Posts Tagged gamma ray

Recent Postings from gamma ray

Multi-wavelength Emission from the Fermi Bubble II. Secondary Electrons and the Hadronic Model of the Bubble

We analyse the origin of the gamma-ray flux from the Fermi Bubbles (FBs) in the framework of the hadronic model in which gamma-rays are produced by collisions of relativistic protons with the protons of background plasma in the Galactic halo. It is assumed in this model that the observed radio emission from the FBs is due to synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons produced by $pp$ collisions. However, if these electrons loose their energy by the synchrotron and inverse-Compton, the spectrum of secondary electrons is too soft, and an additional arbitrary component of primary electrons is necessary in order to reproduce the radio data. Thus, a mixture of the hadronic and leptonic models is required for the observed radio flux. It was shown that if the spectrum of primary electrons is $\propto E_e^{-2}$, the permitted range of the magnetic field strength is within 2 – 7 $\mu$G region. The fraction of gamma-rays produced by $pp$ collisions can reach about 80% of the total gamma-ray flux from the FBs. If magnetic field is <2 $\mu$G or >7 $\mu$G the model is unable to reproduce the data. Alternatively, the electrons in the FBs may lose their energy by adiabatic energy losses if there is a strong plasma outflow in the GC. Then, the pure hadronic model is able to reproduce characteristics of the radio and gamma-ray flux from the FBs. However, in this case the required magnetic field strength in the FBs and the power of CR sources are much higher than those followed from observations.

Gamma-ray flaring activity from the gravitationally lensed blazar PKS 1830-211 observed by Fermi LAT

The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the highly dust-absorbed, reddened, and MeV-peaked flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830-211 (z=2.507). Its apparent isotropic gamma-ray luminosity (E>100 MeV) averaged over $\sim$ 3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 X 10^{50} erg s^{-1}, makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor 1.5 less. Two large gamma-ray flares of PKS 1830-211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the gamma rays flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum and with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the gamma-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and gamma-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.

Effect of Degenerated Particles on Internal Bremsstrahlung of Majorana Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

Gamma-ray generated by annihilation or decay of dark matter can be its smoking gun signature. In particular, gamma-ray coming from internal bremsstrahlung of dark matter is promising since it can be a leading emission of sharp gamma-ray. However if thermal production of Majorana dark matter is considered, the derived cross section for internal bremsstrahlung becomes too small to be observed by future gamma-ray experiments. We consider a framework to achieve an enhancement of the cross section by taking into account degenerated particles with dark matter. We find that the enhancement of about order one is possible without conflict with the dark matter relic density. Due to the enhancement, it would be tested by the future experiments such as GAMMA-400 and CTA.

Effect of Degenerated Particles on Internal Bremsstrahlung of Majorana Dark Matter

Gamma-ray generated by annihilation or decay of dark matter can be its smoking gun signature. In particular, gamma-ray coming from internal bremsstrahlung of dark matter is promising since it can be a leading emission of sharp gamma-ray. However if thermal production of Majorana dark matter is considered, the derived cross section for internal bremsstrahlung becomes too small to be observed by future gamma-ray experiments. We consider a framework to achieve an enhancement of the cross section by taking into account degenerated particles with dark matter. We find that the enhancement of about order one is possible without conflict with the dark matter relic density. Due to the enhancement, it would be tested by the future experiments such as GAMMA-400 and CTA.

High-energy gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds from clusters of galaxies and radio constraints

Cosmic-ray protons accumulate for cosmological times in clusters of galaxies as their typical radiative and diffusive escape times are longer than the Hubble time. Their hadronic interactions with protons of the intra-cluster medium generate secondary electrons, gamma-rays and neutrinos. We here estimate the contribution from clusters to the diffuse gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds. We model the cluster population by means of their mass function, using a phenomenological luminosity-mass relation applied to all clusters, as well as a detailed semi-analytical model. Additionally, we consider observationally-motivated values for the cluster magnetic field. This is a crucial parameter since the observed radio counts due to synchrotron emission by secondary electrons need to be respected. For a choice of parameters respecting all current constraints, and assuming a spectral index of -2, we find that hadronic interactions in clusters contribute by less than 10% to the extragalactic gamma-ray background observed by Fermi and to the IceCube flux. They account for less than 1% for spectral indices <=-2. The neutrino flux observed by IceCube can be reproduced without violating constraints only if a very hard (and speculative) spectral index >-2 is adopted. However, this scenario is in tension with the IceCube data, which seem to suggest a spectral energy distribution of the neutrino flux that decreases with energy. In the case of proton-photon interactions, we find that very likely protons do not reach sufficiently high energies to produce neutrinos in clusters. We argue that our results are optimistic due to our assumptions, and that clusters of galaxies cannot give any relevant contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds. Finally, we find that the cluster contribution to the angular fluctuations in the gamma-ray background is subdominant, less than 10%. [abridged]

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight

We present a new extended gamma ray excess toward the Galactic Center that traces the 3.4 micron infrared emission morphology. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Discovery of a New Galactic Center Excess Consistent with Upscattered Starlight [Cross-Listing]

We present a new extended gamma ray excess toward the Galactic Center that traces the 3.4 micron infrared emission morphology. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.

