Posts Tagged diversity

Recent Postings from diversity

Keck Observations of 160 Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

We present a preliminary data release from our multi-year campaign at Keck Observatory to study the host galaxies of a large sample of Swift-era gamma-ray bursts via multi-color ground-based optical imaging and spectroscopy. With over 160 targets observed to date (and almost 100 host detections, most of which have not previously been reported in the literature) our effort represents the broadest GRB host survey to date. While targeting was heterogeneous, our observations span the known diversity of GRBs including short bursts, long bursts, spectrally soft GRBs (XRFs), ultra-energetic GRBs, X-ray faint GRBs, dark GRBs, SN-GRBs, and other sub-classes. We also present a preview of our database (currently available online via a convenient web interface) including a catalog of multi-color photometry, redshifts and line ID’s. Final photometry and reduced imaging and spectra will be available in the near future.

SD1000 Collaboration: Hunting down the subdwarf populations

Separating the subdwarf populations may shed light on their formation history and give unique insights into the atmospheric processes that are thought to be responsible for their abundance diversity. Such a task requires complex and time consuming spectral analyses, which we started to tailor to our objectives a year ago. Here we report the updates that have been made over the past year and will be the standard method in SD1000.

Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

A Thorough Investigation of Distance and Age of the Pulsar Wind Nebula 3C58

A growing number of researchers present evidence that the pulsar wind nebula 3C58 is much older than predicted by its proposed connection to the historical supernova of A.D. 1181. There is also a great diversity of arguments. The strongest of these arguments rely heavily on the assumed distance of 3.2 kpc determined with HI absorption measurements. This publication aims at determining a more accurate distance for 3C58 and re-evaluating the arguments for a larger age. I have re-visited the distance determination of 3C58 based on new HI data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and our recent improvements in the knowledge of the rotation curve of the outer Milky Way Galaxy. I have also used newly determined distances to objects in the neighbourhood, which are based on direct measurements by trigonometric parallax. I have derived a new more reliable distance estimate of 2 kpc for 3C58. This makes the connection between the pulsar wind nebula and the historical event from A.D. 1181 once again much more viable.

Assembly of filamentary void galaxy configurations

We study the formation and evolution of filamentary configurations of dark matter haloes in voids. Our investigation uses the high-resolution LambdaCDM simulation CosmoGrid to look for void systems resembling the VGS_31 elongated system of three interacting galaxies that was recently discovered by the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS) inside a large void in the SDSS galaxy redshift survey. HI data revealed these galaxies to be embedded in a common elongated envelope, possibly embedded in intravoid filament. In the CosmoGrid simulation we look for systems similar to VGS_31 in mass, size and environment. We find a total of eight such systems. For these systems, we study the distribution of neighbour haloes, the assembly and evolution of the main haloes and the dynamical evolution of the haloes, as well as the evolution of the large-scale structure in which the systems are embedded. The spatial distribution of the haloes follows that of the dark matter environment. We find that VGS_31-like systems have a large variation in formation time, having formed between 10 Gyr ago and the present epoch. However, the environments in which the systems are embedded evolved resemble each other substantially. Each of the VGS_31-like systems is embedded in an intra-void wall, that no later than z = 0.5 became the only prominent feature in its environment. While part of the void walls retain a rather featureless character, we find that around half of them are marked by a pronounced and rapidly evolving substructure. Five haloes find themselves in a tenuous filament of a few Mpc/h long inside the intra-void wall. Finally, we compare the results to observed data from VGS_31. Our study implies that the VGS_31 galaxies formed in the same (proto)filament, and did not meet just recently. The diversity amongst the simulated halo systems indicates that VGS_31 may not be typical for groups of galaxies in voids.

Assembly of filamentary void galaxy configurations [Replacement]

We study the formation and evolution of filamentary configurations of dark matter haloes in voids. Our investigation uses the high-resolution LambdaCDM simulation CosmoGrid to look for void systems resembling the VGS_31 elongated system of three interacting galaxies that was recently discovered by the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS) inside a large void in the SDSS galaxy redshift survey. HI data revealed these galaxies to be embedded in a common elongated envelope, possibly embedded in intravoid filament. In the CosmoGrid simulation we look for systems similar to VGS_31 in mass, size and environment. We find a total of eight such systems. For these systems, we study the distribution of neighbour haloes, the assembly and evolution of the main haloes and the dynamical evolution of the haloes, as well as the evolution of the large-scale structure in which the systems are embedded. The spatial distribution of the haloes follows that of the dark matter environment. We find that VGS_31-like systems have a large variation in formation time, having formed between 10 Gyr ago and the present epoch. However, the environments in which the systems are embedded evolved resemble each other substantially. Each of the VGS_31-like systems is embedded in an intra-void wall, that no later than z = 0.5 became the only prominent feature in its environment. While part of the void walls retain a rather featureless character, we find that around half of them are marked by a pronounced and rapidly evolving substructure. Five haloes find themselves in a tenuous filament of a few Mpc/h long inside the intra-void wall. Finally, we compare the results to observed data from VGS_31. Our study implies that the VGS_31 galaxies formed in the same (proto)filament, and did not meet just recently. The diversity amongst the simulated halo systems indicates that VGS_31 may not be typical for groups of galaxies in voids.

