Posts Tagged correlation

Recent Postings from correlation

The $E_{\rm p}$ - $E_{\rm iso}$ relation and the internal shock model

The validity of the $E_{\rm p}$ – $E_{\rm iso}$ correlation in gamma-ray bursts and the possibility of explaining the prompt emission with internal shocks are highly debated questions. We study whether the $E_{\rm p}$ – $E_{\rm iso}$ correlation can be reproduced if internal shocks are indeed responsible for the prompt emission, or conversely, if the correlation can be used to constrain the internal shock scenario. We developed a toy model where internal shocks are limited to the collision of only two shells. Synthetic burst populations were constructed for various distributions of the model parameters, such as the injected power in the relativistic outflow, the average Lorentz factor, and its typical contrast between the shells. These parameters can be independent or linked by various relations. Synthetic $E_{\rm p}$ – $E_{\rm iso}$ diagrams are obtained in the different cases and compared with the observed correlation. The reference observed correlation is the one defined by the BAT6 sample, a sample of Swift bursts almost complete in redshift and affected by well-known and reproducible instrumental selection effects. The comparison is then performed with a subsample of synthetic bursts that satisfy the same selection criteria as were imposed on the BAT6 sample. A satisfactory agreement between model and data can often be achieved, but only if several strong constraints are satisfied on both the dynamics of the flow and the microphysics that governs the redistribution of the shock-dissipated energy.

On The Relation Between the AGN Jet and Accretion Disk Emissions

Active galactic nuclei jets are detected via their radio and/or gamma-ray emissions while the accretion disks are detected by their optical and UV radiation. Observations of the radio and optical luminosities show a strong correlation between the two luminosities. However, part of this correlation is due to the redshift or distances of the sources that enter in calculating the luminosities from the observed fluxes and part of it could be due to the differences in the cosmological evolution of luminosities. Thus, the determination of the intrinsic correlations between the luminosities is not straightforward. It is affected by the observational selection effects and other factors that truncate the data, sometimes in a complex manner (e.g. Antonucci (2011) and Pavildou et al. (2010)). In this paper we describe methods that allow us to determine the evolution of the radio and optical luminosities, and determine the true intrinsic correlation between the two luminosities. We find a much weaker correlation than observed and sub-linear relations between the luminosities. This has a significant implication for jet and accretion disk physics.

Selection effects in Gamma Ray Bursts correlations: consequences on the ratio between GRB and star formation rates

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) visible up to very high redshift have become attractive targets as potential new distance indicators. It is still not clear whether the relations proposed so far originate from an unknown GRB physics or result from selection effects. We investigate this issue in the case of the $L_X-T^*_a$ correlation (hereafter LT) between the X-ray luminosity $L_X (T_a)$ at the end of the plateau phase, $T_a$, and the rest frame time $T^{*}_a$. We devise a general method to build mock data sets starting from a GRB world model and taking into account selection effects on both time and luminosity. This method shows how not knowing the efficiency function could influence the evaluation of the intrinsic slope of any correlation and the GRB density rate. We investigate biases (small offsets in slope or normalization) that would occur in the LT relation as a result of truncations, possibly present in the intrinsic distributions of $L_X$ and $T^*_a$. We compare these results with the ones in Dainotti et al. (2013) showing that in both cases the intrinsic slope of the LT correlation is $\approx -1.0$. This method is general, therefore relevant to investigate if any other GRB correlation is generated by the biases themselves. Moreover, because the farthest GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, we evaluate the redshift-dependent ratio $\Psi(z)=(1+z)^{\alpha}$ of the GRB rate to star formation rate (SFR). We found a modest evolution $-0.2\leq \alpha \leq 0.5$ consistent with Swift GRB afterglow plateau in the redshift range $0.99<z<9.4$.

Selection effects in Gamma Ray Bursts correlations: consequences on the ratio between GRB and star formation rates [Replacement]

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) visible up to very high redshift have become attractive targets as potential new distance indicators. It is still not clear whether the relations proposed so far originate from an unknown GRB physics or result from selection effects. We investigate this issue in the case of the $L_X-T^*_a$ correlation (hereafter LT) between the X-ray luminosity $L_X (T_a)$ at the end of the plateau phase, $T_a$, and the rest frame time $T^{*}_a$. We devise a general method to build mock data sets starting from a GRB world model and taking into account selection effects on both time and luminosity. This method shows how not knowing the efficiency function could influence the evaluation of the intrinsic slope of any correlation and the GRB density rate. We investigate biases (small offsets in slope or normalization) that would occur in the LT relation as a result of truncations, possibly present in the intrinsic distributions of $L_X$ and $T^*_a$. We compare these results with the ones in Dainotti et al. (2013) showing that in both cases the intrinsic slope of the LT correlation is $\approx -1.0$. This method is general, therefore relevant to investigate if any other GRB correlation is generated by the biases themselves. Moreover, because the farthest GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, we evaluate the redshift-dependent ratio $\Psi(z)=(1+z)^{\alpha}$ of the GRB rate to star formation rate (SFR). We found a modest evolution $-0.2\leq \alpha \leq 0.5$ consistent with Swift GRB afterglow plateau in the redshift range $0.99<z<9.4$.

