Posts Tagged cross sectional area

Recent Postings from cross sectional area

Are entangled particles connected by wormholes? Support for the ER=EPR conjecture from entropy inequalities [Cross-Listing]

If spacetime is built out of quantum bits, does the shape of space depend on how the bits are entangled? The ER=EPR conjecture relates the entanglement entropy of a collection of black holes to the cross sectional area of Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges (or wormholes) connecting them. We show that the geometrical entropy of classical ER bridges satisfies the subadditivity, triangle, strong subadditivity, and CLW inequalities. These are nontrivial properties of entanglement entropy, so this is evidence for ER=EPR. We further show that the entanglement entropy associated to classical ER bridges has nonpositive interaction information. This is not a property of entanglement entropy, in general. For example, the entangled four qubit pure state |GHZ_4>=(|0000>+|1111>)/\sqrt{2} has positive interaction information, so this state cannot be described by a classical ER bridge. Large black holes with massive amounts of entanglement between them can fail to have a classical ER bridge if they are built out of |GHZ_4> states. States with nonpositive interaction information are called monogamous. We conclude that classical ER bridges require monogamous EPR correlations.

On standing sausage waves in photospheric magnetic waveguides [Replacement]

By focusing on the oscillations of the cross-sectional area and the intensity of magnetic waveguides located in the lower solar atmosphere, we aim to detect and identify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves. Capturing several series of high-resolution images of pores and sunspots and employing wavelet analysis in conjunction with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) makes the MHD wave analysis possible. For this paper, two sunspots and one pore (with a light bridge) were chosen as representative examples of MHD waveguides in the lower solar atmosphere. The sunspots and pore display a range of periods from 4 to 65 minutes. The sunspots support longer periods than the pore – generally enabling a doubling or quadrupling of the maximum pore oscillatory period. All of these structures display area oscillations indicative of MHD sausage modes and in-phase behaviour between the area and intensity, presenting mounting evidence for the presence of the slow sausage mode within these waveguides. The presence of fast and slow MHD sausage waves has been detected in three different magnetic waveguides in the lower solar photosphere. Furthermore, these oscillations are potentially standing harmonics supported in the waveguides which are sandwiched vertically between the temperature minimum in the lower solar atmosphere and the transition region. Standing harmonic oscillations, by means of solar magneto-seismology, may allow insight into the sub-resolution structure of photospheric MHD waveguides.

On standing sausage waves in photospheric magnetic waveguides [Replacement]

By focusing on the oscillations of the cross-sectional area and the intensity of magnetic waveguides located in the lower solar atmosphere, we aim to detect and identify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves. Capturing several series of high-resolution images of pores and sunspots and employing wavelet analysis in conjunction with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) makes the MHD wave analysis possible. For this paper, two sunspots and one pore (with a light bridge) were chosen as representative examples of MHD waveguides in the lower solar atmosphere. The sunspots and pore display a range of periods from 4 to 65 minutes. The sunspots support longer periods than the pore – generally enabling a doubling or quadrupling of the maximum pore oscillatory period. All of these structures display area oscillations indicative of MHD sausage modes and in-phase behaviour between the area and intensity, presenting mounting evidence for the presence of the slow sausage mode within these waveguides. The presence of fast and slow MHD sausage waves has been detected in three different magnetic waveguides in the lower solar photosphere. Furthermore, these oscillations are potentially standing harmonics supported in the waveguides which are sandwiched vertically between the temperature minimum in the lower solar atmosphere and the transition region. Standing harmonic oscillations, by means of solar magneto-seismology, may allow insight into the sub-resolution structure of photospheric MHD waveguides.

On standing sausage waves in photospheric magnetic waveguides

By focusing on the oscillations of the cross-sectional area and the intensity of magnetic waveguides located in the lower solar atmosphere, we aim to detect and identify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves. Capturing several series of high-resolution images of pores and sunspots and employing wavelet analysis in conjunction with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) makes the MHD wave analysis possible. For this paper, two sunspots and one pore (with a light bridge) were chosen as representative examples of MHD waveguides in the lower solar atmosphere. The sunspots and pore display a range of periods from 4 to 65 minutes. The sunspots support longer periods than the pore – generally enabling a doubling or quadrupling of the maximum pore oscillatory period. All of these structures display area oscillations indicative of MHD sausage modes and in-phase behaviour between the area and intensity, presenting mounting evidence for the presence of the slow sausage mode within these waveguides. The presence of fast and slow MHD sausage waves has been detected in three different magnetic waveguides in the lower solar photosphere. Furthermore, these oscillations are potentially standing harmonics supported in the waveguides which are sandwiched vertically between the temperature minimum in the lower solar atmosphere and the transition region. Standing harmonic oscillations, by means of solar magneto-seismology, may allow insight into the sub-resolution structure of photospheric MHD waveguides.

