# Posts Tagged galactic disk

## Recent Postings from galactic disk

Globular clusters are ancient stellar populations with no star formation or core-collapse supernovae. Several lines of evidence suggest that globular clusters are rich in planets. If so, and if advanced civilizations can develop there, then the distances between these civilizations and other stars would be far smaller than typical distances between stars in the Galactic disk. The relative proximity would facilitate interstellar communication and travel. However, the very proximity that promotes interstellar travel also brings danger, since stellar interactions can destroy planetary systems. However, by modeling globular clusters and their stellar populations, we find that large regions of many globular clusters can be thought of as "sweet spots" where habitable-zone planetary orbits can be stable for long times. We also compute the ambient densities and fluxes in the regions within which habitable-zone planets can survive. Globular clusters are among the best targets for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). We use the Drake equation to compare globular clusters to the Galactic disk, in terms of the likelihood of housing advanced communicating civilizations. We also consider free-floating planets, since wide-orbit planets can be ejected and travel freely through the cluster. A civilization spawned in a globular cluster may have opportunities to establish self-sustaining outposts, thereby reducing the probability that a single catastrophic event will destroy the civilization or its descendants. Although individual civilizations within a cluster may follow different evolutionary paths, or even be destroyed, the cluster may always host some advanced civilization, once a small number of them have managed to jump across interstellar space.

### Herbig Ae/Be candidate stars in the innermost Galactic disk: Quartet cluster

In order to investigate the Galactic-scale environmental effects on the evolution of protoplanetary disks, we explored the near-infrared (NIR) disk fraction of the Quartet cluster, which is a young cluster in the innermost Galactic disk at the Galactocentric radius Rg ~ 4 kpc. Because this cluster has a typical cluster mass of ~10^3 M_sun as opposed to very massive clusters, which have been observed in previous studies (>10^4 M_sun), we can avoid intra-cluster effects such as strong UV field from OB stars. Although the age of the Quartet is previously estimated to be 3-8 Myr old, we find that it is most likely ~3-4.5 Myr old. In moderately deep JHK images from the UKIDSS survey, we found eight HAeBe candidates in the cluster, and performed K-band medium-resolution ($R \equiv \Delta \lambda / \lambda ~ 800$) spectroscopy for three of them with the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. These are found to have both Br\gamma absorption lines as well as CO bandhead emission, suggesting that they are HAeBe stars with protoplanetary disks. We estimated the intermediate-mass disk fraction (IMDF) to be ~25 % for the cluster, suggesting slightly higher IMDF compared to those for young clusters in the solar neighborhood with similar cluster age, although such conclusion should await future spectroscopic study of all candidates of cluster members.

### Weighing the Galactic disk using the Jeans equation: lessons from simulations [Replacement]

Using three-dimensional stellar kinematic data from simulated galaxies, we examine the efficacy of a Jeans equation analysis in reconstructing the total disk surface density, including the dark matter, at the "Solar" radius. Our simulation dataset includes galaxies formed in a cosmological context using state-of-the-art high resolution cosmological zoom simulations, and other idealised models. The cosmologically formed galaxies have been demonstrated to lie on many of the observed scaling relations for late-type spirals, and thus offer an interesting surrogate for real galaxies with the obvious advantage that all the kinematical data are known perfectly. We show that the vertical velocity dispersion is typically the dominant kinematic quantity in the analysis, and that the traditional method of using only the vertical force is reasonably effective at low heights above the disk plane. At higher heights the inclusion of the radial force becomes increasingly important. We also show that the method is sensitive to uncertainties in the measured disk parameters, particularly the scale lengths of the assumed double exponential density distribution, and the scale length of the radial velocity dispersion. In addition, we show that disk structure and low number statistics can lead to significant errors in the calculated surface densities. Finally we examine the implications of our results for previous studies of this sort, suggesting that more accurate measurements of the scale lengths may help reconcile conflicting estimates of the local dark matter density in the literature.

### Weighing the Galactic disk using the Jeans equation: lessons from simulations

Using three-dimensional stellar kinematic data from simulated galaxies, we examine the efficacy of a Jeans equation analysis in reconstructing the total disk surface density, including the dark matter, at the "Solar" radius. Our simulation dataset includes galaxies formed in a cosmological context using state-of-the-art high resolution cosmological zoom simulations, and other idealised models. The cosmologically formed galaxies have been demonstrated to lie on many of the observed scaling relations for late-type spirals, and thus offer an interesting surrogate for real galaxies with the obvious advantage that all the kinematical data are known perfectly. We show that the vertical velocity dispersion is typically the dominant kinematic quantity in the analysis, and that the traditional method of using only the vertical force is reasonably effective at low heights above the disk plane. At higher heights the inclusion of the radial force becomes increasingly important. We also show that the method is sensitive to uncertainties in the measured disk parameters, particularly the scale lengths of the assumed double exponential density distribution, and the scale length of the radial velocity dispersion. In addition, we show that disk structure and low number statistics can lead to significant errors in the calculated surface densities. Finally we examine the implications of our results for previous studies of this sort, suggesting that more accurate measurements of the scale lengths may help reconcile conflicting estimates of the local dark matter density in the literature.

### Galactic Wind in NGC 4460: New Observations

NGC4460 is an isolated lenticular galaxy, in which galactic wind has been earlier discovered as a gas outflow associated with circumnuclear regions of star formation. Using the results of observations in the Halpha line with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer on the SAO RAS 6-m telescope, we studied the kinematics of the ionized gas in this galaxy. The parameters of gas outflow from the plane of the galactic disk were refined within a simple geometric model. We show that it is impossible to characterize the wind by a fixed velocity value. Characteristic outflow velocities are within 30..80 km/s , and they are insufficient to make the swept-out matter ultimately leave the galaxy.

### The Surface Density Profile of the Galactic Disk from the Terminal Velocity Curve

The mass distribution of the Galactic disk is constructed from the terminal velocity curve and the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation. Mass models numerically quantifying the detailed surface density profiles are tabulated. For $R_0 = 8$ kpc, the models have stellar mass $5 < M_* < 6 \times 10^{10}$ M$_{\odot}$, scale length $2.0 \le R_d \le 2.9$ kpc, LSR circular velocity $222 \le \Theta_0 \le 233$ km s$^{-1}$, and solar circle stellar surface density $34 \le \Sigma_d(R_0) \le 61$ M$_{\odot}$ pc$^{-2}$. The present inter-arm location of the solar neighborhood may have a somewhat lower stellar surface density than average for the solar circle. The Milky Way appears to be a normal spiral galaxy that obeys scaling relations like the Tully-Fisher relation, the size-mass relation, and the disk maximality-surface brightness relation. The stellar disk is maximal, and the spiral arms are massive. The bumps and wiggles in the terminal velocity curve correspond to known spiral features (e.g., the Centaurus Arm is a $\sim 50\%$ overdensity). The rotation curve switches between positive and negative over scales of hundreds of parsecs. The rms amplitude $\langle$$|$$dV/dR$$|^2$$\rangle$$^{1/2} \approx 14$ km s$^{-1}$ kpc$^{-1}$, implying that commonly neglected terms in the Jeans equations may be non-negligible. The spherically averaged local dark matter density is $\rho_{0,DM} \approx 0.009$ M$_{\odot}$ pc$^{-3}$ (0.3 GeV cm$^{-3}$). Adiabatic compression of the dark matter halo may help reconcile the Milky Way with the $c$-$V_{200}$ relation expected in $\Lambda$CDM while also helping to mitigate the too big to fail problem, but it remains difficult to reconcile the inner bulge/bar dominated region with a cuspy halo. We note that NGC 3521 is a near twin to the Milky Way, having a similar luminosity, scale length, and rotation curve.

