Posts Tagged gamma ray

Recent Postings from gamma ray

Gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes form Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

Gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center [Replacement]

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

Gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center [Replacement]

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

Gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes form Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center [Cross-Listing]

We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

On the Induced Gravitational Collapse at extreme cosmological distances: the case of GRB 090423

Context: The Induced Gravitational Collapse (IGC) scenario has been introduced in order to explain the most energetic Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), E_{iso}=10^{52}-10^{54}erg, associated with type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). It has led to the concept of binary-driven hyper novae (BdHNe) originating in a tight binary system composed by a FeCO core on the verge of a SN explosion and a companion neutron star (NS). Their evolution is characterized by a rapid sequence of events: 1) the SN explodes giving birth to a new NS ($\nu$NS); 2) the accretion of SN ejecta onto the companion NS increases its mass up to the critical value; 3) the consequent gravitational collapse is triggered, leading to the formation of a black hole (BH) with a GRB emission. Aims: To investigate whether GRB 090423, one of the farthest observed GRB at z=8.2, is a member of the BdHN family. Methods: We compare and contrast the spectra, the luminosity evolution and the detectability in the observations by Swift of GRB 090423 with the corresponding ones of the best known BdHN case, i.e. GRB 090618. Results: The identification of a constant slope power-law behavior in the late X-ray emission of GRB 090423 and its overlapping with the corresponding one in GRB 090618, measured in a common rest frame, represent the main test for asserting that GRB 090423 is indeed a member of the BdHN family. Conclusions: Having identified GRB 090423 as a member of the BdHN family, we can conclude that SN events, leading to NS formation, can occur already at z=8.2, namely at 650 million years after the Big Bang.

Multifrequency Studies of the Peculiar Quasar 4C +21.35 During the 2010 Flaring Activity

The discovery of rapidly variable Very High Energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from 4C +21.35 (PKS 1222+216) by MAGIC on 2010 June 17, triggered by the high activity detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in high energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) gamma-rays, poses intriguing questions on the location of the gamma-ray emitting region in this flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ). We present multifrequency data of 4C +21.35 collected from centimeter to VHE during 2010 to investigate the properties of this source and discuss a possible emission model. The first hint of detection at VHE was observed by MAGIC on 2010 May 3, soon after a gamma-ray flare detected by Fermi-LAT that peaked on April 29. The same emission mechanism may therefore be responsible for both the HE and VHE emission during the 2010 flaring episodes. Two optical peaks were detected on 2010 April 20 and June 30, close in time but not simultaneous with the two gamma-ray peaks, while no clear connection was observed between the X-ray an gamma-ray emission. An increasing flux density was observed in radio and mm bands from the beginning of 2009, in accordance with the increasing gamma-ray activity observed by Fermi-LAT, and peaking on 2011 January 27 in the mm regime (230 GHz). We model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 4C +21.35 for the two periods of the VHE detection and a quiescent state, using a one-zone model with the emission coming from a very compact region outside the broad line region. The three SEDs can be fit with a combination of synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission of seed photons from a dust torus, changing only the electron distribution parameters between the epochs. The fit of the optical/UV part of the spectrum for 2010 April 29 seems to favor an inner disk radius of <6 gravitational radii, as one would expect from a prograde-rotating Kerr black hole.

Did Gamma Ray Burst Induce Cambrian Explosion?

One longstanding mystery in bio-evolution since Darwin’s time is the origin of the Cambrian explosion that happened around 540 million years ago (Mya), where an extremely rapid increase of species occurred. Here we suggest that a nearby GRB event ~500 parsecs away, which should occur about once per 5 Gy, might have triggered the Cambrian explosion. Due to a relatively lower cross section and the conservation of photon number in Compton scattering, a substantial fraction of the GRB photons can reach the sea level and would induce DNA mutations in organisms protected by a shallow layer of water or soil, thus expediting the bio-diversification. This possibility of inducing genetic mutations is unique among all candidate sources for major incidents in the history of bio-evolution. A possible evidence would be the anomalous abundance of certain nuclear isotopes with long half-lives transmuted by the GRB photons in geological records from the Cambrian period. Our notion also imposes constraints on the evolution of exoplanet organisms and the migration of panspermia.

Implications Of A Dark Sector U(1) For Gamma Ray Bursts

We discuss the implications for gamma ray burst studies, of a dark unbroken $U(1)_D$ sector that couples predominantly through gravity to the visible sector. The dominant dark matter component remains neutral under $U(1)_D$. The collapsar model is assumed to explain the origin of long gamma ray bursts. The main idea is that by measuring the change in stellar black hole spin during the duration of the GRB, one can make inferences about the existence of a dark matter accretion disk. This could potentially provide evidence for the existence for a $U(1)_D$ sector.

Implications Of A Dark Sector U(1) For Gamma Ray Bursts [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the implications for gamma ray burst studies, of a dark unbroken $U(1)_D$ sector that couples predominantly through gravity to the visible sector. The dominant dark matter component remains neutral under $U(1)_D$. The collapsar model is assumed to explain the origin of long gamma ray bursts. The main idea is that by measuring the change in stellar black hole spin during the duration of the GRB, one can make inferences about the existence of a dark matter accretion disk. This could potentially provide evidence for the existence for a $U(1)_D$ sector.

Implications Of A Dark Sector U(1) For Gamma Ray Bursts [Replacement]

We discuss the implications for gamma ray burst studies, of a dark unbroken $U(1)_D$ sector that couples predominantly through gravity to the visible sector. The dominant dark matter component remains neutral under $U(1)_D$. The collapsar model is assumed to explain the origin of long gamma ray bursts. The main idea is that by measuring the change in stellar black hole spin during the duration of the GRB, one can make inferences about the existence of a dark matter accretion disk. This could potentially provide evidence for the existence for a $U(1)_D$ sector.