Correlation between the photon index and X-ray luminosity of black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei: observations and interpretation

We investigate the observed correlation between the 2–10 keV X-ray luminosity (in unit of the Eddington luminosity; $l_X \equiv L_X/L_{Edd}$) and the photon index ($\Gamma$) of the X-ray spectrum for both black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We construct a large sample, with $10^{-9} < l_X < 10^{-1}$. We find that $\Gamma$ is positively and negatively correlated with $l_X$ when $l_X > 10^{-3}$ and $10^{-6.5} < l_X < 10^{-3}$ respectively, while $\Gamma$ is nearly a constant when $l_X < 10^{-6.5}$. We explain the above correlation in the framework of a coupled hot accretion flow — jet model. The radio emission always come from the jet while the X-ray emission comes from the accretion flow and jet when $l_X$ is above and below $10^{-6.5}$, respectively. More specifically, we assume that with the increase of mass accretion rate, the hot accretion flow develops into a clumpy and further a disc — corona two-phase structure because of thermal instability. We argue that such kind of two-phase accretion flow can explain the observed positive correlation.

n-partite information in Hawking radiation [Cross-Listing]

We study the entanglement among sequential Hawking radiations in the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Schwarzschild black hole. We identify the part of classical correlation and that of quantum entanglement in bipartite information and point out its imitated relation to quantum gravity correction. Explicit computation of n-partite information shows that it is positive (negative) for even (odd) $n$, which happens to agree with the holographic computation. The fact that entanglement in the mutual information grows with time mimics the second law of thermodynamics. Later we extend our study to the AdS black hole and find the total mutual information which includes the classical correlation is sensible to the Hawking-Page phase transition.

n-partite information in Hawking radiation

We study the entanglement among sequential Hawking radiations in the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Schwarzschild black hole. We identify the part of classical correlation and that of quantum entanglement in bipartite information and point out its imitated relation to quantum gravity correction. Explicit computation of n-partite information shows that it is positive (negative) for even (odd) $n$, which happens to agree with the holographic computation. The fact that entanglement in the mutual information grows with time mimics the second law of thermodynamics. Later we extend our study to the AdS black hole and find the total mutual information which includes the classical correlation is sensible to the Hawking-Page phase transition.

Selection biases in the gamma ray burst E$_{\rm iso}$ -- L$_{\rm opt,X}$ correlation

Gamma ray burst (GRB) optical and X-ray afterglow luminosity is expected to correlate with the GRB isotropic equivalent kinetic energy of the outflow in the standard synchrotron model for GRB afterglows. Previous studies, using prompt GRB isotropic equivalent energy ($E_{\rm iso}$) as a proxy for isotropic equivalent kinetic energy, have generally confirmed a correlation between X-ray and optical afterglow luminosities. Assuming that GRB afterglow luminosity does not evolve strongly with redshift, we identify a strong Malmquist bias in GRB optical and X-ray afterglow luminosity data. We show that selection effects dominate the observed E$_{\rm iso}$ — L$_{\rm opt,X}$ correlations, and have likely been underestimated in other studies. The bias is strongest for a subset of optically faint bursts $m>24$ at 24 hr with $z>2$. After removing this optical selection bias, the E$_{\rm iso}$ — L$_{\rm opt,X}$ correlation for long GRBs is not statistically significant, but combining both long and short GRB luminosity data the correlation is significant. Using the median of the $E_{\rm iso}$ and $L_{\rm opt,X}$ distributions, we apply the synchrotron model assuming the same power law index for short and long GRBs, but different microphysical parameter distributions. Comparing the ratio of optical and X-ray luminosities, we find tentative evidence that the fraction of post-shock energy in magnetic fields, $\epsilon_B$, could be systematically higher in SGRBs compared to LGRBs.

The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their accretion disks

Theoretical models for the production of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei predict that jet power arises from the spin and mass of the central black hole, as well as the magnetic field near the event horizon. The physical mechanism mechanism underlying the contribution from the magnetic field is the torque exerted on the rotating black hole by the field amplified by the accreting material. If the squared magnetic field is proportional to the accretion rate, then there will be a correlation between jet power and accretion luminosity. There is evidence for such a correlation, but inadequate knowledge of the accretion luminosity of the limited and inhomogeneous used samples prevented a firm conclusion. Here we report an analysis of archival observations of a sample of blazars (quasars whose jets point towards Earth) that overcomes previous limitations. We find a clear correlation between jet power as measured through the gamma-ray luminosity, and accretion luminosity as measured by the broad emission lines, with the jet power dominating over the disk luminosity, in agreement with numerical simulations. This implies that the magnetic field threading the black hole horizon reaches the maximum value sustainable by the accreting matter.

Positive metallicity correlation for coreless giant planets

Frequency of detected giant planets is observed to increase rapidly with metallicity of the host star. This is usually interpreted as evidence in support of the Core Accretion (CA) theory, which assembles giant planets as a result of formation of a massive solid core. A strong positive planet-metallicity correlation for giant planets formed in the framework of Gravitational disc Instability (GI) model is found here. The key novelty of this work is "pebble accretion" onto GI fragments which has been recently demonstrated to accelerate contraction of GI fragments. Driven closer to the star by the inward migration, only the fragments that accrete metals rapidly enough collapse and survive the otherwise imminent tidal disruption. The survival fraction of simulated planets correlates strongly with the metallicity of the host star, as observed.

Revisiting the correlation between stellar activity and planetary surface gravity

Aims: We re-evaluate the correlation between planetary surface gravity and stellar host activity as measured by the index log($R’_{HK}$). This correlation, previously identified by Hartman (2010), is now analyzed in light of an extended measurements dataset, roughly 3 times larger than the original one. Methods: We calculated the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between the two quantities and its associated p-value. The correlation coefficient was calculated for both the full dataset and the star-planet pairs that follow the conditions proposed by Hartman (2010). In order to do so, we considered effective temperatures both as collected from the literature and from the SWEET-Cat catalog, which provides a more homogeneous and accurate effective temperature determination. Results: The analysis delivers significant correlation coefficients, but with a lower value than those obtained by Hartman (2010). Yet, the two datasets are compatible, and we show that a correlation coefficient as large as previously published can arise naturally from a small-number statistics analysis of the current dataset. The correlation is recovered for star-planet pairs selected using the different conditions proposed by Hartman (2010). Remarkably, the usage of SWEET-Cat temperatures leads to larger correlation coefficient values. We highlight and discuss the role of the correlation betwen different parameters such as effective temperature and activity index. Several additional effects on top of those discussed previously were considered, but none fully explains the detected correlation. In light of the complex issue discussed here, we encourage the different follow-up teams to publish their activity index values in the form of log($R’_{HK}$) index so that a comparison across stars and instruments can be pursued.

