Posts Tagged correlation

Recent Postings from correlation

Dipole Modulation of Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature and Polarization

We analyze the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature and polarization data in order to extract the signal of correlation between l and l+1 multipoles in the multipole ranges, 2-64, 30-64 and 30-100. Such a correlation is predicted by the dipole modulation model proposed on the basis of the observed hemispherical anisotropy in temperature field. An anisotropic or inhomogeneous model of primordial power spectrum which leads to such correlations in temperature field also predicts similar correlations in CMBR polarization. Our results for the case of temperature using the latest PLANCK data agree with those obtained by earlier analysis. We also find a very strong signal of correlation in the polarization data. Surprisingly, however, the preferred direction in the case of polarization points in the direction close to the CMBR dipole which is very different from the corresponding direction in the case of temperature.

Dipole Modulation of Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature and Polarization [Cross-Listing]

We analyze the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature and polarization data in order to extract the signal of correlation between l and l+1 multipoles in the multipole ranges, 2-64, 30-64 and 30-100. Such a correlation is predicted by the dipole modulation model proposed on the basis of the observed hemispherical anisotropy in temperature field. An anisotropic or inhomogeneous model of primordial power spectrum which leads to such correlations in temperature field also predicts similar correlations in CMBR polarization. Our results for the case of temperature using the latest PLANCK data agree with those obtained by earlier analysis. We also find a very strong signal of correlation in the polarization data. Surprisingly, however, the preferred direction in the case of polarization points in the direction close to the CMBR dipole which is very different from the corresponding direction in the case of temperature.

The angular two-point correlation of NVSS galaxies revisited

We measure the angular two-point correlation and angular power spectrum from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) of radio galaxies. Contrary to previous claims in the literature, we show that it is consistent with primordial Gaussianity on all angular scales and it is consistent with the best-fit cosmological model from the Planck analysis, as well as the redshift distribution obtained from the Combined EIS-NVSS Survey Of Radio Sources (CENSORS). Our analysis is based on an optimal estimation of the two-point correlation function and makes use of a new mask, which takes into account direction dependent effects of the observations, side lobe effects of bright sources and galactic foreground. We also use a lower flux threshold and take the cosmic radio dipole into account. The latter turns out to be an essential step in the analysis. This improved cosmological analysis of the NVSS stresses the importance of a flux calibration that is robust and stable on large angular scales for future radio continuum surveys.

Measuring primordial anisotropic correlators with CMB spectral distortions

We show that inflationary models with broken rotational invariance generate testable off-diagonal signatures in the correlation between the $\mu$-type distortion and temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background. More precisely, scenarios with a quadrupolar bispectrum asymmetry, usually generated by fluctuations of primordial vector fields, produce a non-vanishing $\mu$-$T$ correlation when $|\ell_1-\ell_2|=2$. Since spectral distortions are sensitive to primordial fluctuations up to very small scales, a cosmic variance limited spectral distortion experiment can detect such effects with high signal-to-noise.

Measuring primordial anisotropic correlators with CMB spectral distortions [Cross-Listing]

We show that inflationary models with broken rotational invariance generate testable off-diagonal signatures in the correlation between the $\mu$-type distortion and temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background. More precisely, scenarios with a quadrupolar bispectrum asymmetry, usually generated by fluctuations of primordial vector fields, produce a non-vanishing $\mu$-$T$ correlation when $|\ell_1-\ell_2|=2$. Since spectral distortions are sensitive to primordial fluctuations up to very small scales, a cosmic variance limited spectral distortion experiment can detect such effects with high signal-to-noise.

Measuring primordial anisotropic correlators with CMB spectral distortions [Cross-Listing]

We show that inflationary models with broken rotational invariance generate testable off-diagonal signatures in the correlation between the $\mu$-type distortion and temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background. More precisely, scenarios with a quadrupolar bispectrum asymmetry, usually generated by fluctuations of primordial vector fields, produce a non-vanishing $\mu$-$T$ correlation when $|\ell_1-\ell_2|=2$. Since spectral distortions are sensitive to primordial fluctuations up to very small scales, a cosmic variance limited spectral distortion experiment can detect such effects with high signal-to-noise.

The progenitors of core-collapse supernovae suggest thermonuclear origin for the explosions

Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the explosions of massive stars following the collapse of the stars’ iron cores. Poznanski (2013) has recently suggested an observational correlation between the ejecta velocities and the inferred masses of the red supergiant progenitors of type II-P explosions, which implies that the kinetic energy of the ejecta ($E_{\textrm{kin}}$) increases with the mass of the progenitor. I point out that the same conclusion can be reached from the model-free observed correlation between the ejected $^{56}$Ni masses ($M_{\textrm{Ni}}$) and the luminosities of the progenitors for type II supernovae, which was reported by Fraser et al. (2011). This correlation is in an agreement with the predictions of the collapse-induced thermonuclear explosions (CITE) for CCSNe and in a possible contradiction with the predictions of the neutrino mechanism. I show that a correlation between $M_{\textrm{Ni}}$ and $E_{\textrm{kin}}$ holds for all types of CCSNe (including type Ibc). This correlation suggests a common mechanism for all CCSNe, which is predicted for CITE, but is not produced by current simulations of the neutrino mechanism. Furthermore, the typical values of $E_{\textrm{kin}}$ and $M_{\textrm{Ni}}$ for type Ibc explosions are larger by an order of a magnitude than the typical values for II-P explosions, a fact which disfavors progenitors with the same initial mass range for these explosions. Instead, the progenitors of type Ibc explosions could be massive Wolf-Rayet stars, which are predicted to yield strong explosions with low ejecta masses (as observed) according to CITE. In this case, there is no deficit of high mass progenitors for CCSNe, which was suggested under the assumption of a similar mass range for the progenitors of types II-P and Ibc supernovae.

Luminosity--time and luminosity--luminosity correlations for GRB prompt and afterglow plateau emissions

We present an analysis of 123 Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with known redshifts possessing an afterglow plateau phase. We reveal that $L_a-T^{*}_a$ correlation between the X-ray luminosity $L_a$ at the end of the plateau phase and the plateau duration, $T^*_a$, in the GRB rest frame has a power law slope different, within more than 2 $\sigma$, from the slope of the prompt $L_{f}-T^{*}_{f}$ correlation between the isotropic pulse peak luminosity, $L_{f}$, and the pulse duration, $T^{*}_{f}$, from the time since the GRB ejection. Analogously, we show differences between the prompt and plateau phases in the energy-duration distributions with the afterglow emitted energy being on average $10\%$ of the prompt emission. Moreover, the distribution of prompt pulse versus afterglow spectral indexes do not show any correlation. In the further analysis we demonstrate that the $L_{peak}-L_a$ distribution, where $L_{peak}$ is the peak luminosity from the start of the burst, is characterized with a considerably higher Spearman correlation coefficient, $\rho=0.79$, than the one involving the averaged prompt luminosity, $L_{prompt}-L_a$, for the same GRB sample, yielding $\rho=0.60$. Since some of this correlation could result from the redshift dependences of the luminosities, namely from their cosmological evolution we use the Efron-Petrosian method to reveal the intrinsic nature of this correlation. We find that a substantial part of the correlation is intrinsic. We apply a partial correlation coefficient to the new de-evolved luminosities showing that the intrinsic correlation exists.

