. Although several Fermi-LAT sources have been identified in this area we were not able to link them to the position of this residual signal. A clear association with sources visible in other wavebands was not successful either. We briefly discuss characteristics of this unresolved phenomenon. Our results suggest a steep energy spectrum and a point-like nature of this candidate gamma-ray emitter.

Detection of Noisy and Flickering Pixels from SWIFT BAT Event Data

This document presents novel algorithms for detection of noisy and flickering pixels from BAT event data and subsequent elimination of data from such pixels to create a filtered event file. The file thus created can be used for finding short Gamma Ray Bursts.

Long-term TeV Observations of the Gamma-ray Binary HESS J0632+057 with VERITAS

The gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057 has been observed at very-high energies for almost ten years by all major systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. We present new observations taken by the VERITAS observatory and an updated analysis of the previously published observations. HESS J0632+057 has been detected by VERITAS with a total significance $>20\sigma$ at energies above 350 GeV in about 200 hours of observations. The exposure covers now almost the entire orbital period of 315 days including the flux enhancements at phases $\approx$0.35 and, for the first time, detected with VERITAS, at phases $\approx$0.75. The results are discussed along with simultaneous observations by the X-ray satellite {\em Swift} XRT.

Searching for Very High Energy Emission from Pulsars Using the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory

There are currently over 160 known gamma-ray pulsars. While most of them are detected only from space, at least two are now seen also from the ground. MAGIC and VERITAS have measured the gamma ray pulsed emission of the Crab pulsar up to hundreds of GeV and more recently MAGIC has reported emission at $\sim2$ TeV. Furthermore, in the Southern Hemisphere, H.E.S.S. has detected the Vela pulsar above 30 GeV. In addition, non-pulsed TeV emission coincident with pulsars has been detected by many groups, including the Milagro Collaboration. These GeV-TeV observations open the possibility of searching for very-high-energy (VHE, > 100GeV) pulsations from gamma-rays pulsars in the HAWC field of view.

Searching for Very High Energy Emission from Pulsars Using the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory [Cross-Listing]

There are currently over 160 known gamma-ray pulsars. While most of them are detected only from space, at least two are now seen also from the ground. MAGIC and VERITAS have measured the gamma ray pulsed emission of the Crab pulsar up to hundreds of GeV and more recently MAGIC has reported emission at $\sim2$ TeV. Furthermore, in the Southern Hemisphere, H.E.S.S. has detected the Vela pulsar above 30 GeV. In addition, non-pulsed TeV emission coincident with pulsars has been detected by many groups, including the Milagro Collaboration. These GeV-TeV observations open the possibility of searching for very-high-energy (VHE, > 100GeV) pulsations from gamma-rays pulsars in the HAWC field of view.

New method for Gamma/Hadron separation in HAWC using neural networks

The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory is located at an altitude of 4100 meters in Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico. HAWC is an air shower array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCD's), each with 4 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Because the observatory is sensitive to air showers produced by cosmic rays and gamma rays, one of the main tasks in the analysis of gamma-ray sources is gamma/hadron separation for the suppression of the cosmic-ray background. Currently, HAWC uses a method called compactness for the separation. This method divides the data into 10 bins that depend on the number of PMTs in each event, and each bin has its own value cut. In this work we present a new method which depends continuously on the number of PMTs in the event instead of binning, and therefore uses a single cut for gamma/hadron separation. The method uses a Feedforward Multilayer Perceptron net (MLP) fed with five characteristics of the air shower to create a single output value. We used simulated cosmic-ray and gamma-ray events to find the optimal cut and then applied the technique to data from the Crab Nebula. This new method is tuned on MC and predicts better gamma/hadron separation than the existing one. Preliminary tests on the Crab data are consistent with such an improvement, but in future work it needs to be compared with the full implementation of compactness with selection criteria tuned for each of the data bins.