Fluctuation dynamo at finite correlation times using renewing flows

Fluctuation dynamos are generic to turbulent astrophysical systems. The only analytical model of the fluctuation dynamo, due to Kazantsev, assumes the velocity to be delta-correlated in time. This assumption breaks down for any realistic turbulent flow. We generalize the analytic model of fluctuation dynamo to include the effects of a finite correlation time, $\tau$, using renewing flows. The generalized evolution equation for the longitudinal correlation function $M_L$ leads to the standard Kazantsev equation in the $\tau \to 0$ limit, and extends it to the next order in $\tau$. We find that this evolution equation involves also third and fourth spatial derivatives of $M_L$, indicating that the evolution for finite $\tau$ will be non-local in general. In the perturbative case of small-$\tau$ (or small Strouhl number), it can be recast using the Landau-Lifschitz approach, to one with at most second derivatives of $M_L$. Using both a scaling solution and the WKBJ approximation, we show that the dynamo growth rate is reduced when the correlation time is finite. Interestingly, to leading order in $\tau$, we show that the magnetic power spectrum, preserves the Kazantsev form, $M(k) \propto k^{3/2}$, in the large $k$ limit, independent of $\tau$.

Initial fluctuations and correlation of finite distributions of secondary particles in interaction of heavy ions with photoemulsion nuclei [Cross-Listing]

The study of the peculiarities of the distribution of secondary particles depending on the degree centrality and the degree of asymmetry of the interacting nuclei, is performed. The number of multicharged fragments of the projectile nucleus $N_f$ in interactions sharply asymmetric nuclei depends on the centrality degree of interaction. At that, the events with $N_f$ =1 are separated clearly in the distribution of the total charge of the fragments of a projectile nucleus $Q$ depending on the nature of the correlation of the number of fragments of the target nucleus and the multiplicity of secondary particles.

Possible signature of distant foreground in the Planck data

By using the Planck map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation we have checked and confirmed the existence of a correlation between supernova (SN) redshifts, $z_{\rm SN}$, and CMB temperature fluctuations at the SNe locations, $T_{\rm SN}$, which we previously reported for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the Planck data is $r=+0.38\pm 0.08$ which indicates that the correlation is statistically significant (the signal is about $5\sigma$ above the noise level). The correlation becomes even stronger for the type Ia subsample of SNe, $r_{\rm Ia}=+0.45\pm 0.09$, whereas for the rest of the SNe it is vanishing. By checking the slopes of the regression lines $T_{\rm SN} / z_{\rm SN}$ for Planck’s different frequency bands we have also excluded the possibility of this anomaly being caused by the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The remaining possibility is some, unaccounted for, contribution to the CMB from distant ($z>0.3$) foreground through either the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect or thermal emission from intergalactic matter.

A comprehensive X-ray and multiwavelength study of the Colliding Galaxy Pair NGC2207/IC2163

We present a comprehensive study of the total X-ray emission from the colliding galaxy pair NGC2207/IC2163, based on Chandra, Spitzer, and GALEX data. We repeat our correlation study between the local SFR and the number and luminosity of ULXs with improved significance, due to a fivefold increase in Chandra exposure. Thanks to ULX variability we now detect 28 ULXs, 7 of which were not visible previously. We confirm that global relations between N(ULXs), L(ULXs) and the integrated SFR of the host galaxy also hold on local scales. We investigate the long-term flux and spectral variability of the ULX population: 12 sources show significant long-term variability, 7 of these are transient candidates. No spectral changes are correlated with flux variability. The average XLF of NGC2207/IC2163 is consistent with that typical for HMXBs and appears unaffected by variability. We study the possible correlation of dust extinction with the bright XRB population on sub-galactic scales using the same technique as that applied to the correlation with SFR. We find that the distributions of Nx and Lx are peaked at L(IR)/L(NUV)~1, and speculate that this is an effect of the different star formation timescales traced by the IR and NUV, associating the observed peak with an age of ~10Myr for the underlying stellar population. We disentangle and compare the X-ray spectrum of the hot ISM with that of the of the bright XRBs. We find that the hot ISM has a temperature kT~0.28keV and dominates the overall X-ray output at E<1keV, while unresolved accreting compact objects dominate the diffuse X-ray emission at E>1keV. The intrinsic 0.5-2keV luminosity of the thermal plasma is 7.9e+40erg/s, a factor of ~2 larger than the average thermal luminosity produced per unit SFR in local star-forming galaxies. The total X-ray output of NGC2207/IC2163 is 1.5e+41erg/s, and the corresponding total integrated SFR is 23.7 Msol/yr

Galactic rotation curves, the baryon-to-dark-halo-mass relation and space-time scale invariance [Replacement]

Low-acceleration space-time scale invariant dynamics (SID, Milgrom 2009a) predicts two fundamental correlations known from observational galactic dynamics: the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR) and a correlation between the observed mass discrepancy and acceleration (MDA) in the low acceleration regime for disc galaxies. SID corresponds to the deep MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) limit. The MDA data emerging in cold/warm dark matter (C/WDM) cosmological simulations disagree significantly with the tight MDA correlation of the observed galaxies. Therefore, the most modern simulated disc galaxies, which are delicately selected to have a quiet merging history in a standard dark-matter-cosmological model, still do not represent the correct rotation curves. Also, the observed tight correlation contradicts the postulated stochastic formation of galaxies in low-mass DM halos. Moreover, we find that SID predicts a baryonic to apparent virial halo (dark matter) mass relation which agrees well with the correlation deduced observationally assuming Newtonian dynamics to be valid, while the baryonic to halo mass relation predicted from CDM models does not. The distribution of the observed ratios of dark-matter halo masses to baryonic masses may be empirical evidence for the external field effect, which is predicted in SID as a consequence of the forces acting between two galaxies depending on the position and mass of a third galaxy. Applying the external field effect, we predict the masses of galaxies in the proximity of the dwarf galaxies in the Miller et al. sample. Classical non-relativistic gravitational dynamics is thus best described as being Milgromian, rather than Newtonian.