### Collisions between Dark Matter Confined High Velocity Clouds and Magnetized Galactic Disks: The Smith Cloud

The Galaxy's population of High Velocity Clouds (HVCs) may include a subpopulation that is confined by dark matter minihalos and falling toward the Galactic disk. We present the first magnetohydrodynamic simulational study of dark matter-dominated HVCs colliding with a weakly magnetized galactic disk. Our HVCs have baryonic masses of $5 \times 10^6\,$M$_{\odot}$ and dark matter minihalo masses of 0, $3 \times 10^8$, or $1 \times 10^9\,$M$_{\odot}$. They are modeled on the Smith Cloud, which is said to have collided with the disk 70 Myr ago. We find that, in all cases, the cloud's collision with the galactic disk creates a hole in the disk, completely disperses the cloud, and forms a bubble-shaped structure on the far side of the disk. In contrast, when present, the dark matter minihalo continues unimpeded along its trajectory. Later, as the minihalo passes through the bubble structure and galactic halo, it accretes up to $6.0 \times 10^5\,$M$_{\odot}$ in baryonic material, depending on the strengths of the magnetic field and minihalo gravity. These simulations suggest that if the Smith Cloud is associated with a dark matter minihalo and collided with the Galactic disk, the minihalo has accreted the observed gas. However, if the Smith Cloud is dark matter-free, it is on its first approach toward the disk. These simulations also suggest that the dark matter is most concentrated either at the head of the cloud or near the cloud, depending upon the strength of the magnetic field, a point that could inform indirect dark matter searches.

### The complex stellar populations in the lines of sight to open clusters in the third Galactic quadrant

Multi-color photometry of the stellar populations in five fields in the third Galactic quadrant centred on the clusters NGC 2215, NGC 2354, Haffner 22, Ruprecht 11, and ESO489SC01 is interpreted in terms of a warped and flared Galactic disk, without resort to an external entity such as the popular Monoceros or Canis Major overdensities. Except for NGC 2215, the clusters are poorly or unstudied previously. The data generate basic parameters for each cluster, including the distribution of stars along the line of sight. We use star counts and photometric analysis, without recourse to Galactic-model-based predictions or interpretations, and confirms earlier results for NGC 2215 and NGC 2354. ESO489SC01 is not a real cluster, while Haffner~22 is an overlooked cluster aged about 2.5 Gyr. Conclusions for Ruprecht~11 are preliminary, evidence for a cluster being marginal. Fields surrounding the clusters show signatures of young and intermediate-age stellar populations. The young population background to NGC~2354 and Ruprecht~11 lies 8-9 kpc from the Sun and $\sim$1 kpc below the formal Galactic plane, tracing a portion of the Norma-Cygnus arm, challenging Galactic models that adopt a sharp cut-off of the disk 12-14 kpc from the Galactic center. The old population is metal poor with an age of 2-3 Gyr, resembling star clusters like Tombaugh 2 or NGC 2158. It has a large color spread and is difficult to locate precisely. Young and old populations follow a pattern that depends critically on the vertical location of the thin and/or thick disk, and whether or not a particular line of sight intersects one, both, or none.

### Search for Galactic disk and halo components in the arrival directions of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos

Arrival directions of 40 neutrino events with energies >~100 TeV, observed by the IceCube experiment, are studied. Their distribution in the Galactic latitude and in the angular distance to the Galactic Center allow to search for the Milky-Way disk and halo-related components, respectively. No statistically significant evidence for the disk component is found, though even 100% disk origin of the flux is allowed at the 90% confidence level. Contrary, the Galactic Center-Anticenter dipole anisotropy, specific for dark-matter decays (annihilation) or for interactions of cosmic rays with the extended halo of circumgalactic gas, is clearly favoured over the isotropic distribution (the probability of a fluctuation of the isotropic signal is ~2%).

### Excitation of coupled stellar motions in the Galactic Disk by orbiting satellites

We use a set of high-resolution N-body simulations of the Galactic disk to study its interactions with the population of satellites predicted cosmologically. One simulation illustrates that multiple passages of massive satellites with different velocities through the disk generate a wobble, having the appearance of rings in face-on projections of the stellar disk. They also produce flares in the disk outer parts and gradually heat the disk through bending waves. A different numerical experiment shows that an individual satellite as massive as the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy passing through the disk will drive coupled horizontal and vertical oscillations of stars in underdense regions, with no significant associated heating. This experiment shows that vertical excursions of stars in these low-density regions can exceed 1 kpc in the Solar neighborhood, resembling the coherent vertical oscillations recently detected locally. They can also induce non-zero vertical streaming motions as large as 10-20 km s$^{-1}$, consistent with recent observations in the Galactic disk. This phenomenon appears as a local ring, with no associated disk heating.

### Planet signatures and effect of the chemical evolution of the Galactic thin-disk stars

Context: Studies based on high-precision abundance determinations revealed that chemical patterns of solar twins are characterised by the correlation between the differential abundances relative to the Sun and the condensation temperatures (Tc) of the elements. It has been suggested that the origin of this relation is related to the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk, but other processes, associated with the presence of planets around stars, might also be involved. Aims: We analyse HIRES spectra of 14 solar twins and the Sun to provide new insights on the mechanisms that can determine the relation between [X/H] and Tc. Methods: Our spectroscopic analysis produced stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and $\xi$), ages, masses, and abundances of 22 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, and Ba). We used these determinations to place new constraints on the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk and to verify whether this process alone can explain the different [X/H]-Tc slopes observed so far. Results: We confirm that the [X/Fe] ratios of all the species correlate with age. The slopes of these relations allow us to describe the effect that the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk has on the chemical patterns of the solar twins. After subtracting the chemical evolution effect, we find that the unevolved [X/H]-Tc slope values do not depend on the stellar ages anymore. However, the wide diversity among these [X/H]-Tc slopes, covering a range of $\pm$4~10$^{-5}$ dex K$^{-1}$, indicates that processes in addition to the chemical evolution may affect the [X/H]-Tc slopes. Conclusions: The wide range of unevolved [X/H]-Tc slope values spanned at all ages by our sample could reflect the wide diversity among exo-planetary systems observed so far and the variety of fates that the matter in circumstellar disks can experience.

### Planet signatures and effect of the chemical evolution of the Galactic thin-disk stars [Replacement]

Context: Studies based on high-precision abundance determinations revealed that chemical patterns of solar twins are characterised by the correlation between the differential abundances relative to the Sun and the condensation temperatures (Tc) of the elements. It has been suggested that the origin of this relation is related to the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk, but other processes, associated with the presence of planets around stars, might also be involved. Aims: We analyse HIRES spectra of 14 solar twins and the Sun to provide new insights on the mechanisms that can determine the relation between [X/H] and Tc. Methods: Our spectroscopic analysis produced stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and $\xi$), ages, masses, and abundances of 22 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, and Ba). We used these determinations to place new constraints on the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk and to verify whether this process alone can explain the different [X/H]-Tc slopes observed so far. Results: We confirm that the [X/Fe] ratios of all the species correlate with age. The slopes of these relations allow us to describe the effect that the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk has on the chemical patterns of the solar twins. After subtracting the chemical evolution effect, we find that the unevolved [X/H]-Tc slope values do not depend on the stellar ages anymore. However, the wide diversity among these [X/H]-Tc slopes, covering a range of $\pm$4~10$^{-5}$ dex K$^{-1}$, indicates that processes in addition to the chemical evolution may affect the [X/H]-Tc slopes. Conclusions: The wide range of unevolved [X/H]-Tc slope values spanned at all ages by our sample could reflect the wide diversity among exo-planetary systems observed so far and the variety of fates that the matter in circumstellar disks can experience.

### No Evidence for Classical Cepheids and a New Dwarf Galaxy Behind the Galactic Disk

Based on data from the ongoing OGLE Galaxy Variability Survey (OGLE GVS) we have verified observed properties of stars detected by the near-infrared VVV survey in a direction near the Galactic plane at longitude l~-27 deg and recently tentatively classified as classical Cepheids belonging to a, hence claimed, dwarf galaxy at a distance of about 90 kpc from the Galactic Center. Three of four stars are detected in the OGLE GVS I-band images. We show that two of the objects are not variable at all and the third one with a period of 5.695 d and a nearly sinusoidal light curve of an amplitude of 0.5 mag cannot be a classical Cepheid and is very likely a spotted object. These results together with a very unusual shape of the Ks-band light curve of the fourth star indicate that very likely none of them is a Cepheid and, thus, there is no evidence for a background dwarf galaxy. Our observations show that a great care must be taken when classifying objects by their low-amplitude close-to-sinusoidal near-infrared light curves, especially with a small number of measurements. We also provide a sample of high-amplitude spotted stars with periods of a few days that can mimick pulsations and even eclipses.