Search for Galactic dark matter substructures with Cherenkov telescopes

Weakly interacting massive dark matter (DM) particles are expected to self-annihilate or decay, generating high-energy photons in these processes. This establishes the possibility for indirect detection of DM by \gamma-ray telescopes. For probing the secondary products of DM, accurate knowledge about the DM density distribution in potential astrophysical targets is crucial. In this contribution, the prospects for the detection of subhalos in the Galactic DM halo with present and future imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT) are investigated. The source count distribution and angular power spectra for \gamma-rays originating from annihilating DM in subhalos are calculated from N-body simulation results. To study the systematic uncertainties coming from the modeling of the DM density distribution, parameters describing the \gamma-ray yield from subhalos are varied in 16 benchmark models. We conclude that Galactic subhalos of annihilating DM are probably too faint to be a promising target for IACT observations, even with the prospective Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

Disrupted Globular Clusters Can Explain the Galactic Center Gamma Ray Excess [Replacement]

The Fermi satellite has recently detected gamma ray emission from the central regions of our Galaxy. This may be evidence for dark matter particles, a major component of the standard cosmological model, annihilating to produce high-energy photons. We show that the observed signal may instead be generated by millisecond pulsars that formed in dense star clusters in the Galactic halo. Most of these clusters were ultimately disrupted by evaporation and gravitational tides, contributing to a spherical bulge of stars and stellar remnants. The gamma ray amplitude, angular distribution, and spectral signatures of this source may be predicted without free parameters, and are in remarkable agreement with the observations. These gamma rays are from fossil remains of dispersed clusters, telling the history of the Galactic bulge.

Disrupted Globular Clusters Can Explain the Galactic Center Gamma Ray Excess

The Fermi satellite has recently detected gamma ray emission from the central regions of our Galaxy. This may be evidence for dark matter particles, a major component of the standard cosmological model, annihilating to produce high-energy photons. We show that the observed signal may instead be generated by millisecond pulsars that formed in dense star clusters in the Galactic halo. Most of these clusters were ultimately disrupted by evaporation and gravitational tides, contributing to a spherical bulge of stars and stellar remnants. The gamma ray amplitude, angular distribution, and spectral signatures of this source may be predicted without free parameters, and are in remarkable agreement with the observations. These gamma rays are from fossil remains of dispersed clusters, telling the history of the Galactic bulge.

Gamma ray tests of Minimal Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

We reconsider the model of Minimal Dark Matter (a fermionic, hypercharge-less quintuplet of the EW interactions) and compute its gamma ray signatures. We compare them with a number of gamma ray probes: the galactic halo diffuse measurements, the galactic center line searches and recent dwarf galaxies observations. We find that the original minimal model, whose mass is fixed at 9.4 TeV by the relic abundance requirement, is constrained by the line searches from the Galactic Center: it is ruled out if the Milky Way possesses a cuspy profile such as NFW but it is still allowed if it has a cored one. Observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies are also relevant (in particular searches for lines), and ongoing astrophysical progresses on these systems have the potential to eventually rule out the model. We also explore a wider mass range, which applies to the case in which the relic abundance requirement is relaxed. Most of our results can be safely extended to the larger class of multi-TeV WIMP DM annihilating into massive gauge bosons.

Gamma ray tests of Minimal Dark Matter

We reconsider the model of Minimal Dark Matter (a fermionic, hypercharge-less quintuplet of the EW interactions) and compute its gamma ray signatures. We compare them with a number of gamma ray probes: the galactic halo diffuse measurements, the galactic center line searches and recent dwarf galaxies observations. We find that the original minimal model, whose mass is fixed at 9.4 TeV by the relic abundance requirement, is constrained by the line searches from the Galactic Center: it is ruled out if the Milky Way possesses a cuspy profile such as NFW but it is still allowed if it has a cored one. Observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies are also relevant (in particular searches for lines), and ongoing astrophysical progresses on these systems have the potential to eventually rule out the model. We also explore a wider mass range, which applies to the case in which the relic abundance requirement is relaxed. Most of our results can be safely extended to the larger class of multi-TeV WIMP DM annihilating into massive gauge bosons.

Search for Gamma-ray Production in Supernovae Located in a Dense Circumstellar Medium with the Fermi-LAT

Supernovae (SNe) exploding in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) are predicted to accelerate cosmic rays in collisionless shocks and emit GeV gamma rays and TeV neutrinos on a time scale of several months. Here we summarize the results of the first systematic search for gamma-ray emission in Fermi-LAT data in the energy range from 100 MeV to 300 GeV from a large sample of SNe exploding in dense CSM. We search for a gamma-ray excess at the position of 147 SNe Type IIn in a one year time window after the optical peak time. In addition we combine the closest and optically brightest sources of our sample in a joint likelihood analysis in three different time windows (3, 6 and 12 months). No excess gamma-ray emission is found and limits on the gamma-ray luminosity and the ratio of gamma-ray to optical luminosity are presented.

