Posts Tagged galaxy cluster

Recent Postings from galaxy cluster

On Escaping a Galaxy Cluster in an Accelerating Universe

We derive the escape velocity profile for an Einasto density field in an accelerating universe and demonstrate its physical viability by comparing theoretical expectations to both light-cone data generated from N-body simulations and archival data on 20 galaxy clusters. We demonstrate that the projection function ($g(\beta )$) is deemed physically viable only for the theoretical expectation that includes a cosmology-dependent term. Using simulations, we show that the inferred velocity anisotropy is more than 6{\sigma} away from the expected value for the theoretical profile that ignores the acceleration of the universe. In the archival data, we constrain the average velocity anisotropy parameter of a sample of 20 clusters to be $\beta ={0.248}_{-0.360}^{+0.164}$ at the 68% confidence level. Lastly, we briefly discuss how our analytic model may be used as a novel cosmological probe based on galaxy clusters.

Capturing the 3D Motion of an Infalling Galaxy via Fluid Dynamics

The Fornax Cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster in the southern sky. NGC 1404 is a bright elliptical galaxy falling through the intracluster medium of the Fornax Cluster. The sharp leading edge of NGC 1404 forms a classical "cold front" that separates 0.6 keV dense interstellar medium and 1.5 keV diffuse intracluster medium. We measure the angular pressure variation along the cold front using a very deep (670\,ksec) {\sl Chandra} X-ray observation. We are taking the classical approach -- using stagnation pressure to determine a substructure's speed -- to the next level by not only deriving a general speed but also directionality which yields the complete velocity field as well as the distance of the substructure directly from the pressure distribution. We find a hydrodynamic model consistent with the pressure jump along NGC 1404's atmosphere measured in multiple directions. The best-fit model gives an inclination of 33$^{\circ}$ and a Mach number of 1.3 for the infall of NGC 1404, in agreement with complementary measurements of the motion of NGC 1404. Our study demonstrates the successful treatment of a highly ionized ICM as ideal fluid flow, in support of the hypothesis that magnetic pressure is not dynamically important over most of the virial region of galaxy clusters.

A Spectacular Bow Shock in the 11 keV Galaxy Cluster Around 3C 438

We present results of deep 153 ks Chandra observations of the hot, 11 keV, galaxy cluster associated with the radio galaxy 3C 438. By mapping the morphology of the hot gas and analyzing its surface brightness and temperature distributions, we demonstrate the presence of a merger bow shock. We identify the presence of two jumps in surface brightness and in density located at $\sim$400 kpc and $\sim$800 kpc from the cluster's core. At the position of the inner jump, we detect a factor of $2.3\pm 0.2$ density jump, while at the location of the outer jump, we detect a density drop of a factor of $3.5 \pm 0.7$. Combining this with the temperature distribution within the cluster, we establish that the pressure of the hot gas is continuous at the 400 kpc jump, while there is a factor of $6.2 \pm 2.8$ pressure discontinuity at 800 kpc jump. From the magnitude of the outer pressure discontinuity, using the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions, we determine that the sub-cluster is moving at $M = 2.3\pm 0.5$, or approximately $2600\pm 565$ km/s through the surrounding intracluster medium, creating the conditions for a bow shock. Based on these findings, we conclude that the pressure discontinuity is likely the result of an ongoing major merger between two massive clusters. Since few observations of bow shocks in clusters have been made, this detection can contribute to the study of the dynamics of cluster mergers, which offers insight on how the most massive clusters may have formed.

Testing cosmic-ray acceleration with radio relics: a high-resolution study using MHD and tracers

Weak shocks in the intracluster medium may accelerate cosmic-ray protons and cosmic-ray electrons differently depending on the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal. In this work, we investigate how shock obliquity affects the production of cosmic rays in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters. For this purpose, we performed a magneto-hydrodynamical simulation of a galaxy cluster using the mesh refinement code \enzo. We use Lagrangian tracers to follow the properties of the thermal gas, the cosmic rays and the magnetic fields over time. We tested a number of different acceleration scenarios by varying the obliquity-dependent acceleration efficiencies of protons and electrons, and by examining the resulting hadronic $\gamma$-ray and radio emission. We find that the radio emission does not change significantly if only quasi-perpendicular shocks are able to accelerate cosmic-ray electrons. Our analysis suggests that radio emitting electrons found in relics have been typically shocked many times before $z=0$. On the other hand, the hadronic $\gamma$-ray emission from clusters is found to decrease significantly if only quasi-parallel shocks are allowed to accelerate cosmic-ray protons. This might reduce the tension with the low upper limits on $\gamma$-ray emission from clusters set by the \textit{Fermi}-satellite.

The Cosmic Large-Scale Structure in X-rays (CLASSIX) Cluster Survey I: Probing galaxy cluster magnetic fields with line of sight rotation measures

To search for a signature of an intracluster magnetic field, we compare measurements of Faraday rotation of polarised extragalactic radio sources in the line of sight of galaxy clusters with those outside. We correlated a catalogue of 1383 rotation measures (RM) of extragalactic polarised radio sources with X-ray luminous galaxy clusters from the CLASSIX survey (combining REFLEX II and NORAS II). We compared the RM in the line of sight of clusters within their projected radii of r_500 with those outside and found a significant excess of the dispersion of the RM in the cluster regions. Since the observed RM is the result of Faraday rotation in several presumably uncorrelated magnetised cells of the intracluster medium, the observations correspond to quantities averaged over several magnetic field directions and strengths. Therefore the interesting quantity is the standard deviation of the RM for an ensemble of clusters. We found a standard deviation of the RM inside r_500 of about 120 +- 21 rad m^-2. This compares to about 56 +- 8 rad m^-2 outside. We show that the most X-ray luminous and thus most massive clusters contribute most to the observed excess RM. Modelling the electron density distribution in the intracluster medium with a self-similar model, we found that the dispersion of the RM increases with the column density, and we deduce a magnetic field value of about 2 - 6 (l/10kpc)^-1/2 microG assuming a constant magnetic field strength, where l is the size of the coherently magnetised intracluster medium cells. This magnetic field energy density amounts to a few percent of the average thermal energy density in clusters. When we assumed the magnetic energy density to be a constant fraction of the thermal energy density, we deduced a slightly lower value for this fraction of 3 - 10 (l/10kpc)^-1/2 per mille.

