# Posts Tagged dust grains

## Recent Postings from dust grains

### Five steps in the evolution from protoplanetary to debris disk

The protoplanetary disks of Herbig Ae stars eventually dissipate leaving a tenuous debris disk comprised of planetesimals and dust, as well as possibly gas and planets. This paper uses the properties of 10-20Myr A star debris disks to consider the protoplanetary to debris disk transition. The physical distinction between these two classes is argued to rest on the presence of primordial gas in sufficient quantities to dominate the motion of small dust grains (not the secondary nature of the dust or its level of stirring). This motivates an observational classification based on the dust spectrum, empirically defined so that A star debris disks require fractional excesses <3 at 12um and <2000 at 70um. We also propose a hypothesis to test, that the main sequence planet/planetesimal structures are already in place (but obscured) during the protoplanetary disk phase. This may be only weakly true if planetary architectures change until frozen during disk dispersal, or completely false if planets and planetesimals form during disk dispersal. Five steps in the transition are discussed: (i) carving an inner hole to form a transition disk; (ii) depletion of mm-sized dust in outer disk, noting the importance of determining whether this mass ends up in planetesimals or is collisionally depleted; (iii) final clearing of inner regions, noting that many mechanisms replenish moderate hot dust levels at later phases, and likely also operate in protoplanetary disks; (iv) disappearence of gas, noting recent discoveries of primordial and secondary gas in debris disks that highlight our ignorance and its impending enlightenment by ALMA; (v) formation of ring-like planetesimal structures, noting these are shaped by interactions with planets, and that the location of planetesimals in protoplanetary disks may be unrelated to the dust concentrations therein that are set by gas interactions.

### Condensation of dust in the ejecta of type II-P supernovae

Aims: We study the production of dust in Type II-P supernova by coupling the gas-phase chemistry to the dust nucleation and condensation phases. We consider two supernova progenitor masses with homogeneous and clumpy ejecta to assess the chemical type and quantity of dust that forms. Grain size distributions are derived as a function of post-explosion time. Methods: The chemistry of the gas phase and the simultaneous formation of dust clusters are described by a chemical network. The formation of key species (CO, SiO) and dust clusters of silicates, alumina, silica, metal carbides and sulphides, pure metals, and amorphous carbon is considered. The master equations describing the chemistry of the nucleation phase are coupled to a dust condensation formalism based on Brownian coagulation. Results: Type II-P supernovae produce dust grains of various chemical compositions and size distributions as a function of time. The grain size distributions gain in complexity with time, are slewed towards large grains, and differ from the usual MRN power-law distribution used for interstellar dust. Gas density enhancements in the form of clumps strongly affect the dust chemical composition and the grain size distributions. Silicates and pure metallic grains are highly dependent on clumpiness. Specifically, clumpy ejecta produce grains over 0.1 micron, and the final dust mass reaches 0.14 Msun. Conversely, carbon and alumina dust masses are controlled by the mass yields of alumina and carbon in the zones where the dust is produced. Several dust components form in the ejecta and the total dust mass gradually builds up over a time span of 3 to 5 years post-outburst. This gradual growth provides a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the small dust masses formed at early post-explosion times and the high dust masses derived from recent observations of supernova remnants.

### Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium

Interstellar space is filled with a dilute mixture of charged particles, atoms, molecules and dust grains, called the interstellar medium (ISM). Understanding its physical properties and dynamical behavior is of pivotal importance to many areas of astronomy and astrophysics. Galaxy formation and evolution, the formation of stars, cosmic nucleosynthesis, the origin of large complex, prebiotic molecules and the abundance, structure and growth of dust grains which constitute the fundamental building blocks of planets, all these processes are intimately coupled to the physics of the interstellar medium. However, despite its importance, its structure and evolution is still not fully understood. Observations reveal that the interstellar medium is highly turbulent, consists of different chemical phases, and is characterized by complex structure on all resolvable spatial and temporal scales. Our current numerical and theoretical models describe it as a strongly coupled system that is far from equilibrium and where the different components are intricately linked together by complex feedback loops. Describing the interstellar medium is truly a multi-scale and multi-physics problem. In these lecture notes we introduce the microphysics necessary to better understand the interstellar medium. We review the relations between large-scale and small-scale dynamics, we consider turbulence as one of the key drivers of galactic evolution, and we review the physical processes that lead to the formation of dense molecular clouds and that govern stellar birth in their interior.

### Studies of Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) with the SKA

In this chapter, we will outline the scientific motivation for studying Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) with the SKA. AME is thought to be due to electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains, although thermal fluctuations of magnetic dust grains may also contribute. Studies of this mysterious component would shed light on the emission mechanism, which then opens up a new window onto the interstellar medium (ISM). AME is emitted mostly in the frequency range $\sim 10$–100\,GHz, and thus the SKA has the potential of measuring the low frequency side of the AME spectrum, particularly in band 5. Science targets include dense molecular clouds in the Milky Way, as well as extragalactic sources. We also discuss the possibility of detecting rotational line emission from Poly-cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could be the main carriers of AME. Detecting PAH lines of a given spacing would allow for a definitive identification of specific PAH species.

### AGB stars in the LMC: evolution of dust in circumstellar envelopes

We calculated theoretical evolutionary sequences of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, including formation and evolution of dust grains in their circumstellar envelope. By considering stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we calculate synthetic colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams, which are compared with those obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions outlines that extremely obscured carbon-stars and oxygen-rich sources experiencing hot bottom burning (HBB) occupy well defined, distinct regions in the colour-colour ($[3.6]-[4.5]$, $[5.8]-[8.0]$) diagram. The C-rich stars are distributed along a diagonal strip that we interpret as an evolutionary sequence, becoming progressively more obscured as the stellar surface layers enrich in carbon. Their circumstellar envelopes host solid carbon dust grains with size in the range $0.05 < a < 0.2 \mu m$. The presence of SiC particles is expected only in the more metal-rich stars. The reddest sources, with $[3.6]-[4.5] > 2$, are the descendants of stars with initial mass $M_{in} \sim 2.5 – 3 M_{\odot}$ in the very latest phases of the AGB life. The oxygen-rich stars with the reddest colours ($[5.8]-[8.0] > 0.6$) are those experiencing HBB, the descendants of $\sim 5 M_{\odot}$ objects formed $10^{8}$ yr ago; alumina and silicates dust start forming at different distances from the central star. The overall dust production rate in the LMC is $\sim 4.5 \times 10^{-5} M_{\odot}/yr$, the relative percentages due to C- and M- star being respectively 85$%$ and 15 $%$.