Implications Of A Dark Sector U(1) For Gamma Ray Bursts [Replacement]

We discuss the implications for gamma ray burst studies, of a dark unbroken $U(1)_D$ sector that couples predominantly through gravity to the visible sector. The dominant dark matter component remains neutral under $U(1)_D$. The collapsar model is assumed to explain the origin of long gamma ray bursts. The main idea is that by measuring the change in stellar black hole spin during the duration of the GRB, one can make inferences about the existence of a dark matter accretion disk. This could potentially provide evidence for the existence for a $U(1)_D$ sector.

Implications Of A Dark Sector U(1) For Gamma Ray Bursts [Replacement]

We discuss the implications for gamma ray burst studies, of a dark unbroken $U(1)_D$ sector that couples predominantly through gravity to the visible sector. The dominant dark matter component remains neutral under $U(1)_D$. The collapsar model is assumed to explain the origin of long gamma ray bursts. The main idea is that by measuring the change in stellar black hole spin during the duration of the GRB, one can make inferences about the existence of a dark matter accretion disk. This could potentially provide evidence for the existence for a $U(1)_D$ sector.

Implications Of A Dark Sector U(1) For Gamma Ray Bursts [Replacement]

We discuss the implications for gamma ray burst studies, of a dark unbroken $U(1)_D$ sector that couples predominantly through gravity to the visible sector. The dominant dark matter component remains neutral under $U(1)_D$. The collapsar model is assumed to explain the origin of long gamma ray bursts. The main idea is that by measuring the change in stellar black hole spin during the duration of the GRB, one can make inferences about the existence of a dark matter accretion disk. This could potentially provide evidence for the existence for a $U(1)_D$ sector.

Implications Of A Dark Sector U(1) For Gamma Ray Bursts [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the implications for gamma ray burst studies, of a dark unbroken $U(1)_D$ sector that couples predominantly through gravity to the visible sector. The dominant dark matter component remains neutral under $U(1)_D$. The collapsar model is assumed to explain the origin of long gamma ray bursts. The main idea is that by measuring the change in stellar black hole spin during the duration of the GRB, one can make inferences about the existence of a dark matter accretion disk. This could potentially provide evidence for the existence for a $U(1)_D$ sector.

Implications Of A Dark Sector U(1) For Gamma Ray Bursts [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the implications for gamma ray burst studies, of a dark unbroken $U(1)_D$ sector that couples predominantly through gravity to the visible sector. The dominant dark matter component remains neutral under $U(1)_D$. The collapsar model is assumed to explain the origin of long gamma ray bursts. The main idea is that by measuring the change in stellar black hole spin during the duration of the GRB, one can make inferences about the existence of a dark matter accretion disk. This could potentially provide evidence for the existence for a $U(1)_D$ sector.

Gamma-ray Luminosity and Photon Index Evolution of FSRQ Blazars and Contribution to the Gamma-ray Background

We present the redshift evolutions and distributions of the gamma-ray luminosity and photon spectral index of flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) type blazars, using non-parametric methods to obtain the evolutions and distributions directly from the data. The sample we use for analysis consists of almost all FSRQs observed with a greater than approximately 7 sigma detection threshold in the first year catalog of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope’s Large Area Telescope, with redshfits as determined from optical spectroscopy by Shaw et al. We find that FSQRs undergo rapid gamma-ray luminosity evolution, but negligible photon index evolution, with redshift. With these evolutions accounted for we determine the density evolution and luminosity function of FSRQs, and calculate their total contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray background radiation, resolved and unresolved, which is found to be 16(+10/-4)%, in agreement with previous studies.

The silicon matrix for the prototype for the Dark Matter Particle Explorer [Cross-Listing]

A new generation detector for the high energy cosmic ray – the DAMPE(DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a satellite based project. Its main object is the measurement of energy spectrum of cosmic ray nuclei from 100GeV to 100TeV, the high energy electrons and gamma ray from 5GeV to 10TeV. A silicon matrix detector described in this paper, is employed for the sea level cosmic ray energy and position detection while the prototype testing of the DAMPE. This matrix is composed by the 180 silicon PIN detectors, which covers an area of 32*20 cm2. The primary testing results are shown including MIPs energy spectrum and the position sensitive map.

Can a millicharged dark matter particle emit an observable gamma-ray line? [Cross-Listing]

If a gamma-ray line is observed in the near future, it will be important to determine what kind of dark matter (DM) particle could be at its origin. We investigate the possibility that the gamma-ray line would be induced by a slow DM particle decay associated to the fact that the DM particle would not be absolutely neutral. A "millicharge" for the DM particle can be induced in various ways, in particular from a kinetic mixing interaction or through the Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that such a scenario could lead in specific cases to an observable gamma-ray line. This possibility can be considered in a systematic model-independent way, by writing down the corresponding effective theory. This allows for a multi-channel analysis, giving in particular upper bounds on the intensity of the associated gamma-ray line from cosmic rays emission. Our analysis includes the possibility that in the two-body decay the photon is accompanied with a neutrino. We show that, given the stringent constraints which hold on the millicharge of the neutrinos, this is not an option, except if the DM particle mass lies in the very light KeV-MeV range, allowing for a possibility of explanation of the recently claimed, yet to be confirmed, ~3.5KeV X-ray line.

Can a millicharged dark matter particle emit an observable gamma-ray line?

If a gamma-ray line is observed in the near future, it will be important to determine what kind of dark matter (DM) particle could be at its origin. We investigate the possibility that the gamma-ray line would be induced by a slow DM particle decay associated to the fact that the DM particle would not be absolutely neutral. A "millicharge" for the DM particle can be induced in various ways, in particular from a kinetic mixing interaction or through the Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that such a scenario could lead in specific cases to an observable gamma-ray line. This possibility can be considered in a systematic model-independent way, by writing down the corresponding effective theory. This allows for a multi-channel analysis, giving in particular upper bounds on the intensity of the associated gamma-ray line from cosmic rays emission. Our analysis includes the possibility that in the two-body decay the photon is accompanied with a neutrino. We show that, given the stringent constraints which hold on the millicharge of the neutrinos, this is not an option, except if the DM particle mass lies in the very light KeV-MeV range, allowing for a possibility of explanation of the recently claimed, yet to be confirmed, ~3.5KeV X-ray line.