A Herschel Study of D/H in Water in the Jupiter-Family Comet 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova and Prospects for D/H Measurements with CCAT

We present Herschel observations of water isotopologues in the atmosphere of the Jupiter-family comet 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova. No HDO emission is detected, with a 3 sigma upper limit of 2.0 10-4 for the D/H ratio. This value is consistent with the earlier Herschel measurement in the Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2. The canonical value of 3 10-4 measured pre-Herschel in a sample of Oort-cloud comets can be excluded at a 4.5 sigma level. The observations presented here further confirm that a diversity of D/H ratios exists in the comet population and emphasize the need for additional measurements with future ground-based facilities, such as CCAT, in the post-Herschel era.

High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernova Spectra

We use a sample of 58 low-redshift (z <= 0.03) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) having well-sampled light curves and spectra near maximum light to examine the behaviour of high-velocity features (HVFs) in SN Ia spectra. We take advantage of the fact that Si II 6355 exhibits no HVFs at maximum light in any SNe Ia, while HVFs are still strong in the Ca II near-infrared feature in many SNe, allowing us to quantify the strength of HVFs by comparing the structure of these two lines. We find that the average HVF strength increases with decreasing light-curve decline rate, and rapidly declining SNe Ia (dm_15(B) >= 1.4 mag) show no HVFs in their maximum-light spectra. Comparison of HVF strength to the light-curve colour of the SNe Ia in our sample shows no evidence of correlation. We find a correlation of HVF strength with the velocity of Si II 6355 at maximum light (v_Si), such that SNe Ia with lower v_Si have stronger HVFs, while those SNe Ia firmly in the "high-velocity" (i.e., v_Si >= 12,000 km/s) subclass exhibit no HVFs in their maximum-light spectra. While v_Si and dm_15(B) show no correlation in the full sample of SNe Ia, we find a significant correlation between these quantities in the subset of SNe Ia having weak HVFs. In general, we find that slowly declining (low dm_15(B)) SNe Ia, which are more luminous and more energetic than average SNe Ia, tend to produce either high photospheric ejecta velocities (i.e., high v_Si) or strong HVFs at maximum light, but not both. Finally, we examine the evolution of HVF strength for a sample of SNe Ia having extensive pre-maximum spectroscopic coverage and find significant diversity of the pre-maximum HVF behaviour.

Population III Star Formation In Large Cosmological Simulations I. Halo Temporal and Physical Environment

We present a semi-analytic, computationally inexpensive model to identify halos capable of forming a Population III star in cosmological simulations across a wide range of times and environments. This allows for a much more complete and representative set of Population III star forming halos to be constructed, which will lead to Population III star formation simulations that more accurately reflect the diversity of Population III stars, both in time and halo mass. This model shows that Population III and chemically enriched stars coexist beyond the formation of the first generation of stars in a cosmological simulation until at least z~10, and likely beyond, though Population III stars form at rates that are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than chemically enriched stars by z=10. A catalog of more than 40,000 candidate Population III forming halos were identified, with formation times temporally ranging from z=30 to z=10, and ranging in mass from 2.3×10^5 M_sun to 1.2×10^10 M_sun. At early times, the environment that Population III stars form in is very similar to that of halos hosting chemically enriched star formation. At later times Population III stars are found to form in low-density regions that are not yet chemically polluted due to a lack of previous star formation in the area. Population III star forming halos become increasingly spatially isolated from one another at later times, and are generally closer to halos hosting chemically enriched star formation than to another halo hosting Population III star formation by z~10.

Reionization Histories of Milky Way Mass Halos

We investigate the connection between the epoch of reionization and the present day universe, by examining the extended mass reionization histories of dark matter halos identified at z=0. We combine an N-body dark matter simulation of a 600 Mpc volume with a three-dimensional, seminumerical reionization model. This provides reionization redshifts for each particle, which can then be connected with the properties of their halos at the present time. We find that the vast majority of present-day halos with masses larger than ~ few x 10^11 Msun reionize earlier than the rest of the universe. We also find significant halo-to-halo diversity in mass reionization histories, and find that in realistic inhomogenous models, the material within a given halo is not expected to reionize at the same time. In particular, the scatter in reionization times within individual halos is typically larger than the scatter among halos. From our fiducial reionization model, we find that the typical 68% scatter in reionization times within halos is ~ 115 Myr for 10^(12 \pm 0.25) Msun halos, decreasing slightly to ~ 95 Myr for 10^(15 \pm 0.25) Msun halos. We find a mild correlation between reionization history and environment: halos with shorter reionization histories are typically in more clustered environments, with the strongest trend on a scale of ~ 20 Mpc. Material in Milky Way mass halos with short reionization histories is preferentially reionized in relatively large HII regions, implying reionization mostly by sources external to the progenitors of the present-day halo. We investigate the impact on our results of varying the reionization model parameters, which span a range of reionization scenarios with varying timing and morphology.

Anisotropic mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries: Diversity of electromagnetic counterparts

The merger of black hole-neutron star binaries can eject substantial material with the mass ~0.01-0.1M_sun when the neutron star is disrupted prior to the merger. The ejecta shows significant anisotropy, and travels in a particular direction with the bulk velocity ~0.2c. This is drastically different from the binary neutron star merger, for which ejecta is nearly isotropic. Anisotropic ejecta brings electromagnetic-counterpart diversity which is unique to black hole-neutron star binaries, such as viewing-angle dependence, polarization, and proper motion. The kick velocity of the black hole, gravitational-wave memory emission, and cosmic-ray acceleration are also discussed.