The Star Formation and AGN luminosity relation: Predictions from a semi-analytical model [Replacement]

In a Universe where AGN feedback regulates star formation in massive galaxies, a strong correlation between these two quantities is expected. If the gas causing star formation is also responsible for feeding the central black hole, then a positive correlation is expected. If powerful AGNs are responsible for the star formation quenching, then a negative correlation is expected. Observations so far have mainly found a mild correlation or no correlation at all (i.e. a flat relation between star formation rate (SFR) and AGN luminosity), raising questions about the whole paradigm of "AGN feedback". In this paper, we report the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical model, which has a very strong coupling between AGN activity and quenching of star formation. The predicted SFR-AGN luminosity correlation appears negative in the low AGN luminosity regime, where AGN feedback acts, but becomes strongly positive in the regime of the brightest AGN. Our predictions reproduce reasonably well recent observations by Rosario et al., yet there is some discrepancy in the normalisation of the correlation at low luminosities and high redshifts. Though this regime could be strongly influenced by observational biases, we argue that the disagreement could be ascribed to the fact that GALFORM neglects AGN variability effects. Interestingly, the galaxies that dominate the regime where the observations imply a weak correlation are massive early-type galaxies that are subject to AGN feedback. Nevertheless, these galaxies retain high enough molecular hydrogen contents to maintain relatively high star formation rates and strong infrared emission.

The Star Formation and AGN luminosity relation: Predictions from a semi-analytical model

In a Universe where AGN feedback regulates star formation in massive galaxies, a strong correlation between these two quantities is expected. If the gas causing star formation is also responsible for feeding the central black hole, then a positive correlation is expected. If powerful AGNs are responsible for the star formation quenching, then a negative correlation is expected. Observations so far have mainly found a mild correlation or no correlation at all (i.e. a flat relation between star formation rate (SFR) and AGN luminosity), raising questions about the whole paradigm of "AGN feedback". In this paper, we report the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical model, which has a very strong coupling between AGN activity and quenching of star formation. The predicted SFR-AGN luminosity correlation appears negative in the low AGN luminosity regime, where AGN feedback acts, but becomes strongly positive in the regime of the brightest AGN. Our predictions reproduce reasonably well recent observations by Rosario et al., yet there is some discrepancy in the normalisation of the correlation at low luminosities and high redshifts. Though this regime could be strongly influenced by observational biases, we argue that the disagreement could be ascribed to the fact that GALFORM neglects AGN variability effects. Interestingly, the galaxies that dominate the regime where the observations imply a weak correlation are massive early-type galaxies that are subject to AGN feedback. Nevertheless, these galaxies retain high enough molecular hydrogen contents to maintain relatively high star formation rates and strong infrared emission.

A Tight $L_{\rm p, iso}-E'_{\rm p}-\Gamma_0$ Correlation of Gamma-Ray Bursts

We select a sample of 34 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) whose $\Gamma_0$ values are derived with the onset peak observed in the afterglow lightcurves (except for GRB 060218 whose $\Gamma_0$ is estimated with its radio data), and investigate the correlations among $\Gamma_0$, the isotropic peak luminosity ($L_{\rm p, iso}$), and the peak energy of the $\nu f_\nu$ spectrum in the cosmological rest frame ($E^{‘}_{\rm p}$). An analysis of pair correlations among these observables well confirms the results reported by previous papers. In addition, a tight correlation among $L_{\rm p, iso}$, $E^{‘}_{p}$, and $\Gamma_0$ is found from a multiple regression analysis, which takes the form of $L_{\rm p,iso} \propto {E’_{\rm p}}^{1.34\pm 0.14} \Gamma_0^{1.32\pm 0.19}$ or $E’_{\rm p} \propto L_{\rm p,iso}^{0.55\pm 0.06}\Gamma_0^{-0.50\pm 0.17}$. Nine other GRBs whose $\Gamma_0$ are derived via the pair production opacity constraint also follow such a correlation. We argue that this tighter $L_{\rm p, iso} – E^{‘}_{p} – \Gamma_0$ correlation may be more physical than the $L_{\rm p,iso} – E’_{\rm p}$ correlation, since the relationship between the observed $L_{\rm p,iso}$ and $E’_{\rm p}$ not only depends on radiation physics, but also depends on the bulk motion of the jet. We explore possible origins of this correlation and discuss its physical implications for understanding GRB jet composition and radiation mechanism.

Hadronization effects on the baryon-strangeness correlation in quark combination models

The baryon-strangeness correlation in the hadronization of the quark matter is studied within the quark combination mechanism. We calculate the correlation coefficient $C_{BS} = -3\big(\langle B S \rangle -\langle B\rangle \langle S\rangle\big)/\big( \langle S^2 \rangle-\langle S \rangle^2 \big)$ of initial hadrons produced from the deconfined free quark system with $C^{(q)}_{BS}=1$. The competition of the production of baryons against that of mesons is the key dynamics that is most relevant to the change of baryon-strangeness correlation during system hadronization. Results of quark combination under the Poisson statistics agree with the statistical model predictions for a hadron resonance gas at vanishing chemical potential but differ from those at relatively large chemical potentials. Results beyond Poisson statistics are also obtained and are compared with calculations of Lattice QCD in the phase boundary, giving the best agreement at temperature $T =163$ MeV. We predict the dependence of the $C_{BS}$ of hadron system on the baryon chemical potential and strangeness. These predictions are expected to be tested by the future Lattice QCD calculations at non-zero chemical potentials and/or by the Beam Energy Scan experiment of STAR Collaboration at RHIC.

Recent measurements of the gravitational constant as a function of time

A recent publication (J.D. Anderson et. al., EPL 110, 1002) presented a strong correlation between the measured values of the gravitational constant $G$ and the 5.9-year oscillation of the length of day. Here, we provide a compilation of all published measurements of $G$ taken over the last 35 years. A least squares regression to a sine with a period of 5.9 years still yields a better fit than a straight line. However, our additions and corrections to the G data reported by Anderson {\it et al.} significantly weaken the correlation.

Recent measurements of the gravitational constant as a function of time [Replacement]

A recent publication (J.D. Anderson et. al., EPL 110, 1002) presented a strong correlation between the measured values of the gravitational constant $G$ and the 5.9-year oscillation of the length of day. Here, we provide a compilation of all published measurements of $G$ taken over the last 35 years. A least squares regression to a sine with a period of 5.9 years still yields a better fit than a straight line. However, our additions and corrections to the G data reported by Anderson {\it et al.} significantly weaken the correlation.