Molecular Gas Along a Bright H-alpha Filament in 2A 0335+096 Revealed by ALMA [Replacement]

We present ALMA CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the 2A 0335+096 galaxy cluster (z = 0.0346). The total molecular gas mass of (1.13+/-0.15) x 10^9 M_sun is divided into two components: a nuclear region and a 7 kpc long dusty filament. The central molecular gas component accounts for (3.2+/-0.4) x 10^8 M_sun of the total supply of cold gas. Instead of forming a rotationally-supported ring or disk, it is composed of two distinct, blueshifted clumps south of the nucleus and a series of low-significance redshifted clumps extending toward a nearby companion galaxy. The velocity of the redshifted clouds increases with radius to a value consistent with the companion galaxy, suggesting that an interaction between these galaxies <20 Myr ago disrupted a pre-existing molecular gas reservoir within the BCG. Most of the molecular gas, (7.8+/-0.9) x 10^8 M_sun, is located in the filament. The CO emission is co-spatial with a 10^4 K emission-line nebula and soft X-rays from 0.5 keV gas, indicating that the molecular gas has cooled out of the intracluster medium over a period of 25-100 Myr. The filament trails an X-ray cavity, suggesting that the gas has cooled from low entropy gas that has been lifted out of the cluster core and become thermally unstable. We are unable to distinguish between inflow and outflow along the filament with the present data. Cloud velocities along the filament are consistent with gravitational free-fall near the plane of the sky, although their increasing blueshifts with radius are consistent with outflow.

Molecular Gas Along a Bright H-alpha Filament in 2A 0335+096 Revealed by ALMA

We present ALMA CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the 2A 0335+096 galaxy cluster (z = 0.0346). The total molecular gas mass of (1.13+/-0.15) x 10^9 M_sun is divided into two components: a nuclear region and a 7 kpc long dusty filament. The central molecular gas component accounts for (3.2+/-0.4) x 10^8 M_sun of the total supply of cold gas. Instead of forming a rotationally-supported ring or disk, it is composed of two distinct, blueshifted clumps south of the nucleus and a series of low-significance redshifted clumps extending toward a nearby companion galaxy. The velocity of the redshifted clouds increases with radius to a value consistent with the companion galaxy, suggesting that an interaction between these galaxies <20 Myr ago disrupted a pre-existing molecular gas reservoir within the BCG. Most of the molecular gas, (7.8+/-0.9) x 10^8 M_sun, is located in the filament. The CO emission is co-spatial with a 10^4 K emission-line nebula and soft X-rays from 0.5 keV gas, indicating that the molecular gas has cooled out of the intracluster medium over a period of 25-100 Myr. The filament trails an X-ray cavity, suggesting that the gas has cooled from low entropy gas that has been lifted out of the cluster core and become thermally unstable. We are unable to distinguish between inflow and outflow along the filament with the present data. Cloud velocities along the filament are consistent with gravitational free-fall near the plane of the sky, although their increasing blueshifts with radius are consistent with outflow.

Lens Model and Time Delay Predictions for the Sextuply Lensed Quasar SDSS J2222+2745

SDSS J2222+2745 is a galaxy cluster at z=0.49, strongly lensing a quasar at z=2.805 into six widely separated images. In recent HST imaging of the field, we identify additional multiply lensed galaxies, and confirm the sixth quasar image that was identified by Dahle et al. (2013). We used the Gemini North telescope to measure a spectroscopic redshift of z=4.56 of one of the secondary lensed galaxies. These data are used to refine the lens model of SDSS J2222+2745, compute the time delay and magnifications of the lensed quasar images, and reconstruct the source image of the quasar host and a second lensed galaxy at z=2.3. This second galaxy also appears in absorption in our Gemini spectra of the lensed quasar, at a projected distance of 34 kpc. Our model is in agreement with the recent time delay measurements of Dahle et al. (2015), who found tAB=47.7+/-6.0 days and tAC=-722+/-24 days. We use the observed time delays to further constrain the model, and find that the model-predicted time delays of the three faint images of the quasar are tAD=502+/-68 days, tAE=611+/-75 days, and tAF=415+/-72 days. We have initiated a follow-up campaign to measure these time delays with Gemini North. Finally, we present initial results from an X-ray monitoring program with Swift, indicating the presence of hard X-ray emission from the lensed quasar, as well as extended X-ray emission from the cluster itself, which is consistent with the lensing mass measurement and the cluster velocity dispersion.

nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations V: Investigation of the Cluster Infall Region

We examine the properties of the galaxies and dark matter haloes residing in the cluster infall region surrounding the simulated $\Lambda$CDM galaxy cluster studied by Elahi et al. (2016) at z=0. The $1.1\times10^{15}h^{-1}\text{M}_{\odot}$ galaxy cluster has been simulated with eight different hydrodynamical codes containing a variety of hydrodynamic solvers and subgrid schemes. All models completed a dark-matter only, non-radiative and full-physics run from the same initial conditions. The simulations contain dark matter and gas with mass resolution $m_{\text{DM}}=9.01\times 10^8h^{-1}\text{M}_{\odot}$ and $m_{\text{gas}}=1.9\times 10^8h^{-1}\text{M}_{\odot}$ respectively. We find that the synthetic cluster is surrounded by clear filamentary structures that contain ~60% of haloes in the infall region with mass ~$10^{12.5} - 10^{14} h^{-1}\text{M}_{\odot}$, including 2-3 group-sized haloes ($> 10^{13}h^{-1}\text{M}_{\odot}$). However, we find that only ~10% of objects in the infall region are subhaloes residing in haloes, which may suggest that there is not much ongoing preprocessing occurring in the infall region at z=0. By examining the baryonic content contained within the haloes, we also show that the code-to-code scatter in stellar fraction across all halo masses is typically ~2 orders of magnitude between the two most extreme cases, and this is predominantly due to the differences in subgrid schemes and calibration procedures that each model uses. Models that do not include AGN feedback typically produce too high stellar fractions compared to observations by at least ~1 order of magnitude.

The unrelaxed dynamical structure of the galaxy cluster Abell 85

For the first time, we explore the dynamics of the central region of a galaxy cluster within $r_{500}\sim 600h^{-1}$~kpc from its center by combining optical and X-ray spectroscopy. We use (1) the caustic technique that identifies the cluster substructures and their galaxy members with optical spectroscopic data, and (2) the X-ray redshift fitting procedure that estimates the redshift distribution of the intracluster medium (ICM). We use the spatial and redshift distributions of the galaxies and of the X-ray emitting gas to associate the optical substructures to the X-ray regions. When we apply this approach to Abell 85 (A85), a complex dynamical structure of A85 emerges from our analysis: a galaxy group, with redshift $z=0.0509 \pm 0.0021$ is passing through the cluster center along the line of sight dragging part of the ICM present in the cluster core; two additional groups, at redshift $z=0.0547 \pm 0.0022$ and $z=0.0570 \pm 0.0020$, are going through the cluster in opposite directions, almost perpendicularly to the line of sight, and have substantially perturbed the dynamics of the ICM. An additional group in the outskirts of A85, at redshift $z=0.0561 \pm 0.0023$, is associated to a secondary peak of the X-ray emission, at redshift $z=0.0583^{+0.0039}_{-0.0047}$. Although our analysis and results on A85 need to be confirmed by high-resolution spectroscopy, they demonstrate how our new approach can be a powerful tool to constrain the formation history of galaxy clusters by unveiling their central and surrounding structures.

