### Weighing the Giants IV: Cosmology and Neutrino Mass

(10 votes from 9 institutions)

(Abridged) We employ robust weak gravitational lensing measurements to improve cosmological constraints from measurements of the galaxy cluster mass function and its evolution, using X-ray selected clusters detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Our lensing analysis provides a constraint on the absolute mass scale of such clusters at the 8 per cent level (including both statistical and systematic uncertainties), a factor of $\sim 2$ improvement over the best previous work. In combination with the survey data and extensive X-ray follow-up observations, our weak lensing measurements lead to a tight constraint on a combination of the mean matter density and late-time normalization of the matter power spectrum, $\sigma_8(\Omega_m/0.3)^{0.17}=0.81\pm0.03$, with marginalized, one-dimensional constraints of $\Omega_m=0.26\pm0.03$ and $\sigma_8=0.83\pm0.04$. These constraints are consistent with our own previous work, but are offset from some independent cluster studies. Our new results are in good agreement with constraints from cosmic microwave background (CMB) data under the assumption of a flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmology with minimal neutrino mass. Consequently, we find no evidence for non-minimal neutrino mass from the combination of cluster data with CMB, supernova and BAO measurements, regardless of whether WMAP or Planck data are used (and independent of the recent claimed detection of B-modes on degree scales). We also present improved constraints on models of dark energy (both constant and evolving) and modifications of gravity, for which our cluster measurements provide some of the tightest and most robust constraints to date, as well as primordial non-Gaussianity. In all cases, we find results consistent with the standard model of cosmology. Assuming flatness, the constraints for a constant dark energy equation of state from the cluster data alone are at the 15 per cent level.