Anisotropic mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries: Diversity of electromagnetic counterparts [Replacement]

The merger of black hole-neutron star binaries can eject substantial material with the mass ~0.01-0.1M_sun when the neutron star is disrupted prior to the merger. The ejecta shows significant anisotropy, and travels in a particular direction with the bulk velocity ~0.2c. This is drastically different from the binary neutron star merger, for which ejecta is nearly isotropic. Anisotropic ejecta brings electromagnetic-counterpart diversity which is unique to black hole-neutron star binaries, such as viewing-angle dependence, polarization, and proper motion. The kick velocity of the black hole, gravitational-wave memory emission, and cosmic-ray acceleration are also discussed.

Dark Matter in the Coming Decade: Complementary Paths to Discovery and Beyond [Cross-Listing]

In this report we summarize the many dark matter searches currently being pursued through four complementary approaches: direct detection, indirect detection, collider experiments, and astrophysical probes. The essential features of broad classes of experiments are described, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. The complementarity of the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in two simple theoretical frameworks. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program drawing from all four approaches.

A Pilot for a VLA HI Deep Field [Replacement]

High-resolution 21-cm HI deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved neutral gas maps at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0<z<0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hours, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of view of 34′ x 34′ and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of HI and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA’s B-array is the ideal configuration for HI deep fields since its long spacings mitigate RFI. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future HI deep fields planned with other SKA pathfinders.

A Pilot for a VLA HI Deep Field

High-resolution 21-cm HI deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved neutral gas maps at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0<z<0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hours, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of view of 34′ x 34′ and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of HI and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA’s B-array is the ideal configuration for HI deep fields since its long spacings mitigate RFI. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future HI deep fields planned with other SKA pathfinders.

Evidence for Two Distinct Populations of Type Ia Supernovae

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been used as excellent standardizable candles for measuring cosmic expansion, but their progenitors are still elusive. Here we report that the spectral diversity of SNe Ia is tied to their birthplace environments. We find that those with high-velocity ejecta are substantially more concentrated in the inner and brighter regions of their host galaxies than are normal-velocity SNe Ia. Furthermore, the former tend to inhabit larger and more-luminous hosts. These results suggest that high-velocity SNe Ia likely originate from relatively younger and more metal-rich progenitors than normal-velocity SNe Ia, and are restricted to galaxies with substantial chemical evolution.

On the role of initial and boundary conditions in numerical simulations of accretion flows [Replacement]

We study the effects of initial and boundary conditions, taking two-dimensional hydrodynamical numerical simulations of hot accretion flow as an example. The initial conditions considered include a rotating torus, a solution expanded from the one-dimensional global solution of hot accretion flows, injected gas with various angular momentum distributions, and the gas from a large-scale numerical simulation. Special attention is paid to the radial profiles of the mass accretion rate and density. Both can be described by a power-law function, $\dot{M}\propto r^s$ and $\rho\propto r^{-p}$. We find that if the angular momentum is not very low, the value of $s$ is not sensitive to the initial condition and lies within a narrow range, $0.47\la s \la 0.55$. However, the value of $p$ is more sensitive to the initial condition and lies in the range $0.48\la p \la 0.8$. The diversity of the density profile is because different initial conditions give different radial profiles of radial velocity due to the different angular momentum of the initial conditions. When the angular momentum of the accretion flow is very low, the inflow rate is constant with radius. Taking the torus model as an example, we have also investigated the effects of inner and outer boundary conditions by considering the widely adopted "outflow" boundary condition and the "mass flux conservation" condition. We find that the results are not sensitive to these two boundary conditions.

On the role of initial and boundary conditions in numerical simulations of accretion flows

We study the effects of initial and boundary conditions, taking two-dimensional hydrodynamical numerical simulations of hot accretion flow as an example. The initial conditions considered include a rotating torus, a solution expanded from the one-dimensional global solution of hot accretion flows, injected gas with various angular momentum, and the gas from a large-scale numerical simulation. Special attention is paid to the radial profiles of the mass accretion rate and density. Both can be described by a power-law function, $\dot{M}\propto r^s$ and $\rho\propto r^{-p}$. We find that if the angular momentum is not very low, the value of $s$ is not sensitive to the initial condition and lies within a narrow range, $0.47\la s \la 0.55$. However, the value of $p$ is more sensitive to the initial condition and lies in the range $0.48\la p \la 0.8$. The diversity of the density profile is because different initial conditions give different radial profiles of radial velocity due to the different angular momentum of the initial conditions. When the angular momentum of the accretion flow is very low, the inflow rate is constant with radius. Taking the torus model as an example, we have also investigated the effects of inner and outer boundary conditions by considering the widely adopted "outflow" boundary condition and the "mass flux conservation" condition. We find that the results are not sensitive to these two boundary conditions.

Towards an understanding of Type Ia supernovae from a synthesis of theory and observations

Motivated by the fact that calibrated light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have become a major tool to determine the expansion history of the Universe, considerable attention has been given to, both, observations and models of these events over the past 15 years. Here, we summarize new observational constraints, address recent progress in modeling Type Ia supernovae by means of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, and discuss several of the still open questions. It will be be shown that the new models have considerable predictive power which allows us to study observable properties such as light curves and spectra without adjustable non-physical parameters. This is a necessary requisite to improve our understanding of the explosion mechanism and to settle the question of the applicability of SNe Ia as distance indicators for cosmology. We explore the capabilities of the models by comparing them with observations and we show how such models can be applied to study the origin of the diversity of SNe Ia.