Galactic Centre GeV Photons from Dark Technicolor

We present a classically scale-invariant model with a confining dark sector, which is coupled to the Standard Model through the Higgs portal. The galactic centre gamma ray excess can be explained in this model by collision-induced dark matter decays to b-quarks. We discuss the possibility to obtain the dark matter relic density through thermal freeze-out, which however requires excessive fine-tuning. We then instead focus on a freeze-in scenario and perform detailed calculations and a parameter scan. We find that the observed relic density and the gamma ray excess can be explained by a wide range of parameters in this model.

Galactic Centre GeV Photons from Dark Technicolor [Replacement]

We present a classically scale-invariant model with a confining dark sector, which is coupled to the Standard Model through the Higgs portal. The galactic centre gamma ray excess can be explained in this model by collision-induced dark matter decays to b-quarks. We discuss the possibility to obtain the dark matter relic density through thermal freeze-out, which however requires excessive fine-tuning. We then instead focus on a freeze-in scenario and perform detailed calculations and a parameter scan. We find that the observed relic density and the gamma ray excess can be explained by a wide range of parameters in this model.

Decoding the stellar fossils of the dusty Milky Way progenitors

We investigate the metallicity distribution function (MDF) in the Galactic halo and the relative fraction of Carbon-normal and Carbon-rich stars. To this aim, we use an improved version of the semi-analytical code GAlaxy MErger Tree and Evolution (GAMETE), that reconstructs the hierarchical merger tree of the MW, following the star formation history and the metal and dust evolution in individual progenitors. The predicted scaling relations between the dust, metal and gas masses for MW progenitors show a good agreement with observational data of local galaxies and of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) host galaxies at 0.1 < z < 6.3. We find that in order to reproduce the observed tail of the MDF at [Fe/H] < -4, faint SN explosions have to dominate the metal yields produced by Pop III stars, disfavoring a Pop III IMF that extends to stellar masses > 140 M_{sun}, into the Pair-Instability SN progenitor mass range. The relative contribution of C-normal and C-enhanced stars to the MDF and its dependence on [Fe/H] points to a scenario where the Pop III/II transition is driven by dust-cooling and the first low-mass stars form when the dust-to-gas ratio in their parent clouds exceeds a critical value of D_crit = 4.4 x 10^{-9}.

Spectral and Timing Analysis of the Prompt Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

A Thesis Submitted to the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics (supervisor: Prof. A. R. Rao)

Luminosity function and jet structure of Gamma Ray Bursts

The structure of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) jets impacts on their prompt and afterglow emission properties. The jet of GRBs could be uniform, with constant energy per unit solid angle within the jet aperture, or it could instead be structured, namely with energy and velocity that depend on the angular distance from the axis of the jet. We try to get some insight about the still unknown structure of GRBs by studying their luminosity function. We show that low (1e46-1e48 erg/s) and high (i.e. with L > 1e50 erg/s) luminosity GRBs can be described by a unique luminosity function, which is also consistent with current lower limits in the intermediate luminosity range (1e48-1e50} erg/s). We derive analytical expressions for the luminosity function of GRBs in uniform and structured jet models and compare them with the data. Uniform jets can reproduce the entire luminosity function with reasonable values of the free parameters. A structured jet can also fit adequately the current data, provided that the energy within the jet is relatively strongly structured, i.e. E propto theta^{-k} with k > 4. The classical E propto theta^{-2} structured jet model is excluded by the current data.

Low Energy Gamma Ray Excess Confronting a Singlet Scalar Extended Inert Doublet Dark Matter Model

Recent study of gamma rays originating from the region of galactic centre has confirmed an anomalous $\gamma$-ray excess within the energy range 1-3 GeV. This can be explained as the consequence of pair annihilation of a 31-40 GeV dark matter into $b \bar b$ with thermal annihilation cross-section $\sigma v \sim 1.4-2.0 \times 10^{-26}~\rm{cm^3/s}$. In this work we revisit the Inert Doublet Model (IDM) in order to explain this gamma ray excess. Taking the lightest inert particle (LIP) as a stable DM candidate we show that a 31-40 GeV dark matter derived from IDM will fail to satisfy experimental limits on dark matter direct detection cross-section obtained from ongoing direct detection experiments and is also inconsistent with LHC findings. We show that a singlet extended inert doublet model can easily explain the reported $\gamma$-ray excess which is as well in agreement with Higgs search results at LHC and other observed results like DM relic density and direct detection constraints.

Discovery of an ultracompact gamma-ray millisecond pulsar binary candidate

We report multi-wavelength observations of the unidentified Fermi object 2FGL J1653.6-0159. With the help of high-resolution X-ray observation, we have identified an X-ray and optical counterpart of 2FGL J1653.6-0159. The source exhibits a periodic modulation of 74.93 min in optical and possibly also in X-ray. We suggest that 2FGL J1653.6-0159 is a compact binary system with an orbital period of 74.93 min. Combining the gamma-ray and X-ray properties, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 is potentially a black widow/redback type gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP). The optical and X-ray lightcurve profile shows that the companion is mildly heated by the high-energy emission and the X-rays are from intrabinary shock. Although no radio pulsation has been detected yet, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is ~2 ms based on a theoretical model. If pulsation can be confirmed in the future, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 will become the first ultracompact rotation-powered MSP.