### Properties of the open cluster Tombaugh 1 from high resolution spectroscopy and uvbyCaH$\beta$ photometry

Open clusters can be the key to deepen our knowledge on various issues involving the structure and evolution of the Galactic disk and details of stellar evolution because a cluster's properties are applicable to all its members. However the number of open clusters with detailed analysis from high resolution spectroscopy and/or precision photometry imposes severe limitation on studies of these objects. To expand the number of open clusters with well-defined chemical abundances and fundamental parameters, we investigate the poorly studied, anticenter open cluster Tombaugh 1. Using precision uvbyCaH$\beta$ photometry and high resolution spectroscopy, we derive the cluster's properties and, for the first time, present detailed abundance analysis of 10 potential cluster stars. Using radial position from the cluster center and multiple color indices, we have isolated a sample of unevolved probable, single-star members of Tombaugh 1. The weighted photometric metallicity from $m_1$ and $hk$ is [Fe/H] = -0.10 $\pm$ 0.02, while a match to the Victoria-Regina Str\"{o}mgren isochrones leads to an age of 0.95 $\pm$ 0.10 Gyr and an apparent modulus of $(m-M)$ = 13.10 $\pm$ 0.10. Radial velocities identify 6 giants as probable cluster members and the elemental abundances of Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Y,Ba, Ce, and Nd have been derived for both the cluster and the field stars. Tombaugh 1 appears to be a typical inner thin disk, intermediate-age open cluster of slightly subsolar metallicity, located just beyond the solar circle, with solar elemental abundance ratios except for the heavy s-process elements, which are a factor of two above solar. Its metallicity is consistent with a steep metallicity gradient in the galactocentric region between 9.5 and 12 kpc. Our study also shows that Cepheid XZ CMa is not a member of Tombaugh 1, and reveals that this Cepheid presents signs of barium enrichment.

### The chemical homogeneity of open clusters

Determining the level of chemical homogeneity in open clusters is of fundamental importance in the study of the evolution of star-forming clouds and that of the Galactic disk. Yet limiting the initial abundance spread in clusters has been hampered by difficulties in obtaining consistent spectroscopic abundances for different stellar types. Without reference to any specific model of stellar photospheres, a model for a homogeneous cluster is that it forms a one-dimensional sequence, with any differences between members due to variations in stellar mass and observational uncertainties. I present a novel method for investigating the abundance spread in open clusters that tests this one-dimensional hypothesis at the level of observed stellar spectra, rather than constraining homogeneity using derived abundances as traditionally done. Using high-resolution APOGEE spectra for 49 giants in M67, NGC 6819, and NGC 2420 I demonstrate that these spectra form one-dimensional sequences for each cluster. With detailed forward modeling of the spectra and Approximate Bayesian Computation, I derive strong limits on the initial abundance spread of 15 elements: <0.01 (0.02) dex for C and Fe, <~0.015 (0.03) dex for N, O, Mg, Si, and Ni, <~0.02 (0.03) dex for Al, Ca, and Mn, and <~0.03 (0.05) dex for Na, S, K, Ti, and V (at 68% and 95% confidence, respectively). The strong limits on C and O imply that no pollution by massive core-collapse supernovae occurred during star formation in open clusters, which, thus, need to form within <~6 Myr. Further development of this and related techniques will bring the power of differential abundances to stars other than solar twins in large spectroscopic surveys and will help unravel the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in the Milky Way through chemical tagging.

### The connecting molecular ridge in the Galactic center

We report new observations of multiple transitions of the CS molecular lines in the SgrA region of the Galactic center, at an angular resolution of 40" (=1.5 pc). The objective of this paper is to study the polar arc, which is a molecular ridge near the SgrA region, with apparent non-coplanar motions, and a velocity gradient perpendicular to the Galactic plane. With our high resolution dense-gas maps, we search for the base and the origin of the polar arc, which is expected to be embedded in the Galactic disk. We find that the polar arc is connected to a continuous structure from one of the disk ring/arm in both the spatial and velocity domains. This structure near SgrA* has high CS(J=4-3)/CS(J=2-1) ratios >1. That this structure has eluded detection in previous observations, is likely due to the combination of high excitation and low surface brightness temperature. We call this new structure the connecting ridge. We discuss the possible mechanism to form this structure and to lift the gas above the Galactic plane.

### The stellar population structure of the Galactic disk

The detailed spatial structure of stellar populations with different chemical abundances in the Milky Way's disk contains a wealth of information on Galactic growth and evolution over cosmic time. We use data on 14,699 red-clump stars from the spectroscopic APOGEE survey, covering 4 <~ R <~ 15 kpc, to determine the spatial structure of mono-abundance populations (MAPs)---stars in narrow bins in [a/Fe] and [Fe/H]---accounting for the effects of the APOGEE selection function and the spatially-variable dust obscuration. We determine that all MAPs with enhanced [a/Fe] are centrally concentrated and are well-described as exponentials with a scale length of 2.2+/-0.2 kpc over the whole radial range of the disk. We discover that the radial surface-density profiles of low-[a/Fe] MAPs are complex: they do not monotonically decrease outwards, but rather display a peak radius ranging from ~5 kpc to ~13 kpc. The radial coverage of the data allows us to measure radial trends in each MAP's thickness. While high-[a/Fe] MAPs have constant scale heights everywhere, low-[a/Fe] MAPs flare outward, with an exponential flaring profile with a scale length of 8.5+/-0.7 kpc. We confirm, now with high-precision abundances, previous results that each MAP contains only a single vertical scale height. We also confirm that low-[Fe/H], low-[a/Fe] and high-[Fe/H], high-[a/Fe] MAPs have intermediate scale heights that smoothly bridge the traditional thin- and thick-disk divide. That the high-[a/Fe], thick disk components do not flare is strong evidence against their thickness being caused by radial migration or satellite heating. The correspondence between the radial structure and chemical-enrichment age of stellar populations is clear confirmation of the inside-out growth of galactic disks. The details of these relations will constrain the variety of physical conditions under which stars form throughout the MW disk.

### Cosmic-ray protons, nuclei, electrons, and antiparticles under a two-halo scenario of diffusive propagation

We report calculations of cosmic-ray proton, nuclei, antiproton, electron and positron energy spectra within a "two-halo model" of diffusive transport. The two halos represent a simple, physically consistent generalization of the standard diffusion models, which assume a unique type of diffusion for cosmic rays in the whole Galactic halo. We believe instead that cosmic rays may experience a smaller energy dependence of diffusion when they are in proximity of the Galactic disk. Our scenario is supported by recent observations of cosmic-ray protons, nuclei, anisotropy, and gamma-rays. We predict remarkably hard antiparticle spectra at high energy. In particular, at E>10 GeV, the antiproton/proton ratio is expected to flatten, while the positron fraction is found to increase with energy. We discuss the implications for cosmic-ray physics and dark matter searches via antimatter.

### Cosmic-ray protons, nuclei, electrons, and antiparticles under a two-halo scenario of diffusive propagation [Replacement]

We report calculations of cosmic-ray proton, nuclei, antiproton, electron and positron energy spectra within a "two-halo model" of diffusive transport. The two halos represent a simple, physically consistent generalization of the standard diffusion models, which assume a unique type of diffusion for cosmic rays in the whole Galactic halo. We believe instead that cosmic rays may experience a smaller energy dependence of diffusion when they are in proximity of the Galactic disk. Our scenario is supported by recent observations of cosmic-ray protons, nuclei, anisotropy, and gamma-rays. We predict remarkably hard antiparticle spectra at high energy. In particular, at E>10 GeV, the antiproton/proton ratio is expected to flatten, while the positron fraction is found to increase with energy. We discuss the implications for cosmic-ray physics and dark matter searches via antimatter.