Galactic rotation curves, the baryon-to-dark-halo-mass relation and space-time scale invariance

Low-acceleration space-time scale invariant dynamics (SID, Milgrom 2009a) predicts two fundamental correlations known from observational galactic dynamics: the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR) and a correlation between the observed mass discrepancy and acceleration (MDA) in the low acceleration regime for disc galaxies. SID corresponds to the deep MOND limit (Milgrom 1983c). The MDA data emerging in cold/warm dark matter (C/WDM) cosmological simulations disagree significantly with the tight MDA correlation of the observed galaxies. Therefore, the most modern simulated disc galaxies, which are delicately selected to have a quiet merging history in a standard dark-matter-cosmological model, still do not represent the correct rotation curves. Also, the observed tight correlation contradicts the postulated stochastic formation of galaxies in low-mass DM halos. Moreover, we find that SID predicts a baryonic to apparent virial halo (dark matter) mass relation which agrees well with the correlation deduced observationally assuming Newtonian dynamics to be valid, while the baryonic to halo mass relation predicted from CDM models does not. The distribution of the observed ratios of dark-matter halo masses to baryonic masses may be empirical evidence for the external field effect, which is predicted in SID as a consequence of the forces acting between two galaxies depending on the position and mass of a third galaxy. Applying the external field effect, we predict the masses of galaxies in the proximity of the dwarf galaxies in the Miller et al. (2014) sample. Classical non-relativistic gravitational dynamics is thus best described as being Milgromian, rather than Newtonian.

Quark spin-orbit correlations

The proton spin puzzle issue focused the attention on the parton spin and orbital angular momentum contributions to the proton spin. However, a complete characterization of the proton spin structure requires also the knowledge of the parton spin-orbit correlation. We showed that this quantity can be expressed in terms of moments of measurable parton distributions. Using the available phenomenological information about the valence quarks, we concluded that this correlation is negative, meaning that the valence quark spin and kinetic orbital angular momentum are, in average, opposite. The quark spin-orbit correlation can also be expressed more intuitively in terms of relativistic phase-space distributions, which can be seen as the mother distributions of the standard generalized and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. We present here for the first time some examples of the general multipole decomposition of these phase-space distributions.

Estimation of the Extragalactic Background Light using TeV Observations of BL~Lacs

The very high energy (VHE) gamma ray spectral index of high energy peaked blazars correlates strongly with its corresponding redshift whereas no such correlation is observed in the X-ray or the GeV bands. We attribute this correlation to a result of photon-photon absorption of TeV photons with the extragalactic background light (EBL) and utilizing this, we compute the allowed flux range for the EBL, which is independent of previous estimates. The observed VHE spectrum of the sources in our sample can be well approximated by a power-law, and if the de-absorbed spectrum is also assumed to be a power law, then we show that the spectral shape of EBL will be $\epsilon n(\epsilon) \sim k log(\frac{\epsilon}{\epsilon_p}) $. We estimate the range of values for the parameters defining the EBL spectrum, $k$ and $\epsilon_p$, such that the correlation of the intrinsic VHE spectrum with redshift is nullified. The estimated EBL depends only on the observed correlation and the assumption of a power law source spectrum. Specifically, it does not depend on the spectral modeling or radiative mechanism of the sources, nor does it depend on any theoretical shape of the EBL spectrum obtained through cosmological calculations. The estimated EBL spectrum is consistent with the upper and lower limits imposed by different observations. Moreover, it also agrees closely with the theoretical estimates obtained through cosmological evolution models.

Correlation between the phase and the log-amplitude of a wave through the vertical atmospheric propagation

I present expressions of the correlation between the log-amplitude and the phase of a wavefront propagating through the atmospheric turbulence. The properties of the angular correlation functions are discussed using usual synthetic turbulence profiles. The theoretical study is completed by practical implementations that can be envisioned to determine and eventually compensate the effects of the fluctuations of the intensity during the astronomical observations. The close formulation between the phase and the log-amplitude allows an analytic formulation in the Rytov approximation. Equations contain the product of an arbitrary number of hypergeometric functions that are evaluated using the Mellin transforms integration method.

Correlation between the phase and the log-amplitude of a wave through the vertical atmospheric propagation [Replacement]

Expressions of the correlation between the log-amplitude and the phase of a wavefront propagating through the atmospheric turbulence are presented. These expressions are useful to evaluate the feasibility of proposed methods to increase the confidence level of the detection of faint transient astronomical objects. The properties of the derived angular correlation functions are discussed using usual synthetic turbulence profiles. The close formulation between the phase and the log-amplitude allows an analytic formulation in the Rytov approximation. Equations contain the product of an arbitrary number of hypergeometric functions that are evaluated using the Mellin transforms integration method.

Inflationary tensor fossils in large-scale structure

Inflation models make specific predictions for a tensor-scalar-scalar three-point correlation, or bispectrum, between one gravitational-wave (tensor) mode and two density-perturbation (scalar) modes. This tensor-scalar-scalar correlation leads to a local power quadrupole, an apparent departure from statistical isotropy in our Universe, as well as characteristic four-point correlations in the current mass distribution in the Universe. So far, the predictions for these observables have been worked out only for single-clock models in which certain consistency conditions between the tensor-scalar-scalar correlation and tensor and scalar power spectra are satisfied. Here we review the requirements on inflation models for these consistency conditions to be satisfied. We then consider several examples of inflation models, such as non-attractor and solid inflation models, in which these conditions are put to the test. In solid inflation the simplest consistency conditions are already violated whilst in the non-attractor model we find that, contrary to the standard scenario, the tensor-scalar-scalar correlator probes directly relevant model-dependent information. We work out the predictions for observables in these models. For non-attractor inflation we find an apparent local quadrupolar departure from statistical isotropy in large-scale structure but that this power quadrupole decreases very rapidly at smaller scales. The consistency of the CMB quadrupole with statistical isotropy then constrains the distance scale that corresponds to the transition from the non-attractor to attractor phase of inflation to be larger than the currently observable horizon. Solid inflation predicts clustering fossils signatures in the current galaxy distribution that may be large enough to be detectable with forthcoming, and possibly even current, galaxy surveys.