### On origin and destruction of relativistic dust and its implication for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

Dust grains may be accelerated to relativistic speeds by radiation pressure of luminous sources, diffusive shocks, and other acceleration mechanisms. Such relativistic grains have been suggested as potential primary particles of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). In this paper, we reexamine this idea by studying in detail different destruction mechanisms for relativistic grains moving with Lorentz factor $\gamma$ through a variety of environment conditions. For the solar radiation field, we find that sublimation/melting is a dominant destruction mechanism for silicate grains and large graphite grains. Using an improved treatment of photoelectric emission, we calculate the closest distance that relativistic grains can approach the Sun before destroyed by Coulomb explosions. A range of survival parameters for relativistic grains (size $a$ and $\gamma$) against both sublimation and Coulomb explosions by the solar radiation field is identified. We also study collisional destruction mechanisms, consisting of electronic sputtering by ions and grain-grain collisions. Electronic sputtering by light ions is found to be rather inefficient, whereas the evaporation induced by grain-grain collisions is shown to be an important mechanism for which the $a\le 1\mu$m grains can be completely destroyed after sweeping a column of gas and dust $N_{coll}\le 4\times 10^{20}$cm$^{-2}$. The destruction of relativistic dust by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) in the intergalactic medium by melting is inefficient, while Coulomb explosions are only important for grains of very large $\gamma$. The obtained results indicate that relativistic dust grains from extragalactic sources would likely be destroyed in the interstellar medium, but the grains accelerated to relativistic speeds in our Galaxy are not completely ruled out as primary particles of UHECRs.

### Depletion of chlorine into HCl ice in a protostellar core

The freezeout of gas-phase species onto cold dust grains can drastically alter the chemistry and the heating-cooling balance of protostellar material. In contrast to well-known species such as carbon monoxide (CO), the freezeout of various carriers of elements with abundances $<10^{-5}$ has not yet been well studied. Our aim here is to study the depletion of chlorine in the protostellar core, OMC-2 FIR 4. We observed transitions of HCl and H2Cl+ towards OMC-2 FIR 4 using the Herschel Space Observatory and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facilities. Our analysis makes use of state of the art chlorine gas-grain chemical models and newly calculated HCl-H$_{2}$ hyperfine collisional excitation rate coefficients. A narrow emission component in the HCl lines traces the extended envelope, and a broad one traces a more compact central region. The gas-phase HCl abundance in FIR 4 is 9e-11, a factor of only 0.001 that of volatile elemental chlorine. The H2Cl+ lines are detected in absorption and trace a tenuous foreground cloud, where we find no depletion of volatile chlorine. Gas-phase HCl is the tip of the chlorine iceberg in protostellar cores. Using a gas-grain chemical model, we show that the hydrogenation of atomic chlorine on grain surfaces in the dark cloud stage sequesters at least 90% of the volatile chlorine into HCl ice, where it remains in the protostellar stage. About 10% of chlorine is in gaseous atomic form. Gas-phase HCl is a minor, but diagnostically key reservoir, with an abundance of <1e-10 in most of the protostellar core. We find the 35Cl/37Cl ratio in OMC-2 FIR 4 to be 3.2\pm0.1, consistent with the solar system value.

### Outward Motion of Porous Dust Aggregates by Stellar Radiation Pressure in Protoplanetary Disks

We study the dust motion at the surface layer of protoplanetary disks. Dust grains in surface layer migrate outward due to angular momentum transport via gas-drag force induced by the stellar radiation pressure. In this study, we calculate mass flux of the outward motion of compact grains and porous dust aggregates by the radiation pressure. The radiation pressure force for porous dust aggregates is calculated using the T-Matrix Method for the Clusters of Spheres. First, we confirm that porous dust aggregates are forced by strong radiation pressure even if they grow to be larger aggregates in contrast to homogeneous and spherical compact grains to which efficiency of radiation pressure becomes lower when their sizes increase. In addition, we find that the outward mass flux of porous dust aggregates with monomer size of 0.1 $\mu$m is larger than that of compact grains by an order of magnitude at the disk radius of 1 AU, when their sizes are several microns. This implies that large compact grains like calcium-aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) are hardly transported to outer region by stellar radiation pressure, whereas porous dust aggregates like chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) are efficiently transported to comet formation region. Crystalline silicates are possibly transported in porous dust aggregates by stellar radiation pressure from inner hot region to outer cold cometary region in the protosolar nebula.

### Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project. II. Gas-to-Dust Ratio Variations across ISM Phases

The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Halpha observations. In the diffuse atomic ISM, we derive the gas-to-dust ratio as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find gas-to-dust ratios of 380+250-130 in the LMC, and 1200+1600-420 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 Mo pc-2 in the LMC and 0.03 Mo pc-2 in the SMC, corresponding to AV ~ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H2 conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on XCO to be 6×1020 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s in the LMC (Z=0.5Zo) at 15 pc resolution, and 4x 1021 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s in the SMC (Z=0.2Zo) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ~2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H2 in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H2. Within the expected 5–20 times Galactic XCO range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling and observations are required to break the degeneracy between dust grain coagulation, accretion, and CO-dark H2.

### The Structure of Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disks. II. Azimuthal Asymmetries, Different Radial Distributions of Large and Small Dust Grains in PDS~70

The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-$\mu$m size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report SMA observations of the dust continuum at 1.3~mm and $^{12}$CO~$J=2\rightarrow1$ line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS~70. PDS~70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of $\sim$65~AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger gap in the disk with a radius of $\sim$80~AU at 1.3~mm. Emission from all three disk components (the gas and the small and large dust grains) in images exhibits a deficit in brightness in the central region of the disk, in particular, the dust-disk in small and large dust grains has asymmetric brightness. The contrast ratio of the flux density in the dust continuum between the peak position to the opposite side of the disk reaches 1.4. We suggest the asymmetries and different gap-radii of the disk around PDS~70 are potentially formed by several (unseen) accreting planets inducing dust filtration.

### Grain Alignment in Starless Cores

We present near infrared polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the $K$ band, probing visual extinctions up to $A_{V} \sim 48$. We find that $P_K/{\tau _K}$ continues to decline with increasing $A_{V}$ with a power law slope of roughly -0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by $A_{V} \gtrsim 20$ the slope for $P$ vs. $\tau$ becomes $\sim -1$, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than $A_V \sim 20$. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

### Supernova dust formation and the grain growth in the early universe: The critical metallicity for low-mass star formation

We investigate the condition for the formation of low-mass second-generation stars in the early universe. It has been proposed that gas cooling by dust thermal emission can trigger fragmentation of a low-metallicity star-forming gas cloud. In order to determine the critical condition in which dust cooling induces the formation of low-mass stars, we follow the thermal evolution of a collapsing cloud by a one-zone semi-analytic collapse model. Earlier studies assume the dust amount in the local universe, where all refractory elements are depleted onto grains, and/or assume the constant dust amount during gas collapse. In this paper, we employ the models of dust formation and destruction in early supernovae to derive the realistic dust compositions and size distributions for multiple species as the initial conditions of our collapse calculations. We also follow accretion of heavy elements in the gas phase onto dust grains, i.e., grain growth, during gas contraction. We find that grain growth well alters the fragmentation property of the clouds, and that this still does not approach to the value in the local universe. The critical conditions can be written by the gas metallicity Zcr and the initial depletion efficiency fdep,0 of gas-phase metal onto grains, or dust-to-metal mass ratio, as (Zcr/10^{-5.5} Zsun) = (fdep,0/0.18)^{-0.44} with small scatters in the range of Zcr = [0.06--3.2]x10^{-5} Zsun. We also show that the initial dust composition and size distribution are important to determine Zcr.