Discovery of an ultracompact gamma-ray millisecond pulsar binary candidate [Replacement]

We report multi-wavelength observations of the unidentified Fermi object 2FGL J1653.6-0159. With the help of high-resolution X-ray observation, we have identified an X-ray and optical counterpart of 2FGL J1653.6-0159. The source exhibits a periodic modulation of 75 min in optical and possibly also in X-ray. We suggest that 2FGL J1653.6-0159 is a compact binary system with an orbital period of 75 min. Combining the gamma-ray and X-ray properties, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 is potentially a black widow/redback type gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP). The optical and X-ray lightcurve profiles show that the companion is mildly heated by the high-energy emission and the X-rays are from intrabinary shock. Although no radio pulsation has been detected yet, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is ~2ms based on a theoretical model. If pulsation can be confirmed in the future, 2FGL J1653.6-0159 will become the first ultracompact rotation-powered MSP.

Galactic center gamma ray excess from two Higgs doublet portal dark matter [Cross-Listing]

We consider a simple extension of type-II two Higgs doublet model by introducing a real scalar being a candidate for the dark matter in the present Universe. The main annihilation mode of the dark matter particle with a mass of around $31-40$ GeV is into a $b\bar{b}$ pair, and this annihilation mode suitably explains the observed excess of the flux of gamma ray from the Galactic center. We identify the parameter region of the model which can fit the gamma ray excess and, at the same time, satisfy phenomenological constraints such as the observed dark matter relic density and the null results of the direct dark matter search experiments. Most of the parameter region is found to be within the search reach of the future direct dark matter detection experiments.

Galactic center gamma ray excess from two Higgs doublet portal dark matter

We consider a simple extension of type-II two Higgs doublet model by introducing a real scalar being a candidate for the dark matter in the present Universe. The main annihilation mode of the dark matter particle with a mass of around $31-40$ GeV is into a $b\bar{b}$ pair, and this annihilation mode suitably explains the observed excess of the flux of gamma ray from the Galactic center. We identify the parameter region of the model which can fit the gamma ray excess and, at the same time, satisfy phenomenological constraints such as the observed dark matter relic density and the null results of the direct dark matter search experiments. Most of the parameter region is found to be within the search reach of the future direct dark matter detection experiments.

From Engine to Afterglow: Collapsars Naturally Produce Top-Heavy Jets and Early-Time Plateaus in Gamma Ray Burst Afterglows

We demonstrate that the steep decay and long plateau in the early phases of gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglows are naturally produced in the collapsar model, by a means ultimately related to the dynamics of relativistic jet propagation through a massive star. We present hydrodynamical simulations which start from a collapsar engine and evolve all the way through the late afterglow phase. The resultant outflow includes a jet core which is highly relativistic after breaking out of the star, but becomes baryon-loaded and less relativistic after colliding with a massive outer shell, corresponding to mass from the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor star which became trapped in front of the jet core at breakout. The prompt emission produced before or during this collision would then have the signature of a high Lorentz factor jet, but the afterglow is produced by the amalgamated post-collision ejecta which has more inertia than the original highly relativistic jet core and thus has a delayed deceleration. This naturally explains the early light curve behavior discovered by Swift, including a steep decay and a long plateau, without invoking late-time energy injection from the central engine. The numerical simulation is performed continuously from engine to afterglow, covering a dynamic range of over ten orders of magnitude in radius as a relativistic jet propagates through a massive star, breaks out of the stellar surface and coasts, generating both internal and external shocks. Light curves calculated from the numerical output demonstrate that this mechanism reproduces basic features seen in early afterglow data. Initial steep decays are produced by internal shocks, and the plateau corresponds to the coasting phase of the outflow.

Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146 [Replacement]

Recent detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggests that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a $\sim5.5\sigma$ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200{\rm MeV} from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC~2146. Taking into account also the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC~2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC~2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC~2146 is a "proton calorimeter". It is also found that NGC~2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC~2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed.

Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146

Recent detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggests that starburst galaxies are huge revisors of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this {\it Letter}, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a $\sim5.5\sigma$ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200{\rm MeV} from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC~2146. Taking into account also the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC~2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC~2146 convert nearly half of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC~2146 is approximately a "proton calorimeter". It is also found that NGC~2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.

Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146 [Replacement]

Recent detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggests that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this {\it Letter}, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a $\sim5.5\sigma$ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200{\rm MeV} from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC~2146. Taking into account also the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC~2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC~2146 convert nearly half of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC~2146 is approximately a "proton calorimeter". It is also found that NGC~2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.

Simplified Dark Matter Models Confront the Gamma Ray Excess

Inspired by the excess of gamma rays from the Galactic Center, we confront a number of simplified dark matter models with experimental data. Assuming a single dark matter particle coupled to standard matter via a spin-0 mediator, we compare model evidences for Majorana fermion, real scalar and real vector dark matter candidates. We consider dark matter annihilation into various fermionic final states contributing to the observed differential gamma ray flux. Our likelihood function also includes the dark matter relic density, its elastic scattering cross section with nuclei, and collider limits. Using Bayesian inference we confine the mass and couplings strengths of the dark matter and mediator particle. Our results show that, if the gamma ray excess is due to dark matter the above parameters are well constrained by the observations. We find that the Majorana fermion dark matter model is supported the most by the data.

