Posts Tagged dust grains

Recent Postings from dust grains

Surface chemistry in photodissociation regions

The presence of dust can strongly affect the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. We model the chemistry in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using both gas-phase and dust-phase chemical reactions. Our aim is to determine the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium (gas/dust/ice) in regions with distinct (molecular) gas densities that are exposed to radiation fields with different intensities. We have significantly improved the Meijerink PDR code by including 3050 new gas-phase chemical reactions and also by implementing surface chemistry. In particular, we have included 117 chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces covering different processes, such as adsorption, thermal desorption, chemical desorption, two-body reactions, photo processes, and cosmic-ray processes on dust grains. We obtain abundances for different gas and solid species as a function of visual extinction, depending on the density and radiation field. We also analyse the rates of the formation of CO2 and H2O ices in different environments. In addition, we study how chemistry is affected by the presence/absence of ice mantles (bare dust or icy dust) and the impact of considering different desorption probabilities. The type of substrate (bare dust or icy dust) and the probability of desorption can significantly alter the chemistry occurring on grain surfaces, leading to differences of several orders of magnitude in the abundances of gas-phase species, such as CO, H2CO, and CH3OH. The type of substrate, together with the density and intensity of the radiation field, also determine the threshold extinction to form ices of CO2 and H2O. We also conclude that H2CO and CH3OH are mainly released into the gas phase of low, far-ultraviolet illuminated PDRs through chemical desorption upon two-body surface reactions, rather than through photodesorption.

A chemical solver to compute molecule and grain abundances and non-ideal MHD resistivities in prestellar core collapse calculations [Replacement]

We develop a detailed chemical network relevant to the conditions characteristic of prestellar core collapse. We solve the system of time-dependent differential equations to calculate the equilibrium abundances of molecules and dust grains, with a size distribution given by size-bins for these latter. These abundances are used to compute the different non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities (ambipolar, Ohmic and Hall), needed to carry out simulations of protostellar collapse. For the first time in this context, we take into account the evaporation of the grains, the thermal ionisation of Potassium, Sodium and Hydrogen at high temperature, and the thermionic emission of grains in the chemical network, and we explore the impact of various cosmic ray ionisation rates. All these processes significantly affect the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, which will modify the dynamics of the collapse. Ambipolar diffusion and Hall effect dominate at low densities, up to n_H = 10^12 cm^-3, after which Ohmic diffusion takes over. We find that the time-scale needed to reach chemical equilibrium is always shorter than the typical dynamical (free fall) one. This allows us to build a large, multi-dimensional multi-species equilibrium abundance table over a large temperature, density and ionisation rate ranges. This table, which we make accessible to the community, is used during first and second prestellar core collapse calculations to compute the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, yielding a consistent dynamical-chemical description of this process.

A chemical solver to compute molecule and grain abundances and non-ideal MHD resistivities in prestellar core collapse calculations

We develop a detailed chemical network relevant to the conditions characteristic of prestellar core collapse. We solve the system of time-dependent differential equations to calculate the equilibrium abundances of molecules and dust grains, with a size distribution given by size-bins for these latter. These abundances are used to compute the different non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities (ambipolar, Ohmic and Hall), needed to carry out simulations of protostellar collapse. For the first time in this context, we take into account the evaporation of the grains, the thermal ionisation of Potassium, Sodium and Hydrogen at high temperature, and the thermionic emission of grains in the chemical network, and we explore the impact of various cosmic ray ionisation rates. All these processes significantly affect the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, which will modify the dynamics of the collapse. Ambipolar diffusion and Hall effect dominate at low densities, up to n_H = 10^12 cm^-3, after which Ohmic diffusion takes over. We find that the time-scale needed to reach chemical equilibrium is always shorter than the typical dynamical (free fall) one. This allows us to build a large, multi-dimensional multi-species equilibrium abundance table over a large temperature, density and ionisation rate ranges. This table, which we make accessible to the community, is used during first and second prestellar core collapse calculations to compute the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, yielding a consistent dynamical-chemical description of this process.

A chemical solver to compute molecule and grain abundances and non-ideal MHD resistivities in prestellar core collapse calculations [Replacement]

We develop a detailed chemical network relevant to the conditions characteristic of prestellar core collapse. We solve the system of time-dependent differential equations to calculate the equilibrium abundances of molecules and dust grains, with a size distribution given by size-bins for these latter. These abundances are used to compute the different non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities (ambipolar, Ohmic and Hall), needed to carry out simulations of protostellar collapse. For the first time in this context, we take into account the evaporation of the grains, the thermal ionisation of Potassium, Sodium and Hydrogen at high temperature, and the thermionic emission of grains in the chemical network, and we explore the impact of various cosmic ray ionisation rates. All these processes significantly affect the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, which will modify the dynamics of the collapse. Ambipolar diffusion and Hall effect dominate at low densities, up to n_H = 10^12 cm^-3, after which Ohmic diffusion takes over. We find that the time-scale needed to reach chemical equilibrium is always shorter than the typical dynamical (free fall) one. This allows us to build a large, multi-dimensional multi-species equilibrium abundance table over a large temperature, density and ionisation rate ranges. This table, which we make accessible to the community, is used during first and second prestellar core collapse calculations to compute the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, yielding a consistent dynamical-chemical description of this process.

A chemical solver to compute molecule and grain abundances and non-ideal MHD resistivities in prestellar core collapse calculations [Replacement]

We develop a detailed chemical network relevant to the conditions characteristic of prestellar core collapse. We solve the system of time-dependent differential equations to calculate the equilibrium abundances of molecules and dust grains, with a size distribution given by size-bins for these latter. These abundances are used to compute the different non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities (ambipolar, Ohmic and Hall), needed to carry out simulations of protostellar collapse. For the first time in this context, we take into account the evaporation of the grains, the thermal ionisation of Potassium, Sodium and Hydrogen at high temperature, and the thermionic emission of grains in the chemical network, and we explore the impact of various cosmic ray ionisation rates. All these processes significantly affect the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, which will modify the dynamics of the collapse. Ambipolar diffusion and Hall effect dominate at low densities, up to n_H = 10^12 cm^-3, after which Ohmic diffusion takes over. We find that the time-scale needed to reach chemical equilibrium is always shorter than the typical dynamical (free fall) one. This allows us to build a large, multi-dimensional multi-species equilibrium abundance table over a large temperature, density and ionisation rate ranges. This table, which we make accessible to the community, is used during first and second prestellar core collapse calculations to compute the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, yielding a consistent dynamical-chemical description of this process.

Probing the CO and methanol snow lines in young protostars. Results from the CALYPSO IRAM-PdBI survey

Context. "Snow lines", marking regions where abundant volatiles freeze out onto the surface of dust grains, play an important role for planet growth and bulk composition in protoplanetary disks. They can already be observed in the envelopes of the much younger, low-mass Class 0 protostars that are still in their early phase of heavy accretion. Aims. We aim at using the information on the sublimation regions of different kinds of ices to understand the chemistry of the envelope, its temperature and density structure, and the history of the accretion process. Methods. As part of the CALYPSO IRAM Large Program, we have obtained observations of C$^{18}$O, N$_2$H$^+$ and CH$_3$OH towards nearby Class 0 protostars with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer at sub-arcsecond resolution. For four of these sources we have modeled the emission using a chemical code coupled with a radiative transfer module. Results. We observe an anti-correlation of C$^{18}$O and N$_2$H$^+$ in NGC 1333-IRAS4A, NGC 1333-IRAS4B, L1157, and L1448C, with N$_2$H$^+$ forming a ring around the centrally peaked C$^{18}$O emission due to N$_2$H$^+$ being chemically destroyed by CO. The emission regions of models and observations match for a CO binding energy of 1200 K, which is higher than the binding energy of pure CO ices ($\sim$855 K). Furthermore, we find very low CO abundances inside the snow lines in our sources, about an order of magnitude lower than the total CO abundance observed in the gas on large scales in molecular clouds before depletion sets in. Conclusions. The high CO binding energy may hint at CO being frozen out in a polar ice environment like amorphous water ice or in non-polar CO$_2$-rich ice. The low CO abundances are comparable to values found in protoplanetary disks, which may indicate an evolutionary scenario where these low values are already established in the protostellar phase. (Abbr. Version)