Inflationary tensor fossils in large-scale structure [Cross-Listing]

Inflation models make specific predictions for a tensor-scalar-scalar three-point correlation, or bispectrum, between one gravitational-wave (tensor) mode and two density-perturbation (scalar) modes. This tensor-scalar-scalar correlation leads to a local power quadrupole, an apparent departure from statistical isotropy in our Universe, as well as characteristic four-point correlations in the current mass distribution in the Universe. So far, the predictions for these observables have been worked out only for single-clock models in which certain consistency conditions between the tensor-scalar-scalar correlation and tensor and scalar power spectra are satisfied. Here we review the requirements on inflation models for these consistency conditions to be satisfied. We then consider several examples of inflation models, such as non-attractor and solid inflation models, in which these conditions are put to the test. In solid inflation the simplest consistency conditions are already violated whilst in the non-attractor model we find that, contrary to the standard scenario, the tensor-scalar-scalar correlator probes directly relevant model-dependent information. We work out the predictions for observables in these models. For non-attractor inflation we find an apparent local quadrupolar departure from statistical isotropy in large-scale structure but that this power quadrupole decreases very rapidly at smaller scales. The consistency of the CMB quadrupole with statistical isotropy then constrains the distance scale that corresponds to the transition from the non-attractor to attractor phase of inflation to be larger than the currently observable horizon. Solid inflation predicts clustering fossils signatures in the current galaxy distribution that may be large enough to be detectable with forthcoming, and possibly even current, galaxy surveys.

A correlation between the amount of dark matter in elliptical galaxies and their shape

We discuss the correlation between the dark matter content of elliptical galaxies and their ellipticities. We then explore a mechanism for which the correlation would emerge naturally. Such mechanism leads to identifying the dark matter particles to gravitons. A similar mechanism is known in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and is essential to our understanding of the mass and structure of baryonic matter.

A correlation between the amount of dark matter in elliptical galaxies and their shape [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the correlation between the dark matter content of elliptical galaxies and their ellipticities. We then explore a mechanism for which the correlation would emerge naturally. Such mechanism leads to identifying the dark matter particles to gravitons. A similar mechanism is known in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and is essential to our understanding of the mass and structure of baryonic matter.

A Correlation Between Hard Gamma-ray Sources and Cosmic Voids Along the Line of Sight

We estimate the galaxy density along lines of sight to hard extragalactic gamma-ray sources by correlating source positions on the sky with a void catalog based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Extragalactic gamma-ray sources that are detected at very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) or have been highlighted as VHE-emitting candidates in the Fermi Large Area Telescope hard source catalog (together referred to as "VHE-like" sources) are distributed along underdense lines of sight at the 2.4 sigma level. There is also a less suggestive correlation for the Fermi hard source population (1.7 sigma). A correlation between 10-500 GeV flux and underdense fraction along the line of sight for VHE-like and Fermi hard sources is found at 2.4 sigma and 2.6 sigma, respectively. The preference for underdense sight lines is not displayed by gamma-ray emitting galaxies within the second Fermi catalog, containing sources detected above 100 MeV, or the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog. We investigate whether this marginal correlation might be a result of lower extragalactic background light (EBL) photon density within the underdense regions and find that, even in the most extreme case of a entirely underdense sight line, the EBL photon density is only 2% less than the nominal EBL density. Translating this into gamma-ray attenuation along the line of sight for a highly attenuated source with opacity tau(E,z) ~5, we estimate that the attentuation of gamma-rays decreases no more than 10%. This decrease, although non-neglible, is unable to account for the apparent hard source correlation with underdense lines of sight.

A Correlation Between Hard Gamma-ray Sources and Cosmic Voids Along the Line of Sight [Replacement]

We estimate the galaxy density along lines of sight to hard extragalactic gamma-ray sources by correlating source positions on the sky with a void catalog based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Extragalactic gamma-ray sources that are detected at very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) or have been highlighted as VHE-emitting candidates in the Fermi Large Area Telescope hard source catalog (together referred to as "VHE-like" sources) are distributed along underdense lines of sight at the 2.4 sigma level. There is also a less suggestive correlation for the Fermi hard source population (1.7 sigma). A correlation between 10-500 GeV flux and underdense fraction along the line of sight for VHE-like and Fermi hard sources is found at 2.4 sigma and 2.6 sigma, respectively. The preference for underdense sight lines is not displayed by gamma-ray emitting galaxies within the second Fermi catalog, containing sources detected above 100 MeV, or the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog. We investigate whether this marginal correlation might be a result of lower extragalactic background light (EBL) photon density within the underdense regions and find that, even in the most extreme case of a entirely underdense sight line, the EBL photon density is only 2% less than the nominal EBL density. Translating this into gamma-ray attenuation along the line of sight for a highly attenuated source with opacity tau(E,z) ~5, we estimate that the attentuation of gamma-rays decreases no more than 10%. This decrease, although non-neglible, is unable to account for the apparent hard source correlation with underdense lines of sight.

GOODS-HERSCHEL: star formation, dust attenuation and the FIR-radio correlation on the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies up to z~4

We use the deep panchromatic dataset available in the GOODS-N field, spanning all the way from GALEX ultra-violet to VLA radio continuum data, to select a star-forming galaxy sample at z~[0.5-4] and robustly measure galaxy photometric redshifts, star formation rates, stellar masses and UV rest-frame properties. We quantitatively explore, using mass-complete samples, the evolution of the star formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies up to z~4. Our main results can be summarized as follows: i) we find that the slope of the SFR-M correlation is consistent with being constant, and equal to ~0.8 at least up to z~1.5, while the normalization keeps increasing to the highest redshift, z~4, we are able to explore; ii) for the first time in this work, we are able to explore the FIR-radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z~4; iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated; iv) strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 magnitudes over the redshift range [0.5-4] for a fixed stellar mass, as opposed to a tenfold increase of star formation rate; v) this finding explains the evolution of the SFR-Auv relation reported in literature: the same amount of star formation is less attenuated at higher redshift because it is hosted in less massive, and less metal rich, galaxies; vi) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves in redshift, with the median UV spectral slope of star-forming galaxies becoming bluer with redshift. By z~3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuation, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws…

The decays $\Xi_b \to \Lambda_b \, \pi$ and diquark correlations in hyperons

The decays $\Xi_b \to \Lambda_b \pi$ are strangeness changing weak transitions involving only the light diquark in the baryon. Thus these decays can test the properties of such diquarks, in particular the suggestions existing in the literature of enhanced correlations in $J^P=0^+$ light diquarks. We revisit the estimates of the rates of these decays and point out that with the enhanced correlation their branching fraction can reach a few percent and may become visible in the measurements of differences of the lifetimes of $b$ baryons.