### Spitzer Parallax of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A Cold Neptune in the Galactic Disk

We report the detection of a Cold Neptune m_planet=21+/-2MEarth orbiting a 0.38MSol M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al. (2015), which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow-up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near-to-mid disk and clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

### The Bochum Survey of the Southern Galactic Disk: II. Follow-up measurements and multi-filter photometry for 1323 square degrees monitored in 2010-2015

This paper is the second in a series describing the southern Galactic Disk Survey (GDS) performed at the Universit\"atssternwarte Bochum near Cerro Armazones in Chile. Haas et al. (2012, Paper I) presented the survey design and a the characteristics of the observations and data. They identified ~2200 variable stars in an area of 50 square degrees with more than 50 observations in 2011. Here we present the first complete version of the GDS covering all 268 fields with 1323 square degrees along the Galactic disk including revised data from Paper I. The individual fields were observed up to 272 times and comprise a maximum time span between September 2010 and May 2015. We detect a total of 64151 variable sources, which are presented in a catalog including some of their properties and their light curves. A comparison with the International Variable Star Index (VSX) and All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) indicates that 56794 of these sources are previously unknown variables. Furthermore, we present UBVr'i'z' photometry for all sources within the GDS, resulting in a new multi-color catalog of nearly 16x10^6 sources detected in at least one filter. Both the GDS and the near-infrared VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea survey (VVV) complement each other in the overlap area of about 300 square degrees enabling future comparison studies.

### A comparative study on the reliability of open cluster parameters

Open clusters are known as excellent tracers of the structure and chemical evolution of the Galactic disk, however, the accuracy and reliability of open cluster parameters is poorly known. In recent years, several studies aimed to present homogeneous open cluster parameter compilations, which are based on some different approaches and photometric data. These catalogues are excellent sources to facilitate testing of the actual accuracy of open cluster parameters. We compare seven cluster parameter compilations statistically and with an external sample, which comprises the mean results of individual studies. Furthermore, we selected the objects IC 4651, NGC 2158, NGC 2383, NGC 2489, NGC 2627, NGC 6603, and Trumpler 14, with the main aim to highlight differences in the fitting solutions. We derived correction terms for each cluster parameter, using the external calibration sample. Most results by the compilations are reasonable scaled, but there are trends or constant offsets of different degree. We also identified one data set, which appears too erroneous to allow adjustments. After the correction, the mean intrinsic errors amount to about 0.2 dex for the age, 0.08 mag for the reddening, and 0.35 mag for the distance modulus. However, there is no study that characterises the cluster morphologies of all test cases in a correct and consistent manner. Furthermore, we found that the largest compilations probably include at least 20 percent of problematic objects, for which the parameters differ significantly. These could be among others doubtful or unlikely open clusters that do not facilitate an unambiguous fitting solution.

### APOGEE chemical tagging constraint on the maximum star cluster mass in the $\alpha$-enhanced Galactic disk [Replacement]

Stars born from the same molecular cloud should be nearly homogeneous in their element abundances. The concept of chemical tagging is to identify members of disrupted clusters by their clustering in element abundance space. Chemical tagging requires large samples of stars with precise abundances for many individual elements. With uncertainties of $\sigma_{[X/{\rm Fe}]}$ and $\sigma_{\rm [Fe/H]} \simeq 0.05$ for 10 elements measured for $>10^4$ stars, the APOGEE DR12 spectra may be the first well-suited data set to put this idea into practice. We find that even APOGEE data offer only $\sim 500$ independent volume elements in the 10-dimensional abundance space, when we focus on the $\alpha$-enhanced Galactic disk. We develop and apply a new algorithm to search for chemically homogeneous sets of stars against a dominant background. By injecting star clusters into the APOGEE data set we show that chemically homogeneous clusters with masses $\gtrsim 3 \times 10^7 \, {\rm M}_\odot$ would be easily detectable and yet no such signal is seen in the data. By generalizing this approach, we put a first abundance-based constraint on the cluster mass function for the old disk stars in the Milky Way.

### APOGEE chemical tagging constraint on the maximum star cluster mass in the $\alpha$-enhanced Galactic disk

Stars born from the same molecular cloud should be nearly homogeneous in their element abundances. The concept of chemical tagging is to identify members of disrupted clusters by their clustering in element abundance space. Chemical tagging requires large samples of stars with precise abundances for many individual elements. With uncertainties of $\sigma_{[X/{\rm Fe}]}$ and $\sigma_{\rm [Fe/H]} \simeq 0.05$ for 10 elements measured for $> 10^4$ stars, the APOGEE DR12 spectra may be the first well-suited data set to put this idea into practice. We find that even APOGEE data offer only $\sim 500$ independent volume elements in the 10-dimensional abundance space, when we focus on the $\alpha$-enhanced Galactic disk. We develop and apply a new algorithm to search for chemically homogeneous sets of stars against a dominant background. By injecting star clusters into the APOGEE data set we show that chemically homogeneous clusters with masses $\gtrsim 3 \times 10^7 \, {\rm M}_\odot$ would be easily detectable and yet no such signal is seen in the data. By generalizing this approach, we put a first abundance-based constraint on the cluster mass function for the old disk stars in the Milky Way.

### Using chemical tagging to redefine the interface of the Galactic disk and halo

We present a chemical abundance distribution study in 14 $\alpha$, odd-Z, even-Z, light, and Fe-peak elements of approximately 3200 intermediate metallicity giant stars from the APOGEE survey. The main aim of our analysis is to explore the Galactic disk-halo transition region between -1.20 $<$ [Fe/H] $<$ -0.55 as a means to study chemical difference (and similarities) between these components. In this paper, we show that there is an $\alpha$-poor and $\alpha$-rich sequence within both the metal-poor and intermediate metallicity regions. Using the Galactic rest-frame radial velocity and spatial positions, we further separate our sample into the canonical Galactic components. We then studied the abundances ratios, of Mg, Ti, Si, Ca, O, S, Al, C+N, Na, Ni, Mn, V, and K for each of the components and found the following: (1) the $\alpha$-poor halo subgroup is chemically distinct in the $\alpha$-elements (particularly O, Mg, and S), Al, C+N, and Ni from the $\alpha$-rich halo, consistent with the literature confirming the existence of an $\alpha$-poor accreted halo population; (2) the canonical thick disk and halo are not chemically distinct in all elements indicating a smooth transition between the thick disk and halo; (3) a subsample of the $\alpha$-poor stars at metallicities as low as [Fe/H] $\sim$ -0.85 dex are chemically and dynamically consistent with the thin disk indicating that the thin disk may extend to lower metallicities than previously thought, and (4) that the location of the most metal-poor thin disk stars are consistent with a negative radial metallicity gradient. Finally, we used our analysis to suggest a new set of chemical abundance planes ([$\alpha$/Fe], [C+N/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [Mg/Mn]) that may be able to chemically label the Galactic components in a clean and efficient way independent of kinematics.

### Tracing the propagation of cosmic rays in the Milky Way halo with Fermi-LAT observations of high- and intermediate-velocity clouds

Cosmic rays up to at least PeV energies are usually described in the framework of an elementary scenario that involves acceleration by objects that are located in the disk of the Milky Way, such as supernova remnants or massive star-forming regions, and then diffusive propagation throughout the Galaxy. Details of the propagation process are so far inferred mainly from the composition of cosmic rays measured near the Earth and then extrapolated to the whole Galaxy. The details of the propagation in the Galactic halo and the escape into the intergalactic medium remain uncertain. The densities of cosmic rays in specific locations can be traced via the gamma rays they produce in inelastic collisions with clouds of interstellar gas. Therefore, we analyze 73 months of Fermi-LAT data from 300 MeV to 10 GeV in the direction of several high- and intermediate-velocity clouds that are located in the halo of the Milky Way. These clouds are supposed to be free of internal sources of cosmic rays and hence any gamma-ray emission from them samples the large-scale distribution of Galactic cosmic rays. We evaluate for the first time the gamma-ray emissivity per hydrogen atom up to ~7 kpc above the Galactic disk. The emissivity is found to decrease with distance from the disk, which provides direct evidence that cosmic rays at the relevant energies originate therein. Furthermore, the emissivity of one of the targets, the upper intermediate-velocity Arch, hints at a 50% decline of the cosmic-ray intensity within 2 kpc from the disk.