### The timing and location of dust formation in the remnant of SN 1987A

The discovery with the {\it Herschel Space Observatory} of bright far infrared and submm emission from the ejecta of the core collapse supernova SN\,1987A has been interpreted as indicating the presence of some 0.4–0.7\,M$_\odot$ of dust. We have constructed radiative transfer models of the ejecta to fit optical to far-infrared observations from the literature at epochs between 615 days and 24 years after the explosion, to determine when and where this unexpectedly large amount of dust formed. We find that the observations by day 1153 are consistent with the presence of 3$\times$10$^{-3}$M$_\odot$ of dust. Although this is a larger amount than has previously been considered possible at this epoch, it is still very small compared to the amount present in the remnant after 24 years, and significantly higher dust masses at the earlier epochs are firmly ruled out by the observations, indicating that the majority of the dust must have formed at very late times. By 8515-9200 days after the explosion, 0.6–0.8\,M$_\odot$ of dust is present, and dust grains with radii greater than 2\,$\mu$m are required to obtain a fit to the observed SED. This suggests that the dust mass increase at late times was caused by accretion onto and coagulation of the dust grains formed at earlier epochs. These findings provide further confirmation that core collapse supernovae can create large quantities of dust, and indicate that the reason for small dust masses being estimated in many cases is that the vast majority of the dust forms long after most supernovae have been detectable at mid-infrared wavelengths.

### A New and Simple Approach to Determine the Abundance of Hydrogen Molecules on Interstellar Ice Mantles

Water is usually the main component of ice mantles, which cover the cores of dust grains in cold portions of dense interstellar clouds. When molecular hydrogen is adsorbed onto an icy mantle through physisorption, a common assumption in gas-grain rate equation models is to use an adsorption energy for molecular hydrogen on a pure water substrate. However, at high density and low temperature, when H2 is efficiently adsorbed onto the mantle, its surface abundance can be strongly overestimated if this assumption is still used. Unfortunately, the more detailed microscopic Monte Carlo treatment cannot be used to study the abundance of H2 in ice mantles if a full gas-grain network is utilized. We present a numerical method adapted for rate-equation models that takes into account the possibility that an H2 molecule can, while diffusing on the surface, find itself bound to another hydrogen molecule, with a far weaker bond than the H2-water bond, which can lead to more efficient desorption. We label the ensuing desorption "encounter desorption". The method is implemented first in a simple system consisting only of hydrogen molecules at steady state between gas and dust using the rate-equation approach and comparing the results with the results of a microscopic Monte Carlo calculation. We then discuss the use of the rate-equation approach with encounter desorption embedded in a complete gas-grain chemical network. For both systems, the rate-equation model with encounter desorption reproduces the H2 granular coverage computed by the microscopic Monte Carlo model. The method is especially useful for dense and cold environments, and for time-dependent physical conditions, such as occur in the collapse of dense cores and the formation of protoplanetary disks. It is not significantly CPU time consuming, so can be used for example with complex 3D chemical-hydrodynamical simulations.

### A New and Simple Approach to Determine the Abundance of Hydrogen Molecules on Interstellar Ice Mantles [Replacement]

Water is usually the main component of ice mantles, which cover the cores of dust grains in cold portions of dense interstellar clouds. When molecular hydrogen is adsorbed onto an icy mantle through physisorption, a common assumption in gas-grain rate equation models is to use an adsorption energy for molecular hydrogen on a pure water substrate. However, at high density and low temperature, when H2 is efficiently adsorbed onto the mantle, its surface abundance can be strongly overestimated if this assumption is still used. Unfortunately, the more detailed microscopic Monte Carlo treatment cannot be used to study the abundance of H2 in ice mantles if a full gas-grain network is utilized. We present a numerical method adapted for rate-equation models that takes into account the possibility that an H2 molecule can, while diffusing on the surface, find itself bound to another hydrogen molecule, with a far weaker bond than the H2-water bond, which can lead to more efficient desorption. We label the ensuing desorption "encounter desorption". The method is implemented first in a simple system consisting only of hydrogen molecules at steady state between gas and dust using the rate-equation approach and comparing the results with the results of a microscopic Monte Carlo calculation. We then discuss the use of the rate-equation approach with encounter desorption embedded in a complete gas-grain chemical network. For both systems, the rate-equation model with encounter desorption reproduces the H2 granular coverage computed by the microscopic Monte Carlo model. The method is especially useful for dense and cold environments, and for time-dependent physical conditions, such as occur in the collapse of dense cores and the formation of protoplanetary disks. It is not significantly CPU time consuming, so can be used for example with complex 3D chemical-hydrodynamical simulations.

### PILOT: a balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarized FIR emission of dust grains in the interstellar medium

Future cosmology space missions will concentrate on measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which potentially carries invaluable information about the earliest phases of the evolution of our universe. Such ambitious projects will ultimately be limited by the sensitivity of the instrument and by the accuracy at which polarized foreground emission from our own Galaxy can be subtracted out. We present the PILOT balloon project which will aim at characterizing one of these foreground sources, the polarization of the dust continuum emission in the diffuse interstellar medium. The PILOT experiment will also constitute a test-bed for using multiplexed bolometer arrays for polarization measurements. We present the results of ground tests obtained just before the first flight of the instrument.

### Measuring Polarization in microlensing events

We re-consider the polarization of the star light that may arise during microlensing events due to the high gradient of magnification across the atmosphere of the source star, by exploring the full range of microlensing and stellar physical parameters. Since it is already known that only cool evolved giant stars give rise to the highest polarization signals, we follow the model by Simmons et al. (2002) to compute the polarization as due to the photon scattering on dust grains in the stellar wind. Motivated by the possibility to perform a polarization measurement during an ongoing microlensing event, we consider the recently reported event catalog by the OGLE collaboration covering the 2001-2009 campaigns (OGLE-III events), that makes available the largest and more comprehensive set of single lens microlensing events towards the Galactic bulge. The study of these events, integrated by a Monte Carlo analysis, allows us to estimate the expected polarization profiles and to predict for which source stars and at which time is most convenient to perform a polarization measurement in an ongoing event. We find that about two dozens of OGLE-III events (about 1 percent of the total) have maximum polarization degree in the range 0.1 < P_{\rm max} <1 percent, corresponding to source stars with apparent magnitude I < 14.5, being very cool red giants.This signal is measurable by using the FORS2 polarimeter at VLT telescope with about 1 hour integration time.