Detecting Exomoons Around Self-luminous Giant Exoplanets Through Polarization

Many of the directly imaged self-luminous gas giant exoplanets have been found to have cloudy atmospheres. Scattering of the emergent thermal radiation from these planets by the dust grains in their atmospheres should locally give rise to significant linear polarization of the emitted radiation. However, the observable disk averaged polarization should be zero if the planet is spherically symmetric. Rotation-induced oblateness may yield a net non-zero disk averaged polarization if the planets have sufficiently high spin rotation velocity. On the other hand, when a large natural satellite or exomoon transits a planet with cloudy atmosphere along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit should give rise to a net non-zero, time resolved linear polarization signal. The peak amplitude of such time dependent polarization may be detectable even for slowly rotating exoplanets. Therefore, we suggest that large exomoons around directly imaged self-luminous exoplanets may be detectable through time resolved imaging polarimetry. Adopting detailed atmospheric models for several values of effective temperature and surface gravity which are appropriate for self-luminous exoplanets, we present the polarization profiles of these objects in the infrared during transit phase and estimate the peak amplitude of polarization that occurs during the inner contacts of the transit ingress/egress phase. The peak polarization is predicted to range between 0.1 and 0.3 % in the infrared.

Extrasolar comets : the origin of dust in exozodiacal disks?

Comets have been invoked in numerous studies as a potentially important source of dust and gas around stars, but none has studied the thermo-physical evolution, out-gassing rate, and dust ejection of these objects in such stellar systems. We investigate the thermo-physical evolution of comets in exo-planetary systems in order to provide valuable theoretical data required to interpret observations of gas and dust. We use a quasi 3D model of cometary nucleus to study the thermo-physical evolution of comets evolving around a single star from 0.1 to 50 AU, whose homogeneous luminosity varies from 0.1 to 70 solar luminosities. This paper provides mass ejection, lifetimes, and the rate of dust and water gas mass productions for comets as a function of the distance to the star and stellar luminosity. Results show significant physical changes to comets at high stellar luminosities. The models are presented in such a manner that they can be readily applied to any planetary system. By considering the examples of the Solar System, Vega and HD 69830, we show that dust grains released from sublimating comets have the potential to create the observed (exo)zodiacal emission. We show that observations can be reproduced by 1 to 2 massive comets or by a large number of comets whose orbits approach close to the star. Our conclusions depend on the stellar luminosity and the uncertain lifetime of the dust grains. We find, as in previous studies, that exozodiacal dust disks can only survive if replenished by a population of typically sized comets renewed from a large and cold reservoir of cometary bodies beyond the water ice line. These comets could reach the inner regions of the planetary system following scattering by a (giant) planet.

Dust Evolution and the Formation of Planetesimals

The solid content of circumstellar disks is inherited from the interstellar medium: dust particles of at most a micrometer in size. Protoplanetary disks are the environment where these dust grains need to grow at least 13 orders of magnitude in size. Our understanding of this growth process is far from complete, with different physics seemingly posing obstacles to this growth at various stages. Yet, the ubiquity of planets in our galaxy suggests that planet formation is a robust mechanism. This chapter focuses on the earliest stages of planet formation, the growth of small dust grains towards the gravitationally bound "planetesimals", the building blocks of planets. We will introduce some of the key physics involved in the growth processes and discuss how they are expected to shape the global behavior of the solid content of disks. We will consider possible pathways towards the formation of larger bodies and conclude by reviewing some of the recent observational advances in the field.

Circumstellar Debris Disks: Diagnosing the Unseen Perturber

The first indication of the presence of a circumstellar debris disk is usually the detection of excess infrared emission from the population of small dust grains orbiting the star. This dust is short-lived, requiring continual replenishment, and indicating that the disk must be excited by an unseen perturber. Previous theoretical studies have demonstrated that an eccentric planet orbiting interior to the disk will stir the larger bodies in the belt and produce dust via interparticle collisions. However, motivated by recent observations, we explore another possible mechanism for heating a debris disk: a stellar-mass perturber orbiting exterior to and inclined to the disk and exciting the disk particles' eccentricities and inclinations via the Kozai-Lidov mechanism. We explore the consequences of an exterior perturber on the evolution of a debris disk using secular analysis and collisional N-body simulations. We demonstrate that a Kozai-Lidov excited disk can generate a dust disk via collisions and we compare the results of the Kozai-Lidov excited disk with a simulated disk perturbed by an interior eccentric planet. Finally, we propose two observational tests of a dust disk that can distinguish whether the dust was produced by an exterior brown dwarf or stellar companion or an interior eccentric planet.

Extinction Laws toward Stellar Sources within a Dusty Circimstellar Medium and Implications for Type Ia Supernovae

Many astronomical objects are surrounded by dusty environments. In such dusty objects, multiple scattering processes of photons by circumstellar (CS) dust grains can effectively alter extinction properties. In this paper, we systematically investigate effects of multiple scattering on extinction laws for steady-emission sources surrounded by the dusty CS medium, using a radiation transfer simulation based on the Monte Carlo technique. In particular, we focus on whether and how the extinction properties are affected by properties of CS dust grains, adopting various dust grain models. We {\bf confirm} that behaviors of the (effective) extinction laws are highly dependent on the properties of CS grains. Especially, the total-to-selective extinction ratio $R_{V}$, which characterizes the extinction law, can be either increased or decreased, compared to the case without multiple scattering. We find that the criterion for this behavior is given by a ratio of albedos in the $B$ and $V$ bands. We also find that either small silicate grains or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are necessary for realizing a low value of $R_{V}$ as often measured toward Type Ia supernovae, if the multiple scattering by CS dust is responsible for their non-standard extinction laws. Using the derived relations between the properties of dust grains and the resulting effective extinction laws, we propose that the extinction laws toward dusty objects could be used to constrain the properties of dust grains in CS environments.

First Detection of Galactic Latitude Dependence of Near-Infrared Diffuse Galactic Light from DIRBE Reanalysis

Observational study on near-infrared (IR) scattering properties of interstellar dust grains has been limited due to its faintness. Using all-sky maps obtained from Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE), we investigate the scattering property from diffuse Galactic light (DGL) measurements at 1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 {\mu}m in addition to our recent analyses of diffuse near-IR emission (Sano et al. 2015; Sano et al. 2016). As a result, we first find that the intensity ratios of near-IR DGL to 100 {\mu}m emission increase toward low Galactic latitudes at 1.25 and 2.2 {\mu}m. The derived latitude dependence can be reproduced by a scattered light model of interstellar dust with a large scattering asymmetry factor g = <cos{\theta}> of $0.8^{+0.2}_{-0.3}$ at 1.25 and 2.2 {\mu}m, assuming an infinite Galaxy disk as an illuminating source. The derived asymmetry factor is comparable to the values obtained in the optical, but several times larger than that expected from a recent dust model. Since possible latitude dependence of ultraviolet-excited dust emission at 1.25 and 2.2 {\mu}m would reduce the large asymmetry factor to the reasonable value, our result may indicate the first detection of such an additional emission component in the diffuse interstellar medium.

Constraints on Planetesimal Collision Models in Debris Disks

Observations of debris disks offer a window into the physical and dynamical properties of planetesimals in extrasolar systems through the size distribution of dust grains. In particular, the millimeter spectral index of thermal dust emission encodes information on the grain size distribution. We have made new VLA observations of a sample of seven nearby debris disks at 9 mm, with 3" resolution and $\sim5$ $\mu$Jy/beam rms. We combine these with archival ATCA observations of eight additional debris disks observed at 7 mm, together with up-to-date observations of all disks at (sub)millimeter wavelengths from the literature to place tight constraints on the millimeter spectral indices and thus grain size distributions. The analysis gives a weighted mean for the slope of the power law grain size distribution, $n(a)\propto a^{-q}$, of $\langle q \rangle = 3.36\pm0.02$, with a possible trend of decreasing $q$ for later spectral type stars. We compare our results to a range of theoretical models of collisional cascades, from the standard self-similar, steady-state size distribution ($q=3.5$) to solutions that incorporate more realistic physics such as alternative velocity distributions and material strengths, the possibility of a cutoff at small dust sizes from radiation pressure, as well as results from detailed dynamical calculations of specific disks. Such effects can lead to size distributions consistent with the data, and plausibly the observed scatter in spectral indices. For the AU Mic system, the VLA observations show clear evidence of a highly variable stellar emission component; this stellar activity obviates the need to invoke the presence of an asteroid belt to explain the previously reported compact millimeter source in this system.