Gamma-ray emission from binaries in context

More than a dozen binary systems are now established as sources of variable, high energy (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) gamma rays. Five are also established sources of very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma rays. The mechanisms behind gamma-ray emission in binaries are very diverse. My current understanding is that they divide up into four types of systems: gamma-ray binaries, powered by pulsar rotation; microquasars, powered by accretion onto a black hole or neutron star; novae, powered by thermonuclear runaway on a white dwarf; colliding wind binaries, powered by stellar winds from massive stars. Some of these types had long been suspected to emit gamma rays (microquasars), others have taken the community by surprise (novae). My purpose here is to provide a brief review of the current status of gamma-ray emission from binaries, in the context of related objects where similar mechanisms are at work (pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants).

The rate and luminosity function of long Gamma Ray Bursts

We derive, adopting a direct method, the luminosity function and the formation rate of long Gamma Ray Bursts through a complete, flux-limited, sample of Swift bursts which has a high level of completeness in redshift z (~82%). We parametrise the redshift evolution of the GRB luminosity as L = L_0(1+ z)^k and we derive k = 2.5, consistently with recent estimates. The de-evolved luminosity function of GRBs can be represented by a broken power law with slopes a = -1.32 +- 0.21 and b = -1.84 +- 0.24 below and above, respectively, a characteristic break luminosity L_0,b = 10^51.45+-0.15 erg/s. Under the hypothesis of luminosity evolution we find that the GRB formation rate increases with redshift up to z~2, where it peaks, and then decreases in agreement with the shape of the cosmic star formation rate. We test the direct method through numerical simulations and we show that if it is applied to incomplete (both in redshift and/or flux) GRB samples it can misleadingly result in an excess of the GRB formation rate at low redshifts.

Distance and Reddening of the Enigmatic Gamma-ray-Detected Nova V1324 Sco

It has recently been discovered that some, if not all, classical novae emit GeV gamma-rays during outburst. Despite using an unreliable method to determine its distance, previous work showed that nova V1324 Sco was the most gamma-ray luminous of all gamma-ray-detected novae. We present here a different, more robust, method to determine the reddening and distance to V1324 Sco using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. Using two independent methods we derived a reddening of E(B-V) = 1.16 +/- 0.12 and a distance rD > 6.5 kpc. This distance is >40% greater than previously estimated, meaning that V1324 Sco has an even higher gamma-ray luminosity than previously calculated. We also use periodic modulations in the brightness, interpreted as the orbital period, in conjunction with pre-outburst photometric limits to show that a main-sequence companion is strongly favored.

Gamma Ray Bursts in the HAWC Era

Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe, and are among the most promising for detecting multiple non-electromagnetic signals, including cosmic rays, high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves. The multi-GeV to TeV gamma-ray range of GRB could have significant contributions from hadronic interactions, mixed with more conventional leptonic contributions. This energy range is important for probing the source physics, including overall energetics, the shock parameters and the Lorentz factor. We discuss some of the latest observational and theoretical developments in the field.

Gamma Ray Bursts in the HAWC Era [Cross-Listing]

Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe, and are among the most promising for detecting multiple non-electromagnetic signals, including cosmic rays, high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves. The multi-GeV to TeV gamma-ray range of GRB could have significant contributions from hadronic interactions, mixed with more conventional leptonic contributions. This energy range is important for probing the source physics, including overall energetics, the shock parameters and the Lorentz factor. We discuss some of the latest observational and theoretical developments in the field.