Can a millicharged dark matter particle emit an observable gamma-ray line? [Replacement]

If a gamma-ray line is observed in the near future, it will be important to determine what kind of dark matter (DM) particle could be at its origin. We investigate the possibility that the gamma-ray line would be induced by a slow DM particle decay associated to the fact that the DM particle would not be absolutely neutral. A "millicharge" for the DM particle can be induced in various ways, in particular from a kinetic mixing interaction or through the Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that such a scenario could lead in specific cases to an observable gamma-ray line. This possibility can be considered in a systematic model-independent way, by writing down the corresponding effective theory. This allows for a multi-channel analysis, giving in particular upper bounds on the intensity of the associated gamma-ray line from cosmic rays emission. Our analysis includes the possibility that in the two-body decay the photon is accompanied with a neutrino. We show that, given the stringent constraints which hold on the millicharge of the neutrinos, this is not an option, except if the DM particle mass lies in the very light KeV-MeV range, allowing for a possibility of explanation of the recently claimed, yet to be confirmed, ~3.5KeV X-ray line.

Can a millicharged dark matter particle emit an observable gamma-ray line? [Replacement]

If a gamma-ray line is observed in the near future, it will be important to determine what kind of dark matter (DM) particle could be at its origin. We investigate the possibility that the gamma-ray line would be induced by a slow DM particle decay associated to the fact that the DM particle would not be absolutely neutral. A "millicharge" for the DM particle can be induced in various ways, in particular from a kinetic mixing interaction or through the Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that such a scenario could lead in specific cases to an observable gamma-ray line. This possibility can be considered in a systematic model-independent way, by writing down the corresponding effective theory. This allows for a multi-channel analysis, giving in particular upper bounds on the intensity of the associated gamma-ray line from cosmic rays emission. Our analysis includes the possibility that in the two-body decay the photon is accompanied with a neutrino. We show that, given the stringent constraints which hold on the millicharge of the neutrinos, this is not an option, except if the DM particle mass lies in the very light KeV-MeV range, allowing for a possibility of explanation of the recently claimed, yet to be confirmed, ~3.5KeV X-ray line.

GRB orphan afterglows in present and future radio transient surveys

Orphan Afterglows (OA) are slow transients produced by Gamma Ray Bursts seen off-axis that become visible on timescales of days/years at optical/NIR and radio frequencies, when the prompt emission at high energies (X and gamma rays) has already ceased. Given the typically estimated jet opening angle of GRBs theta_jet ~ 3 deg, for each burst pointing to the Earth there should be a factor ~ 700 more GRBs pointing in other directions. Despite this, no secure OAs have been detected so far. Through a population synthesis code we study the emission properties of the population of OA at radio frequencies. OAs reach their emission peak on year-timescales and they last for a comparable amount of time. The typical peak fluxes (which depend on the observing frequency) are of few micro Jy in the radio band with only a few OA reaching the mJy level. These values are consistent with the upper limits on the radio flux of SN Ib/c observed at late times. We find that the OA radio number count distribution has a typical slope -1.7 at high fluxes and a flatter (-0.4) slope at low fluxes with a break at a frequency-dependent flux. Our predictions of the OA rates are consistent with the (upper) limits of recent radio surveys and archive searches for radio transients. Future radio surveys like VAST/ASKAP at 1.4 GHz should detect ~ 3×10^-3 OA deg^-2 yr-1, MeerKAT and EVLA at 8.4 GHz should see ~ 3×10^-1 OA deg-2 yr-1. The SKA, reaching the micro Jy flux limit, could see up to ~ 0.2-1.5 OA deg^-2 yr^-1. These rates also depend on the duration of the OA above a certain flux limit and we discuss this effect with respect to the survey cadence.

A Missing-Link in the Supernova-GRB Connection: The Case of SN 2012ap

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are characterized by ultra-relativistic outflows, while supernovae are generally characterized by non-relativistic ejecta. GRB afterglows decelerate rapidly usually within days, because their low-mass ejecta rapidly sweep up a comparatively larger mass of circumstellar material. However supernovae, with heavy ejecta, can be in nearly free expansion for centuries. Supernovae were thought to have non-relativistic outflows except for few relativistic ones accompanied by GRBs. This clear division was blurred by SN 2009bb, the first supernova with a relativistic outflow without an observed GRB. Yet the ejecta from SN 2009bb was baryon loaded, and in nearly-free expansion for a year, unlike GRBs. We report the first supernova discovered without a GRB, but with rapidly decelerating mildly relativistic ejecta, SN 2012ap. This shows that central engines in type Ic supernovae, even without an observed GRB, can produce both relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflows like GRBs.

Short Gamma Ray Burst Formation Rate from BATSE data using E_p-L_p correlation and the minimum gravitational wave event rate of coalescing compact binary [Cross-Listing]

Using 72 Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and the luminosity by applying $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. (2013). For 53 SGRBs with the observed flux brighter than $4 \times 10^{-6}~{\rm erg~cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the cumulative redshift distribution up to $z=1$ agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. Especially good agreement is seen for $z < 0.4$ with the KS chance probability of 5.3\%. This suggests that the redshift determination by the $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs works very well. The minimum event rate at $z=0$ is estimated as $R_{\rm on-axis}^{\rm min} = 2 \times 10^{-10}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ so that the minimum beaming angle is $0.57^\circ-3.6^\circ$ assuming the merging rate of $10^{-7}-4\times 10^{-6}~{\rm events~yr^{-1}galaxy^{-1}}$ suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB~130603B of $\sim 4^\circ-8^\circ$ (Fong et al. 2013). On the other hand, if we assume the beaming angle of $\sim 6^\circ$ suggested from four SGRBs, the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as $R_{\rm all}^{\rm min}\sim 4\times 10^{-8}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$. If SGRBs are induced by coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), this event rate leads to the minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of $\rm 1.3 (50)~events~yr^{-1}$ for NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by KAGRA, adv-LIGO, adv-Virgo and GEO network.