CO luminosity - line width correlation of sub-millimeter galaxies and a possible cosmological application

Context. A possible correlation between CO luminosity (L_CO ) and its line width (FWHM) has been suggested and denied in the literature. Such claims were often based on a small, or heterogeneous sample of galaxies, and thus inconclusive. Aims. We aim to prove or dis-prove the L_CO -FWHM correlation. Methods. We compile a large sample of submm galaxies at z>2 from the literature, and investigate the L_CO-FWHM relation. Results. After carefully evaluating the selection effects and uncertainties such as inclination and magnification via gravitational lensing, we show that there exist a weak but significant correlation between L_CO and FWHM. We also discuss a feasibility to measure the cosmological distance using the correlation.

The observed radio/gamma-ray emission correlation for blazars with the Fermi-LAT and the RATAN-600 data

We study the correlation between gamma-ray and radio band radiation for 123 blazars, using the Fermi-LAT first source catalog (1FGL) and the RATAN-600 data obtained at the same period of time (within a few months). We found an apparent positive correlation for BL Lac and flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) sources from our sample through testing the value of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The BL Lac objects show higher values of the correlation coefficient than FSRQs at all frequencies, except 21.7 GHz, and at all bands, except $10-100$ GeV, typically at high confidence level (> 99%). At higher gamma-ray energies the correlation weakens and even becomes negative for BL Lacs and FSRQs. For BL Lac blazars, the correlation of the fluxes appeared to be more sensitive to the considered gamma-ray energy band, than to the frequency, while for FSRQ sources the correlation changed notably both with the considered radio frequency and gamma-ray energy band. We used a data randomization method to quantify the significance of the computed correlation coefficients. We find that the statistical significance of the correlations we obtained between the flux densities at all frequencies and the photon flux in all gamma-ray bands below 3 GeV is high for BL Lacs (chance probability $\sim 10^{-3} – 10^{-7}$). The correlation coefficient is high and significant for the $0.1-0.3$ GeV band and low and insignificant for the $10-100$ GeV band for both types of blazars for all considered frequencies.

On the Physical Origin of Galactic Conformity

Correlations between the star formation rates (SFRs) of nearby galaxies (so-called galactic conformity) have been observed for projected separations up to 4 Mpc, an effect not predicted by current semi-analytic models. We investigate correlations between the mass accretion rates (dMvir/dt) of nearby halos as a potential physical origin for this effect. We find that pairs of host halos "know about" each others’ assembly histories even when their present-day separation is greater than thirty times the virial radius of either halo. These distances are far too large for direct interaction between the halos to explain the correlation in their dMvir/dt. Instead, halo pairs at these distances reside in the same large-scale tidal environment, which regulates dMvir/dt for both halos. Larger halos are less affected by external forces, which naturally gives rise to a mass dependence of the halo conformity signal. SDSS measurements of galactic conformity exhibit a qualitatively similar dependence on stellar mass, including how the signal varies with distance. Based on the expectation that halo accretion and galaxy SFR are correlated, we predict the scale-, mass- and redshift-dependence of large-scale galactic conformity, finding that the signal should drop to undetectable levels by z > 1. These predictions are testable with current surveys to z ~ 1; confirmation would establish a strong correlation between dark matter halo accretion rate and central galaxy SFR.

Time-reversal symmetry violation in several Lepton-Flavor-Violating processes

We compute a T-odd triple vector correlation for the $\mu\rightarrow e\gamma $ decay and the $\mu\rightarrow e$ conversion process. We find simple results in terms of the CP violating phases of the effective Hamiltonians. Then we focus on the minimal Left-Right symmetric extension of the Standard Model, which can lead to an appreciable correlation. We show that under rather general assumptions, this correlation can be used to discriminate between Parity or Charge-conjugation as the discrete Left-Right symmetry.

Time-reversal symmetry violation in several Lepton-Flavor-Violating processes [Replacement]

We compute a T-odd triple vector correlation for the $\mu\rightarrow e\gamma $ decay and the $\mu\rightarrow e$ conversion process. We find simple results in terms of the CP violating phases of the effective Hamiltonians. Then we focus on the minimal Left-Right symmetric extension of the Standard Model, which can lead to an appreciable correlation. We show that under rather general assumptions, this correlation can be used to discriminate between Parity or Charge-conjugation as the discrete Left-Right symmetry.

Time-reversal symmetry violation in several Lepton-Flavor-Violating processes [Replacement]

We compute a T-odd triple vector correlation for the $\mu\rightarrow e\gamma $ decay and the $\mu\rightarrow e$ conversion process. We find simple results in terms of the CP violating phases of the effective Hamiltonians. Then we focus on the minimal Left-Right symmetric extension of the Standard Model, which can lead to an appreciable correlation. We show that under rather general assumptions, this correlation can be used to discriminate between Parity or Charge-conjugation as the discrete Left-Right symmetry.

The imprint of massive black-hole mergers on the correlation between nuclear clusters and their host galaxies [Cross-Listing]

A literature compilation of nuclear cluster (NSC) masses is used to study the correlation between global and NSC properties. A comparison of observational data to the predictions of semi-analytical galaxy formation models places constraints on the co-evolution of NSCs, massive black holes (MBHs) and host galaxies. Both data and theoretical predictions show an increased scatter in the NSC scaling correlations at high galaxy masses, and we show that this is due to the progressively more efficient ejection of stars from NSCs caused by MBH binaries in more massive stellar spheroids. Our results provide a natural explanation of why in nucleated galaxies hosting a MBH, the ratio (M_NSC+M_MBH)/M_bulge (with M_bulge the host spheroid’s mass) shows significantly less scatter than M_NSC/M_bulge, and suggest that the formation of MBHs and NSCs are not mutually exclusive, as also supported by observations of co-existing systems. Both MBHs and NSCs represent generic products of galaxy formation, with NSCs being destroyed or modified by the merger evolution of their companion MBHs.

The imprint of massive black-hole mergers on the correlation between nuclear clusters and their host galaxies

A literature compilation of nuclear cluster (NSC) masses is used to study the correlation between global and NSC properties. A comparison of observational data to the predictions of semi-analytical galaxy formation models places constraints on the co-evolution of NSCs, massive black holes (MBHs) and host galaxies. Both data and theoretical predictions show an increased scatter in the NSC scaling correlations at high galaxy masses, and we show that this is due to the progressively more efficient ejection of stars from NSCs caused by MBH binaries in more massive stellar spheroids. Our results provide a natural explanation of why in nucleated galaxies hosting a MBH, the ratio (M_NSC+M_MBH)/M_bulge (with M_bulge the host spheroid’s mass) shows significantly less scatter than M_NSC/M_bulge, and suggest that the formation of MBHs and NSCs are not mutually exclusive, as also supported by observations of co-existing systems. Both MBHs and NSCs represent generic products of galaxy formation, with NSCs being destroyed or modified by the merger evolution of their companion MBHs.