Modeling the Ages and Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies in Fundamental Plane Space

Recent observations have probed the formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies by tracking correlations between the stellar population parameters, age and metallicity, and the structural parameters that enter the Fundamental Plane, radius and velocity dispersion sigma. These studies have found intriguing correlations between these four parameters. In this work, we make use of a semi-analytic model, based on halo merger trees extracted from the Bolshoi cosmological simulation, that predicts the structural properties of spheroid-dominated galaxies based on an analytic model that has been tested and calibrated against an extensive suite of hydrodynamic+N-body binary merger simulations. We predict the radius, sigma, luminosity, age, and metallicity of spheroid-dominated galaxies, enabling us to compare directly to observations. Our model predicts a strong correlation between age and sigma for early-type galaxies, and no significant correlation between age and radius, in agreement with observations. In addition we predict a strong correlation between metallicity and sigma, and a weak correlation between metallicity and radius, in qualitative agreement with observations. We find that the correlations with sigma arise as a result of the strong link between sigma and the galaxy assembly time. Minor mergers produce a large change in radius while leaving sigma nearly the same, which explains the weaker trends with radius.

Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation

An intrinsic correlation has been identified between the luminosity and duration of plateaus in the X-ray afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs; Dainotti et al. 2008), suggesting a central engine origin. The magnetar central engine model predicts an observable plateau phase, with plateau durations and luminosities being determined by the magnetic fields and spin periods of the newly formed magnetar. This paper analytically shows that the magnetar central engine model can explain, within the 1$\sigma$ uncertainties, the correlation between plateau luminosity and duration. The observed scatter in the correlation most likely originates in the spread of initial spin periods of the newly formed magnetar and provides an estimate of the maximum spin period of ~35 ms (assuming a constant mass, efficiency and beaming across the GRB sample). Additionally, by combining the observed data and simulations, we show that the magnetar emission is most likely narrowly beamed and has $\lesssim$20% efficiency in conversion of rotational energy from the magnetar into the observed plateau luminosity. The beaming angles and efficiencies obtained by this method are fully consistent with both predicted and observed values. We find that Short GRBs and Short GRBs with Extended Emission lie on the same correlation but are statistically inconsistent with being drawn from the same distribution as Long GRBs, this is consistent with them having a wider beaming angle than Long GRBs.

AGN Feedback models: Correlations with star formation and observational implications of time evolution

We examine the correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) across a suite of different AGN feedback models, using the time evolution of a merger simulation. By considering three different stages of evolution, and a distinction between the nuclear and outer regions of star formation, we consider 63 different cases. Despite many of the feedback models fitting the M-\sigma\ relationship well, there are often distinct differences in the SFR-BHAR correlations, with close to linear trends only being present after the merger. Some of the models also show evolution in the SFR-BHAR parameter space that is at times directly across the long-term averaged SFR-BHAR correlation. This suggests that the observational SFR-BHAR correlation found for ensembles of galaxies is an approximate statistical trend, as suggested by Hickox et al. Decomposing the SFR into nuclear and outer components also highlights notable differences between models and there is only modest agreement with observational studies examining this in Seyfert galaxies. For the fraction of the black hole mass growth from the merger event relative to the final black hole mass, we find as much as a factor of three variation among models. This also translates into a similar variation in the post-starburst black hole mass growth. Overall, we find that while qualitative features are often similar amongst models, precise quantitative analysis shows there can be quite distinct differences.

Intrinsic alignment of simulated galaxies in the cosmic web: implications for weak lensing surveys

The intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes and their cross-correlation with the surrounding dark matter tidal field are investigated using the 160 000, z=1.2 synthetic galaxies extracted from the high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. One- and two-point statistics of the spin of the stellar component are measured as a function of mass and colour. For the low-mass galaxies, this spin is locally aligned with the tidal field `filamentary’ direction while, for the high-mass galaxies, it is perpendicular to both filaments and walls. The bluest galaxies of our synthetic catalog are more strongly correlated with the surrounding tidal field than the reddest galaxies, and this correlation extends up to 10 Mpc/h comoving distance. We also report a correlation of the projected ellipticities of blue, intermediate mass galaxies on a similar scale at a level of 10^(-4) which could be a concern for cosmic shear measurements. We do not report any measurable intrinsic alignments of the reddest galaxies of our sample. This work is a first step toward the use of very realistic catalog of synthetic galaxies to evaluate the contamination of weak lensing measurement by the intrinsic galactic alignments.

Fluctuation dynamo at finite correlation times and the Kazantsev spectrum [Replacement]

Fluctuation dynamos are generic to astrophysical systems. The only analytical model of the fluctuation dynamo is Kazantsev model which assumes a delta-correlated in time velocity field. We derive a generalized model of fluctuation dynamo with finite correlation time, $\tau$, using renovating flows. For $\tau \to 0$, we recover the standard Kazantsev equation for the evolution of longitudinal magnetic correlation, $M_L$. To the next order in $\tau$, the generalized equation involves third and fourth spatial derivatives of $M_L$. It can be recast using the Landau-Lifschitz approach, to one with at most second derivatives of $M_L$. Remarkably, we then find that the magnetic power spectrum, remains the Kazantsev spectrum of $M(k) \propto k^{3/2}$, in the large $k$ limit, independent of $\tau$.