Short Gamma Ray Burst Formation Rate from BATSE data using E_p-L_p correlation and the minimum gravitational wave event rate of coalescing compact binary

Using 72 Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and the luminosity by applying $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. (2013). For 53 SGRBs with the observed flux brighter than $4 \times 10^{-6}~{\rm erg~cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the cumulative redshift distribution up to $z=1$ agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. Especially good agreement is seen for $z < 0.4$ with the KS chance probability of 5.3\%. This suggests that the redshift determination by the $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs works very well. The minimum event rate at $z=0$ is estimated as $R_{\rm on-axis}^{\rm min} = 2 \times 10^{-10}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ so that the minimum beaming angle is $0.57^\circ-3.6^\circ$ assuming the merging rate of $10^{-7}-4\times 10^{-6}~{\rm events~yr^{-1}galaxy^{-1}}$ suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB~130603B of $\sim 4^\circ-8^\circ$ (Fong et al. 2013). On the other hand, if we assume the beaming angle of $\sim 6^\circ$ suggested from four SGRBs, the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as $R_{\rm all}^{\rm min}\sim 4\times 10^{-8}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$. If SGRBs are induced by coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), this event rate leads to the minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of $\rm 1.3 (50)~events~yr^{-1}$ for NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by KAGRA, adv-LIGO, adv-Virgo and GEO network.

GRB as luminosity indicator

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are found at much higher redshifts (z>6) than Supernova Ia (z~1), and hence, they can be used to probe very primitive universe. However, radiation mechanism of GRB remains a puzzle, unlike Supernova Ia. Through comprehensive description, both empirical and physical, we shall discuss the most likely way to use the constituent pulses of a GRB to find the radiation mechanism as well as using the pulses as luminosity indicators.

Phenomenology of Reverse-Shock Emission in the Optical Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts [Replacement]

We use a parent sample of 118 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, with known redshift and host galaxy extinction, to separate afterglows with and without signatures of dominant reverse-shock emission and to determine which physical conditions lead to a prominent reverse-shock emission. We identify 10 GRBs with reverse shock signatures – GRBs 990123, 021004, 021211, 060908, 061126, 080319B, 081007, 090102, 090424 and 130427A. By modeling their optical afterglows with reverse and forward shock analytic light curves and using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the parameter space of the physical quantities describing the ejecta and circumburst medium. We find that physical properties cover a wide parameter space and do not seem to cluster around any preferential values. Comparing the rest-frame optical, X-ray and high-energy properties of the larger sample of non-RS-dominated GRBs, we show that the early-time ($<$ 1ks) optical spectral luminosity, X-ray afterglow luminosity and $\gamma$-ray energy output of our reverse-shock dominated sample do not differ significantly from the general population at early times. However, the GRBs with dominant reverse shock emission have fainter than average optical forward-shock emission at late time ($>$ 10 ks). We find that GRBs with an identifiable reverse shock component show high magnetization parameter $R_{\mathrm{B}} = \varepsilon_{\rm B,r}/\varepsilon_{\rm B,f} \sim 2 – 10^4$. Our results are in agreement with the mildly magnetized baryonic jet model of GRBs.

Phenomenology of Reverse-Shock Emission in the Optical Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

We use a parent sample of 118 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, with known redshift and host galaxy extinction, to separate afterglows with and without signatures of dominant reverse-shock emission and to determine which physical conditions lead to a prominent reverse-shock emission. We identify 10 GRBs with reverse shock signatures – GRBs 990123, 021004, 021211, 060908, 061126, 080319B, 081007, 090102, 090424 and 130427A. By modeling their optical afterglows with reverse and forward shock analytic light curves and using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the parameter space of the physical quantities describing the ejecta and circumburst medium. We find that physical properties cover a wide parameter space and do not seem to cluster around any preferential values. Comparing the rest-frame optical, X-ray and high-energy properties of the larger sample of non-RS-dominated GRBs, we show that the early-time ($<$ 1ks) optical spectral luminosity, X-ray afterglow luminosity and $\gamma$-ray energy output of our reverse-shock dominated sample do not differ significantly from the general population at early times. However, the GRBs with dominant reverse shock emission have fainter than average optical forward-shock emission at late time ($>$ 10 ks). We find that GRBs with an identifiable reverse shock component show high magnetization parameter $R_{\mathrm{B}} = \varepsilon_{\rm B,r}/\varepsilon_{\rm B,f} \sim 2 – 10^4$. Our results are in agreement with the mildly magnetized baryonic jet model of GRBs.

Reinterpreting Short Gamma Ray Burst Progenitor Kicks and Time Delays Using the Host Galaxy-Dark Matter Halo Connection

Nearly 20% of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) have no observed host galaxies. Combining this finding with constraints on galaxies’ dark matter halo potential wells gives strong limits on the natal kick velocity distribution for sGRB progenitors. For the best-fitting velocity distribution, one in five sGRB progenitors receives a natal kick above 150 km/s, consistent with merging neutron star models but not with merging white dwarf binary models. This progenitor model constraint is robust to a wide variety of systematic uncertainties, including the sGRB progenitor time-delay model, the Swift redshift sensitivity, and the shape of the natal kick velocity distribution. We also use constraints on the galaxy-halo connection to determine the host halo and host galaxy demographics for sGRBs, which match extremely well with available data. Most sGRBs are expected to occur in halos near 10^12 Msun and in galaxies near 5 x 10^10 Msun (~L_*); unobserved faint and high-redshift host galaxies contribute a small minority of the observed hostless sGRB fraction. We find that sGRB redshift distributions and host galaxy stellar masses weakly constrain the progenitor time-delay model; the active vs. passive fraction of sGRB host galaxies may offer a stronger constraint. Finally, we discuss how searches for gravitational wave optical counterparts in the local Universe can reduce followup times using these findings.