Gaps, rings, and non-axisymmetric structures in protoplanetary disks - Emission from large grains

Dust grains with sizes around (sub)mm are expected to couple only weakly to the gas motion in regions beyond 10 au of circumstellar disks. In this work, we investigate the influence of the spatial distribution of such grains on the (sub)mm appearance of magnetized protoplanetary disks. We perform non-ideal global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic stratified disk simulations including particles of different sizes (50 micron to 1 cm), using a Lagrangian particle solver. We calculate the spatial dust temperature distribution, including the dynamically coupled submicron-sized dust grains, and derive ideal continuum re-emission maps of the disk through radiative transfer simulations. Finally, we investigate the feasibility to observe specific structures in the thermal re-emission maps with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The pressure bump close to the outer edge of the dead-zone leads to particle trapping in ring structures. More specifically, vortices in the disk concentrate the dust and create an inhomogeneous distribution of the solid material in the azimuthal direction. The large-scale disk perturbations are preserved in the (sub)mm re-emission maps. The observable structures are very similar to those expected to result from planet-disk interaction. The larger dust particles increase the brightness contrast between gap and ring structures. We find that rings, gaps and the dust accumulation in the vortex could be traced with ALMA down to a scale of a few astronomical units in circumstellar disks located in nearby star-forming regions. Finally, we present a brief comparison of these structures with those recently found with ALMA in the young circumstellar disks of HL Tau and Oph IRS 48.

Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

Magnetic field geometry of an unusual cometary cloud Gal 110-13

We carried out optical polarimetry of an isolated cloud, Gal 110-13, to map the plane-of-the-sky magnetic field geometry. The main aim of the study is to understand the most plausible mechanism responsible for the unusual cometary shape of the cloud in the context of its magnetic field geometry. When unpolarized starlight passes through the intervening interstellar dust grains that are aligned with their short axes parallel to the local magnetic field, it gets linearly polarized. The plane-of-the-sky magnetic field component can therefore be traced by doing polarization measurements of background stars projected on clouds. Because the light in the optical wavelength range is most efficiently polarized by the dust grains typically found in the outer layers of the molecular clouds, optical polarimetry enables us to trace the magnetic field geometry of the outer layers of the clouds. We made R-band polarization measurements of 207 stars in the direction of Gal 110-13. The distance of Gal 110-13 was determined as $\sim450\pm80$ pc using our polarization and 2MASS near-infrared data. The foreground interstellar contribution was removed from the observed polarization values by observing a number of stars located in the vicinity of Gal 110-13 which has Hipparcos parallax measurements. The plane-of-the-sky magnetic field lines are found to be well ordered and aligned with the elongated structure of Gal 110-13. Using structure function analysis, we estimated the strength of the plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field as $\sim25\mu$G. Based on our results and comparing them with those from simulations, we conclude that compression by the ionization fronts from 10 Lac is the most plausible cause of the comet-like morphology of Gal 110-13 and of the initiation of subsequent star formation.

Ferromagnetism and particle collisions: applications to protoplanetary disks and the meteoritical record

The meteoritical record shows both iron partitioning and tungsten isotopic partitioning between matrix and chondrules. Tungsten is not abundant enough to have driven its own isotopic partitioning, but if tungsten were correlated with iron, then ferromagnetic interactions grains could help explain both observations. We derive a practical parameterization for the increase in particle-particle collision rates caused by mutually attracting particle magnetic dipole moments. While the appropriate magnetic parameters remain uncertain, we show that ambient magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks are expected to be strong enough to magnetize iron metal bearing dust grains sufficiently to drive large increases in their collision rates. Such increased collision rates between iron metal rich grains could help preserve primordial iron and W isotopic inhomogeneities; and would help explain why the meteoritical record shows their partitioning in the solar nebula. The importance of magnetic interactions for larger grains whose growth is balanced by fragmentation is less clear, and will require future laboratory or numerical studies.

How dusty are photoevaporative winds?

Not very. We perform dusty smoothed particle hydrodrodynamic (SPH) calculations of photoevaporation in protoplanetary discs. We use unequal-mass particles to resolve more than five orders of magnitude in disc/outflow density and a one-fluid formulation to efficiently simulate an equivalent magnitude range in drag stopping time. We find that only micron sized dust grains and smaller can be entrained in photoevaporative winds. This makes it difficult to explain the dust holes seen in transition discs using photoevaporation and implies that only small grains can be transported to the outer disc by this mechanism. A pileup of micron sized dust grains can occur in the upper atmosphere at critical radii in the disc as grains decouple from the low-density wind. Entrainment is a strong function of location in the disc, resulting in a size sorting of grains in the outflow---the largest grain being carried out between $10$--$20\,$AU. The peak dust density for each grain occurs at the inner edge of its entrainment region.

Direct measurement of desorption and diffusion energies of O and N atoms physisorbed on amorphous surfaces

Physisorbed atoms on the surface of interstellar dust grains play a central role in solid state astrochemistry. Their surface reactivity is one source of the observed molecular complexity in space. In experimental astrophysics, the high reactivity of atoms also constitutes an obstacle to measuring two of the fundamental properties in surface physics, namely desorption and diffusion energies, and so far direct measurements are non-existent for O and N atoms. We investigated the diffusion and desorption processes of O and N atoms on cold surfaces in order to give boundary conditions to astrochemical models. Here we propose a new technique for directly measuring the N- and O-atom mass signals. Including the experimental results in a simple model allows us to almost directly derive the desorption and diffusion barriers of N atoms on amorphous solid water ice (ASW) and O atoms on ASW and oxidized graphite. We find a strong constraint on the values of desorption and thermal diffusion energy barriers. The measured barriers for O atoms are consistent with recent independent estimations and prove to be much higher than previously believed (E$_{des}=1410_{-160}^{+290}$; E$_{dif}=990_{-360}^{+530}$ K on ASW). As for oxygen atoms, we propose that the combination E$_{des}$-E$_{dif}$=1320-750 K is a sensible choice among the possible pairs of solutions. Also, we managed to measure the desorption and diffusion energy of N atoms for the first time (E$_{des}=720_{-80}^{+160}$; E$_{dif}=525_{-200}^{+260}$ K on ASW) in the thermal hopping regime and propose that the combination E$_{des}$-E$_{dif}$=720-400 K can be reasonably adopted in models. The value of E$_{dif}$ for N atoms is slightly lower than previously suggested, which implies that the N chemistry on dust grains might be richer.

Dust diffusion and settling in the presence of collisions: Trapping (sub)micron grains in the midplane

In protoplanetary disks, the distribution and abundance of small (sub)micron grains are important for a range of physical and chemical processes. For example, they dominate the optical depth at short wavelengths and their surfaces are the sites of many important chemical reactions such as the formation of water. Based on their aerodynamical properties (i.e., their strong dynamical coupling with the surrounding gas) it is often assumed that these small grains are well-mixed with the gas. Our goal is to study the vertical (re)distribution of grains taking into account settling, turbulent diffusion, as well as collisions with other dust grains. Assuming a fragmentation-limited background dust population, we developed a Monte Carlo approach that follows single monomers as they move through a vertical column of gas and become incorporated in different aggregates as they undergo sticking and fragmenting collisions. We find that (sub)micron grains are not necessarily well-mixed vertically, but can become trapped in a thin layer with a scale-height that is significantly smaller than that of the gas. This collisional trapping occurs when the timescale for diffusion is comparable to or longer than the collision timescale in the midplane and its effect is strongest when the most massive particles in the size-distribution show significant settling. Based on simulations and analytical considerations we conclude that for typical dust-to-gas ratios and turbulence levels, the collisional trapping of small grains should be a relatively common phenomenon. The absence of trapping could then indicate a low dust-to-gas ratio, possibly because a large portion of the dust mass has been removed through radial drift or is locked up in planetesimals.