Fluctuation dynamo at finite correlation times and the Kazantsev spectrum [Cross-Listing]

We derive a generalized model of fluctuation dynamo with finite correlation time, $\tau$, using renovating flows. For $\tau \to 0$, we recover the standard Kazantsev equation for the evolution of longitudinal magnetic correlation, $M_L$. To the next order in $\tau$, the generalized equation involves third and fourth spatial derivatives of $M_L$. It can be recast using the Landau-Lifschitz approach, to one with at most second derivatives of $M_L$. Remarkably, we then find that the magnetic power spectrum, remains the Kazantsev spectrum of $M(k) \propto k^{3/2}$, in the large $k$ limit, independent of $\tau$.

Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

This chapter explores how we might use the observed {\em statistics} of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers – which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions – is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

On the lack of correlation between Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom and Lyman alpha emission in lensed star-forming galaxies

We examine the Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom, Lyman alpha, and nebular line emission in five bright star-forming galaxies at 1.66<z<1.91 that have been gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxy clusters. All five galaxies show prominent Mg II emission and absorption in a P Cygni profile. We find no correlation between the equivalent widths of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission. The Mg II emission has a broader range of velocities than do the nebular emission line profiles; the Mg II emission is redshifted with respect to systemic by 100 to 200 km/s. When present, Lyman alpha is even more redshifted. The reddest components of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission have tails to 500-600 km/s, implying a strong outflow. The lack of correlation in the Mg II and Lyman alpha equivalent widths, the differing velocity profiles, and the high ratios of Mg II to nebular line fluxes together suggest that the bulk of Mg II emission does not ultimately arise as nebular line emission, but may instead be reprocessed stellar continuum emission.

Faraday Rotation from Magnesium II Absorbers towards Polarized Background Radio Sources [Replacement]

Strong singly-ionized magnesium (MgII) absorption lines in quasar spectra typically serve as a proxy for intervening galaxies along the line of sight. Previous studies have found a correlation between the number of these MgII absorbers and the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at $\approx5$ GHz. We cross-match a sample of 35,752 optically-identified non-intrinsic MgII absorption systems with 25,649 polarized background radio sources for which we have measurements of both the spectral index and RM at 1.4 GHz. We use the spectral index to split the resulting sample of 599 sources into flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum subsamples. We find that our flat-spectrum sample shows significant ($\sim3.5\sigma$) evidence for a correlation between MgII absorption and RM at 1.4 GHz, while our steep-spectrum sample shows no such correlation. We argue that such an effect cannot be explained by either luminosity or other observational effects, by evolution in another confounding variable, by wavelength-dependent polarization structure in an active galactic nucleus, by the Galactic foreground, by cosmological expansion, or by partial coverage models. We conclude that our data are most consistent with intervenors directly contributing to the Faraday rotation along the line of sight, and that the intervening systems must therefore have coherent magnetic fields of substantial strength ($\bar{B}=1.8\pm0.4$ $\mu$G). Nevertheless, the weak nature of the correlation will require future high-resolution and broadband radio observations in order to place it on a much firmer statistical footing.

Faraday Rotation from Magnesium II Absorbers towards Polarized Background Radio Sources

Strong magnesium II (MgII) absorption lines in quasar spectra typically serve as a proxy for an intervening galaxy along the line of sight. Previous studies have found a correlation between the number of these MgII absorbers and the rotation measure (RM) at $\approx5$ GHz. We cross-match a sample of 35,752 optically-identified non-intrinsic MgII absorption systems with 25,649 polarized background radio sources for which we have measurements of both the spectral index and RM at 1.4 GHz. We use the spectral index to split the resulting sample of 599 sources into flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum subsamples. We find that our flat-spectrum sample shows significant ($\sim3.5\sigma$) evidence for a correlation between MgII absorption and RM at 1.4 GHz, while our steep-spectrum sample shows no such correlation. We argue that such an effect cannot be explained by either luminosity or other observational effects, by evolution in another confounding variable, by wavelength-dependent polarization structure in an active galactic nucleus, by the Galactic foreground, by a necessity for polarization $k$-corrections, or by partial coverage models. We conclude that our data are most consistent with intervenors directly contributing to the Faraday rotation along the line of sight, and that the intervening systems must therefore have coherent magnetic fields of substantial strength. Nevertheless, the weak nature of the correlation will require future high-resolution and broadband radio observations in order to place it on a much firmer statistical footing.

Faraday Rotation from Magnesium II Absorbers towards Polarized Background Radio Sources [Replacement]

Strong singly-ionized magnesium (MgII) absorption lines in quasar spectra typically serve as a proxy for intervening galaxies along the line of sight. Previous studies have found a correlation between the number of these MgII absorbers and the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at $\approx5$ GHz. We cross-match a sample of 35,752 optically-identified non-intrinsic MgII absorption systems with 25,649 polarized background radio sources for which we have measurements of both the spectral index and RM at 1.4 GHz. We use the spectral index to split the resulting sample of 599 sources into flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum subsamples. We find that our flat-spectrum sample shows significant ($\sim3.5\sigma$) evidence for a correlation between MgII absorption and RM at 1.4 GHz, while our steep-spectrum sample shows no such correlation. We argue that such an effect cannot be explained by either luminosity or other observational effects, by evolution in another confounding variable, by wavelength-dependent polarization structure in an active galactic nucleus, by the Galactic foreground, by cosmological expansion, or by partial coverage models. We conclude that our data are most consistent with intervenors directly contributing to the Faraday rotation along the line of sight, and that the intervening systems must therefore have coherent magnetic fields of substantial strength ($\bar{B}=1.8\pm0.4$ $\mu$G). Nevertheless, the weak nature of the correlation will require future high-resolution and broadband radio observations in order to place it on a much firmer statistical footing.