### Wiggle Instability of Galactic Spiral Shocks: Effects of Magnetic Fields

It has been suggested that the wiggle instability (WI) of spiral shocks in a galactic disk is responsible for the formation of gaseous feathers observed in grand-design spiral galaxies. We perform both a linear stability analysis and numerical simulations to investigate the effect of magnetic fields on the WI. The disk is assumed to be infinitesimally-thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. We control the strengths of magnetic fields and spiral-arm forcing using the dimensionless parameters $\beta$ and $\mathcal{F}$, respectively. By solving the perturbation equations as a boundary-eigenvalue problem, we obtain dispersion relations of the WI for various values of $\beta=1-\infty$ and $\mathcal{F}=5\%$ and $10\%$. We find that the WI arising from the accumulation of potential vorticity at disturbed shocks is suppressed, albeit not completely, by magnetic fields. The stabilizing effect of magnetic fields is not from the perturbed fields but from the unperturbed fields that reduce the density compression factor in the background shocks. When $\mathcal{F}=5\%$ and $\beta\lesssim 10$ or $\mathcal{F}=10\%$ and $\beta\sim5-10$, the most unstable mode has a wavelength of $\sim0.1-0.2$ times the arm-to-arm separation, which appears consistent with a mean spacing of observed feathers.

### The Odd Offset between the Galactic Disk and Its Bar in NGC 3906

We use mid-infrared 3.6 and 4.5microns imaging of NGC 3906 from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) to understand the nature of an unusual offset between its stellar bar and the photometric center of an otherwise regular, circular outer stellar disk. We measure an offset of ~720 pc between the center of the stellar bar and photometric center of the stellar disk; the bar center coincides with the kinematic center of the disk determined from previous HI observations. Although the undisturbed shape of the disk suggests that NGC 3906 has not undergone a significant merger event in its recent history, the most plausible explanation for the observed offset is an interaction. Given the relatively isolated nature of NGC 3906 this interaction could be with dark matter sub structure in the galaxy's halo or from a recent interaction with a fast moving neighbor which remains to be identified. Simulations aimed at reproducing the observed offset between the stellar bar / kinematic center of the system and the photometric center of the disk are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and constrain the interaction history of the galaxy.

### SUSY dark matter annihilation in the Galactic halo

Neutralino annihilation in the Galactic halo is the most definite observational signature proposed for indirect registration of the SUSY Dark Matter (DM) candidate particles. The corresponding annihilation signal (in the form of gamma-rays, positrons and antiprotons) may be boosted for one or three orders of magnitude due to the clustering of cold DM particles into the small-scale and very dense self-gravitating clumps. We discuss the formation of these clumps from the initial density perturbations and their successive fate in the Galactic halo. Only a small fraction of these clumps, $\sim0.1$%, in each logarithmic mass interval $\Delta\log M\sim1$ survives the stage of hierarchical clustering. We calculate the probability of surviving the remnants of dark matter clumps in the Galaxy by modelling the tidal destruction of the small-scale clumps by the Galactic disk and stars. It is demonstrated that a substantial fraction of clump remnants may survive through the tidal destruction during the lifetime of the Galaxy. The resulting mass spectrum of survived clumps is extended down to the mass of the core of the cosmologically produced clumps with a minimal mass. The survived dense remnants of tidally destructed clumps provide an amplification (boosting) of the annihilation signal with respect to the diffuse DM in the Galactic halo. We describe the anisotropy of clump distribution caused by the tidal destruction of clumps in the Galactic disk.

### SUSY dark matter annihilation in the Galactic halo [Cross-Listing]

Neutralino annihilation in the Galactic halo is the most definite observational signature proposed for indirect registration of the SUSY Dark Matter (DM) candidate particles. The corresponding annihilation signal (in the form of gamma-rays, positrons and antiprotons) may be boosted for one or three orders of magnitude due to the clustering of cold DM particles into the small-scale and very dense self-gravitating clumps. We discuss the formation of these clumps from the initial density perturbations and their successive fate in the Galactic halo. Only a small fraction of these clumps, $\sim0.1$%, in each logarithmic mass interval $\Delta\log M\sim1$ survives the stage of hierarchical clustering. We calculate the probability of surviving the remnants of dark matter clumps in the Galaxy by modelling the tidal destruction of the small-scale clumps by the Galactic disk and stars. It is demonstrated that a substantial fraction of clump remnants may survive through the tidal destruction during the lifetime of the Galaxy. The resulting mass spectrum of survived clumps is extended down to the mass of the core of the cosmologically produced clumps with a minimal mass. The survived dense remnants of tidally destructed clumps provide an amplification (boosting) of the annihilation signal with respect to the diffuse DM in the Galactic halo. We describe the anisotropy of clump distribution caused by the tidal destruction of clumps in the Galactic disk.

### On the metallicity gradients of the Galactic disk as revealed by LSS-GAC red clump stars

Using a sample of over 70, 000 red clump (RC) stars with $5$-$10$% distance accuracy selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC), we study the radial and vertical gradients of the Galactic disk(s) mainly in the anti-center direction, covering a significant disk volume of projected Galactocentric radius $7 \leq R_{\rm GC} \leq 14$ kpc and height from the Galactic midplane $0 \leq |Z| \leq 3$ kpc. Our analysis shows that both the radial and vertical metallicity gradients are negative across much of the disk volume probed, and exhibit significant spatial variations. Near the solar circle ($7 \leq R_{\rm GC} \leq 11.5$ kpc), the radial gradient has a moderately steep, negative slope of $-0.08$ dex kpc$^{-1}$ near the midplane ($|Z| < 0.1$ kpc), and the slope flattens with increasing $|Z|$. In the outer disk ($11.5 < R_{\rm GC} \leq 14$ kpc), the radial gradients have an essentially constant, much less steep slope of $-0.01$ dex kpc $^{-1}$ at all heights above the plane, suggesting that the outer disk may have experienced an evolution path different from that of the inner disk. The vertical gradients are found to flatten largely with increasing $R_{\rm GC}$. However, the vertical gradient of the lower disk ($0 \leq |Z| \leq 1$ kpc) is found to flatten with $R_{\rm GC}$ quicker than that of the upper disk ($1 < |Z| \leq 3$ kpc). Our results should provide strong constraints on the theory of disk formation and evolution, as well as the underlying physical processes that shape the disk (e.g. gas flows, radial migration, internal and external perturbations).

### The evolution of stellar metallicity gradients of the Milky Way disk from LSS-GAC main sequence turn-off stars: a two-phase disk formation history?

We use 297 042 main sequence turn-off stars selected from the LSS-GAC to determine the radial and vertical gradients of stellar metallicity of the Galactic disk in the anti-center direction. We determine ages of those turn-off stars by isochrone fitting and measure the temporal variations of metallicity gradients. Our results show that the gradients, both in the radial and vertical directions, exhibit significant spatial and temporal variations. The radial gradients yielded by stars of oldest ages (>11 Gyr) are essentially zero at all heights from the disk midplane, while those given by younger stars are always negative. The vertical gradients deduced from stars of oldest ages (>11Gyr) are negative and show only very weak variations with the Galactocentric distance in the disk plane, $R$, while those yielded by younger stars show strong variations with $R$. After being essentially flat at the earliest epochs of disk formation, the radial gradients steepen as age decreases, reaching a maxima (steepest) at age 7-8 Gyr, and then they flatten again. Similar temporal trends are also found for the vertical gradients. We infer that the assemblage of the Milky Way disk may have experienced at least two distinct phases. The earlier phase is probably related to a slow, pressure-supported collapse of gas, when the gas settles down to the disk mainly in the vertical direction. In the later phase, there are significant radial flows of gas in the disk, and the rate of gas inflow near the solar neighborhood reaches a maximum around a lookback time of 7-8 Gyr. The transition of the two phases occurs around a lookback time between 8 and 11 Gyr. The two phases may be responsible for the formation of the Milky Way thick and thin disks, respectively. And, as a consequence, we recommend that stellar age is a natural, physical criterion to distinguish thin and thick disk stars. ... (abridged)