Simplified Dark Matter Models Confront the Gamma Ray Excess [Replacement]

Inspired by the excess of gamma rays from the Galactic Center, we confront a number of simplified dark matter models with experimental data. Assuming a single dark matter particle coupled to standard matter via a spin-0 mediator, we compare model evidences for Majorana fermion, real scalar and real vector dark matter candidates. We consider dark matter annihilation into various fermionic final states contributing to the observed differential gamma ray flux. Our likelihood function also includes the dark matter relic density, its elastic scattering cross section with nuclei, and collider limits. Using Bayesian inference we confine the mass and couplings strengths of the dark matter and mediator particle. Our results show that, if the gamma ray excess is due to dark matter the above parameters are well constrained by the observations. We find that the Majorana fermion dark matter model is supported the most by the data.

Constraints on The Hadronic Content of Gamma Ray Bursts

The IceCube high-energy neutrino telescope has been collecting data since 2006. Conversely, hundreds of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been detected by the GBM on board Fermi, since its launch in 2008. So far no neutrino event has been associated with a GRB, despite many models predicting the generation of high energy neutrinos through GRB photon interaction with PeV protons in the GRB jet. We use the non-detection of neutrinos to constrain the hadronic content of GRB jets independent of jet model parameters. Assuming a generic particle spectrum of $E^{-\alpha}$ with $\alpha = 2$, we find that the ratio of the energy carried by pions to that in electrons has to be small $f_\pi / f_e \lesssim 0.24$ at 95\% confidence level. A distribution of spectral slopes can lower $f_\pi / f_e$ by orders of magnitude. Another limit, independent of neutrinos, is obtained if one ascribes the measured Fermi/LAT GeV gamma-ray emission to pair-photon cascades of high-energy photons resulting from (the same photon-hadronic interactions and subsequent) neutral pion decays. Based on the generally observed MeV to GeV GRB fluence ratio of $\approx 10$, we show that $f_\pi / f_e \lesssim 0.3$. In some bursts, where this ratio is as low as unity, $f_\pi / f_e \lesssim 0.03$. These findings add to the mounting doubts regarding the presence of PeV protons in GRB jets.

On the Composition of GRBs' Collapsar Jets

The duration distribution of long Gamma Ray Bursts reveals a plateau at durations shorter than ~20 s (in the observer frame) and a power-law decline at longer durations (Bromberg et al., 2012). Such a plateau arises naturally in the Collapsar model. In this model the engine has to operate long enough to push the jet out of the stellar envelope and the observed duration of the burst is the difference between the engine’s operation time and the jet breakout time. We compare the jet breakout time inferred from the duration distribution (~10 s in the burst’s frame) to the breakout time of a hydrodynamic jet (~10 s for typical parameters) and of a Poynting flux dominated jet with the same overall energy (<~1 s). As only the former is compatible with the duration of the plateau in the GRB duration distribution, we conclude that the jet is hydrodynamic during most of the time that its head is within the envelope of the progenitor star and around the time when it emerges from the star. This would naturally arise if the jet forms as a hydrodynamic jet in the first place or if it forms Poynting flux dominated but dissipates most of its magnetic energy early on within the progenitor star and emerges as a hydrodynamic jet.

Recombining Plasma in the Gamma-ray Emitting Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnant 3C 391

A group of middle-aged mixed-morphology (MM) supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds (MC) has been discovered as strong GeV gamma-ray emitters by Large Area Telescope on board Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope (Fermi-LAT). The recent observations of the Suzaku X-ray satellite have revealed that some of these interacting gamma-ray emitting SNRs, such as IC443, W49B, W44, and G359.1-0.5, have overionized plasmas. 3C 391 (G31.9+0.0) is another Galactic MM SNR interacting with MC. It was observed in GeV gamma rays by Fermi-LAT as well as in the 0.3 $-$ 10.0 keV X-ray band by Suzaku. In this work, 3C 391 was detected in GeV gamma rays with a significance of $\sim$ 18 $\sigma$ and we showed that the GeV emission is point-like in nature. The GeV gamma-ray spectrum was shown to be best explained by the decay of neutral pions assuming that the protons follow a broken power-law distribution. We revealed radiative recombination structures of silicon and sulfur from 3C 391 using Suzaku data. In this paper we discuss the possible origin of this type of radiative plasma and hadronic gamma rays.

Bremsstrahlung and Gamma Ray Lines in 3 Scenarios of Dark Matter Annihilation

Gamma ray spectral features are of interest for indirect searches of dark matter (DM). Following Barger et al, we consider 3 simple scenarios of DM that annihilates into Standard Model (SM) fermion pairs. Scenario 1 is a Majorana DM candidate coupled to a charged scalar, scenario 2 is a Majorana DM coupled to a charged gauge boson and scenario 3 is a real scalar DM coupled a charged vector-like fermion. As shown by Barger et al, these 3 scenarios share precisely the same internal Bremsstrahlung spectral signature into gamma rays. Their phenomenology is however distinct. In particular for annihilation into light SM fermions, in the chiral limit, the 2-body annihilation cross section is p-wave suppressed for the Majorana candidates while it is d-wave suppressed for the real scalar. In the present work we study the annihilation into 2 gammas, showing that these three scenarios have distinct, and so potentially distinguishable, spectral signatures into gamma rays. In the case of the real scalar candidate we provide a new calculation of the amplitude for annihilation into 2 gammas.