The imprint of massive black-hole mergers on the correlation between nuclear clusters and their host galaxies [Replacement]

A literature compilation of nuclear star cluster (NSC) masses is used to study the correlation between global and nuclear properties. A comparison of observational data to the predictions of semi-analytical galaxy formation models places constraints on the co-evolution of NSCs, massive black holes (MBHs) and host galaxies. Both data and theoretical predictions show an increased scatter in the NSC scaling correlations at high galaxy masses, and we show that this is due to the progressively more efficient ejection of stars from NSCs caused by MBH binaries in more massive stellar spheroids. Our results provide a natural explanation of why in nucleated galaxies hosting a MBH, the ratio (M_NSC+M_MBH)/M_bulge (with M_bulge the host spheroid’s mass) shows significantly less scatter than M_NSC/M_bulge, and suggest that the formation of MBHs and NSCs are not mutually exclusive, as also supported by observations of co-existing systems. Both MBHs and NSCs represent generic products of galaxy formation, with NSCs being destroyed or modified by the merger evolution of their companion MBHs.

The imprint of massive black-hole mergers on the correlation between nuclear clusters and their host galaxies [Replacement]

A literature compilation of nuclear star cluster (NSC) masses is used to study the correlation between global and nuclear properties. A comparison of observational data to the predictions of semi-analytical galaxy formation models places constraints on the co-evolution of NSCs, massive black holes (MBHs) and host galaxies. Both data and theoretical predictions show an increased scatter in the NSC scaling correlations at high galaxy masses, and we show that this is due to the progressively more efficient ejection of stars from NSCs caused by MBH binaries in more massive stellar spheroids. Our results provide a natural explanation of why in nucleated galaxies hosting a MBH, the ratio (M_NSC+M_MBH)/M_bulge (with M_bulge the host spheroid’s mass) shows significantly less scatter than M_NSC/M_bulge, and suggest that the formation of MBHs and NSCs are not mutually exclusive, as also supported by observations of co-existing systems. Both MBHs and NSCs represent generic products of galaxy formation, with NSCs being destroyed or modified by the merger evolution of their companion MBHs.

Time variation of Kepler transits induced by stellar spots - a way to distinguish between prograde and retrograde motion. II. Application to KOIs [Replacement]

Mazeh, Holczer, and Shporer (2015) have presented an approach that can, in principle, use the derived transit timing variation (TTV) of some transiting planets observed by the $Kepler$ mission to distinguish between prograde and retrograde motion of their orbits with respect to their parent stars’ rotation. The approach utilizes TTVs induced by spot-crossing events that occur when the planet moves across a spot on the stellar surface, looking for a correlation between the derived TTVs and the stellar brightness derivatives at the corresponding transits. This can work even in data that cannot temporally resolve the spot-crossing events themselves. Here we apply this approach to the $Kepler$ KOIs, identifying nine systems where the photometric spot modulation is large enough and the transit timing accurate enough to allow detection of a TTV-brightness-derivatives correlation. Of those systems five show highly significant prograde motion (Kepler-17b, Kepler-71b, KOI-883.01, KOI-895.01, and KOI-1074.01), while no system displays retrograde motion, consistent with the suggestion that planets orbiting cool stars have prograde motion. All five systems have impact parameter $0.2\lesssim b\lesssim0.5$, and all systems within that impact parameter range show significant correlation, except HAT-P-11b where the lack of a correlation follows its large stellar obliquity. Our search suffers from an observational bias against detection of high impact parameter cases, and the detected sample is extremely small. Nevertheless, our findings may suggest that stellar spots, or at least the larger ones, tend to be located at a low stellar latitude, but not along the stellar equator, similar to the Sun.

Time variation of Kepler transits induced by stellar rotating spots - a way to distinguish between prograde and retrograde motion. II. Application to KOIs

Mazeh, Holczer, and Shporer (2015) have presented an approach that can, in principle, use the derived transit timing variation (TTV) of some transiting planets observed by the Kepler mission to distinguish between prograde and retrograde motion of their orbits with respect to the rotation of their parent stars. The approach utilizes TTVs induced by spot-crossing events that occur when the transiting planet moves across a spot on the stellar surface, by looking for a correlation between the derived TTVs and the stellar brightness derivatives at the corresponding transits, even in data that can not resolve the spot-crossing events themselves. We present here the application of this approach to the Kepler KOIs, identifying nine systems where the photometric spot modulation is large enough and the transit timing accurate enough to allow detection of a TTV-brightness-slope correlation. Excluding KOI-1546, which has been found recently to be a stellar binary, we are left with eight hot-Jupiter systems with high sensitivity to the correlation detection. Five of those eight systems show highly significant prograde motion, including two confirmed planets (KOI-203.01 = Kepler-17b and KOI-217.01 = Kepler-71b) and three planetary candidates (KOI-883.01, KOI-895.01, and KOI-1074.01), while no system displays retrograde motion, consistent with the suggestion that planets orbiting cool stars have prograde motion. All five systems have derived impact parameter $\lesssim$0.5, and all systems with an impact parameter in that range show significant correlation, except KOI-3.01 (= Kepler-3b = HAT-P-11b) where the lack of a correlation is explained by its large stellar obliquity. Although our sample is small, these findings hint that stellar spots, or at least the larger ones, have a tendency to be located at a low latitude on the stellar disc, similar to the Sun.

Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. I. Intrinsic dimension and correlation analysis

Complexity of an active region is related to its flare-productivity. Mount Wilson or McIntosh sunspot classifications measure such complexity but in a categorical way, and may therefore not use all the information present in the observations. Moreover, such categorical schemes hinder a systematic study of an active region’s evolution for example. We propose fine-scale quantitative descriptors for an active region’s complexity and relate them to the Mount Wilson classification. We analyze the local correlation structure within continuum and magnetogram data, as well as the cross-correlation between continuum and magnetogram data. We compute the intrinsic dimension, partial correlation, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of image patches of continuum and magnetogram active region images taken from the SOHO-MDI instrument. We use masks of sunspots derived from continuum as well as larger masks of magnetic active regions derived from the magnetogram to analyze separately the core part of an active region from its surrounding part. We find the relationship between complexity of an active region as measured by Mount Wilson and the intrinsic dimension of its image patches. Partial correlation patterns exhibit approximately a third-order Markov structure. CCA reveals different patterns of correlation between continuum and magnetogram within the sunspots and in the region surrounding the sunspots. These results also pave the way for patch-based dictionary learning with a view towards automatic clustering of active regions.

A statistical correlation of sunquakes based on their seismic, white light, and X-ray emission

Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the transient seis- mic emission, i.e., sunquakes, from some solar flares. Some theories associate high-energy electrons and/or white-light emission with sunquakes. High-energy charged particles and their subsequent heating of the photosphere and/or chro- mosphere could induce acoustic waves in the solar interior. We carried out a correlative study of solar flares with emission in hard-X rays (HXRs), enhanced continuum emission at 6173{\AA}, and transient seismic emission. We selected those flares observed by RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) with a considerable flux above 50 keV between January 1, 2010 and June 26, 2014. We then used data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO/HMI) to search for excess visible continuum emission and new sunquakes not previously reported. We found a total of 18 sunquakes out of 75 investigated. All of the sunquakes were associated with a enhancement of the visible continuum during the flare time. Finally, we calculated a coefficient of correlation for a set of dichotomic variables related to these observations. We found a strong correlation between two of the standard helioseismic detection techniques, and between sunquakes and visible continuum enhancements. We discuss the phenomenological connectivity between these physical quantities and the observational difficulties of detecting seismic signals and excess continuum radiation.