Analysis and Modeling of Two Flare Loops Observed by AIA and EIS

We analyze and model an M1.0 flare observed by SDO/AIA and Hinode/EIS to investigate how flare loops are heated and evolve subsequently. The flare is composed of two distinctive loop systems observed in EUV images. The UV 1600 \AA emission at the feet of these loops exhibits a rapid rise, followed by enhanced emission in different EUV channels observed by AIA and EIS. Such behavior is indicative of impulsive energy deposit and the subsequent response in overlying coronal loops that evolve through different temperatures. Using the method we recently developed, we infer empirical heating functions from the rapid rise of the UV light curves for the two loop systems, respectively, treating them as two big loops of cross-sectional area 5\arcsec by 5\arcsec, and compute the plasma evolution in the loops using the EBTEL model (Klimchuk et al. 2008). We compute the synthetic EUV light curves, which, with the limitation of the model, reasonably agree with observed light curves obtained in multiple AIA channels and EIS lines: they show the same evolution trend and their magnitudes are comparable by within a factor of two. Furthermore, we also compare the computed mean enthalpy flow velocity with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS during the decay phase of the two loops. Our results suggest that the two different loops with different heating functions as inferred from their footpoint UV emission, combined with their different lengths as measured from imaging observations, give rise to different coronal plasma evolution patterns captured both in the model and observations.

Cryogenic microstripline-on-Kapton microwave interconnects

Simple broadband microwave interconnects are needed for increasing the size of focal plane heterodyne radiometer arrays. We have measured loss and cross-talk for arrays of microstrip transmission lines in flex circuit technology at 297 and 77 K, finding good performance to at least 20 GHz. The dielectric constant of Kapton substrates changes very little from 297 to 77 K, and the electrical loss drops. The small cross-sectional area of metal in a printed circuit structure yields overall thermal conductivities similar to stainless steel coaxial cable. Operationally, the main performance tradeoffs are between crosstalk and thermal conductivity. We tested a patterned ground plane to reduce heat flux.

Very High Resolution Solar X-ray Imaging Using Diffractive Optics

This paper describes the development of X-ray diffractive optics for imaging solar flares with better than 0.1 arcsec angular resolution. X-ray images with this resolution of the \geq10 MK plasma in solar active regions and solar flares would allow the cross-sectional area of magnetic loops to be resolved and the coronal flare energy release region itself to be probed. The objective of this work is to obtain X-ray images in the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV observed during solar flares with an angular resolution as fine as 0.1 arcsec – over an order of magnitude finer than is now possible. This line emission is from highly ionized iron atoms, primarily Fe xxv, in the hottest flare plasma at temperatures in excess of \approx10 MK. It provides information on the flare morphology, the iron abundance, and the distribution of the hot plasma. Studying how this plasma is heated to such high temperatures in such short times during solar flares is of critical importance in understanding these powerful transient events, one of the major objectives of solar physics. We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of phase zone plate X-ray lenses with focal lengths of \approx100 m at these energies that would be capable of achieving these objectives. We show how such lenses could be included on a two-spacecraft formation-flying mission with the lenses on the spacecraft closest to the Sun and an X-ray imaging array on the second spacecraft in the focal plane \approx100 m away. High resolution X-ray images could be obtained when the two spacecraft are aligned with the region of interest on the Sun. Requirements and constraints for the control of the two spacecraft are discussed together with the overall feasibility of such a formation-flying mission.

Longitudinal oscillations in density stratified and expanding solar waveguides

Waves and oscillations can provide vital information about the internal structure of waveguides they propagate in. Here, we analytically investigate the effects of density and magnetic stratification on linear longitudinal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. The focus of this paper is to study the eigenmodes of these oscillations. It is our specific aim is to understand what happens to these MHD waves generated in flux tubes with non-constant (e.g., expanding or magnetic bottle) cross-sectional area and density variations. The governing equation of the longitudinal mode is derived and solved analytically and numerically. In particular, the limit of the thin flux tube approximation is examined. The general solution describing the slow longitudinal MHD waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube with constant density is found. Longitudinal MHD waves in density stratified loops with constant magnetic field are also analyzed. From analytical solutions, the frequency ratio of the first overtone and fundamental mode is investigated in stratified waveguides. For small expansion, a linear dependence between the frequency ratio and the expansion factor is found. From numerical calculations it was found that the frequency ratio strongly depends on the density profile chosen and, in general, the numerical results are in agreement with the analytical results. The relevance of these results for solar magneto-seismology is discussed.

1D Modeling for Temperature-Dependent Upflow in the Dimming Region Observed by Hinode/EIS

We have previously found a temperature-dependent upflow in the dimming region following a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by the {\it Hinode} EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). In this paper, we reanalyzed the observations along with previous work on this event, and provided boundary conditions for modeling. We found that the intensity in the dimming region dramatically drops within 30 minutes from the flare onset, and the dimming region reaches the equilibrium stage after $\sim$1 hour later. The temperature-dependent upflows were observed during the equilibrium stage by EIS. The cross sectional area of the fluxtube in the dimming region does not appear to expand significantly. From the observational constraints, we reconstructed the temperature-dependent upflow by using a new method which considers the mass and momentum conservation law, and demonstrated the height variation of plasma conditions in the dimming region. We found that a super radial expansion of the cross sectional area is required to satisfy the mass conservation and momentum equations. There is a steep temperature and velocity gradient of around 7 Mm from the solar surface. This result may suggest that the strong heating occurred above 7 Mm from the solar surface in the dimming region. We also showed that the ionization equilibrium assumption in the dimming region is violated especially in the higher temperature range.

