Posts Tagged galaxy cluster

Recent Postings from galaxy cluster

IDCS J1426.5+3508: The Most Massive Galaxy Cluster at $z > 1.5$

We present a deep (100 ks) Chandra observation of IDCS J1426.5+3508, a spectroscopically confirmed, infrared-selected galaxy cluster at $z = 1.75$. This cluster is the most massive galaxy cluster currently known at $z > 1.5$, based on existing Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) and gravitational lensing detections. We confirm this high mass via a variety of X-ray scaling relations, including $T_X$-M, $f_g$-M, $Y_X$-M and $L_X$-M, finding a tight distribution of masses from these different methods, spanning M$_{500}$ = 2.3-3.3 $\times 10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$, with the low-scatter $Y_X$-based mass $M_{500,Y_X} = 2.6^{+1.5}_{-0.5} \times 10^{14}$ M$_\odot$. IDCS J1426.5+3508 is currently the only cluster at $z > 1.5$ for which X-ray, SZ and gravitational lensing mass estimates exist, and these are in remarkably good agreement. We find a relatively tight distribution of the gas-to-total mass ratio, employing total masses from all of the aforementioned indicators, with values ranging from $f_{gas,500}$ = 0.087-0.12. We do not detect metals in the intracluster medium (ICM) of this system, placing a 2$\sigma$ upper limit of $Z(r < R_{500}) < 0.18 Z_{\odot}$. This upper limit on the metallicity suggests that this system may still be in the process of enriching its ICM. The cluster has a dense, low-entropy core, offset by $\sim$30 kpc from the X-ray centroid, which makes it one of the few "cool core" clusters discovered at $z > 1$, and the first known cool core cluster at $z > 1.2$. The offset of this core from the large-scale centroid suggests that this cluster has had a relatively recent ($\lesssim$500 Myr) merger/interaction with another massive system.

Identification of galaxy cluster substructures with the Caustic method

We investigate the power of the caustic technique to identify substructures of galaxy clusters from optical redshift data alone. The caustic technique is designed to estimate the mass profile of galaxy clusters to radii well beyond the virial radius, where dynamical equilibrium does not hold. Two by-products of this technique are the identification of the cluster members and the identification of the cluster substructures. We test the caustic technique as a substructure detector on two samples of 150 mock redshift surveys of clusters; the clusters are extracted from a large cosmological $N$-body simulation of a $\Lambda$CDM model and have mass $M_{200} \sim 10^{14} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$ and $M_{200} \sim 10^{15} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$ in the two samples respectively. We limit our analysis to substructures identified in the simulation with mass larger than $10^{13} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$. With mock redshift surveys with 200 galaxies within $3R_{200}$, (1) the caustic technique recovers $\sim 30-50$% of the real substructures, and (2) $\sim 15-20$% of the substructures identified by the caustic technique corresponds to real substructures of the central cluster, the remaining fraction being low-mass substructures, groups or substructures of clusters in the surrounding region, or chance alignments of unrelated galaxies. These encouraging results show that the caustic technique is a promising approach to investigate the complex dynamics of galaxy clusters.

Reconstruction of small-scale galaxy cluster substructure with lensing flexion

We present a reconstructions of galaxy-cluster-scale mass distributions from simulated gravitational lensing data sets including strong lensing, weak lensing shear, and measurements of quadratic image distortions — flexion. The lensing data is constructed to make a direct comparison between mass reconstructions with and without flexion. We show that in the absence of flexion measurements, significant galaxy-group scale substructure can remain undetected in the reconstructed mass profiles, and that the resulting profiles underestimate the aperture mass in the substructure regions by $\sim25-40\%$. When flexion is included, subhaloes down to a mass of $\sim3\times10^{12}$ M$_\odot$ can be detected at an angular resolution smaller than 10\arcsec. Aperture masses from profiles reconstructed with flexion match the input distribution values to within an error of $\sim13\%$, including both statistical error and scatter. This demonstrates the important constraint that flexion measurements place on substructure in galaxy clusters and its utility for producing high-fidelity mass reconstructions.

Effects of Lens Motion and Uneven Magnification on Image Spectra

Counter to intuition, the images of an extended galaxy lensed by a moving galaxy cluster should have slightly different spectra in any metric gravity theory. This is mainly for two reasons. One relies on the gravitational potential of a moving lens being time-dependent (the Moving Cluster Effect, MCE). The other is due to uneven magnification across the extended, rotating source (the Differential Magnification Effect, DME). The time delay between the images can also cause their redshifts to differ because of cosmological expansion. This Differential Expansion Effect is likely to be small. Using a simple model, we derive these effects from first principles. One application would be to the Bullet Cluster, whose large tangential velocity may be inconsistent with the $\Lambda$CDM paradigm. This velocity can be estimated with complicated hydrodynamic models. Uncertainties with such models can be avoided using the MCE. We argue that the MCE should be observable with ALMA. However, such measurements can be corrupted by the DME if typical spiral galaxies are used as sources. Fortunately, we find that if detailed spectral line profiles were available, then the DME and MCE could be distinguished. It might also be feasible to calculate how much the DME should affect the mean redshift of each image. Resolved observations of the source would be required to do this accurately. The DME is of order the source angular size divided by the Einstein radius times the redshift variation across the source. Thus, it mostly affects nearly edge-on spiral galaxies in certain orientations. This suggests that observers should reduce the DME by careful choice of target, a possibility we discuss in some detail.

nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations I: dark matter & non-radiative models

We have simulated the formation of a galaxy cluster in a $\Lambda$CDM universe using twelve different codes modeling only gravity and non-radiative hydrodynamics (\art, \arepo, \hydra\ and 9 incarnations of GADGET). This range of codes includes particle based, moving and fixed mesh codes as well as both Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid schemes. The various GADGET implementations span traditional and advanced smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. The goal of this comparison is to assess the reliability of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of clusters in the simplest astrophysically relevant case, that in which the gas is assumed to be non-radiative. We compare images of the cluster at $z=0$, global properties such as mass, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. The underlying gravitational framework can be aligned very accurately for all the codes allowing a detailed investigation of the differences that develop due to the various gas physics implementations employed. As expected, the mesh-based codes ART and AREPO form extended entropy cores in the gas with rising central gas temperatures. Those codes employing traditional SPH schemes show falling entropy profiles all the way into the very centre with correspondingly rising density profiles and central temperature inversions. We show that methods with modern SPH schemes that allow entropy mixing span the range between these two extremes and the latest SPH variants produce gas entropy profiles that are essentially indistinguishable from those obtained with grid based methods.

CLASH-VLT: Substructure in the galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 from kinematics of galaxy populations [Replacement]

In the effort to understand the link between the structure of galaxy clusters and their galaxy populations, we focus on MACSJ1206.2-0847 at z~0.44 and probe its substructure in the projected phase space through the spectrophotometric properties of a large number of galaxies from the CLASH-VLT survey. Our analysis is mainly based on an extensive spectroscopic dataset of 445 member galaxies, mostly acquired with VIMOS@VLT as part of our ESO Large Programme, sampling the cluster out to a radius ~2R200 (4 Mpc). We classify 412 galaxies as passive, with strong Hdelta absorption (red and blue galaxies, and with emission lines from weak to very strong. A number of tests for substructure detection are applied to analyze the galaxy distribution in the velocity space, in 2D space, and in 3D projected phase-space. Studied in its entirety, the cluster appears as a large-scale relaxed system with a few secondary, minor overdensities in 2D distribution. We detect no velocity gradients or evidence of deviations in local mean velocities. The main feature is the WNW-ESE elongation. The analysis of galaxy populations per spectral class highlights a more complex scenario. The passive galaxies and red strong Hdelta galaxies trace the cluster center and the WNW-ESE elongated structure. The red strong Hdelta galaxies also mark a secondary, dense peak ~2 Mpc at ESE. The emission line galaxies cluster in several loose structures, mostly outside R200. The observational scenario agrees with MACS J1206.2-0847 having WNW-ESE as the direction of the main cluster accretion, traced by passive galaxies and red strong Hdelta galaxies. The red strong Hdelta galaxies, interpreted as poststarburst galaxies, date a likely important event 1-2 Gyr before the epoch of observation. The emission line galaxies trace a secondary, ongoing infall where groups are accreted along several directions.