Collisionless Relativistic Shocks:current driven turbulence and particle acceleration

The physics of collisionless relativistic shocks with a moderate magnetization is presented. Micro-physics is relevant to explain the most energetic radiative phenomena of Nature, namely that of the termination shock of Gamma Ray Bursts. A transition towards Fermi process occurs for decreasing magnetization around a critical value which turns out to be the condition for the scattering to break the mean field inhibition. Scattering is produced by magnetic micro-turbulence driven by the current carried by returning particles, which had not been considered till now, but turns out to be more intense than Weibel’s one around the transition. The current is also responsible for a buffer effect on the motion of the incoming flow, on which the threshold for the onset of turbulence depends.

Loopy Constraints on Leptophilic Dark Matter and Internal Bremsstrahlung

A sharp and spatially extended peak in an astrophysical gamma ray spectrum would provide very strong evidence for the existence of dark matter (DM), given that there are no known astrophysical processes that could mimic such a signal. From the particle physics perspective, perhaps the simplest explanation for a gamma ray peak is internal bremsstrahlung in DM annihilation through a charged t-channel mediator eta close in mass to the DM particle chi. Since DM annihilation to quarks is already tightly constrained in this scenario, we focus here on the leptophilic case. We compute the electromagnetic anapole and dipole moments that DM acquires at 1-loop, and we find an interesting enhancement of these moments if the DM particle and the mediator are close in mass. We constrain the DM anapole and dipole moments using direct detection data, and then translate these limits into bounds on the DM annihilation cross section. Our bounds are highly competitive with those from astrophysical gamma ray searches. In the second part of the paper, we derive complementary constraints on internal bremsstrahlung in DM annihilation using LEP mono-photon data, measurements of the anomalous magnetic moments of the electron and the muon, and searches for lepton flavor violation. We also comment on the impact of the internal bremsstrahlung scenario on the hyperfine splitting of true muonium.

Loopy Constraints on Leptophilic Dark Matter and Internal Bremsstrahlung [Cross-Listing]

A sharp and spatially extended peak in an astrophysical gamma ray spectrum would provide very strong evidence for the existence of dark matter (DM), given that there are no known astrophysical processes that could mimic such a signal. From the particle physics perspective, perhaps the simplest explanation for a gamma ray peak is internal bremsstrahlung in DM annihilation through a charged t-channel mediator eta close in mass to the DM particle chi. Since DM annihilation to quarks is already tightly constrained in this scenario, we focus here on the leptophilic case. We compute the electromagnetic anapole and dipole moments that DM acquires at 1-loop, and we find an interesting enhancement of these moments if the DM particle and the mediator are close in mass. We constrain the DM anapole and dipole moments using direct detection data, and then translate these limits into bounds on the DM annihilation cross section. Our bounds are highly competitive with those from astrophysical gamma ray searches. In the second part of the paper, we derive complementary constraints on internal bremsstrahlung in DM annihilation using LEP mono-photon data, measurements of the anomalous magnetic moments of the electron and the muon, and searches for lepton flavor violation. We also comment on the impact of the internal bremsstrahlung scenario on the hyperfine splitting of true muonium.

The importance of jet bending in gamma-ray AGN - revisited

We investigate the hypothesis that {\gamma}-ray-quiet AGN have a larger tendency for jet bending than {\gamma}-ray-loud AGN, revisiting the analysis of Tingay, Murphy & Edwards (1998). We perform a statistical analysis using a large sample of 351 radio-loud AGN along with {\gamma}-ray identifications from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our results show no statistically significant differences in jet-bending properties between {\gamma}-ray-loud and {\gamma}-ray-quiet populations, indicating that jet bending is not a significant factor for {\gamma}-ray detection in AGN.

The importance of jet bending in gamma-ray AGN - revisited [Replacement]

We investigate the hypothesis that {\gamma}-ray-quiet AGN have a larger tendency for jet bending than {\gamma}-ray-loud AGN, revisiting the analysis of Tingay, Murphy & Edwards (1998). We perform a statistical analysis using a large sample of 351 radio-loud AGN along with {\gamma}-ray identifications from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our results show no statistically significant differences in jet-bending properties between {\gamma}-ray-loud and {\gamma}-ray-quiet populations, indicating that jet bending is not a significant factor for {\gamma}-ray detection in AGN.

Photo-Disintegration of Heavy Nuclei at the Core of Cen A [Replacement]

Fermi LAT has detected gamma ray emissions from the core of Cen A. More recently, a new component in the gamma ray spectrum from the core has been reported in the energy range of 4 GeV to tens of GeV. We show that the new component and the HESS detected spectrum of gamma rays from the core at higher energy have possibly a common origin in photo-disintegration of heavy nuclei. Assuming the cosmic rays are mostly Fe nuclei inside the core and their spectrum has a low energy cut-off at 52 TeV in the wind frame moving with a Doppler factor 0.25 with respect to the observer on earth, the cosmic ray luminosity required to explain the observed gamma ray flux above 1 GeV is found to be $1.5\times 10^{43}$ erg/sec.

Photo-Disintegration of Heavy Nuclei at the Core of Cen A [Replacement]

Fermi LAT has detected gamma ray emissions from the core of Cen A. More recently, a new component in the gamma ray spectrum from the core has been reported in the energy range of 4 GeV to tens of GeV. We show that the new component and the HESS detected spectrum of gamma rays from the core at higher energy have possibly a common origin in photo-disintegration of heavy nuclei. Assuming the cosmic rays are mostly Fe nuclei inside the core and their spectrum has a low energy cut-off at 52 TeV in the wind frame moving with a Doppler factor 0.25 with respect to the observer on earth, the cosmic ray luminosity required to explain the observed gamma ray flux above 1 GeV is found to be $1.5\times 10^{43}$ erg/sec.

