Posts Tagged galaxy cluster

Recent Postings from galaxy cluster

CLASH-VLT: Testing the Nature of Gravity with Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at $z=0.44$ to estimate the value of the ratio $\eta=\Psi/\Phi$ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric.[...] Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only $\Phi$), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum $\Phi+\Psi$). We thus express $\eta$ as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range $0.5\,Mpc\le r\le r_{200}=1.96\,Mpc$. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain $\eta(r_{200})=1.01\,_{-0.28}^{+0.31}$ at the 68\% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied $f(R)$ modified gravity model, the constraint on $\eta$ translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the $f(R)$ interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic effects.

Dark matter fraction of low-mass cluster members probed by galaxy-scale strong lensing

We present a strong lensing system, composed of 4 multiple images of a source at z = 2.387, created by two lens galaxies, G1 and G2, belonging to the galaxy cluster MACS J1115.9+0129 at z = 0.353. We use observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble, CLASH, and its spectroscopic follow-up programme at the Very Large Telescope, CLASH-VLT, to estimate the total mass distributions of the two galaxies and the cluster through strong gravitational lensing models. We find that the total projected mass values within the half-light radii, R_{e}, of the two lens galaxies are M_{T,G1}(< R_{e,G1}) = (3.6 +/- 0.4) x 10^{10}M_{Sun} and M_{T,G2}(< R_{e,G2}) = (4.2 +/- 1.6) x 10^{10}M_{Sun}. The effective velocity dispersion values of G1 and G2 are (122 +/- 7) km/s and (137 +/- 27) km/s, respectively. We remark that these values are relatively low when compared to those of ~200-300 km/s, typical of lens galaxies found in the field by previous surveys. By fitting the spectral energy distributions of G1 and G2, we measure projected luminous over total mass fractions within R_{e} of 0.11 +/- 0.03, for G1, and 0.73 +/- 0.32, for G2. The fact that the less massive galaxy, G1, is dark-matter dominated in its inner regions raises the question of whether the dark matter fraction in the core of early-type galaxies depends on their mass. Further investigating strong lensing systems will help us understand the influence that dark matter has on the structure and evolution of the inner regions of galaxies.

Shocking Features in the Merging Galaxy Cluster RXJ0334.2-0111

We present a 66 ksec $\textit{Chandra}$ X-ray observation of the galaxy cluster RXJ0334.2-0111. This deep observation revealed a unique bow shock system associated with a wide angle tail (WAT) radio galaxy and several intriguing substructures. The temperature across the bow shock jumps by a factor of $\sim$ 1.5 (from 4.1 keV to 6.2 keV), and is consistent with the Mach number $M = 1.6_{-0.3}^{+0.5}$. A second inner surface brightness edge is a cold front that marks the border between infalling subcluster cool core and the ICM of the main cluster. The temperature across the cold front increases from $1.3_{-0.8}^{+0.3}$ keV to $6.2_{-0.6}^{+0.6}$ keV. We find an overpressurized region $\sim$ 250 kpc east of the cold front that is named "the eastern extension (EE)". The EE may be a part of the third subcluster in the ongoing merger. We also find a tail shaped feature that originates near the bow shock and may extend up to a distance of $\sim$ 1 Mpc. This feature is also likely overpressurized. The luminous FR-I radio galaxy, 3C89, appears to be the cD galaxy of the infalling subcluster. We estimated 3C89's jet power from jet bending and the possible interaction between the X-ray gas and the radio lobes. A comparison between the shock stand-off distance and the Mach number for all known shock front/cold front combinations suggests that the core is continuously shrinking in size by stripping.

IDCS J1426.5+3508: Weak Lensing Analysis of a Massive Galaxy Cluster at $z=1.75$

We present a weak lensing study of the galaxy cluster IDCS J1426.5+3508 at $z=1.75$, which is the highest redshift strong lensing cluster known and the most distant cluster for which a weak lensing analysis has been undertaken. Using F160W, F814W, and F606W observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, we detect tangential shear at $2\sigma$ significance. Fitting a Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile to the shear with a theoretical median mass-concentration relation, we derive a mass $M_{200,\mathrm{crit}}=2.3^{+2.1}_{-1.4}\times10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$. This mass is consistent with previous mass estimates from the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, X-ray, and strong lensing. The cluster lies on the local SZ-weak lensing mass scaling relation observed at low redshift, indicative of minimal evolution in this relation.

Discovery of an ultra-diffuse galaxy in the Pisces-Perseus supercluster

We report the discovery of DGSAT I, an ultra-diffuse, quenched galaxy located 10.4 degrees in projection from the Andromeda galaxy (M31). This low-surface brightness galaxy (mu_V = 24.8 mag/arcsec), found with a small amateur telescope, appears unresolved in sub-arcsecond archival Subaru/Suprime-Cam images, and hence has been missed by optical surveys relying on resolved star counts, in spite of its relatively large effective radius (R_e(V) = 12 arcsec) and proximity (15 arcmin) to the well-known dwarf spheroidal galaxy And II. Its red color (V-I = 1.0), shallow Sersic index (n_V=0.68), and the absence of detectable H-alpha emission are typical properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and suggest that it is mainly composed of old stars. Initially interpreted as an interesting case of an isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the local universe, our radial velocity measurement obtained with the BTA 6-meter telescope (V_h=5450 +/- 40 km/s) shows that this system is an M31-background galaxy associated with the filament of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. At the distance of this cluster (~78 Mpc), DGSAT I would have an R_e ~ 4.7 kpc and M_V ~-16.3$. Its properties resemble those of the ultra-diffuse galaxies recently discovered in the Coma cluster. DGSAT I is the first case of these rare ultra-diffuse galaxies found in this galaxy cluster. Unlike the ultra-diffuse galaxies associated with the Coma and Virgo clusters, DGSAT I is found in a much lower density environment, which provides a fresh constraint on the formation mechanisms for this intriguing class of galaxy.

LOFAR, VLA, and Chandra observations of the Toothbrush galaxy cluster

We present deep LOFAR observations between 120-181 MHz of the "Toothbrush" (RX J0603.3+4214), a cluster that contains one of the brightest radio relic sources known. Our LOFAR observations exploit a new and novel calibration scheme to probe 10 times deeper than any previous study in this relatively unexplored part of the spectrum. The LOFAR observations, when combined with VLA, GMRT, and Chandra X-ray data, provide new information about the nature of cluster merger shocks and their role in re-accelerating relativistic particles. We derive a spectral index of $\alpha = -0.8 \pm 0.1$ at the northern edge of the main radio relic, steepening towards the south to $\alpha \approx - 2$. The spectral index of the radio halo is remarkably uniform ($\alpha = -1.16$, with an intrinsic scatter of $\leq 0.04$). The observed radio relic spectral index gives a Mach number of $\mathcal{M} = 2.8^{+0.5}_{-0.3}$, assuming diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). However, the gas density jump at the northern edge of the large radio relic implies a much weaker shock ($\mathcal{M} \approx 1.2$, with an upper limit of $\mathcal{M} \approx 1.5$). The discrepancy between the Mach numbers calculated from the radio and X-rays can be explained if either (i) the relic traces a complex shock surface along the line of sight, or (ii) if the radio relic emission is produced by a re-accelerated population of fossil particles from a radio galaxy. Our results highlight the need for additional theoretical work and numerical simulations of particle acceleration and re-acceleration at cluster merger shocks.