Searching for signatures of planet formation in stars with circumstellar debris discs

(Abridged) Tentative correlations between the presence of dusty debris discs and low-mass planets have been presented. In parallel, detailed chemical abundance studies have reported different trends between samples of planet and non-planet hosts. We determine in a homogeneous way the metallicity, and abundances of a sample of 251 stars including stars with known debris discs, with debris discs and planets, and only with planets. Stars with debris discs and planets have the same [Fe/H] behaviour as stars hosting planets, and they also show a similar <[X/Fe]>-Tc trend. Different behaviour in the <[X/Fe]>-Tc trend is found between the samples of stars without planets and the samples of planet hosts. In particular, when considering only refractory elements, negative slopes are shown in cool giant planet hosts, whilst positive ones are shown in stars hosting low-mass planets. Stars hosting exclusively close-in giant planets show higher metallicities and positive <[X/Fe]>-Tc slope. A search for correlations between the <[X/Fe]>-Tc slopes and the stellar properties reveals a moderate but significant correlation with the stellar radius and as well as a weak correlation with the stellar age. The fact that stars with debris discs and stars with low-mass planets do not show neither metal enhancement nor a different <[X/Fe]>-Tc trend might indicate a correlation between the presence of debris discs and the presence of low-mass planets. We extend results from previous works which reported differences in the <[X/Fe]>-Tc trends between planet hosts and non hosts. However, these differences tend to be present only when the star hosts a cool distant planet and not in stars hosting exclusively low-mass planets.

T violation in radiative $β$ decay and electric dipole moments

In radiative $\beta$ decay, $T$ violation can be studied through a spin-independent $T$-odd correlation. We consider contributions to this correlation by beyond the standard model (BSM) sources of $T$-violation, arising above the electroweak scale. At the same time such sources, parametrized by dimension-6 operators, can induce electric dipole moments (EDMs). As a consequence, the manifestations of the $T$-odd BSM physics in radiative $\beta$ decay and EDMs are not independent. Here we exploit this connection to show that current EDM bounds already strongly constrain the spin-independent $T$-odd correlation in radiative $\beta$ decay.

Reanalyzing the visible colors of Centaurs and KBOs: what is there and what we might be missing

Visible colors (BVRI) are a reasonable proxy for real spectra of Centaurs and Kuiper Belt Objects, which are rather linear in this range. Colors provide limited information but remain the best tool to study the bulk surface properties. We explore recurrent effects in the study of visible colors: i) how a correlation could be missed or weakened as a result of the data error bars, ii) the "risk" of missing an existing trend because of low sampling, and the possibility of making quantified predictions on the sample size needed to detect a trend at a given significance level, iii) the use of partial correlations to distinguish the mutual effect of two or more parameters, and iv) the sensitivity of the "reddening line" tool to the central wavelength of the filters used. We have compiled the visible colors of about 370 objects available in the literature and carried out an analysis per dynamical family. Our results show how a) data error bars impose a limit on the detectable correlations regardless of sample size and that therefore, once that limit is achieved, it is important to diminish the error bars, but it is pointless to enlarge the sampling with the same or larger errors; b) almost all dynamical families still require larger samplings to ensure the detection of correlations stronger than 0.5; c) the correlation strength between (V-R) vs. (R-I) is systematically lower than the one between (B-V) vs. (V-R) and is not related with error-bar differences between these colors; d) it is statistically equivalent to use any of the different flavors of orbital excitation or collisional velocity parameters regarding the color-inclination correlation of classical KBOs whereas the inclination and Tisserand parameter relative to Neptune cannot be separated from one another; and e) classical KBOs are the only dynamical family that shows neither (B-V) vs. (V-R) nor (V-R) vs. (R-I) correlations.

Discovery of the correlation between peak episodic jet power and X-ray peak luminosity of the soft state in black hole transients [Replacement]

Episodic jets are usually observed in the intermediate state of black hole transients during their X-ray outbursts. Here we report the discovery of a strong positive correlation between the peak radio power of the episodic jet $P_{\rm jet}$ and the corresponding peak X-ray luminosity $L_{\rm x}$ of the soft state (in Eddington units) in a complete sample of the outbursts of black hole transients observed during the RXTE era of which data are available, which follows the relation $\log P_{\rm jet}=(2.2\pm{0.3})+(1.6\pm0.2)\times \log {L_{\rm x}}$. The transient ultra-luminous X-ray source in M31 and HLX-1 in EXO 243-49 fall on the relation if they contain stellar mass black hole and either stellar mass black hole or intermediate mass black hole, respectively. Besides, a significant correlation between the peak power of the episodic jet and the rate-of-increase of the X-ray luminosity $\rm dL_{x}/dt$ during the rising phase of those outbursts is also found, following $\log P_{\rm jet}=(2.0\pm{0.4})+(0.7\pm0.2)\times \log {\rm d}L_{\rm x}/{\rm d}t$. In GX 339$-$4 and H 1743$-$322 in which data for two outbursts are available, measurements of the peak radio power of the episodic jet and the X-ray peak luminosity (and its rate-of-change) shows similar positive correlations between outbursts, which demonstrate the dominant role of accretion over black hole spin in generating episodic jet power. On the other hand, no significant difference is seen among the systems with different measured black hole spin in current sample. This implies that the power of the episodic jet is strongly affected by non-stationary accretion instead of black hole spin characterized primarily by the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate.

Discovery of the correlation between peak episodic jet power and X-ray peak luminosity of the soft state in black hole transients

Episodic jets are usually observed in the intermediate state of black hole transients during their X-ray outbursts. Here we report the discovery of a strong positive correlation between the peak radio power of the episodic jet $P_{\rm jet}$ and the corresponding peak X-ray luminosity $L_{\rm x}$ of the soft state (in Eddington units) in a complete sample of the outbursts of black hole transients observed during the RXTE era of which data are available, which follows the relation $\log P_{\rm jet}=(2.17\pm{0.32})+(1.63\pm0.24)\times \log {L_{\rm x}}$. The transient ultra-luminous X-ray source in M31 and HLX-1 in EXO 243-49 fall on the relation if they contain stellar mass black hole and either stellar mass black hole or intermediate mass black hole, respectively. Besides, a significant correlation between the peak power of the episodic jet and the rate-of-increase of the X-ray luminosity $\rm dL_{x}/dt$ during the rising phase of those outbursts is also found, following $\log P_{\rm jet}=(1.97\pm{0.42})+(0.69\pm0.15)\times \log {\rm d}L_{\rm x}/{\rm d}t$. In GX 339$-$4 and H 1743$-$322 in which data for two outbursts are available, measurements of the peak radio power of the episodic jet and the X-ray peak luminosity (and its rate-of-change) shows similar positive correlations between outbursts, which demonstrate the dominant role of accretion over black hole spin in generating episodic jet power. On the other hand, no significant difference is seen among the systems with different measured black hole spin in current sample. This implies that the power of the episodic jet is strongly affected by non-stationary accretion characterised primarily by the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate.