Gamma rays and neutrinos from a cosmic ray source in the Galactic Center region

The center of the our Galaxy is a region where very energetic phenomena take place. In particular powerful cosmic ray sources can be located in that region. The cosmic rays accelerated in these sources may interact with ambient protons and/or low energy photons producing gamma rays and neutrinos. The observation of these two types of secondary particles can be very useful for the identification of the cosmic ray sources and for the understanding of the physical processes occurring during acceleration. Motivated by the excess in the neutrino spectrum recently reported by the IceCube Collaboration, we study in detail the shape of the gamma ray and neutrino spectra originated from the interaction of cosmic ray protons with ambient protons for sources located in the Galactic Center region. We consider different models for proton acceleration and study the impact on the gamma ray and neutrino spectra. We also discuss the possibility to constrain and even identify a particular neutrino source by using the information given by the gamma ray spectrum taking advantage of the modification of the spectral shape, caused by the interaction of the gamma rays with the photons of the radiation field present in the interstellar medium, which strongly depends on the source distance.

Fall back accretion and energy injections in the ultra-long GRB 111209A

The ultra-long Gamma Ray Burst 111209A, which occurred at a redshift of $z = 0.677$, is the longest duration burst ever observed due to a rest frame prompt emission duration of order of $10^{4}$ s. The very early X-ray afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst 111209A showed unusual behavior, with a significant bump observed at about 2000 s after the BAT trigger. One possible explanation is that the bump resulted from mass fall back. In this paper, we present a detailed numerical study of the fall back process to interpret the very early X-ray afterglow light curve of Gamma Ray Burst 111209A. For the afterglow at late times, we apply external shock by adding an energy injection. In our model, we assume two periods of energy injection, each with a constant injection power. One injection starts at $8.0\times10^{3}$ s and lasts for about 8000 s, with an injection power of $9.0\times10^{47}$ ${\rm erg}$ ${\rm s^{-1}}$; this energy injection accounts for the plateau at X-ray wavelength in the early stage. The other injection starts at $6.5\times10^{4}$ s and lasts for about 16 ks with an injection power of $6.0\times10^{46}$ ${\rm erg}$ ${\rm s^{-1}}$. This second energy injection can help to explain the other plateau at X-ray wavelengths and the rebrightening in the optical band at about $10^{5}$ s. We argue that the two periods of energy injection can be produced by the infall of clumpy mass onto the central compact object of the burster, which leads to an enhancement of the accretion rate and results in a strong temporary outflow.

Fall back accretion and energy injections in the ultra-long GRB 111209A [Replacement]

The ultra-long Gamma Ray Burst 111209A, which occurred at a redshift of $z = 0.677$, is the longest duration burst ever observed due to a rest frame prompt emission duration of order of $10^{4}$ s. The very early X-ray afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst 111209A showed unusual behavior, with a significant bump observed at about 2000 s after the BAT trigger. One possible explanation is that the bump resulted from mass fall back. In this paper, we present a detailed numerical study of the fall back process to interpret the very early X-ray afterglow light curve of Gamma Ray Burst 111209A. For the afterglow at late times, we apply external shock by adding an energy injection. In our model, we assume two periods of energy injection, each with a constant injection power. One injection starts at $8.0\times10^{3}$ s and lasts for about 8000 s, with an injection power of $9.0\times10^{47}$ ${\rm erg}$ ${\rm s^{-1}}$; this energy injection accounts for the plateau at X-ray wavelength in the early stage. The other injection starts at $6.5\times10^{4}$ s and lasts for about 16 ks with an injection power of $6.0\times10^{46}$ ${\rm erg}$ ${\rm s^{-1}}$. This second energy injection can help to explain the other plateau at X-ray wavelengths and the rebrightening in the optical band at about $10^{5}$ s. We argue that the two periods of energy injection can be produced by the infall of clumpy mass onto the central compact object of the burster, which leads to an enhancement of the accretion rate and results in a strong temporary outflow.

Multi-wavelength emissions from the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 during an accretion active state

Recent observations strongly suggest that the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 has developed an accretion disk since 2013 June. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of PSR J1023+0038, which reveals that 1) its gamma-rays suddenly brightened within a few days in June/July 2013 and has remained at a high gamma-ray state for several months; 2) both UV and X-ray fluxes have increased by roughly an order of magnitude, and 3) the spectral energy distribution has changed significantly after the gamma-ray sudden flux change. Time variabilities associated with UV and X-rays are on the order of 100-500 seconds and 50-100 seconds respectively. Our model suggests that a newly formed accretion disk due to the sudden increase of the stellar wind could explain the changes of all these observed features. The increase of UV is emitted from the disk, and a new component in gamma-rays is produced by inverse Compton scattering between the new UV component and pulsar wind. The increase of X-rays results from the enhancement of injection pulsar wind energy into the intra-binary shock due to the increase of the stellar wind. We also predict that the radio pulses may be blocked by the evaporated winds from the disk and the pulsar is still powered by rotation.

Jet Emission in Young Radio Sources: a Fermi-LAT Gamma-ray View

We investigate the contribution of the beamed jet component to the high energy emission in young and compact extragalactic radio sources, focusing for the first time on the gamma-ray band. We derive predictions on the gamma-ray luminosities associated with the relativistic jet assuming a leptonic radiative model. The high energy emission is produced via Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in a spherical region at the considered scales ($\lesssim$10 kpc). Simulations show a wide range of gamma-ray luminosities, with intensities up to $\sim10^{46}-10^{48}$ erg s$^{-1}$ depending on the assumed jet parameters. We find a highly linear relation between the simulated X-ray and gamma-ray luminosities that can be used to select candidates for a gamma-ray detection. We compare the simulated luminosity distributions in the radio, X-ray and gamma-ray regimes with observations for the largest sample of X-ray detected young radio quasars. Our analysis of $\sim$4-year Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data does not give any statistically significant detection. However, the majority of the model-predicted gamma-ray fluxes for the sample are near or below the current Fermi-LAT flux threshold and compatible with the derived upper limits. Our study gives constraints on the minimum jet power ($L_{jet,kin}/L_{disk}>0.01$), on a potential jet contribution to the X-ray emission in the most compact sources ($\lesssim1$ kpc) and on the particles to magnetic field energy density ratio in broad agreement with equipartition assumption.