Probing dark energy via galaxy cluster outskirts [Replacement]

We present a Bayesian approach to combine $Planck$ data and the X-ray physical properties of the intracluster medium in the virialization region of a sample of 320 galaxy clusters ($0.056<z<1.24$, $kT>3$ keV) observed with $Chandra$. We exploited the high-level of similarity of the emission measure in the cluster outskirts as cosmology proxy. The cosmological parameters are thus constrained assuming that the emission measure profiles at different redshift are weakly self-similar, that is their shape is universal, explicitly allowing for temperature and redshift dependence of the gas fraction. This cosmological test, in combination with $Planck$+SNIa data, allows us to put a tight constraint on the dark energy models. For a constant-$w$ model, we have $w=-1.010\pm0.030$ and $\Omega_m=0.311\pm0.014$, while for a time-evolving equation of state of dark energy $w(z)$ we have $\Omega_m=0.308\pm 0.017$, $w_0=-0.993\pm0.046$ and $w_a=-0.123\pm0.400$. Constraints on the cosmology are further improved by adding priors on the gas fraction evolution from hydrodynamic simulations. Current data favour the cosmological constant with $w\equiv-1$, with no evidence for dynamic dark energy. We checked that our method is robust towards different sources of systematics, including background modelling, outlier measurements, selection effects, inhomogeneities of the gas distribution and cosmic filaments. We also provided for the first time constraints on which definition of cluster boundary radius is more tenable, namely based on a fixed overdensity with respect to the critical density of the Universe. This novel cosmological test has the capacity to provide a generational leap forward in our understanding of the equation of state of dark energy.

Probing dark energy via galaxy cluster outskirts

We present a Bayesian approach to combine $Planck$ data and the X-ray physical properties of the intracluster medium in the virialization region of a sample of 320 galaxy clusters ($0.056<z<1.24$, $kT> 3$ keV) observed with $Chandra$. We exploited the high-level of similarity of the emission measure in the cluster outskirts as cosmology proxy. The cosmological parameters are thus constrained assuming that the emission measure profiles at different redshift are weakly self-similar, that is their shape is universal, explicitly allowing for temperature and redshift dependency of the gas fraction. This cosmological test, in combination with $Planck$+SNIa data, allows us to put a tight constraint on the dark energy models. For a constant-$w$ model, we have $w=-1.010\pm0.030$ and $\Omega_m=0.311\pm0.014$, while for a time-evolving equation of state of dark energy $w(z)$ we have $\Omega_m=0.308\pm 0.017$, $w_0=-0.993\pm0.046$ and $w_a=-0.123\pm0.400$. Constraints on the cosmology are further improved by adding priors on the gas fraction evolution from hydrodynamic simulations. Current data favor the cosmological constant with $w\equiv-1$, with no evidence for dynamic dark energy. We checked that our method is robust towards different sources of systematics, including background modelling, outlier measurements, selection effects, inhomogeneities of the gas distribution and cosmic filaments. We also provided for the first time constraints on which definition of cluster boundary radius is more tenable, namely based on a fixed overdensity with respect to the critical density of the Universe. This novel cosmological test has the capacity to provide a generational leap forward in our understanding of the equation of state of dark energy.

Probing dark energy via galaxy cluster outskirts [Replacement]

We present a Bayesian approach to combine $Planck$ data and the X-ray physical properties of the intracluster medium in the virialization region of a sample of 320 galaxy clusters ($0.056<z<1.24$, $kT> 3$ keV) observed with $Chandra$. We exploited the high-level of similarity of the emission measure in the cluster outskirts as cosmology proxy. The cosmological parameters are thus constrained assuming that the emission measure profiles at different redshift are weakly self-similar, that is their shape is universal, explicitly allowing for temperature and redshift dependency of the gas fraction. This cosmological test, in combination with $Planck$+SNIa data, allows us to put a tight constraint on the dark energy models. For a constant-$w$ model, we have $w=-1.010\pm0.030$ and $\Omega_m=0.311\pm0.014$, while for a time-evolving equation of state of dark energy $w(z)$ we have $\Omega_m=0.308\pm 0.017$, $w_0=-0.993\pm0.046$ and $w_a=-0.123\pm0.400$. Constraints on the cosmology are further improved by adding priors on the gas fraction evolution from hydrodynamic simulations. Current data favor the cosmological constant with $w\equiv-1$, with no evidence for dynamic dark energy. We checked that our method is robust towards different sources of systematics, including background modelling, outlier measurements, selection effects, inhomogeneities of the gas distribution and cosmic filaments. We also provided for the first time constraints on which definition of cluster boundary radius is more tenable, namely based on a fixed overdensity with respect to the critical density of the Universe. This novel cosmological test has the capacity to provide a generational leap forward in our understanding of the equation of state of dark energy.

Comparing Dark Energy Survey and HST-CLASH observations of the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4431: implications for stellar mass versus dark matter

We derive the stellar mass fraction in the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4431 observed with the Dark Energy Survey (DES) during the Science Verification period. We compare the stellar mass results from DES (5 filters) with those from the Hubble Space Telescope CLASH (17 filters). When the cluster spectroscopic redshift is assumed, we show that stellar masses from DES can be estimated within 25% of CLASH values. We compute the stellar mass contribution coming from red and blue galaxies, and study the relation between stellar mass and the underlying dark matter using weak lensing studies with DES and CLASH. An analysis of the radial profiles of the DES total and stellar mass yields a stellar-to-total fraction of f*=7.0+-2.2x10^-3 within a radius of r_200c~3 Mpc. Our analysis also includes a comparison of photometric redshifts and star/galaxy separation efficiency for both datasets. We conclude that space-based small field imaging can be used to calibrate the galaxy properties in DES for the much wider field of view. The technique developed to derive the stellar mass fraction in galaxy clusters can be applied to the ~100 000 clusters that will be observed within this survey. The stacking of all the DES clusters would reduce the errors on f* estimates and deduce important information about galaxy evolution.

CLASH-VLT: A Highly Precise Strong Lensing Model of the Galaxy Cluster RXC J2248.7-4431 (Abell S1063) and Prospects for Cosmography

We perform a comprehensive study of the total mass distribution of the galaxy cluster RXCJ2248 ($z=0.348$) with a set of high-precision strong lensing models, which take advantage of extensive spectroscopic information on many multiply lensed systems. In the effort to understand and quantify inherent systematics in parametric strong lensing modelling, we explore a collection of 22 models where we use different samples of multiple image families, parametrizations of the mass distribution and cosmological parameters. As input information for the strong lensing models, we use the CLASH HST imaging data and spectroscopic follow-up observations, carried out with the VIMOS and MUSE spectrographs, to identify bona-fide multiple images. A total of 16 background sources, over the redshift range $1.0-6.1$, are multiply lensed into 47 images, 24 of which are spectroscopically confirmed and belong to 10 individual sources. The cluster total mass distribution and underlying cosmology in the models are optimized by matching the observed positions of the multiple images on the lens plane. We show that with a careful selection of a sample of spectroscopically confirmed multiple images, the best-fit model reproduces their observed positions with a rms of $0.3$ in a fixed flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, whereas the lack of spectroscopic information lead to biases in the values of the model parameters. Allowing cosmological parameters to vary together with the cluster parameters, we find (at $68\%$ confidence level) $\Omega_m=0.25^{+0.13}_{-0.16}$ and $w=-1.07^{+0.16}_{-0.42}$ for a flat $\Lambda$CDM model, and $\Omega_m=0.31^{+0.12}_{-0.13}$ and $\Omega_\Lambda=0.38^{+0.38}_{-0.27}$ for a universe with $w=-1$ and free curvature. Using toy models mimicking the overall configuration of RXCJ2248, we estimate the impact of the line of sight mass structure on the positional rms to be $0.3\pm 0.1$.(ABRIDGED)

How does our choice of observable influence our estimation of the centre of a galaxy cluster? Insights from cosmological simulations

Galaxy clusters are an established and powerful test-bed for theories of both galaxy evolution and cosmology. Accurate interpretation of cluster observations often requires robust identification of the location of the centre. Using a statistical sample of clusters drawn from a suite of cosmological simulations in which we have explored a range of galaxy formation models, we investigate how the location of this centre is affected by the choice of observable - stars, hot gas, or the full mass distribution as can be probed by the gravitational potential. We explore several measures of cluster centre: the minimum of the gravitational potential, which would expect to define the centre if the cluster is in dynamical equilibrium; the peak of the density; the centre of BCG; and the peak and centroid of X-ray luminosity. We find that the centre of BCG correlates more strongly with the minimum of the gravitational potential than the X-ray defined centres, while AGN feedback acts to significantly enhance the offset between the peak X-ray luminosity and minimum gravitational potential. These results highlight the importance of centre identification when interpreting clusters observations, in particular when comparing theoretical predictions and observational data.