ALMA-SZ Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock at Half the Age of the Universe [Replacement]

We present ALMA measurements of a merger shock using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signal, at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at $z \approx 0.9$. Multi-wavelength analysis in combination with the archival Chandra data and a high-resolution radio image provides a consistent picture of the thermal and non-thermal signal variation across the shock front and helps to put robust constraints on the shock Mach number as well as the relic magnetic field. We employ a Bayesian analysis technique for modeling the SZ and X-ray data self-consistently, illustrating respective parameter degeneracies. Combined results indicate a shock with Mach number ${\cal M} = 2.4^{+1.3}_{-0.6}$, which in turn suggests a high value of the magnetic field (of the order of $4-10 ~\mu$G) to account for the observed relic width at 2 GHz. At roughly half the current age of the universe, this is the highest-redshift direct detection of a cluster shock to date, and one of the first instances of an ALMA-SZ observation in a galaxy cluster. It shows the tremendous potential for future ALMA-SZ observations to detect merger shocks and other cluster substructures out to the highest redshifts.

Tidal origin of spiral arms in galaxies orbiting a cluster

One of the scenarios for the formation of grand-design spiral arms in disky galaxies involves their interactions with a satellite or another galaxy. Here we consider another possibility, where the perturbation is instead due to the potential of a galaxy cluster. Using $N$-body simulations we investigate the formation and evolution of spiral arms in a Milky Way-like galaxy orbiting a Virgo-like cluster. The galaxy is placed on a few orbits of different size but similar eccentricity and its evolution is followed for 10 Gyr. The tidally induced, two-armed, approximately logarithmic spiral structure forms on each of them during the pericenter passages. The spiral arms dissipate and wind up with time, to be triggered again at the next pericenter passage. We confirm this transient and recurrent nature of the arms by analyzing the time evolution of the pitch angle and the arm strength. We find that the strongest arms are formed on the tightest orbit, however they wind up rather quickly and are disturbed by another pericenter passage. The arms on the most extended orbit, which we analyze in more detail, wind up slowly and survive for the longest time. Measurements of the pattern speed of the arms indicate that they are kinematic density waves. We attempt a comparison with observations by selecting grand-design spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Among those, we find nine examples bearing no signs of recent interactions or the presence of companions. For three of them we present close structural analogues among our simulated spiral galaxies.

Tidal origin of spiral arms in galaxies orbiting a cluster [Replacement]

One of the scenarios for the formation of grand-design spiral arms in disky galaxies involves their interactions with a satellite or another galaxy. Here we consider another possibility, where the perturbation is instead due to the potential of a galaxy cluster. Using $N$-body simulations we investigate the formation and evolution of spiral arms in a Milky Way-like galaxy orbiting a Virgo-like cluster. The galaxy is placed on a few orbits of different size but similar eccentricity and its evolution is followed for 10 Gyr. The tidally induced, two-armed, approximately logarithmic spiral structure forms on each of them during the pericenter passages. The spiral arms dissipate and wind up with time, to be triggered again at the next pericenter passage. We confirm this transient and recurrent nature of the arms by analyzing the time evolution of the pitch angle and the arm strength. We find that the strongest arms are formed on the tightest orbit, however they wind up rather quickly and are disturbed by another pericenter passage. The arms on the most extended orbit, which we analyze in more detail, wind up slowly and survive for the longest time. Measurements of the pattern speed of the arms indicate that they are kinematic density waves. We attempt a comparison with observations by selecting grand-design spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Among those, we find nine examples bearing no signs of recent interactions or the presence of companions. For three of them we present close structural analogues among our simulated spiral galaxies.

A $\mathcal{M}\gtrsim3$ shock in `El Gordo' cluster and the origin of the radio relic [Replacement]

We present an X-ray and radio study of the famous `El Gordo', a massive and distant ($z=0.87$) galaxy cluster. In the deep (340 ks) Chandra observation, the cluster appears with an elongated and cometary morphology, a sign of its current merging state. The GMRT radio observations at 610 MHz reveal the presence of a radio halo which remarkably overlaps the X-ray cluster emission and connects a couple of radio relics. We detect a strong shock ($\mathcal{M}\gtrsim3$) in the NW periphery of the cluster, co-spatially located with the radio relic. This is the most distant ($z=0.87$) and one of the strongest shock detected in a galaxy cluster. This work supports the relic-shock connection and allows to investigate the origin of these radio sources in a uncommon regime of $\mathcal{M}\gtrsim3$. For this particular case we found that shock acceleration from the thermal pool is still a viable possibility.

A $\mathcal{M}\approx3$ shock in `El Gordo' cluster and the origin of the radio relic

We present an X-ray and radio study of the famous `El Gordo', a massive and distant ($z=0.87$) galaxy cluster. In the deep (340 ks) Chandra observation, the cluster appears with an elongated and cometary morphology, a sign of its current merging state. The GMRT radio observations at 610 MHz reveal the presence of a radio halo which remarkably overlaps the X-ray cluster emission and connects a couple of radio relics. We detect a strong shock ($\mathcal{M}\approx3$) in the NW periphery of the cluster, co-spatially located with the radio relic. This is the most distant ($z=0.87$) and one of the strongest shock detected in a galaxy cluster. This work supports the relic-shock connection and allows to investigate the origin of these radio sources in a uncommon regime of $\mathcal{M}\approx3$. For this particular case we found that shock acceleration from the thermal pool is a viable possibility.

Spectral Clustering for Optical Confirmation and Redshift Estimation of X-ray Selected Galaxy Cluster Candidates in the SDSS Stripe 82

We develop a galaxy cluster finding algorithm based on spectral clustering technique to identify optical counterparts and estimate optical redshifts for X-ray selected cluster candidates. As an application, we run our algorithm on a sample of X-ray cluster candidates selected from the third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog (3XMM-DR5) that are located in the Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our method works on galaxies described in the color-magnitude feature space. We begin by examining 45 galaxy clusters with published spectroscopic redshifts in the range of 0.1 to 0.8 with a median of 0.36. As a result, we are able to identify their optical counterparts and estimate their photometric redshifts, which have a typical accuracy of 0.025 and agree with the published ones. Then, we investigate another 40 X-ray cluster candidates (from the same cluster survey) with no redshift information in the literature and found that 12 candidates are considered as galaxy clusters in the redshift range from 0.29 to 0.76 with a median of 0.57. These systems are newly discovered clusters in X-rays and optical data. Among them 7 clusters have spectroscopic redshifts for at least one member galaxy.

Numerical simulations challenged on the prediction of massive subhalo abundance in galaxy clusters: the case of Abell 2142 [Replacement]

In this Letter we compare the abundance of member galaxies of a rich, nearby ($z=0.09$) galaxy cluster, Abell 2142, with that of halos of comparable virial mass extracted from sets of state-of-the-art numerical simulations, both collisionless at different resolutions and with the inclusion of baryonic physics in the form of cooling, star formation, and feedback by active galactic nuclei. We also use two semi-analytical models to account for the presence of orphan galaxies. The photometric and spectroscopic information, taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) database, allows us to estimate the stellar velocity dispersion of member galaxies of Abell 2142. This quantity is used as proxy for the total mass of secure cluster members and is properly compared with that of subhalos in simulations. We find that simulated halos have a statistically significant ($\gtrsim 7$ sigma confidence level) smaller amount of massive (circular velocity above $200\,{\rm km\, s^{-1}}$) subhalos, even before accounting for the possible incompleteness of observations. These results corroborate the findings from a recent strong lensing study of the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416 \citep{grillo2015} and suggest that the observed difference is already present at the level of dark matter (DM) subhalos and is not solved by introducing baryonic physics. A deeper understanding of this discrepancy between observations and simulations will provide valuable insights into the impact of the physical properties of DM particles and the effect of baryons on the formation and evolution of cosmological structures.