Debris disk size distributions: steady state collisional evolution with P-R drag and other loss processes

We present a new scheme for determining the shape of the size distribution, and its evolution, for collisional cascades of planetesimals undergoing destructive collisions and loss processes like Poynting-Robertson drag. The scheme treats the steady state portion of the cascade by equating mass loss and gain in each size bin; the smallest particles are expected to reach steady state on their collision timescale, while larger particles retain their primordial distribution. For collision-dominated disks, steady state means that mass loss rates in logarithmic size bins are independent of size. This prescription reproduces the expected two phase size distribution, with ripples above the blow-out size, and above the transition to gravity-dominated planetesimal strength. The scheme also reproduces the expected evolution of disk mass, and of dust mass, but is computationally much faster than evolving distributions forward in time. For low-mass disks, P-R drag causes a turnover at small sizes to a size distribution that is set by the redistribution function (the mass distribution of fragments produced in collisions). Thus information about the redistribution function may be recovered by measuring the size distribution of particles undergoing loss by P-R drag, such as that traced by particles accreted onto Earth. Although cross-sectional area drops with 1/age^2 in the PR-dominated regime, dust mass falls as 1/age^2.8, underlining the importance of understanding which particle sizes contribute to an observation when considering how disk detectability evolves. Other loss processes are readily incorporated; we also discuss generalised power law loss rates, dynamical depletion, realistic radiation forces and stellar wind drag.

Hysteresis of Backflow Imprinted in Collimated Jets

We report two different types of backflow from jets by performing 2D special relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. One is anti-parallel and quasi-straight to the main jet (quasi-straight backflow), and the other is bent path of the backflow (bent backflow). We find that the former appears when the head advance speed is comparable to or higher than the local sound speed at the hotspot while the latter appears when the head advance speed is slower than the sound speed bat the hotspot. Bent backflow collides with the unshocked jet and laterally squeezes the jet. At the same time, a pair of new oblique shocks are formed at the tip of the jet and new bent fast backflows are generated via these oblique shocks. The hysteresis of backflow collisions is thus imprinted in the jet as a node and anti-node structure. This process also promotes broadening of the jet cross sectional area and it also causes a decrease in the head advance velocity. This hydrodynamic process may be tested by observations of compact young jets.

On the origin of Fanaroff-Riley classification of radio galaxies: Deceleration of supersonic radio lobes

We argue that the origin of "FRI/FRI{-.1em}I dichotomy" — the division between Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) with subsonic lobes and class I{-.1em}I (FRI{-.1em}I) radio sources with supersonic lobes is sharp in the radio-optical luminosity plane (Owen-White diagram) — can be explained by the deceleration of advancing radio lobes. The deceleration is caused by the growth of the effective cross-sectional area of radio lobes. We derive the condition in which an initially supersonic lobe turns into a subsonic lobe, combining the ram-pressure equilibrium between the hot spots and the ambient medium with the relation between "the hot spot radius" and "the linear size of radio sources" obtained from the radio observations. We find that the dividing line between the supersonic lobes and subsonic ones is determined by the ratio of the jet power $L_{\rm j}$ to the number density of the ambient matter at the core radius of the host galaxy $\bar{n}_{\rm a}$. It is also found that there exists the maximal ratio of $(L_{\rm j}/\bar{n}_{\rm a})$ and its value resides in $(L_{\rm j}/\bar{n}_{\rm a})_{\rm max}\approx 10^{44-47} {\rm erg} {\rm s}^{-1} {\rm cm}^{3}$, taking account of considerable uncertainties. This suggests that the maximal value $(L_{\rm j}/\bar{n}_{\rm a})_{\rm max}$ separates between FRIs and FRI{-.1em}Is.

Fate of baby radio galaxies: Dead or Alive ?

In order to reveal the long-term evolution of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we examine the dynamical evolution of variously-sized radio galaxies [i.e., compact symmetric objects (CSOs), medium-size symmetric objects (MSOs), Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies (FRIIs)]. By comparing the observed relation between the hot spot size and the linear size of radio source with a coevolution model of hot spot and cocoon, we find that the advance speed of hot spots and lobes inevitably show the deceleration phase (CSO-MSO phase) and the acceleration phase (MSO-FRII phase). The deceleration is caused by the growth of the cross-sectional area of the cocoon head. Moreover, by comparing the hot spot speed with the sound speed of the ambient medium, we predict that only CSOs whose initial advance speed is higher than 0.3-0.5c can evolve into FRIIs.

 

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