### Dusty tails of evaporating exoplanets. I. Constraints on the dust composition

Recently, two exoplanet candidates have been discovered, KIC 12557548b and KOI-2700b, whose transit profiles show evidence for a comet-like tail of dust trailing the planet, thought to be fed by the evaporation of the planet’s surface. We aim to put constraints on the composition of the dust ejected by these objects from the shape of their transit light curves. We derive a semi-analytical expression for the attenuation of dust cross-section in the tail, incorporating the sublimation of dust grains as well as their drift away from the planet. This expression shows that the length of the tail is highly sensitive to the sublimation properties of the dust material. We compute tail lengths for several possible dust compositions, and compare these to observational estimates of the tail lengths of KIC 12557548b and KOI-2700b, inferred from their light curves. The observed tail lengths are consistent with dust grains composed of corundum (Al2O3) or iron-rich silicate minerals (e.g., fayalite, Fe2SiO4). Pure iron and carbonaceous compositions are disfavoured. In addition, we estimate dust mass loss rates of 1.7 +/- 0.5 M_earth/Gyr for KIC 12557548b, and > 0.007 M_earth/Gyr (1-sigma lower limit) for KOI-2700b.

### ALMA Observations of Anisotropic Dust Mass-loss in the Inner Circumstellar Environment of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass-loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here, we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R$_{\star}$ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R$_{\star}$) south-east of the star and has a dust mass of at least $2.5\times 10^{-4}$M$_{\odot}$. It has an emissivity spectral index of $\beta =-0.1$ at its peak, implying that it is either optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of $T_{d}\lesssim 100$ K, and/or contains very large dust grains. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to the peak of this massive dust clump. The other main dust component, VY, is located at the position of the star and contains a total dust mass of $4.0 \times 10^{-5}$M$_{\odot}$. It also contains a weaker dust feature extending over $60$R$_{\star}$ to the north with the total component having a typical emissivity spectral index of $\beta =0.7$. We find that $>17\%$ of the dust mass around VY CMa is located in clumps ejected within a more quiescent roughly spherical stellar wind, with a quiescent dust mass loss rate of $5 \times 10^{-6}$ M$_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. The observations suggest a continuous preferentially directed mass-loss from the star over many decades and do not support current models of convective driven only mass loss in red supergiant stars. We thus suggest other forces, i.e., MHD disturbances, are also needed to explain the observations.

### ALMA Observations of Anisotropic Dust Mass-loss in the Inner Circumstellar Environment of the Red Supergiant VY CMa [Replacement]

The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass-loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here, we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R$_{\star}$ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R$_{\star}$) south-east of the star and has a dust mass of at least $2.5\times 10^{-4}$M$_{\odot}$. It has an emissivity spectral index of $\beta =-0.1$ at its peak, implying that it is either optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of $T_{d}\lesssim 100$ K, and/or contains very large dust grains. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to the peak of this massive dust clump. The other main dust component, VY, is located at the position of the star and contains a total dust mass of $4.0 \times 10^{-5}$M$_{\odot}$. It also contains a weaker dust feature extending over $60$R$_{\star}$ to the north with the total component having a typical emissivity spectral index of $\beta =0.7$. We find that $>17%$ of the dust mass around VY CMa is located in clumps ejected within a more quiescent roughly spherical stellar wind, with a quiescent dust mass loss rate of $5 \times 10^{-6}$ M$_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. The observations suggest a continuous preferentially directed mass-loss from the star over many decades and do not support current models of convective driven only mass loss in red supergiant stars. We thus suggest other forces, i.e., MHD disturbances, are also needed to explain the observations.

### ALMA Observations of Anisotropic Dust Mass-loss in the Inner Circumstellar Environment of the Red Supergiant VY CMa [Replacement]

The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass-loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here, we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R$_{\star}$ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R$_{\star}$) south-east of the star and has a dust mass of at least $2.5\times 10^{-4}$M$_{\odot}$. It has an emissivity spectral index of $\beta =-0.1$ at its peak, implying that it is either optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of $T_{d}\lesssim 100$ K, and/or contains very large dust grains. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to the peak of this massive dust clump. The other main dust component, VY, is located at the position of the star and contains a total dust mass of $4.0 \times 10^{-5}$M$_{\odot}$. It also contains a weaker dust feature extending over $60$R$_{\star}$ to the north with the total component having a typical emissivity spectral index of $\beta =0.7$. We find that $>17%$ of the dust mass around VY CMa is located in clumps ejected within a more quiescent roughly spherical stellar wind, with a quiescent dust mass loss rate of $5 \times 10^{-6}$ M$_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. The observations suggest a continuous preferentially directed mass-loss from the star over many decades and do not support current models of convective driven only mass loss in red supergiant stars. We thus suggest other forces, i.e., MHD disturbances, are also needed to explain the observations.

### Cool dust heating and temperature mixing in nearby star-forming galaxies

Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in galaxies are closely linked to the ambient radiation field and the heating of dust grains. In order to characterize dust properties in galaxies over a wide range of physical conditions, we present here the radial surface brightness profiles of the entire sample of 61 galaxies from Key Insights into Nearby Galaxies: Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). The main goal of our work is the characterization of the grain emissivities, dust temperatures, and interstellar radiation fields responsible for heating the dust. After fitting the dust and stellar radial profiles with exponential functions, we fit the far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) in each annular region with single-temperature modified black bodies using both variable (MBBV) and fixed (MBBF) emissivity indices beta, as well as with physically motivated dust models. Results show that while most SED parameters decrease with radius, the emissivity index beta also decreases with radius in some galaxies, but in others is increasing, or rising in the inner regions and falling in the outer ones. Despite the fixed grain emissivity (average beta~ 2.1) of the physically-motivated models, they are well able to accommodate flat spectral slopes with beta<= 1. We find that flatter slopes (beta<= 1.5) are associated with cooler temperatures, contrary to what would be expected from the usual Tdust-beta degeneracy. This trend is related to variations in Umin since beta and Umin are very closely linked over the entire range in Umin sampled by the KINGFISH galaxies: low Umin is associated with flat beta<=1. Both these results strongly suggest that the low apparent \beta values (flat slopes) in MBBV fits are caused by temperature mixing along the line-of-sight, rather than by intrinsic variations in grain properties. Abstract truncated for arXiv.

### The origin of the most iron-poor star

We investigate the origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars starting from the recently discovered $\rm [Fe/H]<-7.1$ star SMSS J031300 (Keller et al. 2014). We show that the elemental abundances observed on the surface of SMSS J031300 can be well fit by the yields of faint, metal free, supernovae. Using properly calibrated faint supernova explosion models, we study, for the first time, the formation of dust grains in such carbon-rich, iron-poor supernova ejecta. Calculations are performed assuming both unmixed and uniformly mixed ejecta and taking into account the partial destruction by the supernova reverse shock. We find that, due to the paucity of refractory elements beside carbon, amorphous carbon is the only grain species to form, with carbon condensation efficiencies that range between (0.15-0.84), resulting in dust yields in the range (0.025-2.25)M$_{\odot}$. We follow the collapse and fragmentation of a star forming cloud enriched by the products of these faint supernova explosions and we explore the role played by fine structure line cooling and dust cooling. We show that even if grain growth during the collapse has a minor effect of the dust-to-gas ratio, due to C depletion into CO molecules at an early stage of the collapse, the formation of CEMP low-mass stars, such as SMSS J031300, could be triggered by dust cooling and fragmentation. A comparison between model predictions and observations of a sample of C-normal and C-rich metal-poor stars supports the idea that a single common pathway may be responsible for the formation of the first low-mass stars.