Relationship Between Solar Coronal X-Ray Brightness and Active Region Magnetic Fields: A Study Using High Resolution Observations

By utilizing high resolution observations of nearly co-temporal and co-spatial SOT spectropolarimeter and XRT coronal X-ray data onboard Hinode, we revisit the contentious issue of the relationship between global magnetic quantities and coronal X-ray intensity. Co-aligned vector magnetogram and X-ray data are used for this study. We find that there is no pixel-to-pixel correlation between the observed loop brightness and magnetic quantities. However, the X-ray brightness is well correlated with the integrated magnetic quantities such as total unsigned magnetic flux, total unsigned vertical current, area integrated square of the vertical magnetic field and horizontal magnetic fields. Comparing all these quantities we find that the total magnetic flux correlates well with the observed integrated X-ray brightness, though there is some differences in the strength of the correlation when we use the X-ray data from different filters. While we get a good correlation between X-ray brightness and total unsigned vertical current when we use the X-ray data sets obtained from the Al-poly filter, we find no correlation between them using data sets obtained from the Ti-poly filter. We confirm that there is no consistent correlation between measures of non-potentiality and coronal X-ray intensity in these high resolution observations; thus earlier results using low resolution observations in this context are validated. We discuss the implications of these observational results for the heating of the solar corona.

Correlation of top asymmetries: loop versus tree origins [Replacement]

We study the correlation of top asymmetries that are sensitive to the different origin of (a new contribution to) the total asymmetry: loop- or tree-level origins. We find that both the size and sign of the correlation between total and $t\bar{t}j$ inclusive asymmetries are inherently different depending on the origin. We demonstrate the correlation by using the color-singlet $Z^\prime$ and the pure axigluon taken as representative models of loop- and tree-induced total asymmetries. We calculate the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the $Z^\prime$ and perform Monte-Carlo event generation. The correlation is understood in the QCD eikonal approximation using its color structure.

Understanding the correlation between $(g-2)_\mu$ and $\mu \rightarrow e \gamma$ in the MSSM

The supersymmetric contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_\mu$ and to the decay $\mu\to e\gamma$ are given by very similar Feynman diagrams. Previous works reported correlations in specific scenarios, in particular if $a_\mu$ is dominated by a single diagram. In this work we give an extensive survey of the possible correlations. We discuss examples of single-diagram domination with particularly strong correlations, and provide corresponding benchmark parameter points. We show how the correlations are weakened by significant cancellations between diagrams in large parts of the MSSM parameter space. Nevertheless, the order of magnitude of $\text{BR}(\mu \to e \gamma)$ for a fixed flavor-violating parameter can often be predicted. We summarize the behavior by plotting the correlations as well as resulting bounds on the flavor-violating parameters under various assumptions on the MSSM spectrum.

Understanding the correlation between $(g-2)_\mu$ and $\mu \rightarrow e \gamma$ in the MSSM [Replacement]

The supersymmetric contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_\mu$ and to the decay $\mu\to e\gamma$ are given by very similar Feynman diagrams. Previous works reported correlations in specific scenarios, in particular if $a_\mu$ is dominated by a single diagram. In this work we give an extensive survey of the possible correlations. We discuss examples of single-diagram domination with particularly strong correlations, and provide corresponding benchmark parameter points. We show how the correlations are weakened by significant cancellations between diagrams in large parts of the MSSM parameter space. Nevertheless, the order of magnitude of $\text{BR}(\mu \to e \gamma)$ for a fixed flavor-violating parameter can often be predicted. We summarize the behavior by plotting the correlations as well as resulting bounds on the flavor-violating parameters under various assumptions on the MSSM spectrum.

The curvature of spectral energy distribution of blazars

The SED of blazars show significant curvature. In this paper, we study the curvature properties for a large sample of Fermi/LAT bright blazars based on quasi-simultaneous SED. Both SEDs of synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) components are fitted by a log-parabolic law in log_v-log_vfv diagram. The second-degree term of log-parabola measures the curvature of SED. We find a statistically significant correlation between synchrotron peak frequency and its curvature. This result is in agreement with the theoretical prediction, and confirms previous studies, which dealt with single source with various epoch observations or a small sample. If a broken power-law is employed to fit the SED, the difference between the two spectral indexes (alpha2-alpha1) can be considered as a "surrogate" of the SED curvature. We collect spectral parameters of a sample blazars from literature, and find a correlation between the synchrotron peak frequency and the spectral difference. We do not find a significant correlation between the IC peak frequency and its curvature, which may be caused by complicated seed photon field. It is also found that the synchrotron curvatures are on average larger than that of IC curvatures, and there is no correlation between these two parameters. As suggested by previous works in literature, both the log-parabolic law of SED and above correlation can be explained by statistical and/or stochastic particle accelerations. Stochastic particle acceleration predicts a different slope of the correlation from that of statistical one, and our result seems favor stochastic acceleration mechanisms and emission processes. Some of other evidences also seem to support that the electron energy distribution (and/or synchrotron SED) may be log-parabolic, which include SED modeling, particle acceleration simulation, and comparisons between some predictions and empirical relations/correlations.

Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using mu-distortion [Replacement]

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$; knowing the $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field’s strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today’s redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$ induced by the magnetic field. For sufficiently small magnetic fields, the signal $\langle B^2 \zeta\rangle$ will dominate, but for $\tilde B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using mu-distortion [Replacement]

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$; knowing the $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field’s strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today’s redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$ induced by the magnetic field. For sufficiently small magnetic fields, the signal $\langle B^2 \zeta\rangle$ will dominate, but for $\tilde B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using mu-distortion [Replacement]

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$; knowing the $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field’s strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today’s redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$ induced by the magnetic field. For sufficiently small magnetic fields, the signal $\langle B^2 \zeta\rangle$ will dominate, but for $\tilde B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using $\mu$-distortion [Cross-Listing]

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field’s strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today’s redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$; for field strengths $B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, the signal of this bispectrum in $\langle\mu T\rangle$ would dominate over the signal from $b_{\text{NL}}$. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using $\mu$-distortion

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field’s strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today’s redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$; for field strengths $B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, the signal of this bispectrum in $\langle\mu T\rangle$ would dominate over the signal from $b_{\text{NL}}$. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

 

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