Connection between orbital modulation of H-alpha and gamma-rays in the Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303

We studied the average orbital modulation of various parameters (gamma-ray flux, H-alpha emission line, optical V band brightness) of the radio- and gamma-ray emitting Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303. Using the Spearman rank correlation test, we found highly significant correlations between the orbital variability of the equivalent width of the blue hump of the H-alpha and Fermi-LAT flux with a Spearman p-value 2e-5, and the equivalent widths ratio EW_B/EW_R and Fermi-LAT flux with p-value 9e-5. We also found a significant anti-correlation between Fermi-LAT flux and V band magnitude with p-value 7.10^{-4}. All these correlations refer to the average orbital variability, and we conclude that the H-alpha and gamma-ray emission processes in LSI+61303 are connected. The possible physical scenario is briefly discussed.

Modulated Gamma-ray emission from compact millisecond pulsar binary systems

A significant amount of the millisecond pulsars has been discovered within binary systems. In several such binary systems the masses of the companion stars have been derived allowing to distinguish two classes of objects, called the Black Widow and the Redback binaries. Pulsars in these binary systems are expected to produce winds which, colliding with stellar winds, create conditions for acceleration of electrons. These electrons should interact with the anisotropic radiation from the companion stars producing gamma-ray emission modulated with the orbital period of the binary system. We consider the interaction of a millisecond pulsar (MSP) wind with a very inhomogeneous stellar wind from the companion star within binary systems of the Black Widow and Redback types. It is expected that the pulsar wind should mix efficiently with the inhomogeneous stellar wind. Electrons accelerated in such mixed, turbulent winds can interact with the magnetic field and also strong radiation from the companion star producing not only synchrotron radiation but also gamma-rays in the the Inverse Compton process. Applying numerical methods, we calculated the GeV-TeV gamma-ray spectra and the light curves expected from some millisecond pulsar binary systems. It is concluded that energetic millisecond pulsar binary systems create a new class of TeV gamma-ray sources which could be detectable by the future Cherenkov arrays (e.g. CTA) and possibly also by the extensive campaigns with the present arrays (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS). However, gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsar binary systems is predicted to have different features than those observed in the case of massive TeV gamma-ray binaries such as LS I 303 61 or LS 5039. The maximum in the TeV gamma-ray orbital light curve should appear when the MSP is behind the companion star.

Long-term TeV and X-ray Observations of the Gamma-ray Binary HESS J0632+057

HESS J0632+057 is the only gamma-ray binary known so far whose position in the sky allows observations with ground-based observatories both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Here we report on long-term observations of HESS J0632+057 conducted with the VERITAS and H.E.S.S. Cherenkov Telescopes and the X-ray Satellite Swift, spanning a time range from 2004 to 2012 and covering most of the system’s orbit. The VHE emission is found to be variable, and is correlated with that at X-ray energies. An orbital period of $315 ^{+6}_{-4}$ days is derived from the X-ray data set, which is compatible with previous results, $P = (321 \pm 5$) days. The VHE light curve shows a distinct maximum at orbital phases close to 0.3, or about 100 days after periastron passage, which coincides with the periodic enhancement of the X-ray emission. Furthermore, the analysis of the TeV data shows for the first time a statistically significant ($> 6.5 \sigma$) detection at orbital phases 0.6–0.9. The obtained gamma-ray and X-ray light curves and the correlation of the source emission at these two energy bands are discussed in the context of the recent ephemeris obtained for the system. Our results are compared to those reported for other gamma-ray binaries.

Active Galactic Nuclei, Neutrinos, and Interacting Cosmic Rays in NGC 253 & NGC 1068

The galaxies M82, NGC 253, NGC 1068, and NGC 4945 have been detected in gamma-rays by Fermi. Previously, we developed and tested a model for cosmic ray interactions in the starburst galaxy M82. Now, we aim to explore the differences between starburst and active galactic nuclei (AGN) environments by applying our self-consistent model to the starburst galaxy NGC 253 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. Assuming constant cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency by supernova remnants with Milky-Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations, predict the radio and gamma-ray spectra, and compare with published measurements. We find that our models easily fits the observed gamma-ray spectrum for NGC 253 while constraining the cosmic ray source spectral index and acceleration efficiency. However, we encountered difficultly modeling the observed radio data and constraining the speed of the galactic wind and the magnetic field strength, unless the gas mass is less than currently preferred values. Additionally, our starburst model consistently underestimates the observed gamma-ray flux and overestimates the radio flux for NGC 1068; these issues would be resolved if the AGN is the primary source of gamma-rays. We discuss the implications of these results and make predictions for the neutrino fluxes for both galaxies.

Monitoring of multi-frequency polarization of gamma-ray bright AGNs

We started two observing programs with the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) monitoring changes in the flux density and polarization of relativistic jets in gamma-ray bright AGNs simultaneously at 22, 43, 86, 129 GHz. One is a single-dish weekly-observing program in dual polarization with KVN 21-m diameter radio telescopes beginning in 2011 May. The other is a VLBI monthly-observing program with the three-element VLBI network at an angular resolution range of 1.0–9.2 mas beginning in 2012 December. The monitoring observations aim to study correlation of variability in gamma-ray with that in radio flux density and polarization of relativistic jets when they flare up. These observations enable us to study the origin of the gamma-ray flares of AGNs.