### The origin of the most iron-poor star [Replacement]

We investigate the origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars starting from the recently discovered $\rm [Fe/H]<-7.1$ star SMSS J031300 (Keller et al. 2014). We show that the elemental abundances observed on the surface of SMSS J031300 can be well fit by the yields of faint, metal free, supernovae. Using properly calibrated faint supernova explosion models, we study, for the first time, the formation of dust grains in such carbon-rich, iron-poor supernova ejecta. Calculations are performed assuming both unmixed and uniformly mixed ejecta and taking into account the partial destruction by the supernova reverse shock. We find that, due to the paucity of refractory elements beside carbon, amorphous carbon is the only grain species to form, with carbon condensation efficiencies that range between (0.15-0.84), resulting in dust yields in the range (0.025-2.25)M$_{\odot}$. We follow the collapse and fragmentation of a star forming cloud enriched by the products of these faint supernova explosions and we explore the role played by fine structure line cooling and dust cooling. We show that even if grain growth during the collapse has a minor effect of the dust-to-gas ratio, due to C depletion into CO molecules at an early stage of the collapse, the formation of CEMP low-mass stars, such as SMSS J031300, could be triggered by dust cooling and fragmentation. A comparison between model predictions and observations of a sample of C-normal and C-rich metal-poor stars supports the idea that a single common pathway may be responsible for the formation of the first low-mass stars.

### On the relevance of the H2 + O reaction pathway for the surface formation of interstellar water - A combined experimental and modeling study

The formation of interstellar water has been commonly accepted to occur on the surfaces of icy dust grains in dark molecular clouds at low temperatures (10-20 K), involving hydrogenation reactions of oxygen allotropes. As a result of the large abundances of molecular hydrogen and atomic oxygen in these regions, the reaction H2 + O has been proposed to contribute significantly to the formation of water as well. However, gas phase experiments and calculations, as well as solid-phase experimental work contradict this hypothesis. Here, we use precisely executed temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments in an ultra-high vacuum setup combined with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to establish an upper limit of the water production starting from H2 and O. These reactants are brought together in a matrix of CO2 in a series of (control) experiments at different temperatures and with different isotopological compositions. The amount of water detected with the quadrupole mass spectrometer upon TPD is found to originate mainly from contamination in the chamber itself. However, if water is produced in small quantities on the surface through H2 + O, this can only be explained by a combined classical and tunneled reaction mechanism. An absolutely conservative upper limit for the reaction rate is derived with a microscopic kinetic Monte Carlo model that converts the upper limit into a maximal possible reaction rate. Incorporating this rate into simulations run for astrochemically relevant parameters, shows that the upper limit to the contribution of the reaction H2 + O in OH, and hence water formation, is 11% in dense interstellar clouds. Our combined experimental and theoretical results indicate however, that this contribution is likely to be much lower.

### Cosmic-ray induced diffusion in interstellar ices

Cosmic rays are able to heat interstellar dust grains. This may enhance molecule mobility in icy mantles that have accumulated on the grains in dark cloud cores. A three-phase astrochemical model was used to investigate the molecule mobility in interstellar ices. Specifically, diffusion through pores in ice between the subsurface mantle and outer surface, assisted by whole-grain heating, was considered. It was found that the pores can serve as an efficient transport route for light species. The diffusion of chemical radicals from the mantle to the outer surface are most effective. These species accumulate in the mantle because of photodissociation by the cosmic-ray induced photons. The faster diffusion of hydrogen within the warm ice enhances the hydrogenation of radicals on pore surfaces. The overall result of the whole grain heating-induced radial diffusion in ice are higher abundances of the ice species whose synthesis involve light radicals. Examples of stable species synthesized this way include the complex organic molecules, OCS, H2O2 and cyanoplyynes.

### Planck intermediate results. XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical estimates from approximately 200,000 QSOs observed in the Sloan digital sky survey. The DL AV estimates are larger than those determined from the QSOs, and this discrepancy depends on Umin. We propose an empirical renormalization of the DL AV estimate, dependent of Umin, which compensates for the systematic differences found here. This renormalization, bringing into agreement the AV estimates on QSOs, also brings into agreement the AV estimates on molecular clouds. In the diffuse ISM, the DL fitting parameter Umin, appears to trace variations in the far-IR opacity of the dust grains. Therefore, some of the physical assumptions of the DL model need to be revised. We provide a family of SEDs normalized by optical reddening, parameterized by Umin; these will be the constraints for a next generation of dust models.

### Electrically charged matter in rigid rotation around magnetized black hole [Cross-Listing]

We study charged-fluid toroidal structures surrounding a non-rotating charged black hole immersed in a large-scale, asymptotically uniform magnetic field. In continuation of our former study on electrically charged matter in approximation of zero conductivity, we demonstrate existence of orbiting structures in permanent rigid rotation in the equatorial plane, and charged clouds hovering near the symmetry axis. We constrain the range of parameters that allow stable configurations and derive the geometrical shape of equi-pressure surfaces. Our simplified analytical study suggests that these regions of stability may be relevant for trapping electrically charged particles and dust grains in some areas of the black hole magnetosphere, being thus important in some astrophysical situations.

### Electrically charged matter in rigid rotation around magnetized black hole

We study charged-fluid toroidal structures surrounding a non-rotating charged black hole immersed in a large-scale, asymptotically uniform magnetic field. In continuation of our former study on electrically charged matter in approximation of zero conductivity, we demonstrate existence of orbiting structures in permanent rigid rotation in the equatorial plane, and charged clouds hovering near the symmetry axis. We constrain the range of parameters that allow stable configurations and derive the geometrical shape of equi-pressure surfaces. Our simplified analytical study suggests that these regions of stability may be relevant for trapping electrically charged particles and dust grains in some areas of the black hole magnetosphere, being thus important in some astrophysical situations.

### On the radiation driven alignment of dust grains: Detection of the polarization hole in a starless core

We aim to investigate the polarization properties of a starless core in a very early evolutionary stage. Linear polarization data reveal the properties of the dust grains in the distinct phases of the interstellar medium. Our goal is to investigate how the polarization degree and angle correlate with the cloud and core gas. We use optical, near infrared and submillimeter polarization observations toward the starless object Pipe-109 in the Pipe nebula. Our data cover a physical scale range of 0.08 to 0.4 pc, comprising the dense gas, envelope and the surrounding cloud. The cloud polarization is well traced by the optical data. The near infrared polarization is produced by a mixed population of grains from the core border and the cloud gas. The optical and near infrared polarization toward the cloud reach the maximum possible value and saturate with respect to the visual extinction. The core polarization is predominantly traced by the submillimeter data and have a steep decrease with respect to the visual extinction. Modeling of the submillimeter polarization indicates a magnetic field main direction projected onto the plane-of-sky and loss of grain alignment for densities higher than $6\times10^4$ cm$^{-3}$ (or $A_V > 30$ mag). Pipe-109 is immersed in a magnetized medium, with a very ordered magnetic field. The absence of internal source of radiation significantly affects the polarization efficiencies in the core, creating a polarization hole at the center of the starless core. This result supports the theory of dust grain alignment via radiative torques.