A mature galaxy cluster at z=1.58 around the radio galaxy 7C1753+6311

We report on the discovery of a z=1.58 mature cluster around the high-redshift radio galaxy 7C1753+6311, first identified in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN survey. Two-thirds of the excess galaxies within the central 1Mpc lie on a red sequence with a colour that is consistent with an average formation redshift of zf~3. We show that 80+/-6% of the red sequence galaxies in the cluster core are quiescent, while the remaining 20% are red due to dusty star formation. We demonstrate that the cluster has an enhanced quiescent galaxy fraction that is three times that of the control field. We also show that this enhancement is mass dependent: 91+/-9% of the M* >10^{10.5}Msun cluster galaxies are quiescent, compared to only 36+/-2% of field galaxies, whereas the fraction of quiescent galaxies with lower masses is the same in the cluster and field environments. The presence of a dense core and a well-formed, quiescent red sequence suggest that this is a mature cluster. This means that distant radio galaxies do not solely reside in young, uncollapsed protoclusters, rather they can be found in clusters in a wide range of evolutionary states.

Cluster-Void Degeneracy Breaking: Dark Energy, Planck and the Largest Cluster & Void

Combining galaxy cluster and void abundances breaks the degeneracy between mean matter density $\Omega_{\rm m}$ and power spectrum normalization $\sigma_8$. In a first for voids, we constrain $\Omega_{\rm m} = 0.21 \pm 0.10$ and $\sigma_8 = 0.95 \pm 0.21$ for a flat $\Lambda$CDM universe, using extreme-value statistics on the claimed largest cluster and void. The Planck-consistent results detect dark energy with two objects, independently of other dark energy probes. Cluster-void studies also offer complementarity in scale, density, and non-linearity - of particular interest for testing modified-gravity models.

nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations II: radiative models

We have simulated the formation of a massive galaxy cluster (M$_{200}^{\rm crit}$ = 1.1$\times$10$^{15}h^{-1}M_{\odot}$) in a $\Lambda$CDM universe using 10 different codes (RAMSES, 2 incarnations of AREPO and 7 of GADGET), modeling hydrodynamics with full radiative subgrid physics. These codes include Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), spanning traditional and advanced SPH schemes, adaptive mesh and moving mesh codes. Our goal is to study the consistency between simulated clusters modeled with different radiative physical implementations - such as cooling, star formation and AGN feedback. We compare images of the cluster at $z=0$, global properties such as mass, and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. We find that, with respect to non-radiative simulations, dark matter is more centrally concentrated, the extent not simply depending on the presence/absence of AGN feedback. The scatter in global quantities is substantially higher than for non-radiative runs. Intriguingly, adding radiative physics seems to have washed away the marked code-based differences present in the entropy profile seen for non-radiative simulations in Sembolini et al. (2015): radiative physics + classic SPH can produce entropy cores. Furthermore, the inclusion/absence of AGN feedback is not the dividing line -as in the case of describing the stellar content- for whether a code produces an unrealistic temperature inversion and a falling central entropy profile. However, AGN feedback does strongly affect the overall stellar distribution, limiting the effect of overcooling and reducing sensibly the stellar fraction.

Simulating the galaxy cluster "El Gordo" and identifying the merger configuration

The observational features of the massive galaxy cluster "El Gordo" (ACT-CL J0102-4915), such as the X-ray emission, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, and the surface mass density distribution, indicate that they are caused by an exceptional ongoing high-speed collision of two galaxy clusters, similar to the well-known Bullet Cluster. We perform a series of hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the merging scenario and identify the initial conditions for the collision in ACT-CL J0102-4915. By surveying the parameter space of the various physical quantities that describe the two colliding clusters, including their total mass (M), mass ratio (\xi), gas fractions (f_b), initial relative velocity (V), and impact parameter (P), we find out an off-axis merger with P~800h_{70}^{-1}kpc, V~2500km/s, M~3x10^{15}Msun, and \xi=3.6 that can lead to most of the main observational features of ACT-CL J0102-4915. Those features include the morphology of the X-ray emission with a remarkable wake-like substructure trailing after the secondary cluster, the X-ray luminosity and the temperature distributions, and also the SZ temperature decrement. The initial relative velocity required for the merger is extremely high and rare compared to that inferred from currently available Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) cosmological simulations, which raises a potential challenge to the LCDM model, in addition to the case of the Bullet Cluster.

MC^2: Mapping the Dark Matter Distribution of the "Toothbrush" Cluster RX J0603.3+4214 with Hubble Space Telescope and Subaru Weak-lensing [Replacement]

The galaxy cluster RX J0603.3+4214 at z=0.225 is one of the rarest clusters boasting an extremely large (~2 Mpc) radio-relic. Because of the remarkable morphology of the relic, the cluster is nicknamed "Toothbrush Cluster". Although the cluster's underlying mass distribution is one of the critical pieces of information needed to reconstruct the merger scenario responsible for the puzzling radio-relic morphology, its proximity to the Galactic plane b~10 deg has imposed significant observational challenges. We present a high-resolution weak-lensing study of the cluster with Subaru/Suprime Cam and Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Our mass reconstruction reveals that the cluster is comprised of complicated dark matter substructures closely tracing the galaxy distribution, however in contrast with the relatively simple binary X-ray morphology. Nevertheless, we find that the cluster mass is still dominated by the two most massive clumps aligned north-south with a ~3:1 mass ratio (M_{200}=6.29_{-1.62}^{+2.24} x 10^{14} Msun and 1.98_{-0.74}^{+1.24} x 10^{14} Msun for the northern and southern clumps, respectively). The southern mass peak is ~2' offset toward the south with respect to the corresponding X-ray peak, which has a "bullet"-like morphology pointing south. Comparison of the current weak-lensing result with the X-ray, galaxy, and radio-relic suggests that perhaps the dominant mechanism responsible for the observed relic may be a high-speed collision of the two most massive subclusters, although the peculiarity of the morphology necessitates involvement of additional sub-clusters. Careful numerical simulations should follow in order to obtain more complete understanding of the merger scenario utilizing all existing observations.

Search for extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo galaxy cluster with Fermi-LAT

Galaxy clusters are one of the prime sites to search for dark matter (DM) annihilation signals. Depending on the substructure of the DM halo of a galaxy cluster and the cross sections for DM annihilation channels, these signals might be detectable by the latest generation of $\gamma$-ray telescopes. Here we use three years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data, which are the most suitable for searching for very extended emission in the vicinity of nearby Virgo galaxy cluster. Our analysis reveals statistically significant extended emission which can be well characterized by a uniformly emitting disk profile with a radius of 3\deg that moreover is offset from the cluster center. We demonstrate that the significance of this extended emission strongly depends on the adopted interstellar emission model (IEM) and is most likely an artifact of our incomplete description of the IEM in this region. We also search for and find new point source candidates in the region. We then derive conservative upper limits on the velocity-averaged DM pair annihilation cross section from Virgo. We take into account the potential $\gamma$-ray flux enhancement due to DM sub-halos and its complex morphology as a merging cluster. For DM annihilating into $b\overline{b}$, assuming a conservative sub-halo model setup, we find limits that are between 1 and 1.5 orders of magnitude above the expectation from the thermal cross section for $m_{\mathrm{DM}}\lesssim100\,\mathrm{GeV}$. In a more optimistic scenario, we exclude $\langle \sigma v \rangle\sim3\times10^{-26}\,\mathrm{cm^{3}\,s^{-1}}$ for $m_{\mathrm{DM}}\lesssim40\,\mathrm{GeV}$ for the same channel. Finally, we derive upper limits on the $\gamma$-ray-flux produced by hadronic cosmic-ray interactions in the inter cluster medium. We find that the volume-averaged cosmic-ray-to-thermal pressure ratio is less than $\sim6\%$.