CLASH-VLT: Substructure in the galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 from kinematics of galaxy populations

In the effort to understand the link between the structure of galaxy clusters and their galaxy populations, we focus on MACS J1206.2-0847, at z~0.44, probing its substructure in the projected phase space through the spectrophotometric properties of a large number of galaxies from the CLASH-VLT survey. Our analysis is mainly based on an extensive spectroscopic dataset of 445 member galaxies, mostly acquired with VIMOS@VLT as part of our ESO Large Programme, sampling the cluster out to a radius ~2R200 (4 Mpc). We classify 412 galaxies as: passive, with strong Hdelta absorption (red and blue ones), and with emission lines from weak to very strong ones. A number of tests for substructure detection is applied to analyze the galaxy distribution in the velocity space, in the 2D space, and in the (3D) projected phase-space. Studied in its entirety, the cluster appears as a large-scale relaxed system with a few, secondary, minor overdensities in 2D distribution. We detect no velocity gradient or evidence of deviations in local mean velocities. The main feature is the WNW-ESE elongation. The analysis of galaxy populations per spectral class highlights a more complex scenario. The passive and red strong Hdelta galaxies trace the cluster center and the WNW-ESE elongated structure. The red strong Hdelta galaxies also mark a secondary, dense peak ~2 Mpc at ESE. The emission line galaxies cluster in several loose structures, mostly outside R200. The observational scenario agrees with MACS J1206.2-0847 having WNW-ESE as the direction of the main cluster accretion, traced by passive and red strong Hdelta galaxies. The latter ones, interpreted as poststarburst galaxies, date a likely important event 1-2 Gyr before the epoch of observation. The emission line galaxies trace a secondary, ongoing infall where groups are accreted along several directions.

Co-evolution of BCGs and ICL using CLASH

We examine the stellar mass assembly in galaxy cluster cores using data from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We measure the growth of brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) stellar mass, the fraction of the total cluster light which is in the intracluster light (ICL) and the numbers of mergers that occur in the BCG over the redshift range of the sample, 0.18<z<0.90. We find that BCGs grow in stellar mass by a factor of 1.4 on average from accretion of their companions, and this growth is reduced to a factor of 1.2 assuming 50% of the accreted stellar mass becomes ICL, in line with the predictions of simulations. We find that the ICL shows significant growth over this same redshift range, growing by a factor of of 4–5 in its contribution to the total cluster light. This result is in line with our previous findings for ICL at higher redshifts, however our measured growth is somewhat steeper than is predicted by simulations of ICL assembly. We find high mass companions and hence major merging (mergers with objects of masses $\geq$1/2 of the BCG) to be very rare for our sample. We conclude that minor mergers (mergers with objects with masses $<$ 1/2 of the BCG) are the dominant process for stellar mass assembly at low redshifts, with the majority of the stellar mass from interactions ending up contributing to the ICL rather than building up the BCG. From a rough estimate of the stellar mass growth of the ICL we also conclude that the majority of the ICL stars must come from galaxies which fall from outside of the core of the cluster, as is predicted by simulations. It appears that the growth of the ICL is the major evolution event in galaxy cluster cores during the second half of the lifetime of the Universe.

RCS2 J232727.6-020437: An Efficient Cosmic Telescope at $z=0.6986$

We present a detailed gravitational lens model of the galaxy cluster RCS2 J232727.6-020437. Due to cosmological dimming of cluster members and ICL, its high redshift ($z=0.6986$) makes it ideal for studying background galaxies. Using new ACS and WFC3/IR HST data, we identify 16 multiple images. From MOSFIRE follow up, we identify a strong emission line in the spectrum of one multiple image, likely confirming the redshift of that system to $z=2.083$. With a highly magnified ($\mu\gtrsim2$) source plane area of $\sim0.7$ arcmin$^2$ at $z=7$, RCS2 J232727.6-020437 has a lensing efficiency comparable to the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters. We discover four highly magnified $z\sim7$ candidate Lyman-break galaxies behind the cluster, one of which may be multiply-imaged. Correcting for magnification, we find that all four galaxies are fainter than $0.5 L_{\star}$. One candidate is detected at ${>10\sigma}$ in both Spitzer/IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] channels. A spectroscopic follow-up with MOSFIRE does not result in the detection of the Lyman-alpha emission line from any of the four candidates. From the MOSFIRE spectra we place median upper limits on the Lyman-alpha flux of $5-14 \times 10^{-19}\, \mathrm{erg \,\, s^{-1} cm^{-2}}$ ($5\sigma$).

Three-dimensional Multi-probe Analysis of A1689

We perform a 3D multi-probe analysis of the rich galaxy cluster A1689 by combining improved weak-lensing data from new BVRi’z’ Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations with strong-lensing, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect (SZE) data sets. We reconstruct the projected matter distribution from a joint weak-lensing analysis of 2D shear and azimuthally integrated magnification constraints, the combination of which allows us to break the mass-sheet degeneracy. The resulting mass distribution reveals elongation with axis ratio ~0.7 in projection. When assuming a spherical halo, our full weak-lensing analysis yields a projected concentration of $c_{200c}^{2D}=8.9\pm 1.1$ ($c_{vir}^{2D}\sim 11$), consistent with and improved from earlier weak-lensing work. We find excellent consistency between weak and strong lensing in the region of overlap. In a parametric triaxial framework, we constrain the intrinsic structure and geometry of the matter and gas distributions, by combining weak/strong lensing and X-ray/SZE data with minimal geometric assumptions. We show that the data favor a triaxial geometry with minor-major axis ratio 0.39+/-0.15 and major axis closely aligned with the line of sight (22+/-10 deg). We obtain $M_{200c}=(1.2\pm 0.2)\times 10^{15} M_{\odot}/h$ and $c_{200c}=8.4\pm 1.3$, which overlaps with the $>1\sigma$ tail of the predicted distribution. The shape of the gas is rounder than the underlying matter but quite elongated with minor-major axis ratio 0.60+/-0.14. The gas mass fraction within 0.9Mpc is 10^{+3}_{-2}%. The thermal gas pressure contributes to ~60% of the equilibrium pressure, indicating a significant level of non-thermal pressure support. When compared to Planck’s hydrostatic mass estimate, our lensing measurements yield a spherical mass ratio of $M_{Planck}/M_{GL}=0.70\pm 0.15$ and $0.58\pm 0.10$ with and without corrections for lensing projection effects, respectively.

Not In Our Backyard: Spectroscopic Support for the CLASH z=11 Candidate MACS0647-JD

We report on our first set of spectroscopic Hubble Space Telescope observations of the z~11 candidate galaxy strongly lensed by the MACSJ0647.7+7015 galaxy cluster. The three lensed images are faint and we show that these early slitless grism observations are of sufficient depth to investigate whether this high-redshift candidate, identified by its strong photometric break at ~1.5 micron, could possibly be an emission line galaxy at a much lower redshift. While such an interloper would imply the existence of a rather peculiar object, we show here that such strong emission lines would clearly have been detected. Comparing realistic, two-dimensional simulations to these new observations we would expect the necessary emission lines to be detected at >5 sigma while we see no evidence for such lines in the dispersed data of any of the three lensed images. We therefore exclude that this object could be a low redshift emission line interloper, which significantly increases the likelihood of this candidate being a bona fide z~11 galaxy.