Bremsstrahlung and Gamma Ray Lines in 3 Scenarios of Dark Matter Annihilation [Cross-Listing]

Gamma ray spectral features are of interest for indirect searches of dark matter (DM). Following Barger et al, we consider 3 simple scenarios of DM that annihilates into Standard Model (SM) fermion pairs. Scenario 1 is a Majorana DM candidate coupled to a charged scalar, scenario 2 is a Majorana DM coupled to a charged gauge boson and scenario 3 is a real scalar DM coupled a charged vector-like fermion. As shown by Barger et al, these 3 scenarios share precisely the same internal Bremsstrahlung spectral signature into gamma rays. Their phenomenology is however distinct. In particular for annihilation into light SM fermions, in the chiral limit, the 2-body annihilation cross section is p-wave suppressed for the Majorana candidates while it is d-wave suppressed for the real scalar. In the present work we study the annihilation into 2 gammas, showing that these three scenarios have distinct, and so potentially distinguishable, spectral signatures into gamma rays. In the case of the real scalar candidate we provide a new calculation of the amplitude for annihilation into 2 gammas.

Gamma Ray Bursts Are Observed Off-Axis

We use the ScaleFit package to perform Markov chain Monte Carlo light curve fitting on a large sample of Swift-XRT gamma-ray burst afterglows. The ScaleFit model uses scaling relations in the hydrodynamic and radiation equations to compute synthetic light curves directly from a set of high resolution two-dimensional relativistic blast wave simulations. The data sample consists of all Swift-XRT afterglows from 2005 to 2012 with sufficient coverage and a known redshift, 188 bursts in total. We find the jet half opening angle varies widely but is commonly less than 0.1 radians. The distribution of the electron spectral index is also broad, with a median at 2.23. This approach allows, for the first time, for the off-axis observer angle to be inferred directly from the light curve. We find the observer angle to have a median value of 0.57 of the jet opening angle over our sample, which has profound consequences for the predicted rate of observed jet breaks and effects the beaming corrected total energies of gamma-ray bursts.

A Hadronic-Leptonic Model for the Fermi Bubbles: Cosmic-Rays in the Galactic Halo and Radio Emission

We investigate non-thermal emission from the Fermi bubbles on a hadronic model. Cosmic-ray (CR) protons are accelerated at the forward shock of the bubbles. They interact with the background gas in the Galactic halo and create $\pi^0$-decay gamma-rays and secondary electrons through proton-proton interaction. We follow the evolution of the CR protons and electrons by calculating their distribution functions. We find that the spectrum and the intensity profile of $\pi^0$-decay gamma-rays are consistent with observations. We predict that the shock front is located far ahead of the gamma-ray boundary of the Fermi bubbles. This naturally explains the fact that a clear temperature jump of thermal gas was not discovered at the gamma-ray boundary in recent Suzaku observations. We also consider re-acceleration of the background CRs in the Galactic halo at the shock front. We find that it can significantly affect the gamma-rays from the Fermi bubbles, unless the density of the background CRs is $\lesssim 10$\% of that in the Galactic disk. We indicate that secondary electrons alone cannot produce the observed radio emission from the Fermi bubbles. However, the radio emission from the outermost region of the bubbles can be explained, if electrons are directly accelerated at the shock front with an efficiency of $\sim 0.1$\% of that of protons.

Effective absorbing column density in the gamma-ray burst afterglow X-ray spectra

We investigate the scaling relation between the observed amount of absorption in the X-ray spectra of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows and the absorber redshift. Through dedicated numerical simulations of an ideal instrument, we establish that this dependence has a power law shape with index 2.4. However, for real instruments, this value depends on their low energy cut-off, spectral resolution and on the detector spectral response in general. We thus provide appropriate scaling laws for specific instruments. Finally, we discuss the possibility to measure the absorber redshift from X-ray data alone. We find that 10^5-10^6 counts in the 0.3-10 keV band are needed to constrain the redshift with 10% accuracy. As a test case we discuss the XMM-Newton observation of GRB 090618 at z=0.54. We are able to recover the correct redshift of this burst with the expected accuracy.

Afterglows from precursors in Gamma Ray Bursts. Application to the optical afterglow of GRB 091024 [Replacement]

About 15% of Gamma Ray Bursts have precursors, i.e. emission episodes preceding the main event, whose spectral and temporal properties are similar to the main emission. We propose that precursors have their own fireball, producing afterglow emission due to the dissipation of the kinetic energy via external shock. In the time lapse between the precursor and the main event, we assume that the central engine is not completely turned off, but it continues to eject relativistic material at a smaller rate, whose emission is below the background level. The precursor fireball generates a first afterglow by the interaction with the external circumburst medium. Matter injected by the central engine during the "quasi-quiescent" phase replenishes the external medium with material in relativistic motion. The fireball corresponding to the main prompt emission episode crashes with this moving material, producing a second afterglow, and finally catches up and merges with the first precursor fireball. We apply this new model to GRB 091024, an event with a precursor in the prompt light curve and two well defined bumps in the optical afterglow, obtaining an excellent agreement with the existing data.

Afterglows from precursors in Gamma Ray Bursts. Application to the optical afterglow of GRB 091024

About 15% of Gamma Ray Bursts have precursors, i.e. emission episodes preceding the main event, whose spectral and temporal properties are similar to the main emission. We propose that precursors have their own fireball, producing afterglow emission due to the dissipation of the kinetic energy via external shock. In the time lapse between the precursor and the main event, we assume that the central engine is not completely turned off, but it continues to eject relativistic material at a smaller rate, whose emission is below the background level. The precursor fireball generates a first afterglow by the interaction with the external circumburst medium. Matter injected by the central engine during the "quasi-quiescent" phase replenishes the external medium with material in relativistic motion. The fireball corresponding to the main prompt emission episode crashes with this moving material, producing a second afterglow, and finally catches up and merges with the first precursor fireball. We apply this new model to GRB 091024, an event with a precursor in the prompt light curve and two well defined bumps in the optical afterglow, obtaining an excellent agreement with the existing data.