### The gas-ice chemical interplay during cloud evolution

During the evolution of diffuse clouds to molecular clouds, gas-phase molecules freeze out on surfaces of small dust particles to form ices. On dust surfaces, water is the main constituent of the icy mantle in which a complex chemistry is taking place. We aim to study the formation pathways and the composition of the ices throughout the evolution of diffuse clouds. For this purpose, we use time-dependent rate equations to calculate the molecular abundances in both gas phase and on solid surfaces (onto dust grains). We fully consider the gas-dust interplay by including the details of freeze-out, chemical and thermal desorption, as well as the most important photo-processes on grain surfaces. The difference in binding energies of chemical species on bare and icy surfaces is also incorporated into our equations. Using the numerical code FLASH, we perform a hydrodynamical simulation of a gravitationally bound diffuse cloud and follow its contraction. We find that while the dust grains are still bare, water formation is enhanced by grain surface chemistry which is subsequently released into the gas phase, enriching the molecular medium. The CO molecules, on the other hand, tend to freeze out gradually on bare grains. This causes CO to be well mixed and strongly present within the first ice layer. Once one monolayer of water ice has formed, the binding energy of the grain surface changes significantly and an immediate and strong depletion of gas-phase water and CO molecules occur. While hydrogenation converts solid CO into formaldehyde (H$_2$CO) and methanol (CH$_3$OH), water ice becomes the main constituent of the icy grains. Inside molecular clumps formaldehyde is more abundant than water and methanol in the gas phase owing its presence mainly to chemical desorption.

### Effect of lift force on the aerodynamics of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk

We newly introduce lift force into the aerodynamics of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk. Although many authors have so far investigated the effects of the drag force, gravitational force and electric force on the dust grains, the lift force has never been considered as a force exerted on the dust grains in the gas disk. If the grains are spinning and moving in the fluid, then the lift force is exerted on them. We show in this paper that the dust grains can be continuously spinning due to the frequent collisions so that the lift force continues to be exerted on them, which is valid in a certain parameter space where the grain size is larger than ~ 1 m and where the distance from the central star is larger than 1 AU for the minimum mass solar nebula. In addition, we estimate the effects of the force on the grain motion and obtain the result that the mean relative velocity between the grains due to the lift force is comparable to the gas velocity in the Kepler rotational frame when the Stokes number and lift-drag ratio are both ~ 1. This estimation is performed under the assumptions of the steady state and the isotropic spin angular momentum. We also estimate the mean relative velocity when the grains keep spinning and conclude that the lift force marginally affects the mean relative velocity in the minimum mass solar nebula. If there is a grain-concentrated part in the disk, the relative velocity due to the lift force may dominate there because of high collision rate.

### A Study of Dust and Gas at Mars from Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

Although the nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will safely pass Mars in October 2014, the dust in the coma and tail will more closely approach the planet. Using a dynamical model of comet dust, we estimate the impact fluence. Based on our nominal model no impacts are expected at Mars. Relaxing our nominal model’s parameters, the fluence is no greater than ~10^7 grains/m^2 for grain radii larger than 10 {\mu}m. Mars orbiting spacecraft are unlikely to be impacted by large dust grains, but Mars may receive as many as ~10^7 grains, or ~100 kg of total dust. We also estimate the flux of impacting gas molecules commonly observed in comet comae.

### A Study of Dust and Gas at Mars from Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) [Replacement]

Although the nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will safely pass Mars in October 2014, the dust in the coma and tail will more closely approach the planet. Using a dynamical model of comet dust, we estimate the impact fluence. Based on our nominal model no impacts are expected at Mars. Relaxing our nominal model’s parameters, the fluence is no greater than ~10^-7 grains/m^2 for grain radii larger than 10 {\mu}m. Mars orbiting spacecraft are unlikely to be impacted by large dust grains, but Mars may receive as many as ~10^7 grains, or ~100 kg of total dust. We also estimate the flux of impacting gas molecules commonly observed in comet comae.

### Deuterated methanol in the pre-stellar core L1544

Using the IRAM 30m telescope, we mapped the methanol emission in the pre-stellar core L1544 and observed singly deuterated methanol (CH$_2$DOH and CH$_3$OD) towards the dust peak of L1544. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelling was performed on three CH$_3$OH emissions lines at 96.7 GHz, using a Bonnor-Ebert sphere as a model for the source. We have also assumed a centrally decreasing abundance profile to take the molecule freeze-out in the inner core into account. The column density of CH$_2$DOH was derived assuming LTE excitation and optically thin emission. The CH$_3$OH emission has a highly asymmetric morphology, resembling a non-uniform ring surrounding the dust peak, where CO is mainly frozen onto dust grains. The observations provide an accurate measure of methanol deuteration in the cold pre-stellar gas. The derived abundance ratio is [CH$_2$DOH]/[CH$_3$OH] $= 0.10\pm 0.03$, which is significantly smaller than the ones found in low-mass Class 0 protostars and smaller than the deuterium Fraction measured in other molecules towards L1544. The low deuterium fractionation observed in L1544 and the morphology of the CH$_3$OH emission suggest that we are mainly tracing the outer parts of the core, where CO just started to freeze-out onto dust grains.

### Probing the Terrestrial Regions of Planetary Systems: Warm Debris Disks with Emission Features

Observations of debris disks allow for the study of planetary systems, even where planets have not been detected. However, debris disks are often only characterized by unresolved infrared excesses that resemble featureless blackbodies, and the location of the emitting dust is uncertain due to a degeneracy with the dust grain properties. Here we characterize the Spitzer IRS spectra of 22 debris disks exhibiting 10 micron silicate emission features. Such features arise from small warm dust grains, and their presence can significantly constrain the orbital location of the emitting debris. We find that these features can be explained by the presence of an additional dust component in the terrestrial zones of the planetary systems, i.e. an exozodiacal belt. Aside from possessing exozodiacal dust, these debris disks are not particularly unique; their minimum grain sizes are consistent with the blowout sizes of their systems, and their brightnesses are comparable to those of featureless warm debris disks. These disks are in systems with a range of ages, although the older systems with features are found only around A-type stars. The features in young systems may be signatures of terrestrial planet formation. Analyzing the spectra of unresolved debris disks with emission features may be one of the simplest and most accessible ways to study the terrestrial regions of planetary systems.