Not In Our Backyard: Spectroscopic Support for the CLASH z=11 Candidate MACS0647-JD [Replacement]

We report on our first set of spectroscopic Hubble Space Telescope observations of the z~11 candidate galaxy strongly lensed by the MACSJ0647.7+7015 galaxy cluster. The three lensed images are faint and we show that these early slitless grism observations are of sufficient depth to investigate whether this high-redshift candidate, identified by its strong photometric break at ~1.5 micron, could possibly be an emission line galaxy at a much lower redshift. While such an interloper would imply the existence of a rather peculiar object, we show here that such strong emission lines would clearly have been detected. Comparing realistic, two-dimensional simulations to these new observations we would expect the necessary emission lines to be detected at >5 sigma while we see no evidence for such lines in the dispersed data of any of the three lensed images. We therefore exclude that this object could be a low redshift emission line interloper, which significantly increases the likelihood of this candidate being a bona fide z~11 galaxy.

CoMaLit-IV. Evolution and self-similarity of scaling relations with the galaxy cluster mass

The scaling of observable properties of galaxy clusters with mass evolves with time. Assessing the role of the evolution is crucial to study the formation and evolution of massive halos and to avoid biases in the calibration. We present a general method to infer the mass and the redshift dependence, and the time-evolving intrinsic scatter of the mass-observable relations. The procedure self-calibrates the redshift dependent completeness function of the sample. The intrinsic scatter in the mass estimates used to calibrate the relation is considered too. We apply the method to the scaling of mass M_Delta versus line of sight galaxy velocity dispersion sigma_v, optical richness, X-ray luminosity, L_X, and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich signal. Masses were calibrated with weak lensing measurements. The measured relations are in good agreement with time and mass dependencies predicted in the self-similar scenario of structure formation. The lone exception is the L_X-M_Delta relation whose time evolution is negative in agreement with formation scenarios with additional radiative cooling and uniform preheating at high redshift. The intrinsic scatter in the sigma_v-M_Delta relation is notably small, of order of 14 per cent. Robust predictions on the observed properties of the galaxy clusters in the CLASH sample are provided as cases of study. Catalogs and scripts are publicly available at http://pico.bo.astro.it/~sereno/CoMaLit/.

Interaction of Cygnus A with its environment

Cygnus A, the nearest truly powerful radio galaxy, resides at the centre of a massive galaxy cluster. Chandra X-ray observations reveal its cocoon shocks, radio lobe cavities and an X-ray jet, which are discussed here. It is argued that X-ray emission from the outer regions of the cocoon shocks is nonthermal. The X-ray jets are best interpreted as synchrotron emission, suggesting that they, rather than the radio jets, are the path of energy flow from the nucleus to the hotspots. In that case, a model shows that the jet flow is non-relativistic and carries in excess of one solar mass per year.

Weak lensing calibration of mass bias in the RBC X-ray galaxy cluster catalog

The use of large, X-ray selected galaxy cluster catalogs for cosmological analyses requires a thorough understanding of the X-ray mass estimates, including the possibility of biases due to the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. Weak gravitational lensing is an ideal method to shed light on such issues, due to its insensitivity to the cluster dynamical state. We perform a weak lensing calibration of 166 galaxy clusters from the RBC cluster catalog and compare our results to the hydrostatic X-ray masses from that catalog. To interpret the weak lensing signal in terms of cluster masses, we compare the lensing signal to simple theoretical Navarro-Frenk-White models and to simulated cluster lensing profiles, including complications such as cluster substructure, projected large-scale structure, and Malmquist bias. We find evidence of underestimation in the X-ray masses, as expected, with $<M_{\mathrm{X}}/M_{\mathrm{WL}}>= 0.66_{-0.12}^{+0.07}$ for our best-fit model, a more than $4\sigma$ detection of a bias between X-ray and weak lensing masses. The biases in cosmological parameters in a typical cluster abundance measurement that ignores this mass bias will typically exceed the statistical errors.

BUDHIES II: A phase-space view of HI gas stripping and star-formation quenching in cluster galaxies

We investigate the effect of ram-pressure from the intracluster medium on the stripping of HI gas in galaxies in a massive, relaxed, X-ray bright, galaxy cluster at z=0.2 from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES). We use cosmological simulations, and velocity vs. position phase-space diagrams to infer the orbital histories of the cluster galaxies. In particular, we embed a simple analytical description of ram-pressure stripping in the simulations to identify the regions in phase-space where galaxies are more likely to have been sufficiently stripped of their HI gas to fall below the detection limit of our survey. We find a striking agreement between the model predictions and the observed location of HI-detected and non-detected blue (late-type) galaxies in phase-space, strongly implying that ram-pressure plays a key role in the gas removal from galaxies, and that this can happen during their first infall into the cluster. However, we also find a significant number of gas-poor, red (early-type) galaxies in the infall region of the cluster that cannot easily be explained with our model of ram-pressure stripping alone. We discuss different possible additional mechanisms that could be at play, including the pre-processing of galaxies in their previous environment. Our results are strengthened by the distribution of galaxy colours (optical and UV) in phase-space, that suggests that after a (gas-rich) field galaxy falls into the cluster, it will lose its gas via ram-pressure stripping, and as it settles into the cluster, its star formation will decay until it is completely quenched. Finally, this work demonstrates the utility of phase-space diagrams to analyze the physical processes driving the evolution of cluster galaxies, in particular HI gas stripping.

Witnessing a merging bullet being stripped in the galaxy cluster, RXCJ2359.3-6042

We report the discovery of the merging cluster, RXCJ2359.3-6042, from the REFLEX II cluster survey and present our results from all three detectors combined in the imaging and spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data. Also known as Abell 4067, this is a unique system, where a compact bullet penetrates an extended, low density cluster at redshift z=0.099 clearly seen from our follow-up XMM-Newton observation. The bullet goes right through the central region of the cluster without being disrupted and we can clearly watch the process how the bullet component is stripped of its layers outside the core. There is an indication of a shock heated region in the East of the cluster with a higher temperature. The bulk temperature of the cluster is about 3.12 keV implying a lower mass system. Spearheading the bullet is a cool core centred by a massive early type galaxy. The temperatures and metallicities of a few regions in the cluster derived from the spectral analysis supports our conjecture based on the surface brightness image that a much colder compact component at 1.55 keV with large metallicity (0.75 Zsol) penetrates the main cluster, where the core of the infalling component survived the merger leaving stripped gas behind at the centre of the main cluster. We also give an estimate of the total mass within r500, which is about 2e14Msol from the deprojected spherical-beta modelling of the cluster in good agreement with other mass estimates from the M–Tx and M-sigma_v relations.

Cosmic variance of the galaxy cluster weak lensing signal

Intrinsic variations of the projected density profiles of clusters of galaxies at fixed mass are a source of uncertainty for cluster weak lensing. We present a semi-analytical model to account for this effect, based on a combination of variations in halo concentration, ellipticity and orientation, and the presence of correlated haloes. We calibrate the parameters of our model at the 10 per cent level to match the empirical cosmic variance of cluster profiles at M_200m=10^14…10^15 h^-1 M_sol, z=0.25…0.5 in a cosmological simulation. We show that weak lensing measurements of clusters significantly underestimate mass uncertainties if intrinsic profile variations are ignored, and that our model can be used to provide correct mass likelihoods. Effects on the achievable accuracy of weak lensing cluster mass measurements are particularly strong for the most massive clusters and deep observations (with ~20 per cent uncertainty from cosmic variance alone at M_200m=10^15 h^-1 M_sol and z=0.25), but significant also under typical ground-based conditions. We show that neglecting intrinsic profile variations leads to biases in the mass-observable relation constrained with weak lensing, both for intrinsic scatter and overall scale (the latter at the 15 per cent level). These biases are in excess of the statistical errors of upcoming surveys and can be avoided if the cosmic variance of cluster profiles is accounted for.