Completeness of Imaging Surveys for Eccentric Exoplanets

The detection of exoplanets through direct imaging has produced numerous new positive identifications in recent years. The technique is biased towards planets at wide separations due to the difficulty in removing the stellar signature at small angular separations. Planets in eccentric orbits will thus move in and out of the detectable region around a star as a function of time. Here we use the known diversity of orbital eccentricities to determine the range of orbits which may lie beneath the detection threshold of current surveys. We quantify the percentage of the orbit which yields a detectable signature as a function of semi-major axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination and estimate the fraction of planets which likely remain hidden by the flux of the host star.

Completeness of Imaging Surveys for Eccentric Exoplanets [Replacement]

The detection of exoplanets through direct imaging has produced numerous new positive identifications in recent years. The technique is biased towards planets at wide separations due to the difficulty in removing the stellar signature at small angular separations. Planets in eccentric orbits will thus move in and out of the detectable region around a star as a function of time. Here we use the known diversity of orbital eccentricities to determine the range of orbits which may lie beneath the detection threshold of current surveys. We quantify the percentage of the orbit which yields a detectable signature as a function of semi-major axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination and estimate the fraction of planets which likely remain hidden by the flux of the host star.

Dynamics and Accretion of Planetesimals

We review the basic dynamics and accretion of planetesimals by showing N-body simulations. The orbits of planetesimals evolve through two-body gravitational relaxation: viscous stirring increases the random velocity and dynamical friction realizes the equiparation of the random energy. In the early stage of planetesimal accretion the growth mode of planetesimals is runaway growth where larger planetesimals grow faster than smaller ones. When a protoplanet (runaway-growing planetesimal) exceeds a critical mass the growth mode shifts to oligarchic growth where similar-sized protoplanets grow keeping a certain orbital separation. The final stage of terrestrial planet formation is collision among protoplanets known as giant impacts. We also summarize the dynamical effects of disk gas on planets and the core accretion model for formation of gas giants and discuss the diversity of planetary systems.

Spinning dust radiation: a review of the theory

This article reviews the current status of theoretical modeling of electric dipole radiation from spinning dust grains. The fundamentally simple problem of dust grain rotation appeals to a rich set of concepts of classical and quantum physics, owing the the diversity of processes involved. Rotational excitation and damping rates through various mechanisms are discussed, as well as methods of computing the grain angular momentum distribution function. Assumptions on grain properties are reviewed. The robustness of theoretical predictions now seems mostly limited by the uncertainties regarding the grains themselves, namely their abundance, dipole moments, size and shape distribution.

The expansion of the universe observed with supernovae

Over the last 20 years, supernovae have become a key tool to constrain the expansion history of the Universe through the construction of Hubble diagrams, using luminosity distances to supernovae belonging to the "Ia" subtype. This technique was key for the discovery that the expansion of the Universe is now accelerating. We review the principle and difficulties of the measurements, the classification and diversity of supernovae, and the physics of the explosion. We discuss the systematic uncertainties affecting the cosmological conclusions with some emphasis on photometric calibration. We describe the major supernova cosmology surveys, the presented analyses and their conclusions, together with the present status of the field. We conclude on the expectations for the near future.

GRBs have preferred jet opening angles and bulk Lorentz factors

We recently found that Gamma Ray Burst energies and luminosities, in their comoving frame, are remarkably similar. This, coupled with the clustering of energetics once corrected for the collimation factor, suggests the possibility that all bursts, in their comoving frame, have the same peak energy E’peak (of the order of a few keV) and the same energetics of the prompt emission E’gamma (of the order of 2e48 erg). The large diversity of bursts energies is then due to the different bulk Lorentz factor Gamma and jet aperture angle theta_jet. We investigated, through a population synthesis code, what are the distributions of Gamma and theta_jet compatible with the observations. Both quantities must have preferred values, with log-normal best fitting distributions and <Gamma0> ~ 275 and <\theta_jet> ~ 8.7 degree. Moreover, the peak values of the Gamma and theta_jet distributions must be related – theta_jet^2.5 Gamma =const: the narrower the jet angle, the larger the bulk Lorentz factor. We predict that ~6% of the bursts that point to us should not show any jet break in their afterglow light curve since they have sin(theta_jet)<1/Gamma. Finally, we estimate that the local rate of GRBs is ~0.3% of all local SNIb/c and ~2.5% of local hypernovae, i.e. SNIb/c with broad absorption lines.

Pulsar Wind Nebulae: On their growing diversity and association with highly magnetized neutron stars

The 1968 discovery of the Crab and Vela pulsars in their respective supernova remnants (SNRs) confirmed Baade and Zwicky’s 1934 prediction that supernovae form neutron stars. Observations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), particularly with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, have in the past decade opened a new window to focus on the neutron stars’ relativistic winds, study their interaction with their hosting SNRs, and find previously missed pulsars. While the Crab has been thought for decades to represent the prototype of PWNe, we now know of different classes of neutron stars and PWNe whose properties differ from the Crab. In this talk, I review the current status of neutron stars/PWNe-SNRs associations, and highlight the growing diversity of PWNe with an X-ray eye on their association with highly magnetized neutron stars. I conclude with an outlook to future high-energy studies.