### Effect of dust grain porosity on the appearance of protoplanetary disks

We theoretically analyze protoplanetary disks consisting of porous dust grains. In the analysis of observations of protoplanetary disks the dust phase is often assumed to consist of spherical grains, allowing one to apply the Mie scattering formalism. However, in reality, the shape of dust grains is expected to deviate strongly from that of a sphere. We investigate the influence of porous dust grains on the temperature distribution and observable appearance of protoplanetary disks for dust grain porosities of up to 60 %. We performed radiative transfer modeling to simulate the temperature distribution, spectral energy distribution, and spatially resolved intensity and polarization maps. The optical properties of porous grains were calculated using the method of discrete dipole approximation. We find that the flux in the optical wavelength range is for porous grains higher than for compact, spherical grains. The profile of the silicate peak at 9.7 um strongly depends on the degree of grain porosity. The temperature distribution shows significant changes in the direction perpendicular to the midplane. Moreover, simulated polarization maps reveal an increase of the polarization degree by a factor of about four when porous grains are considered, regardless of the disk inclination. The polarization direction is reversed in selected disk regions, depending on the wavelength, grain porosity, and disk inclination. We discuss several possible explanations of this effect and find that multiple scattering explains the effect best. Porosity influences the observable appearance of protoplanetary disks. In particular, the polarization reversal shows a dependence on grain porosity. The physical conditions within the disk are altered by porosity, which might have an effect on the processes of grain growth and disk evolution.

### Imaging the Inner and Outer Gaps of the Pre-Transitional Disk of HD 169142 at 7 mm

We present Very Large Array observations at 7 mm that trace the thermal emission of large dust grains in the HD 169142 protoplanetary disk. Our images show a ring of enhanced emission of radius ~25-30 AU, whose inner region is devoid of detectable 7 mm emission. We interpret this ring as tracing the rim of an inner cavity or gap, possibly created by a planet or a substellar companion. The ring appears asymmetric, with the western part significantly brighter than the eastern one. This azimuthal asymmetry is reminiscent of the lopsided structures that are expected to be produced as a consequence of trapping of large dust grains. Our observations also reveal an outer annular gap at radii from ~40 to ~70 AU. Unlike other sources, the radii of the inner cavity, the ring, and the outer gap observed in the 7 mm images, which trace preferentially the distribution of large (mm/cm sized) dust grains, coincide with those obtained from a previous near-infrared polarimetric image, which traces scattered light from small (micron- sized) dust grains. We model the broad-band spectral energy distribution and the 7 mm images to constrain the disk physical structure. From this modeling we infer the presence of a small (radius ~0.6 AU) residual disk inside the central cavity, indicating that the HD 169142 disk is a pre-transitional disk. The distribution of dust in three annuli with gaps in between them suggests that the disk in HD 169142 is being disrupted by at least two planets or substellar objects.

### Formation and evolution of molecular hydrogen in disk galaxies with different masses and Hubble types

We investigate the physical properties of molecular hydrogen (H2) in isolated and interacting disk galaxies with different masses and Hubble types by using chemodynamical simulations with H2 formation on dust grains and dust growth and destruction in interstellar medium (ISM). We particularly focus on the dependences of H2 gas mass fractions (f_H2), spatial distributions of HI and H2, and local H2-scaling relations on initial halo masses (M_h), baryonic fractions (f_bary), gas mass fractions (f_g), and Hubble types. The principal results are as follows. The final f_H2 can be larger in disk galaxies with higher M_h, f_bary, and f_g. Some low-mass disk models with M_h smaller than 10^10 M_sun show extremely low f_H2 and thus no/little star formation, even if initial f_g is quite large (>0.9). Big galactic bulges can severely suppress the formation of H2 from HI on dust grains whereas strong stellar bars can not only enhance f_H2 but also be responsible for the formation of H2-dominated central rings. The projected radial distributions of H2 are significantly more compact than those of HI and the simulated radial profiles of H2-to-HI-ratios (R_mol) follow roughly R^-1.5 in MW-type disk models. Galaxy interaction can significantly increase f_H2 and total H2 mass in disk galaxies. The local surface mass densities of H2 can be correlated with those of dust in a galaxy. The observed correlation between R_mol and gas pressure (R_mol ~ P_g^0.92) can be well reproduced in the simulated disk galaxies.

### A common column density threshold for scattering at 3.6 mum and water-ice in molecular clouds

Context: Observations of scattered light in the 1-5 $\mu$m range have revealed dust grains in molecular cores with sizes larger than commonly inferred for the diffuse interstellar medium. It is currently unclear whether these grains are grown within the molecular cores or are an ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. Aims: We investigate whether the large grains necessary for efficient scattering at 1-5 mum are associated with the abundance of water-ice within molecular clouds and cores. Methods: We combined water-ice abundance measurements for sight lines through the Lupus IV molecular cloud complex with measurements of the scattered light at 3.6 mum for the same sight lines. Results: We find that there is a similar threshold for the cores in emission in scattered light at 3.6 mum (tau_9.7=0.15pm0.05, A_K=0.4pm0.2 as water-ice (tau_9.7=0.11pm0.01, A_K=0.19pm0.04) and that the scattering efficiency increases as the relative water-ice abundance increases. The ice layer increases the average grain size, which again strongly increases the albedo. Conclusions: The higher scattering efficiency is partly due to layering of ice on the dust grains. Although the layer can be relatively thin it can enhance the scattering substantially.

### Dust properties inside molecular clouds from coreshine modeling and observations

Context. Using observations to deduce dust properties, grain size distribution, and physical conditions in molecular clouds is a highly degenerate problem. Aims. The coreshine phenomenon, a scattering process at 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m that dominates absorption, has revealed its ability to explore the densest parts of clouds. We want to use this effect to constrain the dust parameters. The goal is to investigate to what extent grain growth (at constant dust mass) inside molecular clouds is able to explain the coreshine observations. We aim to find dust models that can explain a sample of Spitzer coreshine data. We also look at the consistency with near-infrared data we obtained for a few clouds. Methods. We selected four regions with a very high occurrence of coreshine cases: Taurus-Perseus, Cepheus, Chameleon and L183/L134. We built a grid of dust models and investigated the key parameters to reproduce the general trend of surface bright- nesses and intensity ratios of both coreshine and near-infrared observations with the help of a 3D Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. The grid parameters allow to investigate the effect of coagulation upon spherical grains up to 5 $\mu$m in size derived from the DustEm diffuse interstellar medium grains. Fluffiness (porosity or fractal degree), ices, and a handful of classical grain size distributions were also tested. We used the near- and mostly mid-infrared intensity ratios as strong discriminants between dust models. Results. The determination of the background field intensity at each wavelength is a key issue. In particular, an especially strong background field explains why we do not see coreshine in the Galactic plane at 3.6 and 4.5 $\mu$m. For starless cores, where detected, the observed 4.5 $\mu$m / 3.6 $\mu$m coreshine intensity ratio is always lower than $\sim$0.5 which is also what we find in the models for the Taurus-Perseus and L183 directions. Embedded sources can lead to higher fluxes (up to four times greater than the strongest starless core fluxes) and higher coreshine ratios (from 0.5 to 1.1 in our selected sample). Normal interstellar radiation field conditions are sufficient to find suitable grain models at all wavelengths for starless cores. The standard interstellar grains are not able to reproduce observations and, due to the multi-wavelength approach, only a few grain types meet the criteria set by the data. Porosity does not affect the flux ratios while the fractal dimension helps to explain coreshine ratios but does not seem able to reproduce near-infrared observations without a mix of other grain types. Conclusions. Combined near- and mid-infrared wavelengths confirm the potential to reveal the nature and size distribution of dust grains. Careful assessment of the environmental parameters (interstellar and background fields, embedded or nearby reddened sources) is required to validate this new diagnostic.