Abell 1033: birth of a radio phoenix

Extended steep-spectrum radio emission in a galaxy cluster is usually associated with a recent merger. However, given the complex scenario of galaxy cluster mergers, many of the discovered sources hardly fit into the strict boundaries of a precise taxonomy. This is especially true for radio phoenixes that do not have very well defined observational criteria. Radio phoenixes are aged radio galaxy lobes whose emission is reactivated by compression or other mechanisms. Here, we present the detection of a radio phoenix close to the moment of its formation. The source is located in Abell 1033, a peculiar galaxy cluster which underwent a recent merger. To support our claim, we present unpublished Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Chandra observations together with archival data from the Very Large Array and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We discover the presence of two sub-clusters displaced along the N-S direction. The two sub-clusters probably underwent a recent merger which is the cause of a moderately perturbed X-ray brightness distribution. A steep-spectrum extended radio source very close to an AGN is proposed to be a newly born radio phoenix: the AGN lobes have been displaced/compressed by shocks formed during the merger event. This scenario explains the source location, morphology, spectral index, and brightness. Finally, we show evidence of a density discontinuity close to the radio phoenix and discuss the consequences of its presence.

Combining Spectroscopic and Photometric Surveys: Same or different sky?

This article looks at the combined constraints from a photometric and spectroscopic survey. These surveys will measure cosmology using weak lensing (WL), galaxy cluster- ing, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and redshift space distortions (RSD). We find, contrary to some findings in the recent literature, that overlapping surveys can give important benefits when measuring dark energy. We therefore try to clarify the status of this issue with a full forecast of two stage-IV surveys using a new approach to prop- erly account for covariance between the different probes in the overlapping samples. The benefit of the overlapping survey can be traced back to two factors: additional observables and sample variance cancellation. Both needs to be taken into account and contribute equally when combining 3D power spectrum and 2D correlations for lensing. With an analytic example we also illustrate that for optimal constraints, one should minimize the (Pearson) correlation coefficient between cosmological and nui- sance parameters and maximize the one among nuisance parameters (e.g. galaxy bias) in the two samples. This can be achieved by increasing the overlap between the spec- troscopic and photometric surveys. We show how BAO, WL and RSD contribute to this benefit also look at some other survey designs, such as photometric redshift errors and spectroscopic density.

Anisotropic thermal conduction in galaxy clusters with MHD in Gadget

We present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for SPH. The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. We discuss several issues of unphysical heat transport in the cases of extreme ansiotropies or unmagnetized regions and present possible numerical workarounds. We implement our algorithm into the GADGET code and study its behaviour in several test cases. In general, we reproduce the analytical solutions of our idealised test problems, and obtain good results in cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formations. Within galaxy clusters, the anisotropic conduction produces a net heat transport similar to an isotropic Spitzer conduction model with an efficiency of one per cent. In contrast to isotropic conduction our new formalism allows small-scale structure in the temperature distribution to remain stable, because of their decoupling caused by magnetic field lines. Compared to observations, isotropic conduction with more than 10 per cent of the Spitzer value leads to an oversmoothed temperature distribution within clusters, while the results obtained with anisotropic thermal conduction reproduce the observed temperature fluctuations well. A proper treatment of heat transport is crucial especially in the outskirts of clusters and also in high density regions. It’s connection to the local dynamical state of the cluster also might contribute to the observed bimodal distribution of cool core and non cool core clusters. Our new scheme significantly advances the modelling of thermal conduction in numerical simulations and overall gives better results compared to observations.

Chandra deep observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive galaxy cluster at z>1.5

We report the analysis of the Chandra observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive, distant (z=1.579) galaxy cluster discovered in the XDCP survey. The total exposure time of 380 ks with Chandra ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a massive, high redshift cluster. Extended emission from the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) is detected at a very high significance level (S/N~20) on a circular region with a 44" radius, corresponding to $R_{ext}=375$ kpc at the cluster redshift. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the ICM emission modeling the spectrum with a single-temperature thermal mekal model. Our analysis provides a global temperature $kT=6.7^{+1.3}_{-0.9}$ keV, and a iron abundance $Z_{Fe} = 0.41_{-0.26}^{+0.29}Z_{Fe_\odot}$ (error bars correspond to 1 $\sigma$). We fit the background-subtracted surface brightness profile with a single $\beta$-model out to 44", finding a rather flat profile with no hints of a cool core. We derive the deprojected electron density profile and compute the ICM mass within the extraction radius $R_{ext}=375$ kpc to be $M_{ICM}(r<R_{ext}) = (1.48 \pm 0.20) \times 10^{13} M_\odot$. Under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and assuming isothermality within $R_{ext}$, the total mass is $M_{2500}= 1.23_{-0.27}^{+0.46} \times 10 ^{14} M_\odot$ for $R_{2500} = 240_{-20}^{+30}$ kpc. Extrapolating the profile at radii larger than the extraction radius $R_{ext}$ we find $M_{500} = 3.2_{-0.6}^{+0.9} \times 10 ^{14}M_\odot$ for $R_{500} = 562_{-37}^{+50}$ kpc. This analysis establishes the existence of virialized, massive galaxy clusters at redshift $z\sim 1.6$, paving the way to the investigation of the progenitors of the most massive clusters today. Given its mass and the XDCP survey volume, XDCP J0044.0-2033 does not create significant tension with the WMAP-7 $\Lambda$CDM cosmology.

The reversal of the SF-density relation in a massive, X-ray selected galaxy cluster at z=1.58: results from Herschel

Dusty, star-forming galaxies have a critical role in the formation and evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. Using deep far-infrared imaging in the range 100-500um obtained with the Herschel telescope, we investigate the dust-obscured star formation in the galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z=1.58, the most massive cluster at z >1.5, with a measured mass M200= 4.7×10$^{14}$ Msun. We perform an analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 12 cluster members (5 spectroscopically confirmed) detected with >3$\sigma$ significance in the PACS maps, all ULIRGs. The individual star formation rates (SFRs) lie in the range 155-824 Ms/yr, with dust temperatures of 24$\pm$35 K. We measure a strikingly high amount of star formation (SF) in the cluster core, SFR (< 250 kpc) > 1875$\pm$158 Ms/yr, 4x higher than the amount of star formation in the cluster outskirts. This scenario is unprecedented in a galaxy cluster, showing for the first time a reversal of the SF-density relation at z~1.6 in a massive cluster.

Efficient star cluster formation in the core of a galaxy cluster: The dwarf irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax [Replacement]

Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dIrr galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling towards the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes in a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshifts. Using HST/ACS and auxiliary VLT/FORS ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ~4×10^6 yr and stellar masses from a few thousand up to ~3×10^4 Msun, slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and IMF. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Ha imaging data to determine the current Star Formation Rate (SFR) in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Gamma, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Gamma to be exceptionally large, even after conservatively accounting for the possibility of contamination from intra-cluster light and other modelling uncertainties, implying that recent star formation predominantly occurred in star cluster complexes. This is the first time such high star cluster formation efficiency is reported in a dwarf galaxy within the confines of a galaxy cluster, strongly hinting at the possibility that is being triggered by its passage through the cluster environment.

Efficient star cluster formation in the core of a galaxy cluster: The dwarf irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax

Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dIrr galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling towards the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes in a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshits. Using HST/ACS and auxiliary VLT/FORS ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ~4×10^6 yr and stellar masses from a few thousand up to ~3×10^4 Msun, slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and IMF. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Halpha imaging data to determine the current Star Formation Rate (SFR) in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Gamma, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Gamma to be exceptionally large, even after conservatively accounting for the possibility of contamination from intra-cluster light and other modelling uncertainties, implying that recent star formation predominantly occurred in star cluster complexes. This is the first time such high star cluster formation efficiency is reported in a dwarf galaxy within the confines of a galaxy cluster, strongly hinting at the possibility that is being triggered by its passage through the cluster environment.