Numerical simulations challenged on the prediction of massive subhalo abundance in galaxy clusters: the case of Abell 2142

In this Letter we compare the abundance of member galaxies of a rich, nearby ($z=0.09$) galaxy cluster, Abell 2142, with that of halos of comparable virial mass extracted from sets of state-of-the-art numerical simulations, both collisionless at different resolutions and with the inclusion of baryonic physics in the form of cooling, star formation, and feedback by AGN. We also use two semi-analytical models to account for the presence of orphan galaxies. The photometric and spectroscopic information, taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) database, allows us to estimate the stellar velocity dispersion of member galaxies of Abell 2142. This quantity is used as proxy for the total mass of secure cluster members and is properly compared with that of subhalos in simulations. We find that simulated halos have a statistically significant ($\gtrsim 7$ sigma confidence level) smaller amount of massive (circular velocity above $200\,{\rm km\, s^{-1}}$) subhalos, even before accounting for possible incompleteness of observations. These results corroborate the findings from a recent strong lensing study of the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416 (Grillo, et al. 2015) and suggest that the observed difference is already present at the level of dark matter subhalos and not solved by introducing baryonic physics. A deeper understanding of this discrepancy between observations and simulations will provide valuable insights into the impact of the physical properties of dark matter particles and the effect of baryons on the formation and evolution of cosmological structures.

The 3XMM/SDSS Stripe 82 Galaxy Cluster Survey: Cluster catalogue and discovery of two merging cluster candidates

We present a galaxy cluster survey based on XMM-Newton observations that are located in the Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The survey covers an area of 11.25 deg$^2$. The X-ray cluster candidates were selected as serendipitously extended detected sources from the third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue (3XMM-DR5). A cross-correlation of the candidate list that comprises 94 objects with recently published X-ray and optically selected cluster catalogues provided optical confirmations and redshift estimates for about half of the candidate sample. We present a catalogue of X-ray cluster candidates previously known in X-ray and/or optical bands from the matched catalogues or NED. The catalogue consists of 54 systems with redshift measurements in the range of 0.05-1.19 with a median of 0.36. Of these, 45 clusters have spectroscopic confirmations as stated in the matched catalogues. We spectroscopically confirmed another 6 clusters from the available spectroscopic redshifts in the SDSS-DR12. The cluster catalogue includes 17 newly X-ray discovered clusters while the remainder were detected in previous XMM-Newton and/or ROSAT cluster surveys. Based on the available redshifts and fluxes given in the 3XMM-DR5 catalogue, we estimated the X-ray luminosities and masses for the cluster sample. We also present the list of the remaining X-ray cluster candidates (40 objects) that have no redshift information yet in the literature. Of these candidates, 25 sources are considered as distant cluster candidates beyond a redshift of 0.6. We also searched for galaxy cluster mergers among our cluster sample and found two strong candidates for newly discovered cluster mergers at redshifts of 0.11 and 0.26. The X-ray and optical properties of these systems are presented.

Formation and evolution of heavy sub-structures in the centre of galaxy clusters: the local effect of dark energy

We discuss how the centres of galaxy clusters evolve in time, showing the results of a series of direct N-body simulations. In particular, we followed the evolution of a galaxy cluster with a mass $M_{clus} \simeq 10^{14} $M$_{\odot}$ in different configurations. The dynamical evolution of the system leads in all the cases to the formation of dense and massive sub-structures in the cluster centre, that form in consequence of a series of collisions and merging among galaxies travelling in the cluster core. We investigate how the structural properties of the main merging product depends on the characteristics of those galaxies that contributed to its formation.

Suppression of electron thermal conduction in the high $\beta$ intracluster medium of galaxy clusters [Replacement]

Understanding the thermodynamic state of the hot intracluster medium (ICM) in a galaxy cluster requires a knowledge of the plasma transport processes, especially thermal conduction. The basic physics of thermal conduction in plasmas with ICM-like conditions has yet to be elucidated, however. We use particle-in-cell simulations and analytic models to explore the dynamics of an ICM-like plasma (with small gyroradius, large mean-free-path, and strongly sub-dominant magnetic pressure) driven by the diffusive heat flux associated with thermal conduction. Lin- ear theory reveals that whistler waves are driven unstable electron heat flux, even when the heat flux is weak. The resonant interaction of electrons with these waves then plays a critical role in scattering electrons and suppressing the heat flux. In a 1D model where only whistler modes that are parallel to the magnetic field are captured, the only resonant electrons are moving in the opposite direction to the heat flux and the electron heat flux suppression is small. In 2D or more, oblique whistler modes also resonate with electrons moving in the direction of the heat flux. The overlap of resonances leads to effective symmetrization of the electron distribution function and a strong suppression of heat flux. The results suggest that thermal conduction in the ICM might be strongly suppressed, possibly to negligible levels.

The Frontier Fields Lens Modeling Comparison Project

Gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies offers a powerful probe of their structure and mass distribution. Deriving a lens magnification map for a galaxy cluster is a classic inversion problem and many methods have been developed over the past two decades to solve it. Several research groups have developed techniques independently to map the predominantly dark matter distribution in cluster lenses. While these methods have all provided remarkably high precision mass maps, particularly with exquisite imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the reconstructions themselves have never been directly compared. In this paper, we report the results of comparing various independent lens modeling techniques employed by individual research groups in the community. Here we present for the first time a detailed and robust comparison of methodologies for fidelity, accuracy and precision. For this collaborative exercise, the lens modeling community was provided simulated cluster images -- of two clusters Ares and Hera -- that mimic the depth and resolution of the ongoing HST Frontier Fields. The results of the submitted reconstructions with the un-blinded true mass profile of these two clusters are presented here. Parametric, free-form and hybrid techniques have been deployed by the participating groups and we detail the strengths and trade-offs in accuracy and systematics that arise for each methodology. We note in conclusion that lensing reconstruction methods produce reliable mass distributions that enable the use of clusters as extremely valuable astrophysical laboratories and cosmological probes.

Weighing the Giants V: Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations

We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scaling relations is consistent with self similarity, we find tentative evidence that the luminosity and temperature scatters respectively decrease and increase with redshift. Physically, this likely related to the development of cool cores and the rate of major mergers. We also examine the scaling relations of redMaPPer richness and Compton $Y$ from Planck. While the richness--mass relation is in excellent agreement with recent work, the measured $Y$--mass relation departs strongly from that assumed in the Planck cluster cosmology analysis. The latter result is consistent with earlier comparisons of lensing and Planck scaling-relation-derived masses.