Search for Early Gamma-ray Production in Supernovae Located in a Dense Circumstellar Medium with the Fermi LAT [Replacement]

Supernovae (SNe) exploding in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) are hypothesized to accelerate cosmic rays in collisionless shocks and emit GeV gamma rays and TeV neutrinos on a time scale of several months. We perform the first systematic search for gamma-ray emission in Fermi LAT data in the energy range from 100 MeV to 300 GeV from the ensemble of 147 SNe Type IIn exploding in dense CSM. We search for a gamma-ray excess at each SNe location in a one year time window. In order to enhance a possible weak signal, we simultaneously study the closest and optically brightest sources of our sample in a joint-likelihood analysis in three different time windows (1 year, 6 months and 3 months). For the most promising source of the sample, SN 2010jl (PTF10aaxf), we repeat the analysis with an extended time window lasting 4.5 years. We do not find a significant excess in gamma rays for any individual source nor for the combined sources and provide model-independent flux upper limits for both cases. In addition, we derive limits on the gamma-ray luminosity and the ratio of gamma-ray-to-optical luminosity ratio as a function of the index of the proton injection spectrum assuming a generic gamma-ray production model. Furthermore, we present detailed flux predictions based on multi-wavelength observations and the corresponding flux upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) for the source SN 2010jl (PTF10aaxf).

Search for Early Gamma-ray Production in Supernovae Located in a Dense Circumstellar Medium with the Fermi LAT

Supernovae (SNe) exploding in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) are hypothesized to accelerate cosmic rays in collisionless shocks and emit GeV gamma rays and TeV neutrinos on a time scale of several months. We perform the first systematic search for gamma-ray emission in Fermi LAT data in the energy range from 100 MeV to 300 GeV from the ensemble of 147 SNe Type IIn exploding in dense CSM. We search for a gamma-ray excess at each SNe location in a one year time window. In order to enhance a possible weak signal, we simultaneously study the closest and optically brightest sources of our sample in a joint-likelihood analysis in three different time windows (1 year, 6 months and 3 months). For the most promising source of the sample, SN 2010jl (PTF10aaxf), we repeat the analysis with an extended time window lasting 4.5 years. We do not find a significant excess in gamma rays for any individual source nor for the combined sources and provide model-independent flux upper limits for both cases. In addition, we derive limits on the gamma-ray luminosity and the ratio of gamma-ray-to-optical luminosity ratio as a function of the index of the proton injection spectrum assuming a generic gamma-ray production model. Furthermore, we present detailed flux predictions based on multi-wavelength observations and the corresponding flux upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) for the source SN 2010jl (PTF10aaxf).

Probing Long Gamma Ray Bursts progenitor mass by Gravitational Waves [Cross-Listing]

In this work we present a procedure to infer the mass of progenitors and remnants of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB), starting from the observed energy $E_{iso}^{GRB}$ emitted isotropically and considering the associated emission of Gravitational Waves (GW) $ E_{iso}^{GW}$ in the different phases. We assume that the GW energy of the progenitor $E_{PROG}^{GW}$ is emitted partially during a star collapse, and the residual energy is related to the GW energy emitted by the remnant. We take a sample of $237$ Long GRB, and use an hybrid Montecarlo procedure to explore, for each of them, a region of possible solutions of $ E_{iso}^{GW}$ as a function of the masses, radii, oblateness, rotation frequencies of progenitor and remnant and the fraction of energy $k$ emitted as GW by the GRB. We discriminate between a Neutron Star (NS) or Black Hole (BH) for the remnant and obtain interesting values for the GW emitted by the remnant NS or BH, for the conversion factor $k$ of and for the masses and radii of GRB progenitor stars. We also obtain remnant populations with mean masses, mean GW frequencies and GRB frequency of GW emission in agreement with the most accepted models.

Probing Long Gamma Ray Bursts progenitor mass by Gravitational Waves

In this work we present a procedure to infer the mass of progenitors and remnants of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB), starting from the observed energy $E_{iso}^{GRB}$ emitted isotropically and considering the associated emission of Gravitational Waves (GW) $ E_{iso}^{GW}$ in the different phases. We assume that the GW energy of the progenitor $E_{PROG}^{GW}$ is emitted partially during a star collapse, and the residual energy is related to the GW energy emitted by the remnant. We take a sample of $237$ Long GRB, and use an hybrid Montecarlo procedure to explore, for each of them, a region of possible solutions of $ E_{iso}^{GW}$ as a function of the masses, radii, oblateness, rotation frequencies of progenitor and remnant and the fraction of energy $k$ emitted as GW by the GRB. We discriminate between a Neutron Star (NS) or Black Hole (BH) for the remnant and obtain interesting values for the GW emitted by the remnant NS or BH, for the conversion factor $k$ of and for the masses and radii of GRB progenitor stars. We also obtain remnant populations with mean masses, mean GW frequencies and GRB frequency of GW emission in agreement with the most accepted models.

 

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