Formation, Evolution, and Revolution of Galaxies by SKA: Activities of SKA-Japan Galaxy Evolution Sub-SWG

Formation and evolution of galaxies have been a central driving force in the studies of galaxies and cosmology. Recent studies provided a global picture of cosmic star formation history. However, what drives the evolution of star formation activities in galaxies has long been a matter of debate. The key factor of the star formation is the transition of hydrogen from atomic to molecular state, since the star formation is associated with the molecular phase. This transition is also strongly coupled with chemical evolution, because dust grains, i.e., tiny solid particles of heavy elements, play a critical role in molecular formation. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of neutral-molecular gas transition, star formation and chemical enrichment is necessary to clarify the galaxy formation and evolution. Here we present the activity of SKA-JP galaxy evolution sub-science working group (subSWG) Our activity is focused on three epochs: z \sim 0, 1, and z > 3. At z \sim 0, we try to construct a unified picture of atomic and molecular hydrogen through nearby galaxies in terms of metallicity and other various ISM properties. Up to intermediate redshifts z \sim 1, we explore scaling relations including gas and star formation properties, like the main sequence and the Kennicutt-Schmidt law of star forming galaxies. To connect the global studies with spatially-resolved investigations, such relations will be plausibly a viable way. For high redshift objects, the absorption lines of HI 21-cm line will be a very promising observable to explore the properties of gas in galaxies. By these studies, we will surely witness a real revolution in the studies of galaxies by SKA.

Mid-infrared imaging- and spectro-polarimetric subarcsecond observations of NGC 1068

We present sub-arcsecond 7.5$-$13 $\mu$m imaging- and spectro-polarimetric observations of NGC 1068 using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. At all wavelengths, we find: (1) A 90 $\times$ 60 pc extended polarized feature in the northern ionization cone, with a uniform $\sim$44$^{\circ}$ polarization angle. Its polarization arises from dust and gas emission in the ionization cone, heated by the active nucleus and jet, and further extinguished by aligned dust grains in the host galaxy. The polarization spectrum of the jet-molecular cloud interaction at $\sim$24 pc from the core is highly polarized, and does not show a silicate feature, suggesting that the dust grains are different from those in the interstellar medium. (2) A southern polarized feature at $\sim$9.6 pc from the core. Its polarization arises from a dust emission component extinguished by a large concentration of dust in the galaxy disc. We cannot distinguish between dust emission from magnetically aligned dust grains directly heated by the jet close to the core, and aligned dust grains in the dusty obscuring material surrounding the central engine. Silicate-like grains reproduce the polarized dust emission in this feature, suggesting different dust compositions in both ionization cones. (3) An upper limit of polarization degree of 0.3 per cent in the core. Based on our polarization model, the expected polarization of the obscuring dusty material is $\lesssim$0.1 per cent in the 8$-$13 $\mu$m wavelength range. This low polarization may be arising from the passage of radiation through aligned dust grains in the shielded edges of the clumps.

Influence of the water content in protoplanetary discs on planet migration and formation

The temperature and density profiles of protoplanetary discs depend crucially on the mass fraction of micrometre-sized dust grains and on their chemical composition. A larger abundance of micrometre-sized grains leads to an overall heating of the disc, so that the water ice line moves further away from the star. An increase in the water fraction inside the disc, maintaining a fixed dust abundance, increases the temperature in the icy regions of the disc and lowers the temperature in the inner regions. Discs with a larger silicate fraction have the opposite effect. Here we explore the consequence of the dust composition and abundance for the formation and migration of planets. We find that discs with low water content can only sustain outwards migration for planets up to 4 Earth masses, while outwards migration in discs with a larger water content persists up to 8 Earth masses in the late stages of the disc evolution. Icy planetary cores that do not reach run-away gas accretion can thus migrate to orbits close to the host star if the water abundance is low. Our results imply that hot and warm super-Earths found in exoplanet surveys could have formed beyond the ice line and thus contain a significant fraction in water. These water-rich super-Earths should orbit primarily around stars with a low oxygen abundance, where a low oxygen abundance is caused by either a low water-to-silicate ratio or by overall low metallicity.

On the origins of polarization holes in Bok globules

Context. Polarimetric observations of Bok globules frequently show a decrease in the degree of polarization towards their central dense regions (polarization holes). This behaviour is usually explained with increased disalignment owing to high density and temperature, or insufficient angular resolution of a possibly complex magnetic field structure. Aims. We investigate whether a significant decrease in polarized emission of dense regions in Bok globules is possible under certain physical conditions. For instance, we evaluate the impact of optical depth effects and various properties of the dust phase. Methods. We use radiative transfer modelling to calculate the temperature structure of an analytical Bok globule model and simulate the polarized thermal emission of elongated dust grains. For the alignment of the dust grains, we consider a magnetic field and include radiative torque and internal alignment. Results. Besides the usual explanations, selected conditions of the temperature and density distribution, the dust phase and the magnetic field are also able to significantly decrease the polarized emission of dense regions in Bok globules. Taking submm/mm grains and typical column densities of existing Bok globules into consideration, the optical depth is high enough to decrease the degree of polarization by up to {\Delta}P~10%. If limited to the densest regions, dust grain growth to submm/mm size and accumulated graphite grains decrease the degree of polarization by up to {\Delta}P~10% and {\Delta}P~5%, respectively. However, the effect of the graphite grains occurs only if they do not align with the magnetic field.

On the origins of polarization holes in Bok globules [Replacement]

Context. Polarimetric observations of Bok globules frequently show a decrease in the degree of polarization towards their central dense regions (polarization holes). This behaviour is usually explained with increased disalignment owing to high density and temperature, or insufficient angular resolution of a possibly complex magnetic field structure. Aims. We investigate whether a significant decrease in polarized emission of dense regions in Bok globules is possible under certain physical conditions. For instance, we evaluate the impact of optical depth effects and various properties of the dust phase. Methods. We use radiative transfer modelling to calculate the temperature structure of an analytical Bok globule model and simulate the polarized thermal emission of elongated dust grains. For the alignment of the dust grains, we consider a magnetic field and include radiative torque and internal alignment. Results. Besides the usual explanations, selected conditions of the temperature and density distribution, the dust phase and the magnetic field are also able to significantly decrease the polarized emission of dense regions in Bok globules. Taking submm/mm grains and typical column densities of existing Bok globules into consideration, the optical depth is high enough to decrease the degree of polarization by up to {\Delta}P~10%. If limited to the densest regions, dust grain growth to submm/mm size and accumulated graphite grains decrease the degree of polarization by up to {\Delta}P~10% and {\Delta}P~5%, respectively. However, the effect of the graphite grains occurs only if they do not align with the magnetic field.

Collision velocity of dust grains in self-gravitating protoplanetary discs

We have conducted the first comprehensive numerical investigation of the relative velocity distribution of dust particles in self-gravitating protoplanetary discs with a view to assessing the viability of planetesimal formation via direct collapse in such environments. The viability depends crucially on the large sizes that are preferentially collected in pressure maxima produced by transient spiral features (Stokes numbers, $St \sim 1$); growth to these size scales requires that collision velocities remain low enough that grain growth is not reversed by fragmentation. We show that, for a single sized dust population, velocity driving by the disc's gravitational perturbations is only effective for $St > 3$, while coupling to the gas velocity dominates otherwise. We develop a criterion for understanding this result in terms of the stopping distance being of order the disc scale height. Nevertheless, the relative velocities induced by differential radial drift in multi-sized dust populations are too high to allow the growth of silicate dust particles beyond $St \sim 10^{-2}$ or $10^{-1}$ ($10\,\mathrm{cm}$ to $\mathrm{m}$ sizes at $30\,\mathrm{au}$), such Stokes numbers being insufficient to allow concentration of solids in spiral features. However, for icy solids (which may survive collisions up to several $10\,\mathrm{m\,s}^{-1}$), growth to $St \sim 1$ ($10\,\mathrm{m}$ size) may be possible beyond $30\,\mathrm{au}$ from the star. Such objects would be concentrated in spiral features and could potentially produce larger icy planetesimals/comets by gravitational collapse. These planetesimals would acquire moderate eccentricities and remain unmodified over the remaining lifetime of the disc.