Weighing the Giants V: Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations [Replacement]

We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scaling relations over the redshift range $0.0<z<0.5$ is consistent with self similarity, we find tentative evidence that the luminosity and temperature scatters respectively decrease and increase with redshift. Physically, this likely related to the development of cool cores and the rate of major mergers. We also examine the scaling relations of redMaPPer richness and Compton $Y$ from Planck. While the richness--mass relation is in excellent agreement with recent work, the measured $Y$--mass relation departs strongly from that assumed in the Planck cluster cosmology analysis. The latter result is consistent with earlier comparisons of lensing and Planck scaling-relation-derived masses.

Precise strong lensing mass profile of the CLASH galaxy cluster MACS 2129

We present a detailed strong lensing mass reconstruction of the core of the galaxy cluster MACSJ 2129.4-0741 ($\rm z_{cl}=0.589$) obtained by combining high-resolution HST photometry from the CLASH survey with new spectroscopic observations from the CLASH-VLT survey. A background bright red passive galaxy at $\rm z_{sp}=1.36$, sextuply lensed in the cluster core, has four radial lensed images located over the three central cluster members. Further 19 background lensed galaxies are spectroscopically confirmed by our VLT survey, including 3 additional multiple systems. A total of 27 multiple images are used in the lensing analysis. This allows us to trace with high precision the total mass profile of the cluster in its very inner region ($\rm R<100$ kpc). Our final lensing mass model reproduces the multiple images systems identified in the cluster core with high accuracy of $0.4''$. This translates in an high precision mass reconstruction of MACS 2129, which is constrained at level of 3%. The cluster has Einstein radius $\theta_E=(15\pm2)''$, for a source at $z_s=1.36$ and a projected total mass of $\rm M_{tot}(<\theta_E)=(3.4\pm0.1)\times 10^{13}M_{\odot}$ within such radius. Together with the cluster mass profile, we provide here also the complete spectroscopic dataset for the cluster members and lensed images measured with VLT/VIMOS within the CLASH-VLT survey.

The shape of the extragalactic cosmic ray spectrum from Galaxy Clusters

We study the diffusive escape of cosmic rays from a central source inside a galaxy cluster to obtain the suppression in the outgoing flux appearing when the confinement times get comparable or larger than the age of the sources. We also discuss the attenuation of the flux due to the interactions of the cosmic rays with the cluster medium, which can be sizeable for heavy nuclei. The overall suppression in the total cosmic ray flux expected on Earth is important to understand the shape of the extragalactic contribution to the cosmic ray spectrum for $E/Z<1$ EeV. This suppression can also be relevant to interpret the results of fits to composition-sensitive observables measured at ultra-high energies.

The shape of the extragalactic cosmic ray spectrum from Galaxy Clusters [Cross-Listing]

We study the diffusive escape of cosmic rays from a central source inside a galaxy cluster to obtain the suppression in the outgoing flux appearing when the confinement times get comparable or larger than the age of the sources. We also discuss the attenuation of the flux due to the interactions of the cosmic rays with the cluster medium, which can be sizeable for heavy nuclei. The overall suppression in the total cosmic ray flux expected on Earth is important to understand the shape of the extragalactic contribution to the cosmic ray spectrum for $E/Z<1$ EeV. This suppression can also be relevant to interpret the results of fits to composition-sensitive observables measured at ultra-high energies.

Star formation activity in a young galaxy cluster at z=0.866

The galaxy cluster RXJ1257$+$4738 at $z=0.866$ is one of the highest redshift clusters with a richness of multi-wavelength data, and thus a good target to study the star formation-density relation at early epochs. Using a sample of spectroscopically-confirmed cluster members, we derive the star formation rates of our galaxies using two methods, (I) the relation between SFR and total infrared luminosity extrapolated from the observed \textit{Spitzer} MIPS 24$\mu$m imaging data, and (II) spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using the MAGPHYS code, including eight different bands. We show that, for this cluster, the SFR-density relation is very weak and seems to be dominated by the two central galaxies and the SFR presents a mild dependence on stellar mass, with more massive galaxies having higher SFR. However, the specific SFR (SSFR) decreases with stellar mass, meaning that more massive galaxies are forming less stars per unit of mass, and thus suggesting that the increase in star-forming members is driven by cluster assembly and infall. If the environment is somehow driving the SF, one would expect a relation between the SSFR and the cluster centric distance, but that is not the case. A possible scenario to explain this lack of correlation is the contamination by infalling galaxies in the inner part of the cluster which may be on their initial pass through the cluster center. As these galaxies have higher SFRs for their stellar mass, they enhance the mean SSFR in the center of the cluster.

The dynamical state of the galaxy cluster: Theoretical insights from cosmological simulations

Following the work of Cui et al. (2016b, hereafter Paper I), we investigate the dynamical state of the galaxy clusters from the theoretical point of view. After extending to vrial radius $R_{vir}$, we reselect out 123 clusters with $\log(M_{DM, vir}) \le 14.5$ from the galaxy cluster samples in Paper I, here DM indicate the dark-matter-only run. These clusters from the two hydro-dynamical runs are matched to the dark-matter-only run using the unique dark matter particle ID. We investigate 4 independent parameters, which are normally used to classify the cluster dynamical state. We find that the virial ratio $\eta$ from both hydro-dynamical runs is $\sim$ 10 per cent lower than from the dark-matter-only run; there is no clear bimodal distribution between the relaxed and un-relaxed clusters for all investigated parameters. Further, using the velocity dispersion deviation parameter $\zeta$ , which is defined as the ratio between cluster velocity dispersion $\sigma$ and the theoretical prediction $\sigma_t = \sqrt{G M_{total}/R}$, we find that there is a linear correlation between the virial ratio $\eta$ and the velocity dispersion deviation parameter $\zeta$. We propose to use this $\zeta$ parameter, which can be derived easily from observed clusters, as a substitute of the $\eta$ parameter to quantify the cluster dynamical state.

How did the Virgo cluster form?

While the Virgo cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster and therefore the best observed one, little is known about its formation history. In this paper, a set of cosmological simulations that resemble the Local Universe is used to shed the first light on this mystery. The initial conditions for these simulations are constrained with galaxy peculiar velocities of the second catalog of the Cosmicflows project using algorithms developed within the Constrained Local UniversE Simulation project. Boxes of 500 Mpc/h on a side are set to run a series of dark matter only constrained simulations. In each simulation, a unique dark matter halo can be reliably identified as Virgo's counterpart. The properties of these Virgo halos are in agreement at a 10-20% level with the global properties of the observed Virgo cluster. Their zero-velocity masses agree at one-sigma with the observational mass estimate. In all the simulations, the matter falls onto the Virgo objects along a preferential direction that corresponds to the observational filament and the slowest direction of collapse. A study of the mass accretion history of the Virgo candidates reveals the most likely formation history of the Virgo cluster, namely a quiet accretion over the last 7 Gigayears.