Analysing the effects of apodizing windows on local correlation tracking using Nirvana simulations of convection

We employ different shapes of apodizing windows in the local correlation tracking (LCT) routine to retrieve horizontal velocities using numerical simulations of convection. LCT was applied on a time sequence of temperature maps generated by the Nirvana code with four different apodizing windows, namely–Gaussian, Lorentzian, trapezoidal and triangular, with varying widths. In terms of correlations (between the LCT-retrieved and simulated flow field), the triangular and the trapezoidal perform the best and worst, respectively. On segregating the intrinsic velocities in the simulations on the basis of their magnitudes, we find that for all windows, a significantly higher correlation is obtained for the intermediate and high-velocity bins and only modest or weak values in the low-velocity bins. The differences between the LCT-retrieved and simulated flow fields were determined spatially which show large residuals at or close to the boundary of granules. The extent to which the horizontal flow vectors retrieved by LCT compare with the simulated values, depends entirely on the width of the central peak of the apodizing window for a given $\sigma$. Even though LCT suffers from a lack of spatial content as seen in simulations, its simplicity and speed could serve as a viable first-order tool to probe horizontal flows–one that is ideal for large data sets.

Extending the Correlation of $L_R - L_X$ to Gamma Ray Bursts

The well-known correlation between the radio luminosity ($L_R$) and the X-ray luminosity ($L_X$) $L_R / L_X \simeq 10^{-5}$ holds for a variety of objects like active galactic nuclei, galactic black holes, solar flares and cool stars. Here we extend the relation to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and find the GRBs also lay on the same $L_R-L_X$ relation, with a slightly different slope as $L_R \propto L_X^{1.1}$. This relation implies the explosions in different scales may have a common underlying origin.

Radio--Far infrared correlation in "blue cloud" galaxies with 0<z<1.2

We study the radio–far infrared (FIR) correlation in "blue cloud" galaxies chosen from the PRism MUltiobject Survey (PRIMUS) up to redshift ($z$) of 1.2 in the XMM-LSS field. We use rest-frame emission at 1.4 GHz in the radio and both monochromatic (at 70$\mu$m) and bolometric (between $8-1000~\mu$m) emission in the FIR. To probe the nature of the correlation up to $z\sim1.2$, where direct detection of blue star-forming galaxies is impossible with current technology, we employ the technique of image stacking at 0.325 and 1.4 GHz in the radio and in six infrared bands, viz. 24, 70, 160, 250, 350 and $500~\mu$m. For comparison, we also study the correlation for more luminous galaxies that are directly detected. The stacking analysis allows us to probe the radio–FIR correlation for galaxies that are up to 2 orders of magnitude fainter than the ones detected directly. The $k-$correction in the infrared wavebands is obtained by fitting the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) with a composite mid-IR power law and a single temperature greybody model. We find that the radio luminosity at 1.4 GHz ($L_{\rm 1.4GHz}$) is strongly correlated with monochromatic FIR luminosity at 70 $\mu$m ($L_{\rm 70\mu m}$) having slope $1.09\pm0.05$ and with bolometric luminosity ($L_{\rm TIR}$) having slope $1.11\pm0.04$. The quantity $q_{\rm TIR} (=\log_{10}[L_{\rm TIR}/(3.75\times 10^{12} L_{\rm 1.4 GHz})])$ is observed to decrease with redshift as $q_{\rm TIR} \propto (1+z)^{-0.16\pm0.03}$ probably caused due to the non-linear slope of the radio–FIR correlation. Within the uncertainties of our measurement and the limitations of our flux-limited and color-selected sample, we do not find any evolution of the radio–FIR correlation with redshift.

Possible Breaking of the FIR-Radio Correlation in Tidally Interacting Galaxies [Replacement]

Far-infrared (FIR)–radio correlation is a well-established empirical connection between continuum radio and dust emission of star-forming galaxies, often used as a tool in determining star-formation rates. Here we expand the point made by Murphy (2013) that in the case of some interacting star-forming galaxies there is a non-thermal emission from the gas bridge in between them, which might cause a dispersion in this correlation. Galactic interactions and mergers have been known to give rise to tidal shocks and disrupt morphologies especially in the smaller of the interacting components. Here we point out that these shocks can also heat the gas and dust and will inevitably accelerate particles and result in a tidal cosmic-ray population in addition to standard galactic cosmic rays in the galaxy itself. This would result in a non-thermal emission not only from the gas bridges of interacting systems, but from interacting galaxies as a whole in general. Thus both tidal heating and additional non-thermal radiation will obviously affect the FIR-radio correlation of these systems, the only question is how much. In this scenario the FIR-radio correlation is not stable in interacting galaxies, but rather evolves as the interaction/merger progresses. To test this hypothesis and probe the possible impact of tidal cosmic ray population we have analyzed a sample of 43 infrared bright star-forming interacting galaxies at different merger stages. We have found that their FIR-radio correlation parameter and radio emission spectral index vary noticeably over different merger stages and behave as it would be expected from our tidal-shock scenario. Important implications of departure of interacting galaxies from the FIR-radio correlation are discussed.

Breaking FIR-Radio Correlation: The Case of Interacting Galaxies

Far-infrared (FIR)–radio correlation is a well-established empirical connection between continuum radio and dust emission of star-forming galaxies, used as a tool in determining star-formation rates. Here we point out that in the case of interacting star-forming galaxies this tool might break. Galactic interactions and mergers have been known to give rise to tidal shocks and disrupt morphologies especially in the smaller of the interacting components. Moreover, these shocks can also heat the gas and dust and accelerate particles leading to tidal cosmic-ray population in addition to standard galactic cosmic rays. Both heating and additional non-thermal radiation will obviously affect the FIR-radio correlation of these systems. To test this hypothesis we have analyzed a sample of 43 infrared bright star-forming interacting galaxies at different merger stages. We have found that their FIR-radio correlation parameter and radio emission spectral index vary over different merger stages and behave as it would be expected from our tidal-shock scenario. Important implications of breaking the FIR-radio correlation are discussed.

Using machine learning to classify the diffuse interstellar bands

Using over a million and a half extragalactic spectra we study the correlations of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) in the Milky Way. We measure the correlation between DIB strength and dust extinction for 142 DIBs using 24 stacked spectra in the reddening range E(B-V) < 0.2, many more lines than ever studied before. Most of the DIBs do not correlate with dust extinction. However, we find 10 weak and barely studied DIBs with correlations that are higher than 0.7 with dust extinction and confirm the high correlation of additional 5 strong DIBs. Furthermore, we find a pair of DIBs, 5925.9A and 5927.5A which exhibits significant negative correlation with dust extinction, indicating that their carrier may be depleted on dust. We use Machine Learning algorithms to divide the DIBs to spectroscopic families based on 250 stacked spectra. By removing the dust dependency we study how DIBs follow their local environment. We thus obtain 6 groups of weak DIBs, 4 of which are tightly associated with C2 or CN absorption lines.