The Impact of Accurate Extinction Measurements for X-ray Spectral Models

Interstellar extinction includes both absorption and scattering of photons from interstellar gas and dust grains, and it has the effect of altering a source's spectrum and its total observed intensity. However, while multiple absorption models exist, there are no useful scattering models in standard X-ray spectrum fitting tools, such as XSPEC. Nonetheless, X-ray halos, created by scattering from dust grains, are detected around even moderately absorbed sources and the impact on an observed source spectrum can be significant, if modest, compared to direct absorption. By convolving the scattering cross section with dust models, we have created a spectral model as a function of energy, type of dust, and extraction region that can be used with models of direct absorption. This will ensure the extinction model is consistent and enable direct connections to be made between a source's X-ray spectral fits and its UV/optical extinction.

Far-infrared/sub-millimetre properties of pre-stellar cores L1521E, L1521F and L1689B as revealed by the Herschel SPIRE instrument -- I. Central positions

Dust grains play a key role in the physics of star-forming regions, even though they constitute only $\sim$1 % of the mass of the interstellar medium. The derivation of accurate dust parameters such as temperature ($T_{dust}$), emissivity spectral index ($\beta$) and column density requires broadband continuum observations at far-infrared wavelengths. We present Herschel-SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of three starless cores: L1521E, L1521F and L1689B, covering wavelengths between 194 and 671 $\mu$m. This paper is the first to use our recently updated SPIRE-FTS intensity calibration, yielding a direct match with SPIRE photometer measurements of extended sources. In addition, we carefully assess the validity of calibration schemes depending on source extent and on the strength of background emission. The broadband far-infrared spectra for all three sources peak near 250 $\mu$m. Our observations therefore provide much tighter constraints on the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape than measurements that do not probe the SED peak. The spectra are fitted using modified blackbody functions, allowing both $T_{dust}$ and $\beta$ to vary as free parameters. This yields $T_{dust}$ of 9.8$\pm$0.2 K, 15.6$\pm$0.5 K and 10.9$\pm$0.2 K and corresponding $\beta$ of 2.6$\mp$0.9, 0.8$\mp$0.1 and 2.4$\mp$0.8 for L1521E, L1521F and L1689B respectively. The derived core masses are 1.0$\pm$0.1, 0.10$\pm$0.01 and 0.49$\pm$0.05 $M_{\odot}$, respectively. The core mass/Jeans mass ratios for L1521E and L1689B exceed unity indicating that they are unstable to gravitational collapse, and thus pre-stellar cores. By comparison, the elevated temperature and gravitational stability of L1521F support previous arguments that this source is more evolved and likely a protostar.

Sticking of molecules on non-porous amorphous water ice

Accurate modeling of physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium requires detailed knowledge of how atoms and molecule adsorb on dust grains. However, the sticking coefficient, a number between 0 and 1 that measures the first step in the interaction of a particle with a surface, is usually assumed in simulations of ISM environments to be either 0.5 or 1. Here we report on the determination of the sticking coefficient of H$_2$, D$_2$, N$_2$, O$_2$, CO, CH$_4$, and CO$_2$ on non-porous amorphous solid water (np-ASW). The sticking coefficient was measured over a wide range of surface temperatures using a highly collimated molecular beam. We showed that the standard way of measuring the sticking coefficient --- the King-Wells method --- leads to the underestimation of trapping events in which there is incomplete energy accommodation of the molecule on the surface. Surface scattering experiments with the use of a pulsed molecular beam are used instead to measure the sticking coefficient. Based on the values of the measured sticking coefficient we suggest a useful general formula of the sticking coefficient as a function of grain temperature and molecule-surface binding energy. We use this formula in a simulation of ISM gas-grain chemistry to find the effect of sticking on the abundance of key molecules both on grains and in the gas-phase.

Far-infrared study of tracers of oxygen chemistry in diffuse clouds

Context. The chemistry of the diffuse interstellar medium rests upon three pillars: exothermic ion-neutral reactions (" cold chemistry "), endothermic neutral-neutral reactions with significant activation barriers (" warm chemistry "), and reactions on the surfaces of dust grains. While warm chemistry becomes important in the shocks associated with turbulent dissipation regions, the main path for the formation of interstellar OH and H2O is that of cold chemistry. Aims. The aim of this study is to observationally confirm the association of atomic oxygen with both atomic and molecular gas phases, and to understand the measured abundances of OH and OH + as a function of the available reservoir of H2. Methods. We obtained absorption spectra of the ground states of OH, OH+ and OI with high-velocity resolution, with GREAT on-board SOFIA, and with the THz receiver at the APEX. We analyzed them along with ancillary spectra of HF and CH from HIFI. To deconvolve them from the hyperfine structure and to separate the blend that is due to various velocity components on the sightline, we fit model spectra consisting of an appropriate number of Gaussian profiles using a method combining simulated annealing with downhill simplex minimization. Together with HF and/or CH as a surrogate for H2, and HI $\lambda$21 cm data, the molecular hydrogen fraction f^N\_H2 = N(H 2)/(N(H) + 2N(H 2)) can be determined. We then investigated abundance ratios as a function of f^N\_H2. Results. The column density of OI is correlated at a high significance with the amount of available molecular and atomic hydrogen, with an atomic oxygen abundance of $3 \times 10 ^{-4}$ relative to H nuclei. While the velocities of the absorption features of OH and OH+ are loosely correlated and reflect the spiral arm crossings on the sightline, upon closer inspection they display an anticorrespondence. The arm-to-interarm density contrast is found to be higher in OH than in OH+. While both species can coexist, with a higher abundance in OH than in OH+, the latter is found less frequently in absence of OH than the other way around, which is a direct consequence of the rapid destruction of OH+ by dissociative recombination when not enough H2 is available. This conjecture has been substantiated by a comparison between the OH/OH+ ratio with f^N\_H2, showing a clear correlation. The hydrogen abstraction reaction chain OH+ (H2,H) H2O+ (H2,H)H3O+ is confirmed as the pathway for the production of OH and H 2 O. Our estimate of the branching ratio of the dissociative recombination of H3O+ to OH and H2O is confined within the interval of 84 to 91%, which matches laboratory measurements (74 to 83%). -- A correlation between the linewidths and column densities of OH+ features is found to be significant with a false-alarm probability below 5%. Such a correlation is predicted by models of interstellar MHD turbulence. For OH the same correlation is found to be insignificant because there are more narrow absorption features. Conclusions. While it is difficult to assess the contributions of warm neutral-neutral chemistry to the observed abundances, it seems fair to conclude that the predictions of cold ion-neutral chemistry match the abundance patterns we observed.

The dust scattering component of X-ray extinction: Effects on continuum fitting and high-resolution absorption edge structure

Small angle scattering by dust grains causes a significant contribution to the total interstellar extinction for any X-ray instrument with sub-arcminute resolution (Chandra, Swift, XMM-Newton). However, the dust scattering component is not included in the current absorption models: phabs, tbabs, and tbnew. We simulate a large number of Chandra spectra to explore the bias in the spectral fit and NH measurements obtained without including extinction from dust scattering. We find that without incorporating dust scattering, the measured NH will be too large by a baseline level of 25%. This effect is modulated by the imaging resolution of the telescope, because some amount of unresolved scattered light will be captured within the aperture used to extract point source information. In high resolution spectroscopy, dust scattering significantly enhances the total extinction optical depth and the shape of the photoelectric absorption edges. We focus in particular on the Fe-L edge at 0.7 keV, showing that the total extinction template fits well to the high resolution spectrum of three X-ray binaries from the Chandra archive: GX 9+9, XTE J1817-330, and Cyg X-1. In cases where dust is intrinsic to the source, a covering factor based on the angular extent of the dusty material must be applied to the extinction curve, regardless of angular imaging resolution. This approach will be particularly relevant for dust in quasar absorption line systems and might constrain clump sizes in active galactic nuclei.