Detection of Lyman-Alpha Emission From a Triple Imaged z=6.85 Galaxy Behind MACS J2129.4-0741

We report the detection of Ly$\alpha$ emission at $\sim9538$\AA{} in the Keck/DEIMOS and \HST WFC3 G102 grism data from a triply-imaged galaxy at $z=6.846\pm0.001$ behind galaxy cluster MACS J2129.4$-$0741. Combining the emission line wavelength with broadband photometry, line ratio upper limits, and lens modeling, we rule out the scenario that this emission line is \oii at $z=1.57$. After accounting for magnification, we calculate the weighted average of the intrinsic Ly$\alpha$ luminosity to be $\sim1.3\times10^{42}~\mathrm{erg}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and Ly$\alpha$ equivalent width to be $74\pm15$\AA{}. Its intrinsic UV absolute magnitude at 1600\AA{} is $-18.6\pm0.2$ mag and stellar mass $(1.5\pm0.3)\times10^{7}~M_{\odot}$, making it one of the faintest (intrinsic $L_{UV}\sim0.14~L_{UV}^*$) galaxies with Ly$\alpha$ detection at $z\sim7$ to date. Its stellar mass is in the typical range for the galaxies thought to dominate the reionization photon budget at $z\gtrsim7$; the inferred Ly$\alpha$ escape fraction is high ($\gtrsim 10$\%), which could be common for sub-$L^*$ $z\gtrsim7$ galaxies with Ly$\alpha$ emission. This galaxy offers a glimpse of the galaxy population that is thought to drive reionization, and it shows that gravitational lensing is an important avenue to probe the sub-$L^*$ galaxy population.

What does the Bullet Cluster tell us about Self-Interacting Dark Matter?

We perform numerical simulations of the merging galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56 (the Bullet Cluster), including the effects of elastic dark matter scattering. In a similar manner to the stripping of gas by ram pressure, dark matter self-interactions would transfer momentum between the two galaxy cluster dark matter haloes, causing them to lag behind the collisionless galaxies. The absence of an observed separation between the dark matter and stellar components in the Bullet Cluster has been used to place upper limits on the cross-section for dark matter scattering. We emphasise the importance of analysing simulations in an observationally-motivated manner, finding that the way in which the positions of the various components are measured can have a larger impact on derived constraints on dark matter's self-interaction cross-section than reasonable changes to the initial conditions for the merger. In particular, we find that the methods used in previous studies to place some of the tightest constraints on this cross-section do not reflect what is done observationally, and overstate the Bullet Cluster's ability to constrain the particle properties of dark matter. We introduce the first simulations of the Bullet Cluster including both self-interacting dark matter and gas. We find that as the gas is stripped it introduces radially-dependent asymmetries into the stellar and dark matter distributions. As the techniques used to determine the positions of the dark matter and galaxies are sensitive to different radial scales, these asymmetries can lead to erroneously measured offsets between dark matter and galaxies even when they are spatially coincident.

Comparing Simulations of AGN Feedback

We perform adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) cosmological zoom simulations of a region around a forming galaxy cluster, comparing the ability of the methods to handle successively more complex baryonic physics. In the simplest, non-radiative case, the two methods are in good agreement with each other, but the SPH simulations generate central cores with slightly lower entropies and virial shocks at slightly larger radii, consistent with what has been seen in previous studies. The inclusion of radiative cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback leads to much larger differences between the two methods. Most dramatically, at z=5, rapid cooling in the AMR case moves the accretion shock well within the virial radius, while this shock remains near the virial radius in the SPH case, due to excess heating, coupled with poorer capturing of the shock width. On the other hand, the addition of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the simulations results in much better agreement between the methods. In this case both simulations display halo gas entropies of 100 keV cm^2, similar decrements in the star-formation rate, and a drop in the halo baryon content of roughly 30%. This is consistent with AGN growth being self-regulated, regardless of the numerical method. However, the simulations with AGN feedback continue to differ in aspects that are not self-regulated, such that in SPH a larger volume of gas is impacted by feedback, and the cluster still has a lower entropy central core.

Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data [Replacement]

We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at the location of each galaxy cluster. When fitting three different phenomenological parameterizations allowing for monopole and dipole amplitudes in the value of the fine structure constant we improve the results of earlier analysis involving clusters and the CMB power spectrum, and we also found that the best-fit direction of a hypothetical dipole is compatible with the direction of other known anomalies. Although the constraining power of our current datasets do not allow us to test the indications of a fine-structure constant dipole obtained though high-resolution optical/UV spectroscopy, our results do highlight that clusters of galaxies will be a very powerful tool to probe fundamental physics at low redshift.

Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data [Replacement]

We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at the location of each galaxy cluster. When fitting three different phenomenological parameterizations allowing for monopole and dipole amplitudes in the value of the fine structure constant we improve the results of earlier analysis involving clusters and the CMB power spectrum, and we also found that the best-fit direction of a hypothetical dipole is compatible with the direction of other known anomalies. Although the constraining power of our current datasets do not allow us to test the indications of a fine-structure constant dipole obtained though high-resolution optical/UV spectroscopy, our results do highlight that clusters of galaxies will be a very powerful tool to probe fundamental physics at low redshift.

Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data [Replacement]

We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at the location of each galaxy cluster. When fitting three different phenomenological parameterizations allowing for monopole and dipole amplitudes in the value of the fine structure constant we improve the results of earlier analysis involving clusters and the CMB power spectrum, and we also found that the best-fit direction of a hypothetical dipole is compatible with the direction of other known anomalies. Although the constraining power of our current datasets do not allow us to test the indications of a fine-structure constant dipole obtained though high-resolution optical/UV spectroscopy, our results do highlight that clusters of galaxies will be a very powerful tool to probe fundamental physics at low redshift.

Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data

We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at the location of each galaxy cluster. When fitting three different phenomenological parameterizations allowing for monopole and dipole amplitudes in the value of the fine structure constant we improve the results of earlier analysis involving clusters and CMB power spectrum, and we also found that the best-fit direction of a hypothetical dipole is compatible with the direction of other known anomalies. Although the constraining power of our current datasets do not allow us to test the indications of a dipole obtained though high-resolution optical/UV spectroscopy, our results do highlight that clusters of galaxies will be a very powerful tool to probe fundamental physics at low redshift.

Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data [Replacement]

We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at the location of each galaxy cluster. When fitting three different phenomenological parameterizations allowing for monopole and dipole amplitudes in the value of the fine structure constant we improve the results of earlier analysis involving clusters and the CMB power spectrum, and we also found that the best-fit direction of a hypothetical dipole is compatible with the direction of other known anomalies. Although the constraining power of our current datasets do not allow us to test the indications of a fine-structure constant dipole obtained though high-resolution optical/UV spectroscopy, our results do highlight that clusters of galaxies will be a very powerful tool to probe fundamental physics at low redshift.

Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data [Cross-Listing]

We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at the location of each galaxy cluster. When fitting three different phenomenological parameterizations allowing for monopole and dipole amplitudes in the value of the fine structure constant we improve the results of earlier analysis involving clusters and CMB power spectrum, and we also found that the best-fit direction of a hypothetical dipole is compatible with the direction of other known anomalies. Although the constraining power of our current datasets do not allow us to test the indications of a dipole obtained though high-resolution optical/UV spectroscopy, our results do highlight that clusters of galaxies will be a very powerful tool to probe fundamental physics at low redshift.