### Galactic Disk Bulk Motions as Revealed by the LSS-GAC DR2

We report a detailed investigation of the bulk motions of the nearby Galactic stellar disk, based on three samples selected from the LSS-GAC DR2: a global sample containing 0.57 million FGK dwarfs out to $\sim$ 2 kpc, a local subset of the global sample consisting $\sim$ 5,400 stars within 150 pc, and an anti-center sample containing $\sim$ 4,400 AFGK dwarfs and red clump stars within windows of a few degree wide centered on the Galactic anti-center. The global sample is used to construct a three-dimensional map of bulk motions of the Galactic disk from the solar vicinity out to $\sim$ 2 kpc with a spatial resolution of $\sim$ 250 pc. Typical values of the radial and vertical components of bulk motion range from $-$15 km s$^{-1}$ to 15 km s$^{-1}$, while the lag behind the circular speed dominates the azimuthal component by up to $\sim$ 15 km s$^{-1}$. The map reveals spatially coherent, kpc-scale stellar flows in the disk, with typical velocities of a few tens km s$^{-1}$. Bending- and breathing-mode perturbations are clearly visible, and vary smoothly across the disk plane. Our data also reveal higher-order perturbations, such as breaks and ripples, in the profiles of vertical motion versus height. From the local sample, we find that stars of different populations exhibit very different patterns of bulk motion. Finally, the anti-center sample reveals a number of peaks in stellar number density in the line-of-sight velocity versus distance distribution, with the nearer ones apparently related to the known moving groups. The "velocity bifurcation" reported by Liu et al. (2012) at Galactocentric radii 10--11 kpc is confirmed. However, just beyond this distance, our data also reveal a new triple-peaked structure.

### A Herschel/HIFI Legacy Survey of HF and H2O in the Galaxy: Probing Diffuse Molecular Cloud Chemistry

We combine Herschel observations of a total of 12 sources to construct the most uniform survey of HF and H2O in our Galactic disk. Both molecules are detected in absorption along all sight lines. The high spectral resolution of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) allows us to compare the HF and H2O distributions in 47 diffuse cloud components sampling the disk. We find that the HF and H2O velocity distributions follow each other almost perfectly and establish that HF and H2O probe the same gas-phase volume. Our observations corroborate theoretical predictions that HF is a sensitive tracer of H2 in diffuse clouds, down to molecular fractions of only a few percent. Using HF to trace H2 in our sample, we find that the N(H2O)-to-N(HF) ratio shows a narrow distribution with a median value of 1.51. Our results further suggest that H2O might be used as a tracer of H2 -within a factor 2.5- in the diffuse interstellar medium. We show that the measured factor of ~2.5 variation around the median is driven by true local variations in the H2O abundance relative to H2 throughout the disk. The latter variability allows us to test our theoretical understanding of the chemistry of oxygen-bearing molecules in the diffuse gas. We show that both gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry are required to reproduce our H2O observations. This survey thus confirms that grain surface reactions can play a significant role in the chemistry occurring in the diffuse interstellar medium n_H < 1000 cm^-3.

### Constraining MOND Using the Vertical Motion of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood

Stars with a different vertical motion relative to the galactic disk have a different average acceleration. According to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) theories they should therefore have a different average orbital velocity while revolving around the Milky Way. We show that this property can be used to constrain MOND theories by studying stars in the local neighborhood. With the Hipparcos dataset we can only place marginal constraints. However, the forthcoming GAIA catalogue with its significantly fainter cutoff should allow placing a stringent constraint. The method cannot be used to prove MOND, since halo stars can contribute a similar signal which would be hard to discern.

### Constraining MOND Using the Vertical Motion of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood [Replacement]

Stars with a different vertical motion relative to the galactic disk have a different average acceleration. According to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) theories they should therefore have a different average orbital velocity while revolving around the Milky Way. We show that this property can be used to constrain MOND theories by studying stars in the local neighborhood. With the {\sc Hipparcos} dataset we can only place marginal constraints. However, the forthcoming {\sc GAIA} catalogue with its significantly fainter cutoff should allow placing a stringent constraint.

### Azimuthal Metallicity Structure in the Milky Way Disk

Elemental abundance patterns in the Galactic disk constrain theories of the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. HII region abundances are the result of billions of years of chemical evolution. We made radio recombination line and continuum measurements of 21 HII regions located between Galactic azimuth Az = 90-130 degree, a previously unexplored region. We derive the plasma electron temperatures using the line-to-continuum ratios and use them as proxies for the nebular [O/H] abundances, because in thermal equilibrium the abundance of the coolants (O, N, and other heavy elements) in the ionized gas sets the electron temperature, with high abundances producing low temperatures. Combining these data with our previous work produces a sample of 90 HII regions with high quality electron temperature determinations. We derive kinematic distances in a self-consistent way for the entire sample. The radial gradient in [O/H] is -0.082 +/- 0.014 dex/kpc for Az = 90-130 degree, about a factor of two higher than the average value between Az = 0-60 degree. Monte Carlo simulations show that the azimuthal structure we reported for Az = 0-60 degree is not significant because kinematic distance uncertainties can be as high as 50% in this region. Nonetheless, the flatter radial gradients between Az = 0-60 degree compared with Az = 90-130 degree, are significant within the uncertainty. We suggest that this may be due to radial mixing from the Galactic Bar whose major axis is aligned toward Az ~30 degree.

### Hundreds of new cluster candidates in the VISTA variables in the Via Lactea survey DR1

VISTA variables in the Via Lactea is an ESO Public survey dedicated to scan the bulge and an adjacent portion of the Galactic disk in the fourth quadrant using the VISTA telescope and the near-infrared camera VIRCAM. One of the leading goals of the VVV survey is to contribute to the knowledge of the star cluster population of the Milky Way. To improve the census of the Galactic star clusters, we performed a systematic scan of the JHKs images of the Galactic plane section of the VVV survey. Our detection procedure is based on a combination of superficial density maps and visual inspection of promising features in the NIR images. The material examined are color-composite images corresponding to the DR1 of VVV. We report the discovery of 493 new star cluster candidates. The analysis of the spatial distribution show that the clusters are very concentrated in he Galactic plane, presenting some local maxima around the position of large star-forming complexes, such as G305, RCW 95, and RCW 106. The vast majority of the cluster candidates are quite compact and generally surrounded by bright and/or dark nebulosities. IRAS point sources are associated with 59% of the sample, while 88% are associated with MSX point sources. GLIMPSE 8 mum images of the cluster candidates show a variety of morphologies, with 292 clusters dominated by knotty sources, while 361 clusters show some kind of nebulosity. Spatial cross-correlation with young stellar objects, masers, and extended green-object catalogs suggest that a large sample of the new cluster candidates are extremely young. In particular, 104 star clusters associated to methanol masers are excellent candidates for ongoing massive star formation. Also, there is a special set of sixteen cluster candidates that present clear signspot of star-forming activity having associated simultaneosly dark nebulae, young stellar objects, EGOs, and masers.