Using machine learning to classify the diffuse interstellar bands [Replacement]

Using over a million and a half extragalactic spectra we study the correlations of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) in the Milky Way. We measure the correlation between DIB strength and dust extinction for 142 DIBs using 24 stacked spectra in the reddening range E(B-V) < 0.2, many more lines than ever studied before. Most of the DIBs do not correlate with dust extinction. However, we find 10 weak and barely studied DIBs with correlations that are higher than 0.7 with dust extinction and confirm the high correlation of additional 5 strong DIBs. Furthermore, we find a pair of DIBs, 5925.9A and 5927.5A which exhibits significant negative correlation with dust extinction, indicating that their carrier may be depleted on dust. We use Machine Learning algorithms to divide the DIBs to spectroscopic families based on 250 stacked spectra. By removing the dust dependency we study how DIBs follow their local environment. We thus obtain 6 groups of weak DIBs, 4 of which are tightly associated with C2 or CN absorption lines.

Does the presence of planets affect the frequency and properties of extrasolar Kuiper Belts? Results from the Herschel DEBRIS and DUNES surveys [Replacement]

The study of the planet-debris disk connection can shed light on the formation and evolution of planetary systems, and may help predict the presence of planets around stars with certain disk characteristics. In preliminary analyses of the Herschel DEBRIS and DUNES surveys, Wyatt et al. (2012) and Marshall et al. (2014) identified a tentative correlation between debris and low-mass planets. Here we use the cleanest possible sample out these surveys to assess the presence of such a correlation, discarding stars without known ages, with ages < 1 Gyr and with binary companions <100 AU, to rule out possible correlations due to effects other than planet presence. In our sample of 204 FGK stars, we do not find evidence that debris disks are more common or more dusty around stars harboring high-mass or low-mass planets compared to a control sample without identified planets, nor that debris disks are more or less common (or more or less dusty) around stars harboring multiple planets compared to single-planet systems. Diverse dynamical histories may account for the lack of correlations. The data show the correlation between the presence of high-mass planets and stellar metallicity, but no correlation between the presence of low-mass planets or debris and stellar metallicity. Comparing the observed cumulative distribution of fractional luminosity to those expected from a Gaussian distribution, we find that a distribution centered on the Solar system’s value fits well the data, while one centered at 10 times this value can be rejected. This is of interest in the context of future terrestrial planet characterization because it indicates that there are good prospects for finding a large number of debris disk systems (i.e. with evidence of harboring the building blocks of planets) with exozodiacal emission low enough to be appropriate targets for an ATLAST-type mission to search for biosignatures.

Does the presence of planets affect the frequency and properties of extrasolar Kuiper Belts? Results from the Herschel DEBRIS and DUNES surveys

The study of the planet-debris disk connection can shed light on the formation and evolution of planetary systems, and may help predict the presence of planets around stars with certain disk characteristics. In preliminary analyses of the Herschel DEBRIS and DUNES surveys, Wyatt et al. (2012) and Marshall et al. (2014) identified a tentative correlation between debris and low-mass planets. Here we use the cleanest possible sample out these surveys to assess the presence of such a correlation, discarding stars without known ages, with ages < 1 Gyr and with binary companions <100 AU, to rule out possible correlations due to effects other than planet presence. In our sample of 204 FGK stars, we do not find evidence that debris disks are more common or more dusty around stars harboring high-mass or low-mass planets compared to a control sample without identified planets, nor that debris disks are more or less common (or more or less dusty) around stars harboring multiple planets compared to single-planet systems. Diverse dynamical histories may account for the lack of correlations. The data show the correlation between the presence of high-mass planets and stellar metallicity, but no correlation between the presence of low-mass planets or debris and stellar metallicity. Comparing the observed cumulative distribution of fractional luminosity to those expected from a Gaussian distribution, we find that a distribution centered on the Solar system’s value fits well the data, while one centered at 10 times this value can be rejected. This is of interest in the context of future terrestrial planet characterization because it indicates that there are good prospects for finding a large number of debris disk systems (i.e. with evidence of harboring the building blocks of planets) with exozodiacal emission low enough to be appropriate targets for an ATLAST-type mission to search for biosignatures.

A disc corona-jet model for the radio/X-ray correlation in black hole X-ray binaries

The observed tight radio/X-ray correlation in the low spectral state of some black hole X-ray binaries implies the strong coupling of the accretion and jet. The correlation of $L_{\rm R} \propto L_{\rm X}^{\sim 0.5-0.7}$ was well explained by the coupling of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow and a jet. Recently, however, a growing number of sources show more complicated radio/X-ray correlations, e.g., $L_{\rm R} \propto L_{\rm X}^{\sim 1.4}$ for $L_{\rm X}/L_{\rm Edd} \gtrsim 10^{-3}$, which is suggested to be explained by the coupling of a radiatively efficient accretion flow and a jet. In this work, we interpret the deviation from the initial radio/X-ray correlation for $L_{\rm X}/L_{\rm Edd} \gtrsim 10^{-3}$ with a detailed disc corona-jet model. In this model, the disc and corona are radiatively and dynamically coupled. Assuming a fraction of the matter in the accretion flow, $\eta\equiv \dot M_{\rm jet}/\dot M$, is ejected to form the jet, we can calculate the emergent spectrum of the disc corona-jet system. We calculate $L_{\rm R}$ and $L_{\rm X}$ at different $\dot M$, adjusting $\eta$ to fit the observed radio/X-ray correlation of the black hole X-ray transient H1743-322 for $L_{\rm X}/L_{\rm Edd}> 10^{-3}$. It is found that always the X-ray emission is dominated by the disc corona and the radio emission is dominated by the jet. We noted that the value of $\eta$ for the deviated radio/X-ray correlation for $L_{\rm X}/L_{\rm Edd} > 10^{-3}$, is systematically less than that of the case for $L_{\rm X}/L_{\rm Edd} < 10^{-3}$, which is consistent with the general idea that the jet is often relatively suppressed at the high luminosity phase in black hole X-ray binaries.

Optical Flickering of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi: amplitude - flux relation

We report observations of the flickering variability of the symbiotic recurrent nova RS Oph at quiescence in five bands (UBVRI). We find evidence of correlation between the peak-to-peak flickering amplitude (\Delta F) and the average flux of the hot component ($F_{av}$). The correlation is highly significant with correlation coefficient 0.85 and p-value $\sim 10^{-15}$. Combining the data from all wavebands, we find a dependence of the type $\Delta F \propto F_{av}^k$, with power-law index $k = 1.02 \pm 0.04$ for the UBVRI flickering of RS Oph. Thus, the rms amplitude of variability scale almost linearly with the average flux of the hot component, $< \sigma_{rms} / F_{av} > = 0.08 \pm 0.02$. The detected correlation is similar to that found in some X-ray binaries. The possible reasons are briefly discussed. The data are available upon request from the authors.