The WSRT ZoA Perseus-Pisces Filament wide-field HI imaging survey I. HI catalogue and atlas

We present results of a blind 21cm HI-line imaging survey of a galaxy overdensity located behind the Milky Way at $\ell,b$ $\approx$ 160 deg, 0.5 deg. The overdensity corresponds to a Zone-of-Avoidance crossing of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster filament. Although it is known that this filament contains an X-ray galaxy cluster (3C129) hosting two strong radio galaxies, little is known about galaxies associated with this potentially rich cluster because of the high Galactic dust extinction. We mapped a sky area of $\sim$9.6 sq.deg using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in a hexagonal mosaic of 35 pointings observed for 12 hours each, in the radial velocity range $cz = 2400 - 16600$ km/s. The survey has a sensitivity of 0.36 mJy/beam rms at a velocity resolution of 16.5 km/s. We detected 211 galaxies, 62% of which have a near-infrared counterpart in the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. We present a catalogue of the HI properties and an HI atlas containing total intensity maps, position-velocity diagrams, global HI profiles and UKIDSS counterpart images. For the resolved galaxies we also present HI velocity fields and radial HI surface density profiles. A brief analysis of the structures outlined by these galaxies finds that 87 of them lie at the distance of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster ($cz \sim 4000 - 8000$ km/s) and seem to form part of the 3C129 cluster. Further 72 detections trace an overdensity at a velocity of $cz \approx$ 10000 km/s and seem to coincide with a structure predicted from mass density reconstructions in the first 2MASS Redshift Survey.

A Systematic Survey of Protoclusters at $z\sim3\mathrm{-}6$ in the CFHTLS Deep Fields

We present the discovery of three protoclusters at $z\sim3\mathrm{-}4$ with spectroscopic confirmation in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey Deep Fields. In these fields, we investigate the large-scale projected sky distribution of $z\sim3\mathrm{-}6$ Lyman break galaxies and identify 21 protocluster candidates from regions that are overdense at more than $4\sigma$ overdensity significance. Based on cosmological simulations, it is expected that more than $76\%$ of these candidates will evolve into a galaxy cluster of at least a halo mass of $10^{14}\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$ at $z=0$. We perform follow-up spectroscopy for eight of the candidates using Subaru/FOCAS, KeckII/DEIMOS, and Gemini-N/GMOS. In total we target 462 dropout candidates and obtain 138 spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm three real protoclusters at $z=3\mathrm{-}4$ with more than five members spectroscopically identified, and find one to be an incidental overdense region by mere chance alignment. The other four candidate regions at $z\sim5\mathrm{-}6$ require more spectroscopic follow-up in order to be conclusive. A $z=3.67$ protocluster, which has eleven spectroscopically confirmed members, shows a remarkable core-like structure composed of a central small region ($<0.5\,\mathrm{physical\>Mpc}$) and an outskirts region ($\sim1.0\,\mathrm{physical\>Mpc}$). The Ly$\alpha$ equivalent widths of members of the protocluster are significantly smaller than those of field galaxies at the same redshift while there is no difference in the UV luminosity distributions. These results imply that some environmental effects start operating as early as at $z\sim4$ along with the growth of the protocluster structure.

Discovery of a galaxy cluster with a violently starbursting core at z=2.506 [Replacement]

We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at $z_{spec} = 2.506$, which contains 11 massive ($M_{*} \gtrsim 10^{11} M_{\odot}$) galaxies in the central 80-kpc region (11.6$\sigma$ overdensity). We have spectroscopically confirmed 17 member galaxies with 11 from CO and the remaining ones from $H\alpha$. The X-ray luminosity, stellar mass content and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, cluster-sized dark matter halo with mass $M_{200c} = 10^{13.9\pm0.2} M_{\odot}$, making it the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the core with only two out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate (SFR) in the 80-kpc core reaches $\sim$3400 $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ with gas depletion time of $\sim 200$ Myr, suggesting that we caught this cluster in rapid build-up of a dense core. The high SFR is driven by both a high abundance of SFGs and a higher starburst fraction ($\sim25\%$, compared to 3\%-5\% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of massive SFGs suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights into massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.

Discovery of a galaxy cluster with a violently starbursting core at z=2.506 [Replacement]

We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at $z_{spec} = 2.506$, which contains 11 massive ($M_{*} \gtrsim 10^{11} M_{\odot}$) galaxies in the central 80-kpc region (11.6$\sigma$ overdensity). We have spectroscopically confirmed 17 member galaxies with 11 from CO and the remaining ones from $H\alpha$. The X-ray luminosity, stellar mass content and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, cluster-sized dark matter halo with mass $M_{200c} = 10^{13.9\pm0.2} M_{\odot}$, making it the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the core with only two out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate (SFR) in the 80-kpc core reaches $\sim$3400 $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ with gas depletion time of $\sim 200$ Myr, suggesting that we caught this cluster in rapid build-up of a dense core. The high SFR is driven by both a high abundance of SFGs and a higher starburst fraction ($\sim25\%$, compared to 3\%-5\% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of massive SFGs suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights into massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.

Discovery of a galaxy cluster with a violently starbursting core at z=2.506 [Replacement]

We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at $z_{spec} = 2.506$, which contains 11 massive ($M_{*} \gtrsim 10^{11} M_{\odot}$) galaxies in the central 80kpc region (11.6$\sigma$ overdensity). We have spectroscopically confirmed 17 member galaxies with 11 from CO and the remaining ones from $H\alpha$. The X-ray luminosity, stellar mass content and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, cluster-sized dark matter halo with mass $M_{200c} = 10^{13.9\pm0.2} M_{\odot}$, making it the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the core with only 2 out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate (SFR) in the 80kpc core reaches $\sim$3400 $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ with a gas depletion time of $\sim 200$ Myr, suggesting that we caught this cluster in rapid build-up of a dense core. The high SFR is driven by both a high abundance of SFGs and a higher starburst fraction ($\sim25\%$, compared to 3\%-5\% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of massive SFGs suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights into massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.

Discovery of a galaxy cluster with a violently starbursting core at z=2.506

We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at $z_{spec} = 2.506$ in the COSMOS field. This structure contains in its center 11 massive ($M_{*} \gtrsim 10^{11} M_{\odot}$) galaxies distributed over 80-kpc, producing an 11.6$\sigma$ overdensity. We have spectroscopically confirmed 16 member galaxies extending to $\sim1$ Mpc from the core with half of them derived from CO with IRAM-NOEMA and JVLA and the other half from $H\alpha$ with VLT-KMOS. The X-ray luminosity, high stellar mass content and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, single cluster-sized dark matter halo with total mass $M_{200c} \sim 10^{13.9\pm0.2} M_{\odot}$, identifying it as the most distant X-ray detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies in the core with only two out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate in the 80-kpc core reaches $\sim$3400 $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ with a gas depletion time of $\sim 200$ Myr, suggesting that we caught this structure in rapid formation. The high star formation rate is driven by both a high abundance of massive star-forming galaxies and a higher starburst fraction ($\sim25\%$, compared to 3\%-5\% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of star-forming galaxies in the core suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights on massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.