Search for extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo galaxy cluster with Fermi-LAT [Cross-Listing]

Galaxy clusters are one of the prime sites to search for dark matter (DM) annihilation signals. Depending on the substructure of the DM halo of a galaxy cluster and the cross sections for DM annihilation channels, these signals might be detectable by the latest generation of $\gamma$-ray telescopes. Here we use three years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data, which are the most suitable for searching for very extended emission in the vicinity of nearby Virgo galaxy cluster. Our analysis reveals statistically significant extended emission which can be well characterized by a uniformly emitting disk profile with a radius of 3\deg that moreover is offset from the cluster center. We demonstrate that the significance of this extended emission strongly depends on the adopted interstellar emission model (IEM) and is most likely an artifact of our incomplete description of the IEM in this region. We also search for and find new point source candidates in the region. We then derive conservative upper limits on the velocity-averaged DM pair annihilation cross section from Virgo. We take into account the potential $\gamma$-ray flux enhancement due to DM sub-halos and its complex morphology as a merging cluster. For DM annihilating into $b\overline{b}$, assuming a conservative sub-halo model setup, we find limits that are between 1 and 1.5 orders of magnitude above the expectation from the thermal cross section for $m_{\mathrm{DM}}\lesssim100\,\mathrm{GeV}$. In a more optimistic scenario, we exclude $\langle \sigma v \rangle\sim3\times10^{-26}\,\mathrm{cm^{3}\,s^{-1}}$ for $m_{\mathrm{DM}}\lesssim40\,\mathrm{GeV}$ for the same channel. Finally, we derive upper limits on the $\gamma$-ray-flux produced by hadronic cosmic-ray interactions in the inter cluster medium. We find that the volume-averaged cosmic-ray-to-thermal pressure ratio is less than $\sim6\%$.

Hubble Frontier Fields: Predictions for the Return of SN Refsdal with the MUSE and GMOS Spectrographs [Replacement]

We present a high-precision mass model of the galaxy cluster MACSJ1149.6+2223, based on a strong-gravitational-lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data and spectroscopic follow-up with Gemini/GMOS and VLT/MUSE. Our model includes 12 new multiply imaged galaxies, bringing the total to 22, comprised of 65 individual lensed images. Unlike the first two HFF clusters, Abell 2744 and MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ1149 does not reveal as many multiple images in the HFF data. Using the Lenstool software package and the new sets of multiple images, we model the cluster with several cluster-scale dark-matter halos and additional galaxy-scale halos for the cluster members. Consistent with previous analyses, we find the system to be complex, composed of five cluster-scale halos. Their spatial distribution and lower mass, however, makes MACSJ1149 a less powerful lens. Our best-fit model predicts image positions with an RMS of 0.91". We measure the total projected mass inside a 200~kpc aperture as ($1.840\pm 0.006$)$\times 10^{14}$M$_{\odot}$, thus reaching again 1% precision, following our previous HFF analyses of MACSJ0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744. In light of the discovery of the first resolved quadruply lensed supernova, SN Refsdal, in one of the multiply imaged galaxies identified in MACSJ1149, we use our revised mass model to investigate the time delays and predict the rise of the next image between November 2015 and January 2016.

AGN activity and IGM heating in fossil cluster RX J1416.4+2315

We study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in the fossil galaxy cluster, RX J1416.4+2315. Radio observations were carried out using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at two frequencies, 1420 MHz and 610 MHz. A weak radio lobe that extends from the central nucleus is detected in 610 MHz map. Assuming the radio lobe originated from the central AGN, we show the energy injection into the Inter Galactic Medium (IGM) is only sufficient to heat up the central 50 kpc within the cluster core, while the cooling radius is larger ( $\sim$ 130 kpc). In the hardness ratio map, three low energy cavities have been identified. No radio emission is detected for these regions. We evaluated the power required to inflate the cavities and showed that the total energy budget is sufficient to offset the radiative cooling. We showed that the initial conditions would change the results remarkably. Furthermore, efficiency of Bondi accretion to power the AGN has been estimated.

Galaxy Cluster Thermal X-Ray Spectra Constrain Axion-Like Particles [Cross-Listing]

Axion-like particles (ALPs) and photons inter-convert in the presence of a magnetic field. At keV energies in the environment of galaxy clusters, the conversion probability can become unsuppressed for light ALPs. Conversion of thermal X-ray photons into ALPs can introduce a step-like feature into the cluster thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum, and we argue that existing X-ray data on galaxy clusters should be sufficient to extend bounds on ALPs in the low-mass region $m_a \lesssim 1 \times 10^{-12}\,{\rm eV}$ down to $M \sim 7\times 10^{11}\, {\rm GeV}$, and that for $10^{11}\, {\rm GeV} < M \lesssim 10^{12}$ GeV light ALPs give rise to interesting and unique observational signatures that may be probed by existing and upcoming X-ray (and potentially X-ray polarisation) observations of galaxy clusters.

Galaxy Cluster Thermal X-Ray Spectra Constrain Axion-Like Particles

Axion-like particles (ALPs) and photons inter-convert in the presence of a magnetic field. At keV energies in the environment of galaxy clusters, the conversion probability can become unsuppressed for light ALPs. Conversion of thermal X-ray photons into ALPs can introduce a step-like feature into the cluster thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum, and we argue that existing X-ray data on galaxy clusters should be sufficient to extend bounds on ALPs in the low-mass region $m_a \lesssim 1 \times 10^{-12}\,{\rm eV}$ down to $M \sim 7\times 10^{11}\, {\rm GeV}$, and that for $10^{11}\, {\rm GeV} < M \lesssim 10^{12}$ GeV light ALPs give rise to interesting and unique observational signatures that may be probed by existing and upcoming X-ray (and potentially X-ray polarisation) observations of galaxy clusters.

Constraining the Dark Matter decay lifetime with very deep observations of the Perseus cluster with the MAGIC telescopes

We present preliminary results on Dark Matter searches from observations of the Perseus galaxy cluster with the MAGIC Telescopes. MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. Galaxy clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound structures in the Universe, with masses of ~10^15 Solar masses. There is strong evidence that galaxy clusters are Dark Matter dominated objects, and therefore promising targets for Dark Matter searches, particularly for decay signals. MAGIC has taken almost 300 hours of data on the Perseus Cluster between 2009 and 2015, the deepest observational campaign on any galaxy cluster performed so far in the very high energy range of the electromagnetic spectrum. We analyze here a small sample of this data and search for signs of dark matter in the mass range between 100 GeV and 20 TeV. We apply a likelihood analysis optimized for the spectral and morphological features expected in the dark matter decay signals. This is the first time that a dedicated Dark Matter optimization is applied in a MAGIC analysis, taking into account the inferred Dark Matter distribution of the source. The results with the full dataset analysis will be published soon by the MAGIC Collaboration.