The early early type: discovery of a passive galaxy at z=3

We present the discovery of a massive, quiescent galaxy at z=2.99. We have obtained a HST/WFC3 spectrum of this object and measured its redshift from the detection of a deep 4000A break consistent with an old population and a high metallicity. By stellar population modeling of both its grism spectrum and broad-band photometry, we derive an age of ~0.7 Gyr, implying a formation redshift of z>4, and a mass >10^11 Msun. Although this passive galaxy is the most distant confirmed so far, we find that it is slightly less compact than other z>2 early-types of similar mass, being overall more analogous to those z~1.6 field early-type galaxies. The discovery of this object shows that early-type galaxies are detectable to at least z=3 and suggests that the diversity of structural properties found in z=1.4-2 ellipticals to earlier epochs could have its origin in a variety of formation histories among their progenitors.

The early early type: discovery of a passive galaxy at z=3 [Replacement]

We present the discovery of a massive, quiescent galaxy at z=2.99. We have obtained a HST/WFC3 spectrum of this object and measured its redshift from the detection of a deep 4000A break consistent with an old population and a high metallicity. By stellar population modeling of both its grism spectrum and broad-band photometry, we derive an age of ~0.7 Gyr, implying a formation redshift of z>4, and a mass >10^11 Msun. Although this passive galaxy is the most distant confirmed so far, we find that it is slightly less compact than other z>2 early-types of similar mass, being overall more analogous to those z~1.6 field early-type galaxies. The discovery of this object shows that early-type galaxies are detectable to at least z=3 and suggests that the diversity of structural properties found in z=1.4-2 ellipticals to earlier epochs could have its origin in a variety of formation histories among their progenitors.

Star formation laws and thresholds from ISM structure and turbulence

We present an analytical model of the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in galaxies and clouds, as a function of the presence of supersonic turbulence and the associated structure of the interstellar medium. The model predicts a power-law relation of index 3/2, flattened under the effects of stellar feedback at high densities or in very turbulent media, and a break at low surface densities when ISM turbulence becomes too weak to induce strong compression. This model explains the diversity of star formation laws and thresholds observed in nearby spirals and their resolved regions, the Small Magellanic Cloud, high-redshift disks and starbursting mergers, as well as Galactic molecular clouds. While other models have proposed interstellar dust content and molecule formation to be key ingredients to the observed variations of the star formation efficiency, we demonstrate instead that these variations can be explained by interstellar medium turbulence and structure in various types of galaxies.

Building Terrestrial Planets

This paper reviews our current understanding of terrestrial planets formation. The focus is on computer simulations of the dynamical aspects of the accretion process. Throughout the chapter, we combine the results of these theoretical models with geochemical, cosmochemical and chronological constraints, in order to outline a comprehensive scenario of the early evolution of our Solar System. Given that the giant planets formed first in the protoplanetary disk, we stress the sensitive dependence of the terrestrial planet accretion process on the orbital architecture of the giant planets and on their evolution. This suggests a great diversity among the terrestrial planets populations in extrasolar systems. Issues such as the cause for the different masses and accretion timescales between Mars and the Earth and the origin of water (and other volatiles) on our planet are discussed at depth.

An 80 pc Long Massive Molecular Filament in the Galactic Mid-Plane

The ubiquity of filaments in star forming regions on a range of scales is clear, yet their role in the star formation process remains in question. We suggest that there are distinct classes of filaments which are responsible for their observed diversity in star-forming regions. An example of a massive molecular filament in the Galactic mid-plane formed at the intersection of UV-driven bubbles which displays a coherent velocity structure (< 4 km/s) over 80 pc is presented. We classify such sources as Massive Molecular Filaments (MMFs; M > 10^4 Msun, length > 10 pc, velocity gradient < 5 km/s) and suggest that MMFs are just one of the many different classes of filaments discussed in the literature today. Many MMFs are aligned with the Galactic Plane and may be akin to the dark dust lanes seen in Grand Design Spirals.

Studying the Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet: Comparing Models with Observations

In the ultraviolet (UV), Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show a much larger diversity in their properties than in the optical. Using a stationary Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, a grid of spectra at maximum light was created varying bolometric luminosity and the amount of metals in the outer layers of the SN ejecta. This model grid is then compared to a sample of high-redshift SNe Ia in order to test whether the observed diversities can be explained by luminosity and metallicity changes alone. The dispersion in broadband UV flux and colours at approximately constant optical spectrum can be readily matched by the model grid. In particular, the UV1-b colour is found to be a good tracer of metal content of the outer ejecta, which may in turn reflect on the metallicity of the SN progenitor. The models are less successful in reproducing other observed trends, such as the wavelengths of key UV features, which are dominated by reverse fluorescence photons from the optical, or intermediate band photometric indices. This can be explained in terms of the greater sensitivity of these detailed observables to modest changes in the relative abundances. Specifically, no single element is responsible for the observed trends. Due to their complex origin, these trends do not appear to be good indicators of either luminosity or metallicity.