### OGLE-IV: Fourth Phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment

We present both the technical overview and main science drivers of the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (hereafter OGLE-IV). OGLE-IV is currently one of the largest sky variability surveys worldwide, targeting the densest stellar regions of the sky. The survey covers over 3000 square degrees in the sky and monitors regularly over a billion sources. The main targets include the inner Galactic Bulge and the Magellanic System. Their photometry spans the range of $12<I<21$ mag and $13<I<21.7$ mag, respectively. Supplementary shallower Galaxy Variability Survey covers the extended Galactic bulge and 2/3 of the whole Galactic disk within the magnitude range of $10<I<19$ mag. All OGLE-IV surveys provide photometry with milli-magnitude accuracy at the bright end. The cadence of observations varies from 19-60 minutes in the inner Galactic bulge to 1-3 days in the remaining Galactic bulge fields, Magellanic System and the Galactic disk. OGLE-IV provides the astronomical community with a number of real time services. The Early Warning System (EWS) contains information on two thousand gravitational microlensing events being discovered in real time annually, the OGLE Transient Detection System (OTDS) delivers over 200 supernovae a year. We also provide the real time photometry of unpredictable variables such as optical counterparts to the X-ray sources and R CrB stars. Hundreds of thousands new variable stars have already been discovered and classified by the OGLE survey. The number of new detections will be at least doubled during the current OGLE-IV phase. The survey was designed and optimized primarily to conduct the second generation microlensing survey for exoplanets. It has already contributed significantly to the increase of the discovery rate of microlensing exoplanets and free-floating planets.

### On the formation and evolution of the first Be star in a black hole binary MWC 656 [Replacement]

We find that the formation of MWC 656 (the first Be binary containing a black hole) involves a common envelope phase and a supernova explosion. This result supports the idea that a rapidly rotating Be star can emerge out of a common envelope phase, which is very intriguing because this evolutionary stage is thought to be too fast to lead to significant accretion and spin up of the B star. We predict $\sim 10-100$ of B BH binaries to currently reside in the Galactic disk, among which around $1/3$ contain a Be star, but there is only a small chance to observe a system with parameters resembling MWC 656. If MWC 656 is representative of intrinsic Galactic Be BH binary population, it may indicate that standard evolutionary theory needs to be revised. This would pose another evolutionary problem in understanding BH binaries, with BH X-ray Novae formation issue being the prime example. The future evolution of MWC 656 with a $\sim 5$ M$_{\odot}$ black hole and with a $\sim 13$ M$_{\odot}$ main sequence companion on a $\sim 60$ day orbit may lead to the formation of a coalescing BH-NS system. The estimated Advanced LIGO/Virgo detection rate of such systems is up to $\sim 0.2$ yr$^{-1}$. This empirical estimate is a lower limit as it is obtained with only one particular evolutionary scenario, the MWC 656 binary. This is only a third such estimate available (after Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3), and it lends additional support to the existence of so far undetected BH--NS binaries.

### On the formation and evolution of the first Be star in a black hole binary MWC 656

We find that the formation of MWC 656 (the first Be binary containing a black hole) involves a common envelope phase and a supernova explosion. This result supports the idea that a rapidly rotating Be star can emerge out of a common envelope phase, which is very intriguing because this evolutionary stage is thought to be too fast to lead to significant accretion and spin up of the B star. We predict $\sim 10-100$ of Be BH binaries to currently reside in the Galactic disk, but there is only a small chance to observe a system with parameters resembling MWC 656. If MWC 656 is representative of intrinsic Galactic Be BH binary population, it may indicate that standard evolutionary theory needs to be revised. This would pose another evolutionary problem in understanding BH binaries, with BH X-ray Novae formation issue being the prime example. The future evolution of MWC 656 with a $\sim 5$ M$_{\odot}$ black hole and with a $\sim 13$ M$_{\odot}$ main sequence companion on a $\sim 60$ day orbit may lead to the formation of a coalescing BH-NS system. The estimated Advanced LIGO/Virgo detection rate of such systems is up to $\sim 0.2$ yr$^{-1}$. This empirical estimate is a lower limit as it is obtained with only one particular evolutionary scenario, the MWC 656 binary. This is only a third such estimate available (after Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3), and it lends additional support to the existence of so far undetected BH--NS binaries.

### Binary astrometric microlensing with Gaia

We investigate whether Gaia can specify the binary fractions of massive stellar populations in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Furthermore, we study if some information about their mass distributions can be inferred via this method. In this regard, we simulate the binary astrometric microlensing events due to massive stellar populations according to the Gaia observing strategy by considering (a) stellar-mass black holes, (b) neutron stars, (c) white dwarfs and (d) main-sequence stars as microlenses. The Gaia efficiency for detecting the binary signatures in binary astrometric microlensing events is $\sim 10-20$ per cent. By calculating the optical depth due to the mentioned stellar populations, the number of the binary astrometric microlensing events being observed with Gaia with detectable binary signatures, for the binary fraction about 0.1, is estimated as 6, 11, 77 and 1316 respectively. Consequently, Gaia can potentially specify the binary fractions of these massive stellar populations. However, the binary fraction of black holes measured with this method has the large uncertainty owing to a low number of the estimated events. Knowing the binary fractions in massive stellar populations helps for studying the gravitational waves. Moreover, we investigate the number of massive microlenses which Gaia specifies their masses through astrometric microlensing of single lenses toward the Galactic bulge. The resulted efficiencies of measuring the mass of mentioned populations are 9.8, 2.9, 1.2 and 0.8 per cent respectively. The number of their astrometric microlensing events being observed in the Gaia era in which the lens mass can be inferred with the relative error less than 0.5 toward the Galactic bulge is estimated as 45, 34, 76 and 786 respectively.

### The incorrect rotation curve of the Milky Way [Replacement]

In the fundamental quest of the rotation curve of the Milky Way, the tangent-point (TP) method has long been the simplest way to infer velocities for the inner, low latitude regions of the Galactic disk from observations of the gas component. We test the validity of the method on realistic gas distribution and kinematics of the Milky Way, using a numerical simulation of the Galaxy. We show that the resulting velocity profile strongly deviates from the true rotation curve of the simulation, as it overstimates it in the central regions, and underestimates it around the bar corotation. Also, its shape strongly depends on the orientation of the stellar bar. The discrepancies are caused by highly non-uniform azimuthal velocities, and the systematic selection by the TP method of high-velocity gas along the bar and spiral arms, or low-velocity gas in less dense regions. The velocity profile is in good agreement with the rotation curve only beyond corotation, far from massive asymmetric structures. Therefore the observed velocity profile of the Milky Way inferred by the TP method is expected to be very close to the true Galactic rotation curve for 4.5<R<8 kpc. Another consequence is that the Galactic velocity profile for R<4-4.5 kpc is very likely flawed by the non-uniform azimuthal velocities, and does not represent the true Galactic rotation curve, but instead local motions. The real shape of the innermost rotation curve is probably shallower than previously thought. Using a wrong rotation curve has a dramatic impact on the modelling of the mass distribution, in particular for the bulge component of which derived enclosed mass within the central kpc and scale radius are, respectively, twice and half of the actual values. We thus strongly argue against using terminal velocities or the velocity curve from the TP method for modelling the mass distribution of the Milky Way. (abridged)

### The wrong rotation curve of the Milky Way

In the fundamental quest of the rotation curve of the Milky Way, the tangent-point (TP) method has long been the simplest way to infer velocities for the inner, low latitude regions of the Galactic disk from observations of the gas component. We test the validity of the method on realistic gas distribution and kinematics of the Milky Way, using a numerical simulation of the Galaxy. We show that the resulting velocity profile strongly deviates from the true rotation curve of the simulation, as it overstimates it in the central regions, and underestimates it around the bar corotation. Also, its shape strongly depends on the orientation of the stellar bar. The discrepancies are caused by highly non-uniform azimuthal velocities, and the systematic selection by the TP method of high-velocity gas along the bar and spiral arms, or low-velocity gas in less dense regions. The velocity profile is in good agreement with the rotation curve only beyond corotation, far from massive asymmetric structures. Therefore the observed velocity profile of the Milky Way inferred by the TP method is expected to be very close to the true Galactic rotation curve for 4.5<R<8 kpc. Another consequence is that the Galactic velocity profile for R<4-4.5 kpc is very likely flawed by the non-uniform azimuthal velocities, and does not represent the true Galactic rotation curve, but instead local motions. The real shape of the innermost rotation curve is probably shallower than previously thought. Using a wrong rotation curve has a dramatic impact on the modelling of the mass distribution, in particular for the bulge component of which derived enclosed mass within the central kpc and scale radius are, respectively, twice and half of the actual values. We thus strongly argue against using terminal velocities or the velocity curve from the TP method for modelling the mass distribution of the Milky Way. (abridged)