The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey: MOO J1142+1527, A 10$^{15}$ M$_\odot$ Galaxy Cluster at z=1.19

We present confirmation of the cluster MOO J1142+1527, a massive galaxy cluster discovered as part of the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey. The cluster is confirmed to lie at $z=1.19$, and using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy we robustly detect the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement at 13.2$\sigma$. The SZ data imply a mass of $\mathrm{M}_{200m}=(1.1\pm0.2)\times10^{15}$ $\mathrm{M}_\odot$, making MOO J1142+1527 the most massive galaxy cluster known at $z>1.15$ and the second most massive cluster known at $z>1$. For a standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmology it is further expected to be one of the $\sim 5$ most massive clusters expected to exist at $z\ge1.19$ over the entire sky. Our ongoing Spitzer program targeting $\sim1750$ additional candidate clusters will identify comparably rich galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky.

An Extreme Starburst in Close Proximity to the Central Galaxy of a Rich Galaxy Cluster at z=1.7

We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z=1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, (SpARCS), and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of Ngal(500kpc) = 30+/-8 implies a total halo mass, within 500kpc, of ~3.8+/-1.2 x 10^14 Msun, comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with LIR = 6.2+/-0.9 x 10^12 Lsun. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at z=1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ~860+/-30 Msun/yr. The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of of > 10 individual clumps arranged as "beads on a string" over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times.

Radio Relics Tracing the Projected Mass Distribution in CIZA J2242.8+5301

We present a weak-lensing analysis for the merging galaxy cluster, CIZA J2242.8+5301, hosting double radio relics, using three-band Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging ($Br'z'$). Since the lifetime of dark matter halos colliding into clusters is longer than that of X-ray emitting gas halos, weak-lensing analysis is a powerful method to constrain a merger dynamics. Two-dimensional shear fitting using a clean background catalog suggests that the cluster undergoes a merger with a mass ratio of about 2:1. The main halo is located around the gas core in the southern region, while no concentrated gas core is associated with the northern sub halo. We find that the projected cluster mass distribution resulting from an unequal-mass merger is in excellent agreement with the curved shapes of the two radio relics and the overall X-ray morphology except for the lack of the northern gas core. The lack of a prominent radio halo enables us to constrain an upper limit of the fractional energy of magneto-hydrodynamics turbulence of $(\delta B/B)^2<\mathcal{O}(10^{-6})$ at a resonant wavenumber, by a balance between the acceleration time and the time after the core passage or the cooling time, with an assumption of resonant acceleration by second-order Fermi process.

Simulating Astro-H Observations of Sloshing Gas Motions in the Cores of Galaxy Clusters

Astro-H will be the first X-ray observatory to employ a high-resolution microcalorimeter, capable of measuring the shift and width of individual spectral lines to the precision necessary for estimating the velocity of the diffuse plasma in galaxy clusters. This new capability is expected to bring significant progress in understanding the dynamics, and therefore the physics, of the intracluster medium. However, because this plasma is optically thin, projection effects will be an important complicating factor in interpreting future Astro-H measurements. To study these effects in detail, we performed an analysis of the velocity field from simulations of a galaxy cluster experiencing gas sloshing, and generated synthetic X-ray spectra, convolved with model Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) responses. We find that the sloshing motions produce velocity signatures that will be observable by Astro-H in nearby clusters: the shifting of the line centroid produced by the fast-moving cold gas underneath the front surface, and line broadening produced by the smooth variation of this motion along the line of sight. The line shapes arising from inviscid or strongly viscous simulations are very similar, indicating that placing constraints on the gas viscosity from these measurements will be difficult. Our spectroscopic analysis demonstrates that, for adequate exposures, Astro-H will be able to recover the first two moments of the velocity distribution of these motions accurately, and in some cases multiple velocity components may be discerned. The simulations also confirm the importance of accurate treatment of PSF scattering in the interpretation of Astro-H/SXS spectra of cluster plasmas.

ZFIRE: Galaxy Cluster Kinematics, H$\alpha$ Star Formation Rates, and Gas-Phase Metallicities of XMM-LSS J02182-05102 at z=1.6233

We spectroscopically survey the galaxy cluster XMM-LSS J02182-05102 (hereafter IRC 0218) using LRIS (optical) and MOSFIRE (near-infrared) on Keck I as part of the ZFIRE survey. IRC 0218 has a narrow redshift range of $1.612<z_{\rm spec}<1.635$ defined by 33 members of which 20 are at R$_{\rm proj}<1$ Mpc. The cluster redshift and velocity dispersion are $z_{\rm cl}=1.6233\pm0.0003$ and $\sigma_{\rm cl}=254\pm50$ km s$^{-1}$. We reach NIR line sensitivities of $\sim0.3\times10^{-17}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ that, combined with multi-wavelength photometry, provide extinction-corrected H$\alpha$ star formation rates (SFR), gas phase metallicities from [NII]/H$\alpha$, and stellar masses. We measure an integrated H$\alpha$ SFR of $\sim325{\rm M}_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ (26 members; R$_{\rm proj}<2$ Mpc) and show that the elevated star formation in the cluster core (R$_{\rm proj}<0.25$ Mpc) is driven by the concentration of star-forming members, but the average SFR per H$\alpha$-detected galaxy is half that of members at R$_{\rm proj}\sim1$ Mpc. However, we do not detect any environmental imprint when comparing attenuation and gas phase metallicities: the cluster galaxies show similar trends with M$_{\star}$ as to the field, e.g. more massive galaxies have larger stellar attenuation. IRC 0218's gas phase metallicity-M$_{\star}$ relation (MZR) is offset to lower metallicities relative to $z\sim0$ and has a slope of $0.13\pm0.10$. Comparing the MZR in IRC 0218 to the COSMOS cluster at $z=2.1$ shows no evolution ($\Delta t\sim1$ Gyr): the MZR for both galaxy clusters are remarkably consistent with each other and virtually identical to several field surveys at $z\sim2$.

Dynamical analysis of galaxy cluster merger Abell 2146

We present a dynamical analysis of the merging galaxy cluster system Abell 2146 using spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope. As revealed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the system is undergoing a major merger and has a gas structure indicative of a recent first core passage. The system presents two large shock fronts, making it unique amongst these rare systems. The hot gas structure indicates that the merger axis must be close to the plane of the sky and that the two merging clusters are relatively close in mass, from the observation of two shock fronts. Using 63 spectroscopically determined cluster members, we apply various statistical tests to establish the presence of two distinct massive structures. With the caveat that the system has recently undergone a major merger, the virial mass estimate is M_vir = 8.5 +4.3 -4.7 x 10 ^14 M_sol for the whole system, consistent with the mass determination in a previous study using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal. The newly calculated redshift for the system is z = 0.2323. A two-body dynamical model gives an angle of 13-19 degrees between the merger axis and the plane of the sky, and a timescale after first core passage of 0.24-0.28 Gyr.

The projected gravitational potential of the galaxy cluster MACS~J1206 derived from galaxy kinematics

We reconstruct the radial profile of the projected gravitational potential of the galaxy cluster MACS-J1206 from 592 spectroscopic measurements of velocities of cluster members. For doing so, we use a method we have developed recently based on the Richardson-Lucy deprojection algorithm and an inversion of the spherically-symmetric Jeans equation. We find that, within the uncertainties, our reconstruction agrees very well with a potential reconstruction from weak and strong gravitational lensing as well as with a potential obtained from X-ray measurements. In addition, our reconstruction is in good agreement with several common analytic profiles of the lensing potential. Varying the anisotropy parameter in the Jeans equation, we find that isotropy parameters which are either small, $\beta\lesssim0.2$, or decrease with radius yield potential profiles which strongly disagree with that obtained from gravitational lensing. We achieve the best agreement between our potential profile and the profile from gravitational lensing if the anisotropy parameter rises quite steeply to $\beta\approx0. 6$ within $\approx0.5\,\mathrm{Mpc}$ and stays constant further out.