Exploring the Diversity of Groups at 0.1<z<0.8 with X-ray and Optically Selected Samples

We present the global group properties of two samples of galaxy groups containing 39 high quality X-ray selected systems and 38 optically (spectroscopically) selected systems in coincident spatial regions at 0.12<z<0.79. Only nine optical systems are associable with X-ray systems. We discuss the confusion inherent in the matching of both galaxies to extended X-ray emission and of X-ray emission to already identified optical systems. Extensive spectroscopy has been obtained and the resultant redshift catalog and group membership are provided here. X-ray, dynamical, and total stellar masses of the groups are also derived and presented. We explore the effects of applying three different kinds of radial cut to our systems: a constant cut of 1 Mpc and two r200 cuts, one based on the velocity dispersion of the system and the other on the X-ray emission. We find that an X-ray based r200 results in less scatter in scaling relations and less dynamical complexity as evidenced by results of the Anderson-Darling and Dressler-Schectman tests, indicating that this radius tends to isolate the virialized part of the system. The constant and velocity dispersion based cuts can overestimate membership and can work to inflate velocity dispersion and dynamical and stellar mass. We find Lx-sigma and Mstellar-Lx scaling relations for X-ray and optically selected systems are not dissimilar. The mean fraction of mass found in stars for our systems is approximately 0.014 with a logarithmic standard deviation of 0.398 dex. We also define and investigate a sample of groups which are X-ray underluminous given the total group stellar mass. For these systems the fraction of stellar mass contributed by the most massive galaxy is typically lower than that found for the total population of groups implying that there may be less IGM contributed from the most massive member in these systems. (Abridged)

High-contrast imaging in the Hyades with snapshot LOCI

To image faint substellar companions obscured by the stellar halo and speckles, scattered light from the bright primary star must be removed in hardware or software. We apply the "locally-optimized combination of images" (LOCI) algorithm to 1-minute Keck Observatory snapshots of GKM dwarfs in the Hyades using source diversity to determine the most likely PSF. We obtain a mean contrast of 10^{-2} at 0.01", 10^{-4} at <1", and 10^{-5} at 5". New brown dwarf and low-mass stellar companions to Hyades primaries are found in a third of the 84 targeted systems. This campaign shows the efficacy of LOCI on snapshot imaging as well as on bright wide binaries with off-axis LOCI, reaching contrasts sufficient for imaging 625-Myr late-L/early-T dwarfs purely in post-processing.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): spectral classification through Principal Component Analysis [Replacement]

We develop a Principal Component Analysis aimed at classifying a sub-set of 27,350 spectra of galaxies in the range 0.4 < z < 1.0 collected by the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We apply an iterative algorithm to simultaneously repair parts of spectra affected by noise and/or sky residuals, and reconstruct gaps due to rest-frame transformation, and obtain a set of orthogonal spectral templates that span the diversity of galaxy types. By taking the three most significant components, we find that we can describe the whole sample without contamination from noise. We produce a catalogue of eigen-coefficients and template spectra that will be part of future VIPERS data releases. Our templates effectively condense the spectral information into two coefficients that can be related to the age and star formation rate of the galaxies. We examine the spectrophotometric types in this space and identify early, intermediate, late and starburst galaxies.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): spectral classification through Principal Component Analysis

We develop a Principal Component Analysis aimed at classifying a sub-set of 27,350 spectra of galaxies in the range 0.4 < z < 1.0 collected by the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We apply an iterative algorithm to simultaneously repair parts of spectra affected by noise and/or sky residuals, and reconstruct gaps due to rest-frame transformation, and obtain a set of orthogonal spectral templates that span the diversity of galaxy types. By taking the three most significant components, we find that we can describe the whole sample without contamination from noise. We produce a catalogue of eigen-coefficients and template spectra that will be part of future VIPERS data releases. Our templates effectively condense the spectral information into two coefficients that can be related to the age and star formation rate of the galaxies. We examine the spectrophotometric types in this space and identify early, intermediate, late and starburst galaxies.

The MiMeS Survey of Magnetism in Massive Stars

The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) survey represents a high precision systematic search for magnetic fields in hot, massive OB stars. To date, MiMeS Large Programs (ESPaDOnS@CFHT, Narval@TBL, HARPSpol@ESO3.6) and associated PI programs (FORS@VLT) have yielded nearly 1200 circular spectropolarimetric observations of over 350 OB stars. Within this sample, 20 stars are detected as magnetic. Follow-up observations of new detections reveals (i) a large diversity of magnetic properties, (ii) evidence for magnetic wind confinement in optical spectra of all magnetic O stars, (iii) the presence of strong, organized magnetic fields in all known Galactic Of?p stars, and iv) a complete absence of magnetic fields in classical Be stars.

The MiMeS Survey of Magnetism in Massive Stars [Replacement]

The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) survey represents a high precision systematic search for magnetic fields in hot, massive OB stars. To date, MiMeS Large Programs (ESPaDOnS@CFHT, Narval@TBL, HARPSpol@ESO3.6) and associated PI programs (FORS@VLT) have yielded nearly 1200 circular spectropolarimetric observations of over 350 OB stars. Within this sample, 20 stars are detected as magnetic. Follow-up observations of new detections reveals (i) a large diversity of magnetic properties, (ii) evidence for magnetic wind confinement in optical spectra of all magnetic O stars, (iii) the presence of strong, organized magnetic fields in all known Galactic Of?p stars, and (iv) a complete absence of magnetic fields in classical Be stars.