### Magnetic fields of the W4 superbubble

Superbubbles and supershells are the channels for transferring mass and energy from the Galactic disk to the halo. Magnetic fields are believed to play a vital role in their evolution. We study the radio continuum and polarized emission properties of the W4 superbubble to determine its magnetic field strength. New sensitive radio continuum observations were made at 6 cm, 11 cm, and 21 cm. The total intensity measurements were used to derive the radio spectrum of the W4 superbubble. The linear polarization data were analysed to determine the magnetic field properties within the bubble shells. The observations show a multi-shell structure of the W4 superbubble. A flat radio continuum spectrum that stems from optically thin thermal emission is derived from 1.4 GHz to 4.8 GHz. By fitting a passive Faraday screen model and considering the filling factor fne , we obtain the thermal electron density ne = 1.0/\sqrt{fne} (\pm5%) cm^-3 and the strength of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field B// = -5.0/\sqrt{fne} (\pm10%) {\mu}G (i.e. pointing away from us) within the western shell of the W4 superbubble. When the known tilted geometry of the W4 superbubble is considered, the total magnetic field Btot in its western shell is greater than 12 {\mu}G. The electron density and the magnetic field are lower and weaker in the high-latitude parts of the superbubble. The rotation measure is found to be positive in the eastern shell but negative in the western shell of the W4 superbubble, which is consistent with the case that the magnetic field in the Perseus arm is lifted up from the plane towards high latitudes. The magnetic field strength and the electron density we derived for the W4 superbubble are important parameters for evolution models of superbubbles breaking out of the Galactic plane.

### A re-interpretation of the Triangulum-Andromeda stellar clouds: a population of halo stars kicked out of the Galactic disk

The Triangulum-Andromeda stellar clouds (TriAnd1 and TriAnd2) are a pair of concentric ring- or shell-like over-densities at large $R$ ($\approx$ 30 kpc) and $Z$ ($\approx$ -10 kpc) in the Galactic halo that are thought to have been formed from the accretion and disruption of a satellite galaxy. This paper critically re-examines this formation scenario by comparing the number ratio of RR Lyrae to M giant stars associated with the TriAnd clouds with other structures in the Galaxy. The current data suggest a stellar population for these over-densities ($f_{\rm RR:MG} < 0.38$ at 95% confidence) quite unlike any of the known satellites of the Milky Way ($f_{\rm RR:MG} \approx 0.5$ for the very largest and $f_{\rm RR:MG} >>1$ for the smaller satellites) and more like the population of stars born in the much deeper potential well inhabited by the Galactic disk ($f_{\rm RR:MG} < 0.01$). N-body simulations of a Milky-Way-like galaxy perturbed by the impact of a dwarf galaxy demonstrate that, in the right circumstances, concentric rings propagating outwards from that Galactic disk can plausibly produce similar over-densities. These results provide dramatic support for the recent proposal by Xu et al. (2015) that, rather than stars accreted from other galaxies, the TriAnd clouds could represent stars kicked-out from our own disk. If so, these would be the first populations of disk stars to be found in the Galactic halo and a clear signature of the importance of this second formation mechanism for stellar halos more generally. Moreover, their existence at the very extremities of the disk places strong constraints on the nature of the interaction that formed them.

### A re-interpretation of the Triangulum-Andromeda stellar clouds: a population of halo stars kicked out of the Galactic disk [Replacement]

The Triangulum-Andromeda stellar clouds (TriAnd1 and TriAnd2) are a pair of concentric ring- or shell-like over-densities at large $R$ ($\approx$ 30 kpc) and $Z$ ($\approx$ -10 kpc) in the Galactic halo that are thought to have been formed from the accretion and disruption of a satellite galaxy. This paper critically re-examines this formation scenario by comparing the number ratio of RR Lyrae to M giant stars associated with the TriAnd clouds with other structures in the Galaxy. The current data suggest a stellar population for these over-densities ($f_{\rm RR:MG} < 0.38$ at 95% confidence) quite unlike any of the known satellites of the Milky Way ($f_{\rm RR:MG} \approx 0.5$ for the very largest and $f_{\rm RR:MG} >>1$ for the smaller satellites) and more like the population of stars born in the much deeper potential well inhabited by the Galactic disk ($f_{\rm RR:MG} < 0.01$). N-body simulations of a Milky-Way-like galaxy perturbed by the impact of a dwarf galaxy demonstrate that, in the right circumstances, concentric rings propagating outwards from that Galactic disk can plausibly produce similar over-densities. These results provide dramatic support for the recent proposal by Xu et al. (2015) that, rather than stars accreted from other galaxies, the TriAnd clouds could represent stars kicked-out from our own disk. If so, these would be the first populations of disk stars to be found in the Galactic halo and a clear signature of the importance of this second formation mechanism for stellar halos more generally. Moreover, their existence at the very extremities of the disk places strong constraints on the nature of the interaction that formed them.

### Non-LTE analysis of neutral copper in the late-type metal-poor stars

We investigated the copper abundances for $64$ late-type stars in the Galactic disk and halo with effective temperatures from $5400$ K to $6700$ K and [Fe/H] from $-1.88$ to $-0.17$. For the first time, the copper abundances are derived using both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) calculations. High resolution ($R > 40,000$), high signal-to-noise ratio ($S/N > 100$) spectra from the FOCES spectrograph are used. The atmospheric models are calculated based on the MAFAGS opacity sampling code. All the abundances are derived using the spectrum synthesis methods. Our results indicate that the non-LTE effects of copper are important for metal-poor stars, showing a departure of $\sim 0.17$ dex at the metallicity $\sim -1.5$. We also find that the copper abundances derived from non-LTE calculations are enhanced compared with those from LTE. The enhancements show clear dependence on the metallicity, which gradually increase with decreasing [Fe/H] for our program stars, leading to a flatter distribution of [Cu/Fe] with [Fe/H] than previous work. There is a hint that the thick- and thin-disk stars have different behaviors in [Cu/Fe], and a bending for disk stars may exist.

### Multi-wavelength Emission from the Fermi Bubble III. Stochastic (Fermi) Re-Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons Emitted by SNRs

We analyse the model of stochastic re-acceleration of electrons, which are emitted by supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galactic Disk and propagate then into the Galactic halo, in order to explain the origin on nonthermal (radio and gamma-ray) emission from the Fermi Bubbles (FB). We assume that the energy for re-acceleration in the halo is supplied by shocks generated by processes of star accretion onto the central black hole. Numerical simulations show that regions with strong turbulence (places for electron re-acceleration) are located high up in the Galactic Halo about several kpc above the disk. The energy of SNR electrons that reach these regions does not exceed several GeV because of synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses. At appropriate parameters of re-acceleration these electrons can be re-accelerated up to the energy 10E12 eV which explains in this model the origin of the observed radio and gamma-ray emission from the FB. However although the model gamma-ray spectrum is consistent with the Fermi results, the model radio spectrum is steeper than the observed by WMAP and Planck. If adiabatic losses due to plasma outflow from the Galactic central regions are taken into account, then the re-acceleration model nicely reproduces the Planck datapoints.

### Ultracool White Dwarfs and the Age of the Galactic Disk

We present parallax observations and a detailed model atmosphere analysis of 54 cool and ultracool ($T_{\rm eff}$ < 4000 K) white dwarfs (WDs) in the solar neighborhood. For the first time, a large number of cool and ultracool WDs have distance and tangential velocities measurements available. Our targets have distances ranging from 21 pc to >100 pc, and include five stars within 30 pc. Contrary to expectations, all but two of them have tangential velocities smaller than 150 km s$^{-1}$ thus suggesting Galactic disk membership. The oldest WDs in this sample have WD cooling ages of 10 Gyr, providing a firm lower limit to the age of the thick disk population. Many of our targets have uncharacteristically large radii, indicating that they are low mass WDs. It appears that we have detected the brighter population of cool and ultracool WDs near the Sun. The fainter population of ultracool CO-core WDs remain to be discovered in large numbers. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find these elusive, more massive ultracool WDs in the solar neighborhood.