The X-Ray Line Feature At 3.5 Kev In Galaxy Cluster Spectra

Recent work by Bulbul et al. and Boyarsky et al. has suggested that a line feature at approx. 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters and individual galaxies seen with XMM-Newton is due to the decay of sterile neutrinos, a dark matter candidate. This identification has been criticized by Jeltema and Profumo on the grounds that model spectra suggest that atomic transitions in helium-like potassium (K XVIII) and chlorine (Cl XVI) are more likely to be the emitters. Here it is pointed out that the K XVIII lines have been observed in numerous solar flare spectra at high spectral resolution with the RESIK crystal spectrometer and also appear in Chandra HETG spectra of the coronally active star sigma Gem. In addition, the solar flare spectra at least indicate a mean coronal potassium abundance which is a factor of between 9 and 11 higher than the solar photospheric abundance. This fact, together with the low statistical quality of the XMM-Newton spectra, completely accounts for the approx. 3.5 keV feature and there is therefore no need to invoke a sterile neutrino interpretation of the observed line feature at 3.5 keV.

Frontier Fields: Subaru Weak-Lensing Analysis of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A2744

We present a weak-lensing analysis of the merging {\em Frontier Fields} (FF) cluster Abell~2744 using new Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging. The wide-field lensing mass distribution reveals this cluster is comprised of four distinct substructures. Simultaneously modeling the two-dimensional reduced shear field using a combination of a Navarro--Frenk--White (NFW) model for the main core and truncated NFW models for the subhalos, we determine their masses and locations. The total mass of the system is constrained as $M_\mathrm{200c} = (2.06\pm0.42)\times10^{15}\,M_\odot$. The most massive clump is the southern component with $M_\mathrm{200c} = (7.7\pm3.4)\times10^{14}\,M_\odot$, followed by the western substructure ($M_\mathrm{200c} = (4.5\pm2.0)\times10^{14}\,M_\odot$) and two smaller substructures to the northeast ($M_\mathrm{200c} = (2.8\pm1.6)\times10^{14}\,M_\odot$) and northwest ($M_\mathrm{200c} = (1.9\pm1.2)\times10^{14}\,M_\odot$). The presence of the four substructures supports the picture of multiple mergers. Using a composite of hydrodynamical binary simulations we explain this complicated system without the need for a "slingshot" effect to produce the northwest X-ray interloper, as previously proposed. The locations of the substructures appear to be offset from both the gas ($87^{+34}_{-28}$ arcsec, 90\% CL) and the galaxies ($72^{+34}_{-53}$ arcsec, 90\% CL) in the case of the northwestern and western subhalos. To confirm or refute these findings, high resolution space-based observations extending beyond the current FF limited coverage to the west and northwestern area are essential.

Frontier Fields: Subaru Weak-Lensing Analysis of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A2744 [Replacement]

We present a weak-lensing analysis of the merging {\em Frontier Fields} (FF) cluster Abell~2744 using new Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging. The wide-field lensing mass distribution reveals this cluster is comprised of four distinct substructures. Simultaneously modeling the two-dimensional reduced shear field using a combination of a Navarro--Frenk--White (NFW) model for the main core and truncated NFW models for the subhalos, we determine their masses and locations. The total mass of the system is constrained as $M_\mathrm{200c} = (2.06\pm0.42)\times10^{15}\,M_\odot$. The most massive clump is the southern component with $M_\mathrm{200c} = (7.7\pm3.4)\times10^{14}\,M_\odot$, followed by the western substructure ($M_\mathrm{200c} = (4.5\pm2.0)\times10^{14}\,M_\odot$) and two smaller substructures to the northeast ($M_\mathrm{200c} = (2.8\pm1.6)\times10^{14}\,M_\odot$) and northwest ($M_\mathrm{200c} = (1.9\pm1.2)\times10^{14}\,M_\odot$). The presence of the four substructures supports the picture of multiple mergers. Using a composite of hydrodynamical binary simulations we explain this complicated system without the need for a "slingshot" effect to produce the northwest X-ray interloper, as previously proposed. The locations of the substructures appear to be offset from both the gas ($87^{+34}_{-28}$ arcsec, 90\% CL) and the galaxies ($72^{+34}_{-53}$ arcsec, 90\% CL) in the case of the northwestern and western subhalos. To confirm or refute these findings, high resolution space-based observations extending beyond the current FF limited coverage to the west and northwestern area are essential.

The structure and dynamics of the AC114 galaxy cluster revisited

We present a dynamical analysis of the galaxy cluster AC114 based on a catalogue of 524 velocities. Of these, 169 (32%) are newly obtained at ESO (Chile) with the VLT and the VIMOS spectrograph. Data on individual galaxies are presented and the accuracy of the measured velocities is discussed. Dynamical properties of the cluster are derived. We obtain an improved mean redshift value z= 0.31665 +/- 0.0008 and velocity dispersion \sigma= 1893+73-82 \kms. A large velocity dispersion within the core radius and the shape of the infall pattern suggests that this part of the cluster is in a radial phase of relaxation with a very elongated radial filament spanning 12000 \kms. A radial foreground structure is detected within the central 0.5/h Mpc radius, recognizable as a redshift group at the same central redshift value. We analyze the color distribution for this archetype Butcher-Oemler galaxy cluster and identify the separate red and blue galaxy sequences. The latter subset contains 44% of confirmed members of the cluster, reaching magnitudes as faint as R_{f}= 21.1 (1.0 magnitude fainter than previous studies). We derive a mass M_{200}= (4.3 \pm 0.7) x 10^15 Msun/h. In a subsequent paper we will utilize the spectral data presented here to explore the mass-metallicity relation for this intermediate redshift cluster.

Environmental dependence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission at z~0.8. Investigation by observing the RX J0152.7-1357 with AKARI

We study the environmental dependence of the strength of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission by AKARI observations of RX J0152.7-1357, a galaxy cluster at z=0.84. PAH emission reflects the physical conditions of galaxies and dominates 8 um luminosity (L8), which can directly be measured with the L15 band of AKARI. L8 to infrared luminosity (LIR) ratio is used as a tracer of the PAH strength. Both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts are applied to identify the cluster members. The L15-band-detected galaxies tend to reside in the outskirt of the cluster and have optically green colour, R-z'~ 1.2. We find no clear difference of the L8/LIR behaviour of galaxies in field and cluster environment. The L8/LIR of cluster galaxies decreases with specific-star-formation rate divided by that of main-sequence galaxies, and with LIR, consistent with the results for field galaxies. The relation between L8/LIR and LIR is between those at z=0 and z=2 in the literature. Our data also shows that starburst galaxies, which have lower L8/LIR than main-sequence, are located only in the outskirt of the cluster. All these findings extend previous studies, indicating that environment affects only the fraction of galaxy types and does not affect the L8/LIR behaviour of star-forming galaxies.

Neutral hydrogen gas, past and future star-formation in galaxies in and around the 'Sausage' merging galaxy cluster

CIZA J2242.8+5301 ($z = 0.188$, nicknamed 'Sausage') is an extremely massive ($M_{200}\sim 2.0 \times 10^{15}M_\odot$ ), merging cluster with shock waves towards its outskirts, which was found to host numerous emission-line galaxies. We performed extremely deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI observations of the 'Sausage' cluster to investigate the effect of the merger and the shocks on the gas reservoirs fuelling present and future star formation (SF) in cluster members. By using spectral stacking, we find that the emission-line galaxies in the 'Sausage' cluster have, on average, as much HI gas as field galaxies (when accounting for the fact cluster galaxies are more massive than the field galaxies), contrary to previous studies. Since the cluster galaxies are more massive than the field spirals, they may have been able to retain their gas during the cluster merger. The large HI reservoirs are expected to be consumed within $\sim0.75-1.0$ Gyr by the vigorous SF and AGN activity and/or driven out by the out-flows we observe. We find that the star-formation rate in a large fraction of H$\alpha$ emission-line cluster galaxies correlates well with the radio broad band emission, tracing supernova remnant emission. This suggests that the cluster galaxies, all located in post-shock regions, may have been undergoing sustained SFR for at least 100 Myr. This fully supports the interpretation proposed by Stroe et al. (2015) and Sobral et al. (2015) that gas-rich cluster galaxies have been triggered to form stars by the passage of the shock.