Reduced Ambiguity Calibration for LOFAR

Interferometric calibration always yields non unique solutions. It is therefore essential to remove these ambiguities before the solutions could be used in any further modeling of the sky, the instrument or propagation effects such as the ionosphere. We present a method for LOFAR calibration which does not yield a unitary ambiguity, especially under ionospheric distortions. We also present exact ambiguities we get in our solutions, in closed form. Casting this as an optimization problem, we also present conditions for this approach to work. The proposed method enables us to use the solutions obtained via calibration for further modeling of instrumental and propagation effects. We provide extensive simulation results on the performance of our method. Moreover, we also give cases where due to degeneracy, this method fails to perform as expected and in such cases, we suggest exploiting diversity in time, space and frequency.

Analysis of the Early-Time Optical Spectra of SN 2011fe in M101

The nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe in M101 (cz=241 km s^-1) provides a unique opportunity to study the early evolution of a “normal” Type Ia supernova, its compositional structure, and its elusive progenitor system. We present 18 high signal-to-noise spectra of SN 2011fe during its first month beginning 1.2 days post-explosion and with an average cadence of 1.8 days. This gives a clear picture of how various line-forming species are distributed within the outer layers of the ejecta, including that of unburned material (C+O). We follow the evolution of C II absorption features until they diminish near maximum light, showing overlapping regions of burned and unburned material between ejection velocities of 10,000 and 16,000 km s^-1. This supports the notion that incomplete burning, in addition to progenitor scenarios, is a relevant source of spectroscopic diversity among SNe Ia. The observed evolution of the highly Doppler-shifted O I 7774 absorption features detected within five days post-explosion indicate the presence of O I with expansion velocities from 11,500 to 21,000 km s^-1. The fact that some O I is present above C II suggests that SN 2011fe may have had an appreciable amount of unburned oxygen within the outer layers of the ejecta.

Analysis of the Early-Time Optical Spectra of SN 2011fe in M101 [Replacement]

The nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe in M101 (cz=241 km s^-1) provides a unique opportunity to study the early evolution of a “normal” Type Ia supernova, its compositional structure, and its elusive progenitor system. We present 18 high signal-to-noise spectra of SN 2011fe during its first month beginning 1.2 days post-explosion and with an average cadence of 1.8 days. This gives a clear picture of how various line-forming species are distributed within the outer layers of the ejecta, including that of unburned material (C+O). We follow the evolution of C II absorption features until they diminish near maximum light, showing overlapping regions of burned and unburned material between ejection velocities of 10,000 and 16,000 km s^-1. This supports the notion that incomplete burning, in addition to progenitor scenarios, is a relevant source of spectroscopic diversity among SNe Ia. The observed evolution of the highly Doppler-shifted O I 7774 absorption features detected within five days post-explosion indicate the presence of O I with expansion velocities from 11,500 to 21,000 km s^-1. The fact that some O I is present above C II suggests that SN 2011fe may have had an appreciable amount of unburned oxygen within the outer layers of the ejecta.

A simplified view of blazars: why BL Lacertae is actually a quasar in disguise

We put forward a scenario where blazars are classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars, BL Lacs, low synchrotron, or high synchrotron peaked objects according to a varying combination of Doppler boosted radiation from the jet, emission from the accretion disk, the broad line region, and light from the host galaxy. We thoroughly test this new approach, which builds upon unified schemes, using Monte Carlo simulations and show that it can provide simple answers to a number of long-standing open issues. We also demonstrate that selection effects play a very important role in the diversity observed in radio and X-ray samples and in the correlation between luminosity and peak frequency of the synchrotron power (the so-called “blazar sequence”). It turns out that sources so far classified as BL Lacs on the basis of their observed weak, or undetectable, emission lines are of two physically different classes: intrinsically weak-lined objects, more common in X-ray selected samples, and heavily diluted broad-lined sources, more frequent in radio selected samples, which explains some of the confusion in the literature.

Are planetary nebulae derived from multiple evolutionary scenarios?

Our understanding of planetary nebulae has been significantly enhanced as a result of several recent large surveys (Parker et al., these proceedings). These new discoveries suggest that the `PN phenomenon’ is in fact more heterogeneous than previously envisaged. Even after the careful elimination of mimics from Galactic PN catalogues, there remains a surprising diversity in the population of PNe and especially their central stars. Indeed, several evolutionary scenarios are implicated in the formation of objects presently catalogued as PNe. We provide a summary of these evolutionary pathways and give examples of each. Eventually, a full census of local PNe can be used to confront both stellar evolution theory and population synthesis models.

Moment analysis of focus-diverse point spread functions for modal wavefront sensing of uniformly illuminated circular-pupil systems [Cross-Listing]

A new concept of using focus-diverse point spread functions (PSFs) for modal wavefront sensing (WFS) is explored. This is based on relatively straightforward image moment analysis of measured PSFs, which differentiates it from other focal-plane wavefront sensing techniques (FPWFS). The presented geometric analysis shows that the image moments are non-linear functions of wave aberration coefficients, but notes that focus-diversity (FD) essentially decouples the coefficients of interest from others, resulting in a set of linear equations whose solution corresponds to modal coefficient estimates. The presented proof-of-concept simulations suggest the potential of the concept in WFS with strongly aberrated high SNR objects in particular.