A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

Changing physical conditions in the vicinity of protostars allow for a rich and interesting chemistry to occur. Heating and cooling of the gas allows molecules to be released from and frozen out on dust grains. These changes in physics, traced by chemistry, as well as the kinematical information allows us to distinguish between different scenarios describing the infall of matter and the launching of molecular outflows and jets. We aim at determining the spatial distribution of different species, of different chemical origin. This is to examine the physical processes in play in the observed region. From the kinematical information of the emission lines we aim at determining the nature of the infalling and outflowing gas in the system. We also aim at determining the physical properties of the outflow. Maps from the Sub-Millimeter Array reveal the spatial distribution of the gaseous emission toward IRAS15398-3359. The line radiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of the system taking all relevant components and scales into account. CO, HCO+ and N2H+ are detected and are shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, also the circumstellar envelope and the surrounding cloud have a profound impact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ is detected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region, perhaps due to the competing reaction between CO and H3+ in the densest regions as well as destruction of N2H+ by CO. N2D+ is detected in a ridge south-west from the protostellar condensation. The morphology and kinematics of the CO emission suggests that the source is younger than 1000 years. The mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy and mass-loss rate are also all estimated to be low. A full 3D radiative transfer model of the system can explain all the kinematical and morphological features in the system.

A ring-like concentration of mm-sized particles in Sz 91

Models of planet formation and disc evolution predict a variety of observables in the dust structure of protoplanetary discs. Here we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band-6 and Band-7 observations of the transition disc Sz\,91 showing that the continuum emission at 870$\mu$m, which is dominated by emission from large dust grains, is localized in an optically thin narrow ring. We find that most of the emission ($\sim95\%$) is concentrated in a ring located at 110 au from the central star that is only about 44 au wide. In contrast, the $^{12}\mathrm{CO}$ (2-1) emission peaks closer to the star and is detected up to $\sim488$ au from the star. The concentration of large grains in a ring-like structure while the gas disc extends much further in and further out is in qualitative agreement with predictions of hydrodynamical models of planet-disc interactions including radial drift and gas drag.

Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of AGB stars. However, nowadays there is increasing evidence for dust formation in SNe. In order to establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust it is important to know what is the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. With this aim, we have developed a new code, GRASH_Rev, that allows to follow the dynamics of dust grains in the shocked SN ejecta and to compute the time evolution of the mass, composition and size distribution of the grains. We consider four well studied SNe in the Milky Way and LMC: SN 1987a, Cas A, the Crab Nebula, and N49. For all the simulated models, we find good agreement with observations. Our study suggests that SN 1987A is too young for the reverse shock to have affected the dust mass. Conversely, in the other three SNe, the reverse shock has already destroyed between 10 and 40% of the initial dust mass. However, the largest dust mass destruction is predicted to occur between 10^3 and 10^5 yr after the explosions. Since the oldest SN in the sample has an estimated age of 4800 yr, current observations can only provide an upper limit to the mass of SN dust that will enrich the interstellar medium, the so-called effective dust yields. We find that only between 1 and 8% of the currently observed mass will survive. This is in good agreement with the values adopted in chemical evolution models which consider the effect of the SN reverse shock. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for dust enrichment in local galaxies and at high redshift.

Dust grains from the heart of supernovae [Replacement]

Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of AGB stars. However, nowadays there is increasing evidence for dust formation in SNe. In order to establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust it is important to know what is the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. With this aim, we have developed a new code, GRASH_Rev, that allows to follow the dynamics of dust grains in the shocked SN ejecta and to compute the time evolution of the mass, composition and size distribution of the grains. We consider four well studied SNe in the Milky Way and LMC: SN 1987a, Cas A, the Crab Nebula, and N49. For all the simulated models, we find good agreement with observations. Our study suggests that SN 1987A is too young for the reverse shock to have affected the dust mass. Conversely, in the other three SNe, the reverse shock has already destroyed between 10 and 40% of the initial dust mass. However, the largest dust mass destruction is predicted to occur between 10^3 and 10^5 yr after the explosions. Since the oldest SN in the sample has an estimated age of 4800 yr, current observations can only provide an upper limit to the mass of SN dust that will enrich the interstellar medium, the so-called effective dust yields. We find that only between 1 and 8% of the currently observed mass will survive. This is in good agreement with the values adopted in chemical evolution models which consider the effect of the SN reverse shock. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for dust enrichment in local galaxies and at high redshift.

The nature of the UV halo around the spiral galaxy NGC 3628

Thanks to deep UV observations with GALEX and Swift, diffuse UV haloes have recently been discovered around galaxies. Based on UV-optical colours, it has been advocated that the UV haloes around spiral galaxies are due to UV radiation emitted from the disc and scattered off dust grains at high latitudes. Detailed UV radiative transfer models that take into account scattering and absorption can explain the morphology of the UV haloes, and they require the presence of an additional thick dust disc next the to traditional thin disc for half of the galaxies in their sample. We test whether such an additional thick dust disc agrees with the observed infrared emission in NGC 3628, an edge-on galaxy with a clear signature of a thick dust disc. We extend the far-ultraviolet radiative transfer models to full-scale panchromatic models. Our model, which contains no fine-tuning, can almost perfectly reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution from UV to mm wavelengths. These results corroborate the interpretation of the extended UV emission in NGC 3628 as scattering off dust grains, and hence of the presence of a substantial amount of diffuse extra-planar dust. A significant caveat, however, is the geometrical simplicity and non-uniqueness of our model: other models with a different geometrical setting could lead to a similar spectral energy distribution. More detailed radiative transfer simulations that compare the model results to images from UV to submm wavelengths are a way to break this degeneracy, as are UV polarisation measurements.

Hard X-ray irradiation of cosmic silicate analogs: structural evolution and astrophysical implications

Protoplanetary disks, interstellar clouds, and active galactic nuclei, contain X-ray dominated regions. X-rays interact with the dust and gas present in such environments. While a few laboratory X-ray irradiation experiments have been performed on ices, X-ray irradiation experiments on bare cosmic dust analogs have been scarce up to now. Our goal is to study the effects of hard X-rays on cosmic dust analogs via in-situ X-ray diffraction. By using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanobeam, we seek to simulate cumulative X-ray exposure on dust grains during their lifetime in these astrophysical environments, and provide an upper limit on the effect of hard X-rays on dust grain structure. We prepared enstatite nanograins, analogs to cosmic silicates, via the melting-quenching technique. These amorphous grains were then annealed to obtain polycrystalline grains. These were characterized via scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy before irradiation. Powder samples were prepared in X-ray transparent substrates and were irradiated with hard X-rays nanobeams (29.4 keV) provided by beamline ID16B of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. X-ray diffraction images were recorded in transmission mode. We detected the amorphization of polycrystalline silicates embedded in an organic matrix after an accumulated X-ray exposure of 6.4 x 10$^{27}$ eV cm$^{-2}$. Pure crystalline silicate grains (without resin) did not exhibit amorphization. None of the amorphous silicate samples (pure and embedded in resin) underwent crystallization. We analyzed the evolution of the polycrystalline sample embedded in an organic matrix as a function of X-ray exposure. Loss of diffraction peak intensity, peak broadening, and the disappearance of discrete spots and arcs, revealed the amorphization of the resin embedded (originally polycrystalline) silicate sample.