Variable optical polarization during high state in gamma-ray loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

We present results of optical polarimetric and multi-band photometric observations for gamma-ray loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342. This object has been monitored by 1.5 m Kanata telescope since 2012 September but following a gamma-ray flux enhancement detected by Fermi-LAT on MJD 56483 (2013 July 10) dense follow-up was performed by ten 0.5-2.0 m telescopes in Japan over one week. The 2-year R_C-band light curve showed clear brightening corresponding to the gamma-ray flux increase and then decayed gradually. The high state as a whole lasted for ~20 days, during which we clearly detected optical polarization from this object. The polarization degree (PD) of the source increased from 0-1% in quiescence to ~3% at maximum and then declined to the quiescent level, with the duration of the enhancement of less than 10 days. The moderate PD around the peak allowed us to precisely measure the daily polarization angle (PA). As a result, we found that the daily PAs were almost constant and aligned to the jet axis, suggesting that the magnetic field direction at the emission region is transverse to the jet. This implies either a presence of helical/toroidal magnetic field or transverse magnetic field compressed by shock(s). We also found small-amplitude intra-night variability during the 2-hour continuous exposure on a single night. We discuss these findings based on the turbulent multi-zone model recently advocated by Marscher (2014). Optical to ultraviolet (UV) spectrum showed a rising shape in the higher frequency and the UV magnitude measured by Swift/UVOT was steady even during the flaring state, suggesting that thermal emission from accretion disk is dominant in that band.

Variable optical polarization during high state in gamma-ray loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342 [Replacement]

We present results of optical polarimetric and multi-band photometric observations for gamma-ray loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342. This object has been monitored by 1.5 m Kanata telescope since 2012 September but following a gamma-ray flux enhancement detected by Fermi-LAT on MJD 56483 (2013 July 10) dense follow-up was performed by ten 0.5-2.0 m telescopes in Japan over one week. The 2-year R_C-band light curve showed clear brightening corresponding to the gamma-ray flux increase and then decayed gradually. The high state as a whole lasted for ~20 days, during which we clearly detected optical polarization from this object. The polarization degree (PD) of the source increased from 0-1% in quiescence to ~3% at maximum and then declined to the quiescent level, with the duration of the enhancement of less than 10 days. The moderate PD around the peak allowed us to precisely measure the daily polarization angle (PA). As a result, we found that the daily PAs were almost constant and aligned to the jet axis, suggesting that the magnetic field direction at the emission region is transverse to the jet. This implies either a presence of helical/toroidal magnetic field or transverse magnetic field compressed by shock(s). We also found small-amplitude intra-night variability during the 2-hour continuous exposure on a single night. We discuss these findings based on the turbulent multi-zone model recently advocated by Marscher (2014). Optical to ultraviolet (UV) spectrum showed a rising shape in the higher frequency and the UV magnitude measured by Swift/UVOT was steady even during the flaring state, suggesting that thermal emission from accretion disk is dominant in that band.

The Peculiar Radio-Loud Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0323+342

We present a multi-wavelength study of the radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLSy1), 1H 0323+342, detected by Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Multi-band light curves show many orphan X-ray and optical flares having no corresponding {\gamma}-ray counterparts. Such anomalous variability behavior can be due to different locations of the emission region from the central source. During a large flare, {\gamma}-ray flux doubling time scale as small as $\sim$ 3 hours is noticed. We built spectral energy distribution (SED) during different activity states and modeled them using an one-zone leptonic model. The shape of the optical/UV component of the SEDs is dominated by accretion disk emission in all the activity states. In the X-ray band, significant thermal emission from the hot corona is inferred during quiescent and first flaring states, however, during subsequent flares, non-thermal jet component dominates. The {\gamma}-ray emission in all the states can be well explained by inverse-Compton scattering of accretion disk photons reprocessed by the broad line region. The source showed violent intra-night optical variability, coinciding with one of the high {\gamma}-ray activity states. An analysis of the overall X-ray spectrum fitted with an absorbed power-law plus relativistic reflection component hints for the presence of Fe K-{\alpha} line and returns a high black hole spin value of a=0.96 $\pm$ 0.14. We argue that 1H 0323+342 possesses dual characteristics, akin to flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) as well as radio-quiet NLSy1s, though at a low jet power regime compared to powerful FSRQs.

Fitting the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess with Cascade Annihilations [Replacement]

The apparent excess of gamma rays in an extended region in the direction of the galactic center has a spatial distribution and amplitude that are suggestive of dark matter annihilations. If this excess is indeed due to dark matter annihilations, it would indicate the presence of both dark matter and an additional particle beyond the Standard Model that mediates the interactions between the dark matter and Standard Model states. We introduce reference models describing dark matter annihilation to pairs of these new mediators, which decouples the SM-mediator coupling from the thermal annihilation cross section and easily explains the lack of direct detection signals. We determine the parameter regions that give good descriptions of the gamma ray excess for several motivated choices of mediator couplings to the SM. We find fermion dark matter with mass 7-26 GeV and a dark vector mediator, or scalar dark matter in the 10-50 GeV range (Higgs portal mediator) or 10-65 GeV range (gluophilic mediator) can provide a comparable or improved fit, compared to the case of direct annihilation. We demonstrate that these models can easily satisfy all constraints from collider experiments, direct detection, and cosmology.