Evidence for a pressure discontinuity at the position of the Coma relic from Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect data [Replacement]

Radio relics are Mpc-scale diffuse synchrotron sources found in galaxy cluster outskirts. They are believed to be associated with large-scale shocks propagating through the intra-cluster medium, although the connection between radio relics and the cluster merger shocks is not yet proven conclusively. We present a first tentative detection of a pressure jump in the well-known relic of the Coma cluster through Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect imaging.The SZE data are extracted from the first public all-sky data release of Planck and we use high-frequency radio data at 2.3 GHz to constrain the shock-front geometry. The SZE data provide evidence for a pressure discontinuity, consistent with the relic position, without requiring any additional prior on the shock-front location. The derived Mach number M = 2.9 (+0.8/-0.6) is consistent with X-ray and radio results. A high-pressure "filament" without any pressure discontinuity is disfavoured by X-ray measurements and a "sub-cluster" model based on the infalling group NGC 4839 can be ruled out considering the published mass estimates for this group. These results signify a first attempt towards directly measuring the pressure discontinuity for a radio relic and the first SZ-detected shock feature observed near the virial radius of a galaxy cluster.

Determination of a pressure discontinuity at the position of the Coma relic from Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect data

Radio relics are Mpc-scale diffuse synchrotron sources found in galaxy cluster outskirts. They are believed to be associated with large-scale shocks propagating through the intra-cluster medium, although the connection between radio relics and the cluster merger shocks is not yet proven conclusively. We present a first tentative detection of a pressure jump in the well-known relic of the Coma cluster through Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect imaging. The SZ data is extracted from the first public all-sky data release of Planck and we use high-frequency radio data at 2.3 GHz to constrain the shock-front geometry. The SZ data provides evidence for a pressure discontinuity, consistent with the relic position, without requiring any additional prior on the shock-front location. The derived Mach number M = 2.9 (+0.8/-0.6) is consistent with X-ray and radio results. A high-pressure "filament" without any pressure discontinuity is disfavoured by X-ray measurements and a "sub-cluster" model based on the infalling group NGC 4839 can be ruled out considering the published mass estimates for this group. These results signify a first attempt towards directly measuring the pressure discontinuity for a radio relic and the first SZ-detected shock feature observed near the virial radius of a galaxy cluster.

Source identification in the IGR J17448-3232 field: discovery of the Scorpius galaxy cluster

We use a 43-ks XMM-Newton observation to investigate the nature of sources first distinguished by a follow-up Chandra observation of the field surrounding INTEGRAL source IGR J17448-3232, which includes extended emission and a bright point source previously classified as a blazar. We establish that the extended emission is a heretofore unknown massive galaxy cluster hidden behind the Galactic bulge. The emission-weighted temperature of the cluster within the field of view is 8.8 keV, with parts of the cluster reaching temperatures of up to 12 keV; no cool core is evident. At a redshift of 0.055, the cluster is somewhat under-luminous relative to the X-ray luminosity-temperature relation, which may be attributable to its dynamical state. We present a preliminary analysis of its properties in this paper. We also confirm that the bright point source is a blazar, and we propose that it is either a flat spectrum radio quasar or a low-frequency peaked BL Lac object. We find four other fainter sources in the field, which we study and tentatively identify. Only one, which we propose is a foreground Galactic X-ray binary, is hard enough to contribute to IGR J17448-3232, but it is too faint to be significant. We thus determine that IGR J17448-3232 is in fact the galaxy cluster up to $\approx$45 keV and the blazar beyond.

A Radio and X-ray Study of the Merging Cluster A2319

A2319 is a massive, merging galaxy cluster with a previously detected radio halo that roughly follows the X-ray emitting gas. We present the results from recent observations of A2319 at 20 cm with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and a re-analysis of the X-ray observations from XMM-Newton, to investigate the interactions between the thermal and nonthermal components of the ICM . We confirm previous reports of an X-ray cold front, and report on the discovery of a distinct core to the radio halo, 800 kpc in extent, that is strikingly similar in morphology to the X-ray emission, and drops sharply in brightness at the cold front. We detect additional radio emission trailing off from the core, which blends smoothly into the 2 Mpc halo detected with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT; Farnsworth et al., 2013). We speculate on the possible mechanisms for such a two-component radio halo, with sloshing playing a dominant role in the core. By directly comparing the X-ray and radio emission, we find that a hadronic origin for the cosmic ray electrons responsible for the radio halo would require a magnetic field and/or cosmic ray proton distribution that increases with radial distance from the cluster center, and is therefore disfavored.

Non-Equilibrium Electrons in the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters

The analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel\’dovich measurements of the intracluster medium (ICM) assumes that electrons are in thermal equilibrium with ions in the plasma. However, electron-ion equilibration timescales can be comparable to the Hubble time in the low density galaxy cluster outskirts, leading to differences between the electron and ion temperatures. This temperature difference can lead to systematic biases in cluster mass estimates and mass-observable scaling relations. To quantify the impact of non-equilibrium electrons on the ICM profiles in cluster outskirts, we use a high resolution cosmological simulation with a two-temperature model assuming the Spitzer equilibration timescale for the electrons. First, we show how the radial profile of this temperature bias depends on both the mass and mass accretion rate of the cluster; the bias is most pronounced in the most massive and most rapidly accreting clusters. For the most extreme case in our sample, we find that the bias is of order 10% at half of the cluster virial radius and increases to 40% at the edge of the cluster. We also find that gas in filaments is less susceptible to the non-equilibrium effect, leading to azimuthal variations at large cluster-centric radii. By analyzing mock Chandra observations of simulated clusters, we show that such azimuthal variations can be probed with deep X-ray observations. Finally, the mass-dependent temperature bias introduces biases in hydrostatic mass and cluster temperature, which has implications for cluster-based cosmological inferences. We provide a mass-dependent model for the temperature bias profile which can be useful for modeling the effect of electron-ion equilibration in galaxy clusters.

Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope

We investigate the effectiveness of a blind galaxy cluster survey that will use the OCRA-f (four-pair, beam-switched) radiometer on the 32-metre radio telescope in Poland to detect the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect (TSZE) at 30~GHz. We also calculate flux-density limits for the associated radio source survey. The reliability of the surveys is tested using mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from from hydrodynamical simulations of large scale structure formation, and unresolved radio sources. We validate the mock maps against observational data, and examine the limitations imposed by the assumed physics. Using the Planck-selected cluster candidates and the NVSS survey we estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. We quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the TSZE-detectable cluster count. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera and operating at frequencies up to 22 GHz. We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect $33^{+17}_{-11}$ new radio sources brighter than 0.87 mJy at 30~GHz in a $1 \rm deg^2$ field at >5\sigma CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that a blind TSZE survey would detect any galaxy cluster at 3\sigma CL in the field. A similar survey, with field coverage of $1.5^2$ beams per pixel, at~15 GHz with the RTH, would find $4^{+2}_{-2}$ galaxy clusters per year above 6 $\mu$Jy in a $1 \rm deg^2$ field at 3\sigma CL and <1.5 clusters per year brighter than 60 $\mu$Jy (at 3\sigma CL) in a survey of a $60 \rm deg^2$ field. The same survey will detect…[ABRIDGED]

Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope [Replacement]