### Disk Radii and Grain Sizes in Herschel-Resolved Debris Disks

(Abridged) The radii of debris disks and the sizes of their dust grains are tracers of the formation mechanisms and physical processes operating in these systems. We use a sample of 34 debris disks spatially resolved in various Herschel programs to constrain them. While we modeled disks with both warm and cold components, we focus our analysis only on the cold outer disks, i.e. Kuiper-belt analogs. The disk radii derived from the resolved images reveal a large dispersion, but no significant trend with the stellar luminosity, which argues against ice lines as a dominant player in setting the debris disk sizes. Fixing the disk radii to those inferred from the resolved images, we model the spectral energy distributions to determine the dust temperatures and the grain size distributions. While the dust temperature systematically increases towards earlier spectral types, its ratio to the blackbody temperature at the disk radius decreases with the stellar luminosity. This is explained by an increase of typical grain sizes towards more luminous stars. The sizes are compared to the radiation pressure blowout limit $s_\text{blow}$ that is proportional to the stellar luminosity-to-mass ratio and thus also increases towards earlier spectral classes. The grain sizes in the disks of G- to A-stars are inferred to be several times $s_\text{blow}$ at all stellar luminosities, in agreement with collisional models of debris disks. The sizes, measured in the units of $s_\text{blow}$, appear to decrease with the luminosity, which may be suggestive of the disk’s stirring level increasing towards earlier-type stars.

### Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova SN 2010jl

The origin of dust in galaxies is still a mystery. The majority of the refractory elements are produced in supernova explosions but it is unclear how and where dust grains condense and grow, and how they avoid destruction in the harsh environments of star-forming galaxies. The recent detection of 0.1-0.5 solar masses of dust in nearby supernova remnants suggests in situ dust formation, while other observations reveal very little dust in supernovae the first few years after explosion. Observations of the bright SN 2010jl have been interpreted as pre-existing dust, dust formation or no dust at all. Here we report the rapid (40-240 days) formation of dust in its dense circumstellar medium. The wavelength dependent extinction of this dust reveals the presence of very large (> 1 micron) grains, which are resistant to destructive processes. At later times (500-900 days), the near-IR thermal emission shows an accelerated growth in dust mass, marking the transition of the supernova from a circumstellar- to an ejecta-dominated source of dust. This provides the link between the early and late dust mass evolution in supernovae with dense circumstellar media.

### Thermal design and performance of the balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry BLASTPol

We present the thermal model of the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). This instrument was successfully flown in two circumpolar flights from McMurdo, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. During these two flights, BLASTPol obtained unprecedented information about the magnetic field in molecular clouds through the measurement of the polarized thermal emission of interstellar dust grains. The thermal design of the experiment addresses the stability and control of the payload necessary for this kind of measurement. We describe the thermal modeling of the payload including the sun-shielding strategy. We present the in-flight thermal performance of the instrument and compare the predictions of the model with the temperatures registered during the flight. We describe the difficulties of modeling the thermal behavior of the balloon-borne platform and establish landmarks that can be used in the design of future balloon-borne instruments.

### ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy: I. CO depletion and isotopic ratios

In the low-mass regime, it is found that the gas-phase abundances of C-bearing molecules in cold starless cores rapidly decrease with increasing density, as the molecules form mantles on dust grains. We study CO depletion in 102 massive clumps selected from the ATLASGAL 870 micron survey, and investigate its correlation with evolutionary stage and with the physical parameters of the sources. Moreover, we study the gradients in [12C]/[13C] and [18O]/[17O] isotopic ratios across the inner Galaxy, and the virial stability of the clumps. We use low-J emission lines of CO isotopologues and the dust continuum emission to infer the depletion factor fD. RATRAN one-dimensional models were also used to determine fD and to investigate the presence of depletion above a density threshold. The isotopic ratios and optical depth were derived with a Bayesian approach. We find a significant number of clumps with a large fD, up to ~20. Larger values are found for colder clumps, thus for earlier evolutionary phases. For massive clumps in the earliest stages of evolution we estimate the radius of the region where CO depletion is important to be a few tenths of a pc. Clumps are found with total masses derived from dust continuum emission up to ~20 times higher than the virial mass, especially among the less evolved sources. These large values may in part be explained by the presence of depletion: if the CO emission comes mainly from the low-density outer layers, the molecules may be subthermally excited, leading to an overestimate of the dust masses. CO depletion in high-mass clumps seems to behave as in the low-mass regime, with less evolved clumps showing larger values for the depletion than their more evolved counterparts, and increasing for denser sources. The C and O isotopic ratios are consistent with previous determinations, and show a large intrinsic scatter.

### Using numerical models of bow shocks to investigate the circumstellar medium of massive stars

Many massive stars travel through the interstellar medium at supersonic speeds. As a result they form bow shocks at the interface between the stellar wind. We use numerical hydrodynamics to reproduce such bow shocks numerically, creating models that can be compared to observations. In this paper we discuss the influence of two physical phenomena, interstellar magnetic fields and the presence of interstellar dust grains on the observable shape of the bow shocks of massive stars. We find that the interstellar magnetic field, though too weak to restrict the general shape of the bow shock, reduces the size of the instabilities that would otherwise be observed in the bow shock of a red supergiant. The interstellar dust grains, due to their inertia can penetrate deep into the bow shock structure of a main sequence O-supergiant, crossing over from the ISM into the stellar wind. Therefore, the dust distribution may not always reflect the morphology of the gas. This is an important consideration for infrared observations, which are dominated by dust emission. Our models clearly show, that the bow shocks of massive stars are useful diagnostic tools that can used to investigate the properties of both the stellar wind as well as the interstellar medium.

### Searching for Dust around Hyper Metal-Poor Stars

We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for metal-poor stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] $\lesssim-5$, as well as two CEMP-no stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excess. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g. a warm debris disk ($T\!\le\!290$ K), or debris disks with inner radii $\le1$ AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-AGB spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g. a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 microns is detected at the 2-$\sigma$ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.

### Regular and Chaotic Motion in General Relativity: The Case of a Massive Magnetic Dipole

Circular motion of particles, dust grains and fluids in the vicinity of compact objects has been investigated as a model for accretion of gaseous and dusty environment. Here we further discuss, within the framework of general relativity, figures of equilibrium of matter under the influence of combined gravitational and large-scale magnetic fields, assuming that the accreted material acquires a small electric charge due to interplay of plasma processes and photoionization. In particular, we employ an exact solution describing the massive magnetic dipole and we identify the regions of stable motion. We also investigate situations when the particle dynamics exhibits the onset of chaos. In order to characterize the measure of chaoticness we employ techniques of Poincar\’e surfaces of section and of recurrence plots.