The RoboPol optical polarization survey of gamma-ray - loud blazars

We present first results from RoboPol, a novel-design optical polarimeter operating at the Skinakas Observatory in Crete. The data, taken during the May – June 2013 commissioning of the instrument, constitute a single-epoch linear polarization survey of a sample of gamma-ray – loud blazars, defined according to unbiased and objective selection criteria, easily reproducible in simulations, as well as a comparison sample of, otherwise similar, gamma-ray – quiet blazars. As such, the results of this survey are appropriate for both phenomenological population studies and for tests of theoretical population models. We have measured polarization fractions as low as $0.015$ down to $R$ magnitude of 17 and as low as $0.035$ down to 18 magnitude. The hypothesis that the polarization fractions of gamma-ray – loud and gamma-ray – quiet blazars are drawn from the same distribution is rejected at the $10^{-3}$ level. We therefore conclude that gamma-ray – loud and gamma-ray – quiet sources have different optical polarization properties. This is the first time this statistical difference is demonstrated in optical wavelengths. The polarization fraction distributions of both samples are well-described by exponential distributions with averages of $\langle p \rangle =6.7 ^{+1.0}_{-0.8}\times 10^{-2}$ for gamma-ray–loud blazars, and $\langle p \rangle =3.2 ^{+1.8}_{-1.0}\times 10^{-2}$ for gamma-ray–quiet blazars. The most probable value for the difference of the means is $3.4^{+1.5}_{-2.0}\times 10^{-2}$. The distribution of polarization angles is statistically consistent with being uniform.

A tale of cosmic rays narrated in gamma rays by Fermi

Because cosmic rays are charged particles scrambled by magnetic fields, combining direct measurements with other observations is crucial to understanding their origin and propagation. As energetic particles traverse matter and electromagnetic fields, they leave marks in the form of neutral interaction products. Among those, gamma rays trace interactions of nuclei that inelastically collide with interstellar gas, as well as of leptons that undergo Bremsstrahlung and inverse-Compton scattering. Data collected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are therefore telling us the story of cosmic rays along their journey from sources through their home galaxies. Supernova remnants emerge as a notable gamma-ray source population, and older remnants interacting with interstellar matter finally show strong evidence of the presence of accelerated nuclei. Yet the maximum energy attained by shock accelerators is poorly constrained. Cygnus X, a massive star-forming region established by the LAT as housing cosmic-ray sources, provides a test case to study the impact of wind-driven turbulence on the early propagation. Interstellar emission resulting from the large-scale propagation of cosmic rays in the Milky Way is revealed in unprecedented detail that challenges some of the simple assumptions used for the modeling. Moreover, the cosmic-ray induced gamma-ray luminosities of galaxies scale quasi-linearly with their massive- star formation rates, and suggests that for most systems a substantial fraction of energy in cosmic rays escapes into the intergalactic medium. The nuclear production models and the distribution of target gas and radiation fields, not determined precisely enough yet, are key to exploiting the full potential of gamma-ray data. Nevertheless, data being collected by Fermi and complementary observations are bringing us ever closer to solving the cosmic-ray mystery. (abridged)

MAGIC observations and multifrequency properties of the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar 3C 279 in 2011

We study the multifrequency emission and spectral properties of the quasar 3C 279. We observed 3C 279 in very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) gamma rays, with the MAGIC telescopes during 2011, for the first time in stereoscopic mode. We combine these measurements with observations at other energy bands: in high energy (HE, E>100MeV) gamma rays from Fermi-LAT, in X-rays from RXTE, in the optical from the KVA telescope and in the radio at 43GHz, 37GHz and 15GHz from the VLBA, Mets\"ahovi and OVRO radio telescopes and optical polarisation measurements from the KVA and Liverpool telescopes. During the MAGIC observations (February to April 2011) 3C 279 was in a low state in optical, X-ray and gamma rays. The MAGIC observations did not yield a significant detection. These upper limits are in agreement with the extrapolation of the HE gamma-ray spectrum, corrected for extragalactic background light absorption, from Fermi-LAT. The second part of the MAGIC observations in 2011 was triggered by a high activity state in the optical and gamma-ray bands. During the optical outburst the optical electric vector position angle rotatated of about 180 degrees. There was no simultaneous rotation of the 43GHz radio polarisation angle. No VHE gamma rays were detected by MAGIC, and the derived upper limits suggest the presence of a spectral break or curvature between the Fermi-LAT and MAGIC bands. The combined upper limits are the strongest derived to date for the source at VHE and below the level of the previously detected flux by a factor 2. Radiation models that include synchrotron and inverse Compton emissions match the optical to gamma-ray data, assuming an emission component inside the broad line region (BLR) responsible for the high-energy emission and one outside the BLR and the infrared torus causing optical and low-energy emission. We interpreted the optical polarisation with a bent trajectory model.

Comptonization signatures in the prompt emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

We report results of a systematic study of the broad–band (2–2000 keV) time-resolved prompt emission spectra of a sample of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected with both the Wide Field Cameras(WFCs) aboard the BeppoSAX satellite and the BATSE experiment aboard CGRO. The main goal of the paper is to test spectral models of the GRB prompt emission that have recently been proposed. In particular, we test the photospheric model proposed by Ryde and Pe’er (2009), i.e., blackbody plus power–law, the addition of a blackbody emission to the Band function in the cases in which this function does not fit the data, and the Comptonization model developed by Titarchuk et al. (2012). By considering the few spectra for which the simple Band function does not provide a fully acceptable fit to the data (Frontera et al. 2012), only in one case we find a statistically significant better fit by adding a blackbody to this function. We confirm the results found by Ryde and Pe’er (2009) using the BATSE spectra alone. Instead when the BATSE GRB spectra are joined to those obtained with WFCs (2–28 keV), their model becomes unacceptable in most of time intervals in which we subdivide the GRB light curves. We find instead that the Comptonization model is always acceptable, even in the few cases in which the Band function is inconsistent with the data. We discuss the implications of these results.

 

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