We investigate the effectiveness of blind surveys for radio sources and galaxy cluster thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects (TSZEs) using the four-pair, beam-switched OCRA-f radiometer on the 32-m radio telescope in Poland. The predictions are based on mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from hydrodynamical simulations, and unresolved radio sources. We estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters from NVSS source counts around Planck-selected cluster candidates, and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. The study allows us to quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the detections of TSZEs. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera. We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect $33^{+17}_{-11}$ new radio sources brighter than 0.87 mJy at 30~GHz in a 1 deg$^2$ field at $>5\sigma$ CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that any galaxy cluster will be detected at $3\sigma$ CL in such a survey. A $60$-deg$^2$ survey, with field coverage of $2^2$ beams per pixel, at 15 GHz with the RTH, would find <1.5 galaxy clusters per year brighter than 60 $\mu$Jy (at $3\sigma$ CL), and would detect about $3.4 \times 10^4$ point sources brighter than 1 mJy at $5\sigma$ CL, with confusion causing flux density errors $\lesssim 2\%$ (20%) in 68% (95%) of the detected sources. A primary goal of the planned RTH will be a wide-area ($\pi$~sr) radio source survey at 15 GHz. This survey will detect nearly $3 \times 10^5$ radio sources at $5\sigma$ CL down to 1.3 mJy, and tens of galaxy clusters, in one year of operation with typical weather conditions. ABRIDGED

MC^2: Constraining the Dark Matter Distribution of the Violent Merging Galaxy Cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 by Piercing through the Milky Way

CIZA J2242.8+5301 is a merging system with a prominent (~2 Mpc long) radio relic, which together with the morphology of the X-ray emission provides strong evidence for a violent collision along the N-S axis. We present our constraints on the dark matter distribution of this unusual system using Subaru and CFHT imaging data. Measuring a high S/N lensing signal from this cluster is potentially a challenging task because of its proximity to the Milky Way plane (|b|~5 deg). We overcome this challenge with careful observation planning and systematics control, which enables us to successfully map the dark matter distribution of the cluster with high fidelity. The resulting mass map shows that the mass distribution is highly elongated along the N-S merger axis inferred from the orientation of the radio relics. Based on our mass reconstruction, we identify two sub-clusters, which coincide with the cluster galaxy distributions. We determine their masses using MCMC analysis by simultaneously fitting two NFW halos without fixing their centroids. The resulting masses of the northern and southern systems are $M_{200}=11.0_{-3.2}^{+3.7}\times10^{14} M_{\sun}$ and $9.8_{-2.5}^{+3.8}\times10^{14} M_{\sun}$, respectively, indicating that we are witnessing a post-collision of two giant systems of nearly equal mass. When the mass and galaxy centroids are compared in detail, we detect ~ 1′ (~190 kpc) offsets in both northern and southern sub-clusters. We find that the galaxy luminosity-mass offset for the northern clump is statistically significant at the ~2 sigma level whereas the detection is only marginal for the southern sub-cluster in part because of a relatively large mass centroid error. We conclude that it is yet premature to uniquely attribute the galaxy-mass misalignment to SIDM and discuss caveats.

The extended ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-ray Galaxy Cluster Survey (REFLEX II) V. Exploring a local underdensity in the Southern Sky

Several claims have been made that we are located in a locally underdense region of the Universe based on observations of supernovae and galaxy density distributions. Two recent studies of K-band galaxy surveys have provided new support for a local underdensity in the galaxy distribution out to distances of 200 – 300 Mpc. If confirmed, such large local underdensities would have important implications on the interpretation of local measurements of cosmological parameters. Galaxy clusters have been shown to be ideal probes to trace the large-scale structure of the Universe. In this paper we study the local density distribution in the southern sky with the X-ray detected galaxy clusters from the REFLEX II cluster survey. From the normalized comoving number density of clusters we find an average underdensity of ~30 – 40% in the redshift range out to z ~0.04 (~170 Mpc) in the southern extragalactic sky with a significance larger than 3.4sigma. On larger scales from 300 Mpc to over 1 Gpc the density distribution appears remarkably homogeneous. The local underdensity seems to be dominated by the South Galactic Cap region. A comparison of the cluster distribution with that of galaxies in the K-band from a recent study shows that galaxies and clusters trace each other very closely in density. In the South Galactic Cap region both surveys find a local underdensity in the redshift range z= 0 to 0.05 and no significant underdensity in the North Galactic Cap at southern latitudes. Our results to not support cosmological models that attempt to interpret the cosmic acceleration by a large local void, since the local underdensity we find is not isotropic and limited to a size significantly smaller than 300 Mpc radius.

Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Selection of the Most Massive Clusters

We have developed a galaxy cluster finding technique based on the Delaunay Tessellation Field Estimator (DTFE) combined with caustic analysis. Our method allows us to recover clusters of galaxies within the mass range of 10^12 to 10^16 Msun. We have found a total of 113 galaxy clusters in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey (GAMA). In the corresponding mass range, the density of clusters found in this work is comparable to the density traced by clusters selected by the thermal Sunyaev Zel’dovich Effect; however, we are able to cover a wider mass range. We present the analysis of the two-point correlation function for our cluster sample.

KECK/MOSFIRE spectroscopic confirmation of a Virgo-like cluster ancestor at z=2.095

We present the spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy cluster at $z=2.095$ in the COSMOS field. This galaxy cluster was first reported in the ZFOURGE survey as harboring evolved massive galaxies using photometric redshifts derived with deep near-infrared (NIR) medium-band filters. We obtain medium resolution ($R \sim$ 3600) NIR spectroscopy with MOSFIRE on the Keck 1 telescope and secure 180 redshifts in a $12′\times12′$ region. We find a prominent spike of 57 galaxies at $z=2.095$ corresponding to the galaxy cluster. The cluster velocity dispersion is measured to be $\sigma_{\rm v1D}$ = 552 $\pm$ 52 km/s. This is the first study of a galaxy cluster in this redshift range ($z \gt 2.0$) with the combination of spectral resolution ($\sim$26 km/s) and the number of confirmed members (${>}50$) needed to impose a meaningful constraint on the cluster velocity dispersion and map its members over a large field of view. Our $\Lambda$CDM cosmological simulation suggests that this cluster will most likely evolve into a Virgo-like cluster with ${\rm M_{vir}}{=}10^{14.4\pm0.3} {\rm M_\odot}$ ($68\%$ confidence) at $z\sim$ 0. The theoretical expectation of finding such a cluster is $\sim$ $4\%$. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of studying galaxy clusters at $z > 2$ in the same detailed manner using multi-object NIR spectrographs as has been done in the optical in lower redshift clusters.

The Matryoshka Run (II): Time Dependent Turbulence Statistics, Stochastic Particle Acceleration and Microphysics Impact in a Massive Galaxy Cluster [Replacement]

We use the Matryoshka run to study the time dependent statistics of structure-formation driven turbulence in the intracluster medium of a 10$^{15}M_\odot$ galaxy cluster. We investigate the turbulent cascade in the inner Mpc for both compressional and incompressible velocity components. The flow maintains approximate conditions of fully developed turbulence, with departures thereof settling in about an eddy-turnover-time. Turbulent velocity dispersion remains above $700$ km s$^{-1}$ even at low mass accretion rate, with the fraction of compressional energy between 10% and 40%. Normalisation and slope of compressional turbulence is susceptible to large variations on short time scales, unlike the incompressible counterpart. A major merger occurs around redshift $z\simeq0$ and is accompanied by a long period of enhanced turbulence, ascribed to temporal clustering of mass accretion related to spatial clustering of matter. We test models of stochastic acceleration by compressional modes for the origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters. The turbulence simulation model constrains an important unknown of this complex problem and brings forth its dependence on the elusive micro-physics of the intracluster plasma. In particular, the specifics of the plasma collisionality and the dissipation physics of weak shocks affect the cascade of compressional modes with strong impact on the acceleration rates. In this context radio halos emerge as complex phenomena in which a hierarchy of processes acting on progressively smaller scales are at work. Stochastic acceleration by compressional modes implies statistical correlation of radio power and spectral index with merging cores distance, both testable in principle with radio surveys.