Reconstructing cosmic growth with kSZ observations in the era of Stage IV experiments

Future ground-based CMB experiments will generate competitive large-scale structure datasets by precisely characterizing CMB secondary anisotropies over a large fraction of the sky. We describe a method for constraining the growth rate of structure to sub-1% precision out to $z\approx 1$, using a combination of galaxy cluster peculiar velocities measured using the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect, and the velocity field reconstructed from galaxy redshift surveys. We consider only thermal SZ-selected cluster samples, which will consist of $\mathcal{O}(10^4-10^5)$ sources for Stage 3 and 4 CMB experiments respectively. Three different methods for separating the kSZ effect from the primary CMB are compared, including a novel blind "constrained realization" method that improves signal-to-noise by a factor of $\sim 2$ over a commonly-used aperture photometry technique. Measurements of the integrated tSZ $y$-parameter are used to break the kSZ velocity-optical depth degeneracy, and the effects of including CMB polarization and SZ profile uncertainties are also considered. A combination of future Stage 4 experiments should be able to measure the product of the growth and expansion rates, $\alpha\equiv f H$, to better than 1% in bins of $\Delta z = 0.1$ out to $z \approx 1$ -- competitive with contemporary redshift-space distortion constraints from galaxy surveys.

Deep Chandra study of the truncated cool core of the Ophiuchus cluster

We present the results of a deep (280 ks) Chandra observation of the Ophiuchus cluster, the second-brightest galaxy cluster in the X-ray sky. The cluster hosts a truncated cool core, with a temperature increasing from kT~1 keV in the core to kT~9 keV at r~30 kpc. Beyond r~30 kpc the intra-cluster medium (ICM) appears remarkably isothermal. The core is dynamically disturbed with multiple sloshing induced cold fronts, with indications for both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The sloshing is the result of the strongly perturbed gravitational potential in the cluster core, with the central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) being displaced southward from the global center of mass. The residual image reveals a likely subcluster south of the core at the projected distance of r~280 kpc. The cluster also harbors a likely radio phoenix, a source revived by adiabatic compression by gas motions in the ICM. Even though the Ophiuchus cluster is strongly dynamically active, the amplitude of density fluctuations outside of the cooling core is low, indicating velocities smaller than ~100 km/s. The density fluctuations might be damped by thermal conduction in the hot and remarkably isothermal ICM, resulting in our underestimate of gas velocities. We find a surprising, sharp surface brightness discontinuity, that is curved away from the core, at r~120 kpc to the southeast of the cluster center. We conclude that this feature is most likely due to gas dynamics associated with a merger and not a result of an extraordinary active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst. The cooling core lacks any observable X-ray cavities and the AGN only displays weak, point-like radio emission, lacking lobes or jets, indicating that currently it may be largely dormant. The lack of strong AGN activity may be due to the bulk of the cooling taking place offset from the central supermassive black hole.

Effect of Priomordial non-Gaussianities on Galaxy Clusters Scaling Relations

Galaxy clusters are a valuable source of cosmological information. Their formation and evolution depends on the underlying cosmology and on the statistical nature of the primordial density fluctuations. In this work we investigate the impact of primordial non-gaussianities (PNG) on the scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We performed a series of cosmological hydrodynamic N-body simulations featuring adiabatic gas physics and different levels of non-Gaussian initial conditions within the $\Lambda$CDM framework. We focus on the T-M, S-M, Y-M and Yx-M scalings relating the total cluster mass with temperature, entropy and SZ cluster integrated pressure that reflect the thermodynamical state of the intra-cluster medium. Our results show that PNG have an impact on cluster scalings laws. The mass power-law indexes of the scalings are almost unaffected by the existence of PNG but the amplitude and redshift evolution of their normalizations are clearly affected. The effect is stronger for the evolution of the Y-M and Yx-M normalizations, which change by as much as 22% and 16% when $f_{NL}$ varies from -500 to 500, respectively. These results are consistent with the view that positive/negative $f_{NL}$ affect cluster profiles due to an increase/decrease of cluster concentrations. At low values of $f_{NL}$, as suggested by present Planck constraints on a scale invariant $f_{NL}$, the impact on the scalings normalizations is only a few percent, which is small when compared with the effect of additional gas physics and other cosmological effects such as dark energy. However if $f_{NL}$ is in fact a scale dependent parameter, PNG may have larger positive/negative amplitudes at clusters scales and therefore our results suggest that PNG should be taken into account when galaxy cluster data is used to infer cosmological parameters or to asses the constraining power of future cluster surveys.

Weak Lensing Measurement of the Mass--Richness Relation of SDSS redMaPPer Clusters

We perform a measurement of the mass--richness relation of the redMaPPer galaxy cluster catalogue using weak lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have carefully characterized a broad range of systematic uncertainties, including shear calibration errors, photo-$z$ biases, dilution by member galaxies, source obscuration, magnification bias, incorrect assumptions about cluster mass profiles, cluster centering, halo triaxiality, and projection effects. We also compare measurements of the lensing signal from two independently-produced shear and photometric redshift catalogues to characterize systematic errors in the lensing signal itself. Using a sample of 5,570 clusters from $0.1\le z\le 0.33$, the normalization of our power-law mass vs.\ $\lambda$ relation is $\log_{10}[M_{200m}/h^{-1}\ M_{\odot}]$ = $14.344 \pm 0.021$ (statistical) $\pm 0.023$ (systematic) at a richness $\lambda=40$, a 7 per cent calibration uncertainty, with a power-law index of $1.33^{+0.09}_{-0.10}$ ($1\sigma$). The detailed systematics characterization in this work renders it the definitive weak lensing mass calibration for SDSS redMaPPer clusters at this time.

Simulation tests of galaxy cluster constraints on chameleon gravity

We use two new hydrodynamical simulations of $\Lambda$CDM and $f(R)$ gravity to test the methodology used by Wilcox et al. 2015 (W15) in constraining the effects of a fifth force on the profiles of clusters of galaxies. We construct realistic simulated stacked weak lensing and X-ray surface brightness cluster profiles from these cosmological simulations, and then use these data projected along various lines-of-sight to test the spherical symmetry of our stacking procedure. We also test the applicability of the NFW profile to model weak lensing profiles of clusters in $f(R)$ gravity. Finally, we test the validity of the analytical model developed in W15 against the simulated profiles. Overall, we find our methodology is robust and broadly agrees with these simulated data. We also apply our full Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis from W15 to our simulated X-ray and lensing profiles, providing consistent constraints on the modified gravity parameters as obtained from the real cluster data, e.g. for our $\Lambda$CDM simulation we obtain $|f_{\rm{R}0}| < 8.3 \times 10^{-5}$ (95% CL), which is in good agreement with the W15 measurement of $|f_{\rm{R}0}| < 6 \times 10^{-5}$. Overall, these tests confirm the power of our methodology which can now be applied to larger cluster samples available with the next generation surveys.

 

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