Efficient ortho-para conversion of H2 on interstellar grain surfaces

Context: Fast surface conversion between ortho- and para-H2 has been observed in laboratory studies, and this mechanism has been proposed to play a role in the control of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium. Observations of rotational lines of H2 in Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) have indeed found significantly lower ortho-para ratios than expected at equilibrium. The mechanisms controlling the balance of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium thus remain incompletely understood, while this ratio can affect the thermodynamical properties of the gas (equation of state, cooling function). Aims: We aim to build an accurate model of ortho-para conversion on dust surfaces based on the most recent experimental and theoretical results, and to validate it by comparison to observations of H2 rotational lines in PDRs. Methods: We propose a statistical model of ortho-para conversion on dust grains with fluctuating dust temperatures, based on a master equation approach. This computation is then coupled to full PDR models and compared to PDR observations. Results: We show that the observations of rotational H2 lines indicate a high conversion efficiency on dust grains, and that this high efficiency can be accounted for if taking dust temperature fluctuations into account with our statistical model of surface conversion. Simpler models neglecting the dust temperature fluctuations do not reach the high efficiency deduced from the observations. Moreover, this high efficiency induced by dust temperature fluctuations is quite insensitive to the values of microphysical parameters of the model. Conclusions: Ortho-para conversion on grains is thus an efficient mechanism in most astrophysical conditions that can play a significant role in controlling the ortho-para ratio.

Seasonal Evolution on the Nucleus of Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

We observed Comet C/Siding Spring using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during its close approach to Mars. The high spatial resolution images obtained through the F689M, F775W, and F845M filters reveal the characteristics of the dust coma. The dust production rate of C/Siding Spring, quantified by $Af\rho$, is 590$\pm$30, 640$\pm$30, and 670$\pm$30 cm in a 420 km-radius aperture at 38$^\circ$ solar phase angle through the three filters, respectively, consistent with other observations at similar time and geometry, and with model predictions based on earlier measurements. The dust expansion velocity is ~150-250 m s$^{-1}$ for micron-sized dust grains, similar to the speeds found for other comets. The coma has a color slope of (5.5$\pm$1.5)%/100 nm between 689 and 845 nm, similar to previous HST measurements at comparable aperture sizes, consistent with the lack of color dependence on heliocentric distance for almost all previously observed active comets. The rotational period of the nucleus of C/Siding Spring is determined from the periodic brightness variation in the coma to be 8.00$\pm$0.08 hours, with no excited rotational state detected. The dust coma shows a broad and diffuse fan-shaped feature in the sunward direction, with no temporal morphological variation observed. The projected orientation of the dust feature, combined with the previous analysis of the coma morphology and other characteristics, suggests secular activity evolution of the comet in its inner solar system passage as one previously observed active region turns off whereas new regions exposed to sunlight due to seasonal illumination change.

The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: the effect of molecular contamination in SCUBA-2 observations of Orion A

Thermal emission from cold dust grains in giant molecular clouds can be used to probe the physical properties, such as density, temperature and emissivity in star-forming regions. We present the SCUBA-2 shared-risk observations at 450 $\mu$m and 850 $\mu$m of the Orion A molecular cloud complex taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Previous studies showed that molecular emission lines can contribute significantly to the measured fluxes in those continuum bands. We use the HARP $^{12}$CO J=3-2 integrated intensity map for Orion A in order to evaluate the molecular line contamination and its effects on the SCUBA-2 maps. With the corrected fluxes, we have obtained a new spectral index $\alpha$ map for the thermal emission of dust in the well-known integral-shaped filament. Furthermore, we compare a sample of 33 sources, selected over the Orion A molecular cloud complex for their high $^{12}$CO J=3-2 line contamination, to 27 previously identified clumps in OMC-4. This allows us to quantify the effect of line contamination on the ratio of 850 $\mu$m to 450 $\mu$m flux densities and how it modifies the deduced spectral index of emissivity $\beta$ for the dust grains. We also show that at least one Spitzer-identified protostellar core in OMC-5 has a $^{12}$CO J=3-2 contamination level of 16 %. Furthermore, we find the strongest contamination level (44 %) towards a young star with disk near OMC-2. This work is part of the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey.

The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: the effect of molecular contamination in SCUBA-2 observations of Orion A [Replacement]

Thermal emission from cold dust grains in giant molecular clouds can be used to probe the physical properties, such as density, temperature and emissivity in star-forming regions. We present the SCUBA-2 shared-risk observations at 450 $\mu$m and 850 $\mu$m of the Orion A molecular cloud complex taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Previous studies showed that molecular emission lines can contribute significantly to the measured fluxes in those continuum bands. We use the HARP $^{12}$CO J=3-2 integrated intensity map for Orion A in order to evaluate the molecular line contamination and its effects on the SCUBA-2 maps. With the corrected fluxes, we have obtained a new spectral index $\alpha$ map for the thermal emission of dust in the well-known integral-shaped filament. Furthermore, we compare a sample of 33 sources, selected over the Orion A molecular cloud complex for their high $^{12}$CO J=3-2 line contamination, to 27 previously identified clumps in OMC-4. This allows us to quantify the effect of line contamination on the ratio of 850 $\mu$m to 450 $\mu$m flux densities and how it modifies the deduced spectral index of emissivity $\beta$ for the dust grains. We also show that at least one Spitzer-identified protostellar core in OMC-5 has a $^{12}$CO J=3-2 contamination level of 16 %. Furthermore, we find the strongest contamination level (44 %) towards a young star with disk near OMC-2. This work is part of the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey.

The shadow of the Flying Saucer: A very low temperature for large dust grains

Dust determines the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks. However, dust temperature determinations almost invariably rely on a complex modeling of the Spectral Energy Distribution. We attempt a direct determination of the temperature of large grains emitting at mm wavelengths.} We observe the edge-on dust disk of the Flying Saucer, which appears in silhouette against the CO J=2-1 emission from a background molecular cloud in $\rho$ Oph. The combination of velocity gradients due to the Keplerian rotation of the disk and intensity variations in the CO background as a function of velocity allows us to directly measure the %absorbing dust temperature. The dust opacity can then be derived from the emitted continuum radiation. The dust disk absorbs the radiation from the CO clouds at several velocities. We derive very low dust temperatures, 5 to 7 K at radii around 100 au, which is much lower than most model predictions. The dust optical depth is $> 0.2$ at 230 GHz, and the scale height at 100 au is at least 8 au (best fit 13 au). However, the dust disk is very flat (flaring index -0.35), which is indicative of dust settling in the outer parts.

On the dissipation of the rotation energy of dust grains in interstellar magnetic fields

A new mechanism is described, analyzed and visualized, for the dissipation of suprathermal rotation energy of molecules in magnetic fields, a necessary condition for their alignment. It relies upon the Lorentz force perturbing the motion of every atom of the structure, as each is known to carry its own net electric charge because of spatial fluctuations in electron density. If the molecule is large enough that the frequency of its lowest-frequency phonon lies near or below the rotation frequency, then the rotation couples with the molecular normal modes and energy flows from the former to the latter. The rate of this exchange is very fast, and the vibrational energy is radiated away in the IR at a still faster rate, which completes the removal of rotation energy. The energy decay rate scales like the field intensity, the initial angular velocity, the number of atoms in the grain and the inverse of the moment of inertia. It does not depend on the susceptibility. Here, the focus is on carbon-rich molecules which are diamagnetic. The same process must occur if the molecule is paramagnetic or bathes in an electric field instead. A semi-empirical method of chemical modeling was used extensively to illustrate and quantify these concepts as applied to a hydrocarbon molecule. The motion of a rotating molecule in a field was monitored in time so as to reveal the energy transfer and visualize the evolution of its orientation towards the stable configuration.