The Matryoshka Run (II): Time Dependent Turbulence Statistics, Stochastic Particle Acceleration and Microphysics Impact in a Massive Galaxy Cluster

We use the Matryoshka run to study the time dependent statistics of structure-formation driven turbulence in the intracluster medium of a 10$^{15}M_\odot$ galaxy cluster. We investigate the turbulent cascade in the inner Mpc for both compressional and incompressible velocity components. The flow maintains approximate conditions of fully developed turbulence, with departures thereof settling in about an eddy-turnover-time. Turbulent velocity dispersion remains above $700$ km s$^{-1}$ even at low mass accretion rate, with the fraction of compressional energy between $10\%$ and $40\%$. Normalisation and slope of compressional turbulence is susceptible to large variations on short time scales, unlike the incompressible counterpart. A major merger occurs around redshift $z\simeq0$ and is accompanied by a long period of enhanced turbulence, ascribed to temporal clustering of mass accretion related to spatial clustering of matter. We test models of stochastic acceleration by compressional modes for the origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters. The turbulence simulation model constrains an important unknown of this complex problem and brings forth its dependence on the elusive micro-physics of the intracluster plasma. In particular, the specifics of the plasma collisionality and the dissipation physics of weak shocks affect the cascade of compressional modes with strong impact on the acceleration rates. In this context radio halos emerge as complex phenomena in which a hierarchy of processes acting on progressively smaller scales are at work. Stochastic acceleration scenarios implies statistical correlation of radio power and spectral index with merging cores distance, both testable in principle with radio surveys.

Contribution of stripped nuclear clusters to globular cluster and ultra-compact dwarf galaxy populations

We use the Millennium II cosmological simulation combined with the semi-analytic galaxy formation model of Guo et al. (2011) to predict the contribution of galactic nuclei formed by the tidal stripping of nucleated dwarf galaxies to globular cluster (GC) and ultra-compact dwarf galaxy (UCD) populations of galaxies. We follow the merger trees of galaxies in clusters back in time and determine the absolute number and stellar masses of disrupted galaxies. We assume that at all times nuclei have a distribution in nucleus-to-galaxy mass and nucleation fraction of galaxies similar to that observed in the present day universe. Our results show stripped nuclei follow a mass function $N(M) \sim M^{-1.5}$ in the mass range $10^6 < M/M_\odot < 10^8$, significantly flatter than found for globular clusters. The contribution of stripped nuclei will therefore be most important among high-mass GCs and UCDs. For the Milky Way we predict between 1 and 3 star clusters more massive than $10^5 M_\odot$ come from tidally disrupted dwarf galaxies, with the most massive cluster formed having a typical mass of a few times $10^6 M_\odot$, like omega Centauri. For a galaxy cluster with a mass $7 \times 10^{13} M_\odot$, similar to Fornax, we predict $\sim$19 UCDs more massive than $2\times10^6 M_\odot$ and $\sim$9 UCDs more massive than $10^7 M_\odot$ within a projected distance of 300 kpc come from tidally stripped dwarf galaxies. The observed number of UCDs are $\sim$200 and 23, respectively. We conclude that most UCDs in galaxy clusters are probably simply the high mass end of the GC mass function.

The first Murchison Widefield Array low frequency radio observations of cluster scale non-thermal emission: the case of Abell 3667

We present the first Murchison Widefield Array observations of the well-known cluster of galaxies Abell 3667 (A3667) between 105 and 241 MHz. A3667 is one of the best known examples of a galaxy cluster hosting a double radio relic and has been reported to contain a faint radio halo and bridge. The origins of radio halos, relics and bridges is still unclear, however galaxy cluster mergers seems to be an important factor. We clearly detect the North-West (NW) and South-East (SE) radio relics in A3667 and find an integrated flux density at 149 MHz of 28.1 +/- 1.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.1 Jy, respectively, with an average spectral index, between 120 and 1400 MHz, of -0.9 +/- 0.1 for both relics. We find evidence of a spatial variation in the spectral index across the NW relic steepening towards the centre of the cluster, which indicates an ageing electron population. These properties are consistent with higher frequency observations. We detect emission that could be associated with a radio halo and bridge. How- ever, due to the presence of poorly sampled large-scale Galactic emission and blended point sources we are unable to verify the exact nature of these features.

Feedback, scatter and structure in the core of the PKS 0745-191 galaxy cluster

We present Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the core of the galaxy cluster PKS 0745-191. Its centre shows X-ray cavities caused by AGN feedback and cold fronts with an associated spiral structure. The cavity energetics imply they are powerful enough to compensate for cooling. Despite the evidence for AGN feedback, the Chandra and XMM-RGS X-ray spectra are consistent with a few hundred solar masses per year cooling out of the X-ray phase, sufficient to power the emission line nebula. The coolest X-ray emitting gas and brightest nebula emission is offset by around 5 kpc from the radio and X-ray nucleus. Although the cluster has a regular appearance, its core shows density, temperature and pressure deviations over the inner 100 kpc, likely associated with the cold fronts. After correcting for ellipticity and projection effects, we estimate density fluctuations of ~4 per cent, while temperature, pressure and entropy have variations of 10-12 per cent. We describe a new code, MBPROJ, able to accurately obtain thermodynamical cluster profiles, under the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. The forward-fitting code compares model to observed profiles using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and is applicable to surveys, operating on 1000 or fewer counts. In PKS0745 a very low gravitational acceleration is preferred within 40 kpc radius from the core, indicating a lack of hydrostatic equilibrium, deviations from spherical symmetry or non-thermal sources of pressure.

CLASH-VLT: Insights on the mass substructures in the Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 through accurate strong lens modeling [Replacement]

We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the CLASH and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIMOS instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log(M_*/M_Sun) ~ 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.3" by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of 2 cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ~5%, including systematic uncertainties. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological $N$-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1-2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide intriguing tests of the assumed collisionless, cold nature of dark matter and of the role played by baryons in the process of structure formation.

Weighing the Giants IV: Cosmology and Neutrino Mass

(Abridged) We employ robust weak gravitational lensing measurements to improve cosmological constraints from measurements of the galaxy cluster mass function and its evolution, using X-ray selected clusters detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Our lensing analysis provides a constraint on the absolute mass scale of such clusters at the 8 per cent level (including both statistical and systematic uncertainties), a factor of $\sim 2$ improvement over the best previous work. In combination with the survey data and extensive X-ray follow-up observations, our weak lensing measurements lead to a tight constraint on a combination of the mean matter density and late-time normalization of the matter power spectrum, $\sigma_8(\Omega_m/0.3)^{0.17}=0.81\pm0.03$, with marginalized, one-dimensional constraints of $\Omega_m=0.26\pm0.03$ and $\sigma_8=0.83\pm0.04$. These constraints are consistent with our own previous work, but are offset from some independent cluster studies. Our new results are in good agreement with constraints from cosmic microwave background (CMB) data under the assumption of a flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmology with minimal neutrino mass. Consequently, we find no evidence for non-minimal neutrino mass from the combination of cluster data with CMB, supernova and BAO measurements, regardless of whether WMAP or Planck data are used (and independent of the recent claimed detection of B-modes on degree scales). We also present improved constraints on models of dark energy (both constant and evolving) and modifications of gravity, for which our cluster measurements provide some of the tightest and most robust constraints to date, as well as primordial non-Gaussianity. In all cases, we find results consistent with the standard model of cosmology. Assuming flatness, the constraints for a constant dark energy equation of state from the cluster data alone are at the 15 per cent level.