The X-ray emission of magnetic cataclysmic variables in the XMM-Newton era

We review the X-ray spectral properties of magnetic cataclysmic binaries derived from observations obtained during the last decade with the large X-ray observatories XMM-Newton, Chandra and Suzaku. We focus on the signatures of the different accretion modes which are predicted according to the values of the main physical parameters (magnetic field, local accretion rate and white dwarf mass). The observed large diversity of spectral behaviors indicates a wide range of parameter values in both intermediate polars and polars, in line with a possible evolutionary link between both classes.

Ohmic Heating Suspends, not Reverses, the Cooling Contraction of Hot Jupiters [Replacement]

We study the radius evolution of close-in extra-solar jupiters under Ohmic heating, a mechanism that was recently proposed to explain the large observed sizes of many of these planets. Planets are born with high entropy and they subsequently cool and contract. We focus on two cases: first, that ohmic heating commences when the planet is hot (high entropy); and second, that it commences after the planet has cooled. In the former case, we use analytical scalings and numerical experiments to confirm that Ohmic heating is capable of suspending the cooling as long as a few percent of the stellar irradiation is converted into Ohmic heating, and the planet has a surface wind that extends to pressures of ~10 bar or deeper. For these parameters, the radii at which cooling is stalled are consistent with (or larger than) the observed radii of most planets. The only two exceptions are WASP-17b and HAT-P-32b. In contrast to the high entropy case, we show that Ohmic heating cannot significantly re-inflate planets after they have already cooled. This leads us to suggest that the diversity of radii observed in hot jupiters may be partially explained by the different epochs at which they are migrated to their current locations.

Ohmic Heating Suspends, not Reverses, the Cooling Contraction of Hot Jupiters

We study the radius evolution of close-in extra-solar jupiters under Ohmic heating, a mechanism that was recently proposed to explain the large observed sizes of many of these planets. Planets are born with high entropy and they subsequently cool and contract. We focus on two cases: first, that ohmic heating commences when the planet is hot (high entropy); and second, that it commences after the planet has cooled. In the former case, we use analytical scalings and numerical experiments to confirm that Ohmic heating is capable of suspending the cooling as long as a few percent of the stellar irradiation is converted into Ohmic heating, and the planet has a surface wind that extends to pressures of ~10 bar or deeper. For these parameters, the radii at which cooling is stalled are consistent with (or larger than) the observed radii of most planets. The only two exceptions are WASP-17b and HAT-P-32b. In contrast to the high entropy case, we show that Ohmic heating cannot significantly re-inflate planets after they have already cooled. This leads us to suggest that the diversity of radii observed in hot jupiters may be partially explained by the different epochs at which they are migrated to their current locations.

A diversity of progenitors and histories for isolated spiral galaxies [Replacement]

We analyze a suite of 33 cosmological simulations of the evolution of Milky Way-mass galaxies in low-density environments. Our sample spans a broad range of Hubble types at z=0, from nearly bulgeless disks to bulge-dominated galaxies. Despite the fact that a large fraction of the bulge is typically in place by z=1, we find no significant correlation between the morphology at z=1 and at z=0. The z=1 progenitors of disk galaxies span a range of morphologies, including smooth disks, unstable disks, interacting galaxies and bulge-dominated systems. By z=0.5, spiral arms and bars are largely in place and the progenitor morphology is correlated with the final morphology. We next focus on late-type galaxies with a bulge-to-total ratio B/T<0.3 at z=0. These show a correlation between B/T at z=0 and the mass ratio of the largest merger at z<2, as well as with the gas accretion rate at z>1. We find that the galaxies with the lowest B/T tend to have a quiet baryon input history, with no major mergers at z<2, and with a low and constant gas accretion rate that keeps a stable angular-momentum direction. More violent merger or gas accretion histories lead to galaxies with more prominent bulges. Most disk galaxies have a bulge Sersic index n<2. The galaxies with the highest bulge Sersic index tend to have histories of intense gas accretion and disk instability rather than active mergers.

Constraining the physical properties of Type II-P supernovae using nebular phase spectra

We present a study of the nebular phase spectra of a sample of Type II-Plateau supernovae with identified progenitors or restrictive limits. The evolution of line fluxes, shapes, and velocities are compared within the sample, and interpreted by the use of a spectral synthesis code. The small diversity within the dataset can be explained by strong mixing occurring during the explosion, and by recognising that most lines have significant contributions from primordial metals in the H envelope, which dominates the total ejecta mass in these type of objects. In particular, when using the [O I] 6300, 6364 Angstrom doublet for estimating the core mass of the star, care has to be taken to account for emission from primordial O in the envelope. Finally, a correlation between the H-alpha line width and the mass of 56Ni is presented, suggesting that higher energy explosions are associated with higher 56Ni production.

Dead Zones and the Diversity of Exoplanetary Systems

Planetary migration provides a theoretical basis for the observed diversity of exoplanetary systems. We demonstrate that dust settling – an inescapable feature of disk evolution – gives even more rapid type I migration by up to a factor of about 2 than occurs in disks with fully mixed dust. On the other hand, type II migration becomes slower by a factor of 2 due to dust settling. This even more problematic type I migration can be resolved by the presence of a dead zone; the inner, high density region of a disk which features a low level of turbulence. We show that enhanced dust settling in the dead zone leaves a dusty wall at its outer edge. Back-heating of the dead zone by this wall produces a positive radial gradient for the disk temperature, which acts as a barrier for type I migration.

 

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