Dust production in debris discs: constraints on the smallest grains [Replacement]

The surface energy constraint puts a limit on the smallest fragment $s_{surf}$ that can be produced after a collision. Based on analytical considerations, this mechanism has been recently identified as been potentially able to prevent the production of small dust grains in debris discs and cut off their size distribution at sizes larger than the blow-out size. We numerically investigate the importance of this effect to find under which conditions it can leave a signature in the small-size end of a disc's particle size distribution (PSD). An important part of this work is to map out, in a disc at steady-state, what is the most likely collisional origin for micron-sized grains, in terms of the sizes of their collisional progenitors. We implement, for the first time, the surface energy constraint into a collisional evolution code. We consider a debris disc extending from 50 to 100AU and 2 different stellar types. We also consider two levels of stirring in the disc: dynamically "hot" (e=0.075) and "cold" (e=0.01). For all cases, we derive $s_{surf}$ maps as a function of target and projectile sizes, $s_t$ and $s_p$, and compare them to equivalent maps for the dust-production rate. We then compute disc-integrated PSDs and estimate the imprint of the surface energy constraint. We find that the ($s_p$,$s_t$) regions of high $s_{surf}$ values do not coincide with those of high dust production rate. As a consequence, the surface energy constraint has generally a weak effect on the system's PSD. The maximum $s_{surf}$-induced depletion of $\mu$m-sized grains is $\sim 30$% and is obtained for a sun-like star and a dynamically hot case. For the e=0.01 cases, the surface energy effect is negligible compared to the massive small grain depletion induced by another mechanism: the natural imbalance between dust production and destruction rates in low-stirring discs identified by Thebault&Wu(2008).

Dust production in debris discs: constraints on the smallest grains [Replacement]

The surface energy constraint puts a limit on the smallest fragment $s_{surf}$ that can be produced after a collision. Based on analytical considerations, this mechanism has been recently identified as been potentially able to prevent the production of small dust grains in debris discs and cut off their size distribution at sizes larger than the blow-out size. We numerically investigate the importance of this effect to find under which conditions it can leave a signature in the small-size end of a disc's particle size distribution (PSD). An important part of this work is to map out, in a disc at steady-state, what is the most likely collisional origin for micron-sized grains, in terms of the sizes of their collisional progenitors. We implement, for the first time, the surface energy constraint into a collisional evolution code. We consider a debris disc extending from 50 to 100AU and 2 different stellar types. We also consider two levels of stirring in the disc: dynamically "hot" (e=0.075) and "cold" (e=0.01). For all cases, we derive $s_{surf}$ maps as a function of target and projectile sizes, $s_t$ and $s_p$, and compare them to equivalent maps for the dust-production rate. We then compute disc-integrated PSDs and estimate the imprint of the surface energy constraint. We find that the ($s_p$,$s_t$) regions of high $s_{surf}$ values do not coincide with those of high dust production rate. As a consequence, the surface energy constraint has generally a weak effect on the system's PSD. The maximum $s_{surf}$-induced depletion of $\mu$m-sized grains is $\sim 30$% and is obtained for a sun-like star and a dynamically hot case. For the e=0.01 cases, the surface energy effect is negligible compared to the massive small grain depletion induced by another mechanism: the natural imbalance between dust production and destruction rates in low-stirring discs identified by Thebault&Wu(2008).

Dust production in debris discs: constraints on the smallest grains [Replacement]

The surface energy constraint puts a limit on the smallest fragment $s_{surf}$ that can be produced after a collision. Based on analytical considerations, this mechanism has been recently identified as been potentially able to prevent the production of small dust grains in debris discs and cut off their size distribution at sizes larger than the blow-out size. We numerically investigate the importance of this effect to find under which conditions it can leave a signature in the small-size end of a disc's particle size distribution (PSD). An important part of this work is to map out, in a disc at steady-state, what is the most likely collisional origin for micron-sized grains, in terms of the sizes of their collisional progenitors. We implement, for the first time, the surface energy constraint into a collisional evolution code. We consider a debris disc extending from 50 to 100AU and 2 different stellar types. We also consider two levels of stirring in the disc: dynamically "hot" (e=0.075) and "cold" (e=0.01). For all cases, we derive $s_{surf}$ maps as a function of target and projectile sizes, $s_t$ and $s_p$, and compare them to equivalent maps for the dust-production rate. We then compute disc-integrated PSDs and estimate the imprint of the surface energy constraint. We find that the ($s_p$,$s_t$) regions of high $s_{surf}$ values do not coincide with those of high dust production rate. As a consequence, the surface energy constraint has generally a weak effect on the system's PSD. The maximum $s_{surf}$-induced depletion of $\mu$m-sized grains is $\sim 30$% and is obtained for a sun-like star and a dynamically hot case. For the e=0.01 cases, the surface energy effect is negligible compared to the massive small grain depletion induced by another mechanism: the natural imbalance between dust production and destruction rates in low-stirring discs identified by Thebault&Wu(2008).

Dust production in debris discs: constraints on the smallest grains

The surface energy constraint puts a limit on the smallest fragment $s_{surf}$ that can be produced after a collision. Based on analytical considerations, this mechanism has been recently identified as been potentially able to prevent the production of small dust grains in debris discs and cut off their size distribution at sizes larger than the blow-out size. We numerically investigate the importance of this effect to find under which conditions it can leave a signature in the small-size end of a disc's particle size distribution (PSD). An important part of this work is to map out, in a disc at steady-state, what is the most likely collisional origin for micron-sized grains, in terms of the sizes of their collisional progenitors. We implement, for the first time, the surface energy constraint into a collisional evolution code. We consider a debris disc extending from 50 to 100AU and 2 different stellar types. We also consider two levels of stirring in the disc: dynamically "hot" (e=0.075) and "cold" (e=0.01). For all cases, we derive $s_{surf}$ maps as a function of target and projectile sizes, $s_t$ and $s_p$, and compare them to equivalent maps for the dust-production rate. We then compute disc-integrated PSDs and estimate the imprint of the surface energy constraint. We find that the ($s_p$,$s_t$) regions of high $s_{surf}$ values do not coincide with those of high dust production rate. As a consequence, the surface energy constraint has generally a weak effect on the system's PSD. The maximum $s_{surf}$-induced depletion of $\mu$m-sized grains is $\sim 30$% and is obtained for a sun-like star and a dynamically hot case. For the e=0.01 cases, the surface energy effect is negligible compared to the massive small grain depletion induced by another mechanism: the natural imbalance between dust production and destruction rates in low-stirring discs identified by Thebault&Wu(2008).

Modelling Dust Scattering in our Galaxy [Replacement]

I have used Monte Carlo models with multiple scattering to predict the dust scattered light from our Galaxy and have compared the predictions with data from the \galex\ spacecraft. The data are reasonably well-fit by dust scattering with dust grains of albedo between 0.3 and 0.5 in both the FUV and NUV bands with $g < 0.6$. There are offsets between the model and the data of 300 --- 600 \photu\ including about 200 --- 300 \photu\ of airglow. The code and the models are available for download.

Modelling Dust Scattering in our Galaxy

I have used a Monte Carlo model for dust scattering in our Galaxy with multiple scattering to study the diffuse emission seen by the \galex\ mission. I find that the emission at low and mid latitudes is fit well by scattering from dust grains with an albedo of 0.4 and $g = 0$ (isotropically scattering grains). However, only about 30\%\ of the diffuse radiation at high Galactic latitudes is due to dust scattering. There is an additional component of 500 - 600 photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$ \AA$^{-1}$ at all latitudes of an unknown origin.

Search for systemic mass loss in Algols with bow shocks [Replacement]

Aims. Various studies indicate that interacting binary stars of Algol type evolve non-conservatively. However, direct detections of systemic mass loss in Algols have been scarce so far. We study the systemic mass loss in Algols by looking for the presence of infrared excesses originating from the thermal emission of dust grains, which is linked to the presence of a stellar wind. Methods. In contrast to previous studies, we make use of the fact that stellar and interstellar material is piled up at the edge of the astrosphere where the stellar wind interacts with the interstellar medium. We analyse WISE W3 $12\,\mu$m and WISE W4 $22\,\mu$m data of Algol-type binary Be and B[e] stars and the properties of their bow shocks. From the stand-off distance of the bow shock we are able to determine the mass-loss rate of the binary system. Results. Although the velocities of the stars with respect to the interstellar medium are quite low, we find bow shocks present in two systems, namely $\pi$ Aqr, and $\varphi$ Per; a third system, CX Dra, shows a more irregular circumstellar environment morphology which might somehow be related to systemic mass loss. The properties of the two bow shocks point to mass-loss rates and wind velocities typical of single B stars, which do not support an enhanced systemic mass loss.

 

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