Fitting the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess with Cascade Annihilations

The apparent excess of gamma rays in an extended region in the direction of the galactic center has a spatial distribution and amplitude that are suggestive of dark matter annihilations. If this excess is indeed due to dark matter annihilations, it would indicate the presence of both dark matter and an additional particle beyond the Standard Model that mediates the interactions between the dark matter and Standard Model states. We introduce reference models describing dark matter annihilation to pairs of these new mediators, which decouples the SM-mediator coupling from the thermal annihilation cross section and easily explains the lack of direct detection signals. We determine the parameter regions that give good descriptions of the gamma ray excess for several motivated choices of mediator couplings to the SM. We find fermion dark matter with mass 7-26 GeV and a dark vector mediator, or scalar dark matter in the 10-50 GeV range (Higgs portal mediator) or 10-65 GeV range (gluophilic mediator) can provide a comparable or improved fit, compared to the case of direct annihilation. We demonstrate that these models can easily satisfy all constraints from collider experiments, direct detection, and cosmology.

Fitting the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess with Cascade Annihilations [Replacement]

The apparent excess of gamma rays in an extended region in the direction of the galactic center has a spatial distribution and amplitude that are suggestive of dark matter annihilations. If this excess is indeed due to dark matter annihilations, it would indicate the presence of both dark matter and an additional particle beyond the Standard Model that mediates the interactions between the dark matter and Standard Model states. We introduce reference models describing dark matter annihilation to pairs of these new mediators, which decouples the SM-mediator coupling from the thermal annihilation cross section and easily explains the lack of direct detection signals. We determine the parameter regions that give good descriptions of the gamma ray excess for several motivated choices of mediator couplings to the SM. We find fermion dark matter with mass 7-26 GeV and a dark vector mediator, or scalar dark matter in the 10-50 GeV range (Higgs portal mediator) or 10-65 GeV range (gluophilic mediator) can provide a comparable or improved fit, compared to the case of direct annihilation. We demonstrate that these models can easily satisfy all constraints from collider experiments, direct detection, and cosmology.

Fitting the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess with Cascade Annihilations [Replacement]

The apparent excess of gamma rays in an extended region in the direction of the galactic center has a spatial distribution and amplitude that are suggestive of dark matter annihilations. If this excess is indeed due to dark matter annihilations, it would indicate the presence of both dark matter and an additional particle beyond the Standard Model that mediates the interactions between the dark matter and Standard Model states. We introduce reference models describing dark matter annihilation to pairs of these new mediators, which decouples the SM-mediator coupling from the thermal annihilation cross section and easily explains the lack of direct detection signals. We determine the parameter regions that give good descriptions of the gamma ray excess for several motivated choices of mediator couplings to the SM. We find fermion dark matter with mass 7-26 GeV and a dark vector mediator, or scalar dark matter in the 10-50 GeV range (Higgs portal mediator) or 10-65 GeV range (gluophilic mediator) can provide a comparable or improved fit, compared to the case of direct annihilation. We demonstrate that these models can easily satisfy all constraints from collider experiments, direct detection, and cosmology.

Fitting the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess with Cascade Annihilations [Replacement]

The apparent excess of gamma rays in an extended region in the direction of the galactic center has a spatial distribution and amplitude that are suggestive of dark matter annihilations. If this excess is indeed due to dark matter annihilations, it would indicate the presence of both dark matter and an additional particle beyond the Standard Model that mediates the interactions between the dark matter and Standard Model states. We introduce reference models describing dark matter annihilation to pairs of these new mediators, which decouples the SM-mediator coupling from the thermal annihilation cross section and easily explains the lack of direct detection signals. We determine the parameter regions that give good descriptions of the gamma ray excess for several motivated choices of mediator couplings to the SM. We find fermion dark matter with mass 7-26 GeV and a dark vector mediator, or scalar dark matter in the 10-50 GeV range (Higgs portal mediator) or 10-65 GeV range (gluophilic mediator) can provide a comparable or improved fit, compared to the case of direct annihilation. We demonstrate that these models can easily satisfy all constraints from collider experiments, direct detection, and cosmology.

Fitting the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess with Cascade Annihilations [Cross-Listing]

The apparent excess of gamma rays in an extended region in the direction of the galactic center has a spatial distribution and amplitude that are suggestive of dark matter annihilations. If this excess is indeed due to dark matter annihilations, it would indicate the presence of both dark matter and an additional particle beyond the Standard Model that mediates the interactions between the dark matter and Standard Model states. We introduce reference models describing dark matter annihilation to pairs of these new mediators, which decouples the SM-mediator coupling from the thermal annihilation cross section and easily explains the lack of direct detection signals. We determine the parameter regions that give good descriptions of the gamma ray excess for several motivated choices of mediator couplings to the SM. We find fermion dark matter with mass 7-26 GeV and a dark vector mediator, or scalar dark matter in the 10-50 GeV range (Higgs portal mediator) or 10-65 GeV range (gluophilic mediator) can provide a comparable or improved fit, compared to the case of direct annihilation. We demonstrate that these models can easily satisfy all constraints from collider experiments, direct detection, and cosmology.