Merger Signatures in the Galaxy Cluster Abell 98

We present results from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of Abell 98 (A98), a galaxy cluster with three major components: a relatively bright subcluster to the north (A98N), a disturbed subcluster to the south (A98S), and a fainter subcluster to the far south (A98SS). We find evidence for surface brightness and temperature asymmetries in A98N consistent with a shock-heated region to the south, which could be created by an early stage merger between A98N and A98S. Deeper observations are required to confirm this result. We also find that A98S has an asymmetric core temperature structure, likely due to a separate ongoing merger. Evidence for this is also seen in optical data. A98S hosts a wide-angle tail (WAT) radio source powered by a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find evidence for a cavity in the intracluster medium (ICM) that has been evacuated by one of the radio lobes, suggesting that AGN feedback is operating in this system. Examples of cavities in non-cool core clusters are relatively rare. The three subclusters lie along a line in projection, suggesting the presence of a large-scale filament. We observe emission along the filament between A98N and A98S, and a surface brightness profile shows emission consistent with the overlap of the subcluster extended gas haloes. We find the temperature of this region is consistent with the temperature of the gas at similar radii outside this bridge region. Lastly, we examine the cluster dynamics using optical data. We conclude A98N and A98S are likely bound to one another, with a 67% probability, while A98S and A98SS are not bound at a high level of significance.

A First Site of Galaxy Cluster Formation: Complete Spectroscopy of a Protocluster at $z=6.01$

We performed a systematic spectroscopic observation of a protocluster at $z=6.01$ in the Subaru Deep Field. We took spectroscopy for all 53 $i’$-dropout galaxies down to $z’=27.09\,\mathrm{mag}$ in/around the protocluster region. From these observations, we confirmed that 28 galaxies are at $z\sim6$, of which ten are clustered in a narrow redshift range of $\Delta z<0.06$. To trace the evolution of this primordial structure, we applied the same $i’$-dropout selection and the same overdensity measurements used in the observations to a semi-analytic model built upon the Millennium Simulation. We obtain a relation between the significance of overdensities observed at $z\sim6$ and the predicted dark matter halo mass at $z=0$. This protocluster with $6\sigma$ overdensity is expected to grow into a galaxy cluster with a mass of $\sim5\times10^{14}\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$ at $z=0$. Ten galaxies within $10\,\mathrm{comoving\>Mpc}$ of the overdense region can, with more than an 80% probability, merge into a single dark matter halo by $z=0$. No significant differences appeared in UV and Ly$\alpha$ luminosities between the protocluster and field galaxies, suggesting that this protocluster is still in the early phase of cluster formation before the onset of any obvious environmental effects. However, further observations are required to study other properties, such as stellar mass, dust, and age. We do find that galaxies tend to be in close pairs in this protocluster. These pair-like subgroups will coalesce into a single halo and grow into a more massive structure. We may witness an onset of cluster formation at $z\sim6$ toward a cluster as seen in local universe.

No Shock Across Part of a Radio Relic in the Merging Galaxy Cluster ZwCl 2341.1+0000?

The galaxy cluster ZwCl 2341.1+0000 is a merging system at z=0.27, which hosts two radio relics and a central, faint, filamentary radio structure. The two radio relics have unusually flat integrated spectral indices of -0.49 +/- 0.18 and -0.76 +/- 0.17, values that cannot be easily reconciled with the theory of standard diffusive shock acceleration of thermal particles at weak merger shocks. We present imaging results from XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the cluster, aimed to detect and characterise density discontinuities in the ICM. As expected, we detect a density discontinuity near each of the radio relics. However, if these discontinuities are the shock fronts that fuelled the radio emission, then their Mach numbers are surprisingly low, both <=2. We studied the aperture of the density discontinuities, and found that while the NW discontinuity spans the whole length of the NW radio relic, the arc spanned by the SE discontinuity is shorter than the arc spanned by the SE relic. This startling result is in apparent contradiction with our current understanding of the origin of radio relics. Deeper X-ray data are required to confirm our results and to determine the nature of the density discontinuities.

Measurable Relationship Between Bright Galaxies and Their Faint Companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a Galaxy Cluster at z = 0.30: Vestiges of Infallen Groups?

The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (M_i < -18) galaxies and their faint (-18 < M_i < -15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (< 1 sigma to Bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows marginal dependence (~ 2.2 sigma) on the color of an adjacent bright galaxy, when the sample is limited to bright galaxies with at least 2 faint companions. By using a permutation test, we confirm that the correlation in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in this cluster is statistically significant with a confidence level of 98.7%. The statistical significance increases if we additionally remove non-members using the SDSS photometric redshift information (~ 2.6 sigma and 99.3%). Our results suggest three possible scenarios: (1) vestiges of infallen groups, (2) dwarf capturing, and (3) tidal tearing of bright galaxies.

The Layzer-Irvine equation in theories with non-minimal coupling between matter and curvature

We derive the Layzer-Irvine equation for alternative gravitational theories with non-minimal coupling between curvature and matter for an homogeneous and isotropic Universe. As an application, we study the case of Abell 586, a relaxed and spherically symmetric galaxy cluster, assuming some matter density profiles.

Galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z=1.58: red-sequence formation, massive galaxy assembly, and central star formation activity

We investigate various galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z=1.58, which constitutes the most extreme matter density peak at this redshift currently known. We analyze deep VLT/HAWK-I NIR data in the J- and Ks-bands, complemented by Subaru imaging in i and V, Spitzer observations at 4.5 micron, and new spectroscopic observations with VLT/FORS2. We detect a cluster-associated excess population of about 90 galaxies, which follows a centrally peaked, compact NFW galaxy surface density profile with a concentration of c200~10. Based on the Spitzer 4.5 micron imaging data, we measure a stellar mass fraction of fstar,500=(3.3+-1.4)% consistent with local values. The total J- and Ks-band galaxy luminosity functions of the core region yield characteristic magnitudes J* and Ks* consistent with expectations from simple z_f=3 burst models. However, a detailed look at the morphologies and color distributions of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals that the most massive galaxies are undergoing a very active mass assembly epoch through merging processes. Consequently, the bright end of the cluster red-sequence is not in place, while at intermediate magnitudes [Ks*,Ks*+1.6] a red-locus population is present, which is then sharply truncated at magnitudes fainter than Ks*+1.6. The dominant cluster core population comprises post-quenched galaxies transitioning towards the red-sequence at intermediate magnitudes, while additionally a significant blue cloud population of faint star-forming galaxies is present even in the densest central regions. Our observations lend support to the scenario in which the dominant effect of the dense z~1.6 cluster environment is an accelerated mass assembly timescale through merging activity that is responsible for driving core galaxies across the mass quenching threshold of log(Mstar/Msun)~10.4.

Galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z=1.58: red-sequence formation, massive galaxy assembly, and central star formation activity [Replacement]

We investigate various galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z=1.58, which constitutes the most extreme matter density peak at this redshift currently known. We analyze deep VLT/HAWK-I NIR data in the J- and Ks-bands, complemented by Subaru imaging in i and V, Spitzer observations at 4.5 micron, and new spectroscopic observations with VLT/FORS2. We detect a cluster-associated excess population of about 90 galaxies, which follows a centrally peaked, compact NFW galaxy surface density profile with a concentration of c200~10. Based on the Spitzer 4.5 micron imaging data, we measure a stellar mass fraction of fstar,500=(3.3+-1.4)% consistent with local values. The total J- and Ks-band galaxy luminosity functions of the core region yield characteristic magnitudes J* and Ks* consistent with expectations from simple z_f=3 burst models. However, a detailed look at the morphologies and color distributions of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals that the most massive galaxies are undergoing a very active mass assembly epoch through merging processes. Consequently, the bright end of the cluster red-sequence is not in place, while at intermediate magnitudes [Ks*,Ks*+1.6] a red-locus population is present, which is then sharply truncated at magnitudes fainter than Ks*+1.6. The dominant cluster core population comprises post-quenched galaxies transitioning towards the red-sequence at intermediate magnitudes, while additionally a significant blue cloud population of faint star-forming galaxies is present even in the densest central regions. Our observations lend support to the scenario in which the dominant effect of the dense z~1.6 cluster environment is an accelerated mass assembly timescale through merging activity that is responsible for driving core galaxies across the mass quenching threshold of log(Mstar/Msun)~10.4.

 

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