A giant radio halo in a low-mass SZ-selected galaxy cluster: ACT-CL J0256.5+0006

We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)-selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 ($z = 0.363$), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 MHz and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint ($S_{610} = 5.6 \pm 1.4$ mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest-mass systems, $M_{\rm 500,SZ} = (5.0 \pm 1.2) \times 10^{14} M_\odot$, found to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz ($S_{325} = 10.3 \pm 5.3$ mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of $\alpha^{610}_{325} = 1.0^{+0.7}_{-0.9}$. This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio halos, $\alpha = 1.2 \pm 0.2$. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of $P_{1.4\text{GHz}} = (1.0 \pm 0.3) \times 10^{24}$ W Hz$^{-1}$, placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Various lines of evidence, including the ICM morphology, suggest that ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 is composed of two subclusters. We determine a merger mass ratio of 7:4, and a line-of-sight velocity difference of $v_\perp = 1880 \pm 280$ km s$^{-1}$. We construct a simple merger model to infer relevant time-scales in the merger. From its location on the $P_{\rm 1.4GHz}{-}L_{\rm X}$ scaling relation, we infer that we observe ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 approximately 500 Myr before first core crossing.

Time Delay Measurements for the Cluster-lensed Sextuple Quasar SDSS J2222+2745

We report first results from an ongoing monitoring campaign to measure time delays between the six images of the quasar SDSS J2222+2745, gravitationally lensed by a galaxy cluster. The time delay between A and B, the two most highly magnified images, is measured to be $\tau_{AB} = 43.0 \pm 4.5$ days (95% confidence interval), consistent with previous model predictions for this lens system. The strong intrinsic variability of the quasar also allows us to derive a tentative time delay value of $\tau_{CA} = 694^{+23}_{-4}$ days between image C and A, in spite of modest overlap between their light curves in the current data set. Longer values of $\tau_{CA} \lesssim 830$ days cannot yet be firmly excluded, but further monitoring should be sufficient to confirm the tentative value during 2015. Image C, which is predicted to lead all the other lensed quasar images, has undergone a sharp, monotonic flux increase of 60-75% during 2014. The same brightening is predicted to occur in images A and B during 2016. The amplitude of this rise indicates that time delays involving all six known images in this system, including those of the demagnified central images D-F, will be obtainable from further ground-based monitoring of this system during the next few years.

Time Delay Measurements for the Cluster-lensed Sextuple Quasar SDSS J2222+2745 [Replacement]

We report first results from an ongoing monitoring campaign to measure time delays between the six images of the quasar SDSS\,J2222$+$2745, gravitationally lensed by a galaxy cluster. The time delay between A and B, the two most highly magnified images, is measured to be $\tau_{\rm AB} = 47.7 \pm 6.0$ days (95\% confidence interval), consistent with previous model predictions for this lens system. The strong intrinsic variability of the quasar also allows us to derive a time delay value of $\tau_{\rm CA} = 722 \pm 24$ days between image C and A, in spite of modest overlap between their light curves in the current data set. Image C, which is predicted to lead all the other lensed quasar images, has undergone a sharp, monotonic flux increase of 60-75\% during 2014. A corresponding brightening is firmly predicted to occur in images A and B during 2016. The amplitude of this rise indicates that time delays involving all six known images in this system, including those of the demagnified central images D-F, will be obtainable from further ground-based monitoring of this system during the next few years.

Tidal stripping of globular clusters in a simulated galaxy cluster

Using a cosmological N-body numerical simulation of the formation of a galaxy cluster- sized halo, we analyze the temporal evolution of its globular cluster population. We follow the dynamical evolution of 38 galactic dark matter halos orbiting in a galaxy cluster that at redshift z=0 has a virial mass of 1.71 * 10 ^14 Msol h^-1. In order to mimic both "blue" and "red" populations of globular clusters, for each galactic halo we select two different sets of particles at high redshift (z ~ 1), constrained by the condition that, at redshift z=0, their average radial density profiles are similar to the observed profiles. As expected, the general galaxy cluster tidal field removes a significant fraction of the globular cluster populations to feed the intracluster population. On average, halos lost approximately 16% and 29% of their initial red and blue globular cluster populations, respectively. Our results suggest that these fractions strongly depend on the orbital trajectory of the galactic halo, specifically on the number of orbits and on the minimum pericentric distance to the galaxy cluster center that the halo has had. At a given time, these fractions also depend on the current clustercentric distance, just as observations show that the specific frequencyof globular clusters S_N depends on their clustercentric distance.

Surveying Galaxy Proto-clusters in Emission: A Large-scale Structure at z=2.44 and the Outlook for HETDEX

Galaxy proto-clusters at z >~ 2 provide a direct probe of the rapid mass assembly and galaxy growth of present day massive clusters. Because of the need of precise galaxy redshifts for density mapping and the prevalence of star formation before quenching, nearly all the proto-clusters known to date were confirmed by spectroscopy of galaxies with strong emission lines. Therefore, large emission-line galaxy surveys provide an efficient way to identify proto-clusters directly. Here we report the discovery of a large-scale structure at z = 2.44 in the HETDEX Pilot Survey. On a scale of a few tens of Mpc comoving, this structure shows a complex overdensity of Lya emitters (LAE), which coincides with broad-band selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA photometric and zCOSMOS spectroscopic catalogs, as well as overdensities of intergalactic gas revealed in the Lya absorption maps of Lee et al. (2014). We construct mock LAE catalogs to predict the cosmic evolution of this structure. We find that such an overdensity should have already broken away from the Hubble flow, and part of the structure will collapse to form a galaxy cluster with 10^14.5 +- 0.4 M_sun by z = 0. The structure contains a higher median stellar mass of broad-band selected galaxies, a boost of extended Lya nebulae, and a marginal excess of active galactic nuclei relative to the field, supporting a scenario of accelerated galaxy evolution in cluster progenitors. Based on the correlation between galaxy overdensity and the z = 0 descendant halo mass calibrated in the simulation, we predict that several hundred 1.9 < z < 3.5 proto-clusters with z = 0 mass of > 10^14.5 M_sun will be discovered in the 8.5 Gpc^3 of space surveyed by the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment.

Surveying Galaxy Proto-clusters in Emission: A Large-scale Structure at z=2.44 and the Outlook for HETDEX [Replacement]

Galaxy proto-clusters at z >~ 2 provide a direct probe of the rapid mass assembly and galaxy growth of present day massive clusters. Because of the need of precise galaxy redshifts for density mapping and the prevalence of star formation before quenching, nearly all the proto-clusters known to date were confirmed by spectroscopy of galaxies with strong emission lines. Therefore, large emission-line galaxy surveys provide an efficient way to identify proto-clusters directly. Here we report the discovery of a large-scale structure at z = 2.44 in the HETDEX Pilot Survey. On a scale of a few tens of Mpc comoving, this structure shows a complex overdensity of Lya emitters (LAE), which coincides with broad-band selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA photometric and zCOSMOS spectroscopic catalogs, as well as overdensities of intergalactic gas revealed in the Lya absorption maps of Lee et al. (2014). We construct mock LAE catalogs to predict the cosmic evolution of this structure. We find that such an overdensity should have already broken away from the Hubble flow, and part of the structure will collapse to form a galaxy cluster with 10^14.5 +- 0.4 M_sun by z = 0. The structure contains a higher median stellar mass of broad-band selected galaxies, a boost of extended Lya nebulae, and a marginal excess of active galactic nuclei relative to the field, supporting a scenario of accelerated galaxy evolution in cluster progenitors. Based on the correlation between galaxy overdensity and the z = 0 descendant halo mass calibrated in the simulation, we predict that several hundred 1.9 < z < 3.5 proto-clusters with z = 0 mass of > 10^14.5 M_sun will be discovered in the 8.5 Gpc^3 of space surveyed by the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment.

Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

We determine the concentration-mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the CLASH survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as NFW haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of nonparametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentration and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the errorbars, the same as in $\Lambda$CDM. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances $\sim \left[2-20\right] {\rm Mpc}/h$ from the cluster center, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by $\sim20-40\%$ in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.

Early-type galaxies in the Antlia Cluster: A deep look into scaling relations

We present the first large-scale study of the photometric and structural relations followed by early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Antlia cluster. Antlia is the third nearest populous galaxy cluster after Fornax and Virgo (d $\sim 35$ Mpc). A photographic catalog of its galaxy content was built by Ferguson & Sandage in 1990 (FS90). Afterwards, we performed further analysis of the ETG population located at the cluster centre. Now, we extend our study covering an area four times larger, calculating new total magnitudes and colours, instead of isophotal photometry, as well as structural parameters obtained through S\'ersic model fits extrapolated to infinity. Our present work involves a total of 177 ETGs, out of them 56 per cent have been cataloged by FS90 while the rest (77 galaxies) are newly discovered ones. Medium-resolution GEMINI and VLT spectra are used to confirm membership when available. Including radial velocities from the literature, 59 ETGs are confirmed as Antlia members. Antlia scaling relations mainly support the existence of unique functions (linear and curved) that join bright and dwarf ETGs, excluding compact ellipticals (cEs). Lenticular galaxies are outliers only with respect to the curved relation derived for effective surface brightness versus absolute magnitude. The small number of bright ellipticals and cEs present in Antlia, prevents us from testing if the same data can be fitted with two different linear sequences, for bright and dwarf ETGs. However, adding data from other clusters and groups, the existence of such sequences is also noticeable in the same scaling relations.

Star formation properties of galaxy cluster A1767

Abell 1767 is a dynamically relaxed, cD cluster of galaxies with a redshift of 0.0703. Among 250 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies within a projected radius of 2.5r_{200}, 243 galaxies (~ 97%) are spectroscopically covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Based on this homogeneous spectral sample, the stellar evolutionary synthesis code, STARLIGHT, is applied to investigate the stellar populations and star formation histories (SFHs) of cluster galaxies. The star formation properties of galaxies, such as mean stellar ages, metallicities, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs), are presented as the functions of local galaxy density. Strong environmental effect is found in the manner that massive galaxies in the high-density core region of cluster tend to have higher metallicities, longer mean stellar ages, and lower specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and their recent star formation activities have been remarkably suppressed. In addition, the correlations of the metallicity and SSFR with stellar mass are confirmed.

Next Generation Cosmology: Constraints from the Euclid Galaxy Cluster Survey

We study the characteristics of the galaxy cluster samples expected from the European Space Agency's Euclid satellite and forecast constraints on cosmological parameters describing a variety of cosmological models. The method used in this paper, based on the Fisher Matrix approach, is the same one used to provide the constraints presented in the Euclid Red Book (Laureijs et al.2011). We describe the analytical approach to compute the selection function of the photometric and spectroscopic cluster surveys. Based on the photometric selection function, we forecast the constraints on a number of cosmological parameter sets corresponding to different extensions of the standard LambdaCDM model. The dynamical evolution of dark energy will be constrained to Delta w_0=0.03 and Delta w_a=0.2 with free curvature Omega_k, resulting in a (w_0,w_a) Figure of Merit (FoM) of 291. Including the Planck CMB covariance matrix improves the constraints to Delta w_0=0.02, Delta w_a=0.07 and a FoM=802. The amplitude of primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrised by f_NL, will be constrained to \Delta f_NL ~ 6.6 for the local shape scenario, from Euclid clusters alone. Using only Euclid clusters, the growth factor parameter \gamma, which signals deviations from GR, will be constrained to Delta \gamma=0.02, and the neutrino density parameter to Delta Omega_\nu=0.0013 (or Delta \sum m_\nu=0.01). We emphasise that knowledge of the observable--mass scaling relation will be crucial to constrain cosmological parameters from a cluster catalogue. The Euclid mission will have a clear advantage in this respect, thanks to its imaging and spectroscopic capabilities that will enable internal mass calibration from weak lensing and the dynamics of cluster galaxies. This information will be further complemented by wide-area multi-wavelength external cluster surveys that will already be available when Euclid flies. [Abridged]

Galaxy cluster constraints on the coupling to photons of low-mass scalars

We consider a broad class of interactions between radiation and a light scalar field, including both conformal and disformal couplings. Such a scalar field potentially acts on cosmological scales as dark energy and could also appear in modified gravity theories. We study the consequences of these couplings on the mixing between the scalar field and photons in galaxy clusters in the presence of a magnetic field. In particular we focus on the resulting turbulence-induced irregularities in the X-ray and UV bands. We find new bounds on the photon-to-scalar couplings, both conformal and disformal, which complement laboratory experiments and other astrophysical constraints.

Galaxy cluster constraints on the coupling to photons of low-mass scalars [Cross-Listing]

We consider a broad class of interactions between radiation and a light scalar field, including both conformal and disformal couplings. Such a scalar field potentially acts on cosmological scales as dark energy and could also appear in modified gravity theories. We study the consequences of these couplings on the mixing between the scalar field and photons in galaxy clusters in the presence of a magnetic field. In particular we focus on the resulting turbulence-induced irregularities in the X-ray and UV bands. We find new bounds on the photon-to-scalar couplings, both conformal and disformal, which complement laboratory experiments and other astrophysical constraints.

IDCS J1426.5+3508: The Most Massive Galaxy Cluster at $z > 1.5$

We present a deep (100 ks) Chandra observation of IDCS J1426.5+3508, a spectroscopically confirmed, infrared-selected galaxy cluster at $z = 1.75$. This cluster is the most massive galaxy cluster currently known at $z > 1.5$, based on existing Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and gravitational lensing detections. We confirm this high mass via a variety of X-ray scaling relations, including $T_X$-M, $f_g$-M, $Y_X$-M and $L_X$-M, finding a tight distribution of masses from these different methods, spanning M$_{500}$ = 2.3-3.3 $\times 10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$, with the low-scatter $Y_X$-based mass $M_{500,Y_X} = 2.6^{+1.5}_{-0.5} \times 10^{14}$ M$_\odot$. IDCS J1426.5+3508 is currently the only cluster at $z > 1.5$ for which X-ray, SZ and gravitational lensing mass estimates exist, and these are in remarkably good agreement. We find a relatively tight distribution of the gas-to-total mass ratio, employing total masses from all of the aforementioned indicators, with values ranging from $f_{gas,500}$ = 0.087-0.12. We do not detect metals in the intracluster medium (ICM) of this system, placing a 2$\sigma$ upper limit of $Z(r < R_{500}) < 0.18 Z_{\odot}$. This upper limit on the metallicity suggests that this system may still be in the process of enriching its ICM. The cluster has a dense, low-entropy core, offset by $\sim$30 kpc from the X-ray centroid, which makes it one of the few "cool core" clusters discovered at $z > 1$, and the first known cool core cluster at $z > 1.2$. The offset of this core from the large-scale centroid suggests that this cluster has had a relatively recent ($\lesssim$500 Myr) merger/interaction with another massive system.

 

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