A Renormalizable Model for the Galactic Center Gamma Ray Excess from Dark Matter Annihilation [Replacement]

Evidence for an excess of gamma rays with O(GeV) energy coming from the center of our galaxy has been steadily accumulating over the past several years. Recent studies of the excess in data from the Fermi telescope have cast doubt on an explanation for the excess arising from unknown astrophysical sources. A potential source of the excess is the annihilation of dark matter into standard model final states, giving rise to gamma ray production. The spectrum of the excess is well fit by 30 GeV dark matter annihilating into a pair of b quarks with a cross section of the same order of magnitude as expected for a thermal relic. Simple models that can lead to this annihilation channel for dark matter are in strong tension with null results from direct detection experiments. We construct a renormalizable model where dark matter-standard model interactions are mediated by a pseudoscalar that mixes with the CP-odd component of a pair of Higgs doublets, allowing for the gamma ray excess to be explained while suppressing the direct detection signal. We consider implications for this scenario from Higgs decays, rare B meson decays and monojet searches and also comment on some difficulties that any dark matter model explaining the gamma ray excess via direct annihilation into quarks will encounter.

A Renormalizable Model for the Galactic Center Gamma Ray Excess from Dark Matter Annihilation [Replacement]

Evidence for an excess of gamma rays with O(GeV) energy coming from the center of our galaxy has been steadily accumulating over the past several years. Recent studies of the excess in data from the Fermi telescope have cast doubt on an explanation for the excess arising from unknown astrophysical sources. A potential source of the excess is the annihilation of dark matter into standard model final states, giving rise to gamma ray production. The spectrum of the excess is well fit by 30 GeV dark matter annihilating into a pair of b quarks with a cross section of the same order of magnitude as expected for a thermal relic. Simple models that can lead to this annihilation channel for dark matter are in strong tension with null results from direct detection experiments. We construct a renormalizable model where dark matter-standard model interactions are mediated by a pseudoscalar that mixes with the CP-odd component of a pair of Higgs doublets, allowing for the gamma ray excess to be explained while suppressing the direct detection signal. We consider implications for this scenario from Higgs decays, rare B meson decays and monojet searches and also comment on some difficulties that any dark matter model explaining the gamma ray excess via direct annihilation into quarks will encounter.

Gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes form Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

Gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center [Replacement]

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

Gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center [Replacement]

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

Gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes form Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center [Cross-Listing]

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

On the Induced Gravitational Collapse at extreme cosmological distances: the case of GRB 090423 [Replacement]

(Shortened) Context: The Induced Gravitational Collapse (IGC) scenario has been introduced in order to explain the most energetic Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), Eiso=10^{52}-10^{54}erg, associated with type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). It has led to the concept of binary-driven hyper novae (BdHNe) originating in a tight binary system composed by a FeCO core on the verge of a SN explosion and a companion neutron star (NS). Their evolution is characterized by a rapid sequence of events: [...]. AIMS: To investigate whether GRB 090423, one of the farthest observed GRB at z=8.2, is a member of the BdHN family. Methods: We compare and contrast the spectra, the luminosity evolution and the detectability in the observations by Swift of GRB 090423 with the corresponding ones of the best known BdHN case, i.e. GRB 090618. RESULTS: The identification of a constant slope power-law behavior in the late X-ray emission of GRB 090423 and its overlapping with the corresponding one in GRB 090618, measured in a common rest frame, represents the main result of this article. This result signs a very significant step on the way to use the scaling law properties, evidenced in Episode 3 of this BdHN family, as a cosmological standard candle. Conclusions: Having identified GRB 090423 as a member of the BdHN family, we can conclude that SN events, leading to NS formation, can occur already at z=8.2, namely at 650 Myr after the Big Bang. It is then possible that these BdHNe originate from 40-60M_Sun binaries. They are probing the Population II stars after the completion and possible disappearance of Population III stars.

On the Induced Gravitational Collapse at extreme cosmological distances: the case of GRB 090423

Context: The Induced Gravitational Collapse (IGC) scenario has been introduced in order to explain the most energetic Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), E_{iso}=10^{52}-10^{54}erg, associated with type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). It has led to the concept of binary-driven hyper novae (BdHNe) originating in a tight binary system composed by a FeCO core on the verge of a SN explosion and a companion neutron star (NS). Their evolution is characterized by a rapid sequence of events: 1) the SN explodes giving birth to a new NS ($\nu$NS); 2) the accretion of SN ejecta onto the companion NS increases its mass up to the critical value; 3) the consequent gravitational collapse is triggered, leading to the formation of a black hole (BH) with a GRB emission. Aims: To investigate whether GRB 090423, one of the farthest observed GRB at z=8.2, is a member of the BdHN family. Methods: We compare and contrast the spectra, the luminosity evolution and the detectability in the observations by Swift of GRB 090423 with the corresponding ones of the best known BdHN case, i.e. GRB 090618. Results: The identification of a constant slope power-law behavior in the late X-ray emission of GRB 090423 and its overlapping with the corresponding one in GRB 090618, measured in a common rest frame, represent the main test for asserting that GRB 090423 is indeed a member of the BdHN family. Conclusions: Having identified GRB 090423 as a member of the BdHN family, we can conclude that SN events, leading to NS formation, can occur already at z=8.2, namely at 650 million years after the Big Bang.

 

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