Optical Flickering of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi: amplitude - flux relation [Replacement]

We report observations of the flickering variability of the symbiotic recurrent nova RS~Oph at quiescence in five bands ($UBVRI$). We find evidence of a correlation between the peak-to-peak flickering amplitude ($\Delta F$) and the average flux of the hot component ($F_{\rm av}$). The correlation is highly significant, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85 and a $p$-value of~$\sim 10^{-20}$. Combining the data from all wavebands, we find a dependence of the type $\Delta F \propto F^k_{\rm av}$, with power-law index $k = 1.02 \pm 0.04$ for the $UBVRI$ flickering of RS~Oph. Thus, the relationship between the amplitude of variability and the average flux of the hot component is consistent with linearity. The rms amplitude of flickering is on average 8 per cent ($\pm2$ per cent) of $F_{\rm av}$. The detected correlation is similar to that found in accreting black holes/neutron stars and cataclysmic variables. The possible reasons are briefly discussed. The data are available upon request from the authors.

The $E_{\rm p}$ - $E_{\rm iso}$ relation and the internal shock model

The validity of the $E_{\rm p}$ – $E_{\rm iso}$ correlation in gamma-ray bursts and the possibility of explaining the prompt emission with internal shocks are highly debated questions. We study whether the $E_{\rm p}$ – $E_{\rm iso}$ correlation can be reproduced if internal shocks are indeed responsible for the prompt emission, or conversely, if the correlation can be used to constrain the internal shock scenario. We developed a toy model where internal shocks are limited to the collision of only two shells. Synthetic burst populations were constructed for various distributions of the model parameters, such as the injected power in the relativistic outflow, the average Lorentz factor, and its typical contrast between the shells. These parameters can be independent or linked by various relations. Synthetic $E_{\rm p}$ – $E_{\rm iso}$ diagrams are obtained in the different cases and compared with the observed correlation. The reference observed correlation is the one defined by the BAT6 sample, a sample of Swift bursts almost complete in redshift and affected by well-known and reproducible instrumental selection effects. The comparison is then performed with a subsample of synthetic bursts that satisfy the same selection criteria as were imposed on the BAT6 sample. A satisfactory agreement between model and data can often be achieved, but only if several strong constraints are satisfied on both the dynamics of the flow and the microphysics that governs the redistribution of the shock-dissipated energy.

On The Relation Between the AGN Jet and Accretion Disk Emissions

Active galactic nuclei jets are detected via their radio and/or gamma-ray emissions while the accretion disks are detected by their optical and UV radiation. Observations of the radio and optical luminosities show a strong correlation between the two luminosities. However, part of this correlation is due to the redshift or distances of the sources that enter in calculating the luminosities from the observed fluxes and part of it could be due to the differences in the cosmological evolution of luminosities. Thus, the determination of the intrinsic correlations between the luminosities is not straightforward. It is affected by the observational selection effects and other factors that truncate the data, sometimes in a complex manner (e.g. Antonucci (2011) and Pavildou et al. (2010)). In this paper we describe methods that allow us to determine the evolution of the radio and optical luminosities, and determine the true intrinsic correlation between the two luminosities. We find a much weaker correlation than observed and sub-linear relations between the luminosities. This has a significant implication for jet and accretion disk physics.

Selection effects in Gamma Ray Bursts correlations: consequences on the ratio between GRB and star formation rates [Replacement]

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) visible up to very high redshift have become attractive targets as potential new distance indicators. It is still not clear whether the relations proposed so far originate from an unknown GRB physics or result from selection effects. We investigate this issue in the case of the $L_X-T^*_a$ correlation (hereafter LT) between the X-ray luminosity $L_X (T_a)$ at the end of the plateau phase, $T_a$, and the rest frame time $T^{*}_a$. We devise a general method to build mock data sets starting from a GRB world model and taking into account selection effects on both time and luminosity. This method shows how not knowing the efficiency function could influence the evaluation of the intrinsic slope of any correlation and the GRB density rate. We investigate biases (small offsets in slope or normalization) that would occur in the LT relation as a result of truncations, possibly present in the intrinsic distributions of $L_X$ and $T^*_a$. We compare these results with the ones in Dainotti et al. (2013) showing that in both cases the intrinsic slope of the LT correlation is $\approx -1.0$. This method is general, therefore relevant to investigate if any other GRB correlation is generated by the biases themselves. Moreover, because the farthest GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, we evaluate the redshift-dependent ratio $\Psi(z)=(1+z)^{\alpha}$ of the GRB rate to star formation rate (SFR). We found a modest evolution $-0.2\leq \alpha \leq 0.5$ consistent with Swift GRB afterglow plateau in the redshift range $0.99<z<9.4$.

Selection effects in Gamma Ray Bursts correlations: consequences on the ratio between GRB and star formation rates [Replacement]

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) visible up to very high redshift have become attractive targets as potential new distance indicators. It is still not clear whether the relations proposed so far originate from an unknown GRB physics or result from selection effects. We investigate this issue in the case of the $L_X-T^*_a$ correlation (hereafter LT) between the X-ray luminosity $L_X (T_a)$ at the end of the plateau phase, $T_a$, and the rest frame time $T^{*}_a$. We devise a general method to build mock data sets starting from a GRB world model and taking into account selection effects on both time and luminosity. This method shows how not knowing the efficiency function could influence the evaluation of the intrinsic slope of any correlation and the GRB density rate. We investigate biases (small offsets in slope or normalization) that would occur in the LT relation as a result of truncations, possibly present in the intrinsic distributions of $L_X$ and $T^*_a$. We compare these results with the ones in Dainotti et al. (2013) showing that in both cases the intrinsic slope of the LT correlation is $\approx -1.0$. This method is general, therefore relevant to investigate if any other GRB correlation is generated by the biases themselves. Moreover, because the farthest GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, we evaluate the redshift-dependent ratio $\Psi(z)=(1+z)^{\alpha}$ of the GRB rate to star formation rate (SFR). We found a modest evolution $-0.2\leq \alpha \leq 0.5$ consistent with Swift GRB afterglow plateau in the redshift range $0.99<z<9.4$.

Selection effects in Gamma Ray Bursts correlations: consequences on the ratio between GRB and star formation rates

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) visible up to very high redshift have become attractive targets as potential new distance indicators. It is still not clear whether the relations proposed so far originate from an unknown GRB physics or result from selection effects. We investigate this issue in the case of the $L_X-T^*_a$ correlation (hereafter LT) between the X-ray luminosity $L_X (T_a)$ at the end of the plateau phase, $T_a$, and the rest frame time $T^{*}_a$. We devise a general method to build mock data sets starting from a GRB world model and taking into account selection effects on both time and luminosity. This method shows how not knowing the efficiency function could influence the evaluation of the intrinsic slope of any correlation and the GRB density rate. We investigate biases (small offsets in slope or normalization) that would occur in the LT relation as a result of truncations, possibly present in the intrinsic distributions of $L_X$ and $T^*_a$. We compare these results with the ones in Dainotti et al. (2013) showing that in both cases the intrinsic slope of the LT correlation is $\approx -1.0$. This method is general, therefore relevant to investigate if any other GRB correlation is generated by the biases themselves. Moreover, because the farthest GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, we evaluate the redshift-dependent ratio $\Psi(z)=(1+z)^{\alpha}$ of the GRB rate to star formation rate (SFR). We found a modest evolution $-0.2\leq \alpha \leq 0.5$ consistent with Swift GRB afterglow plateau in the redshift range $0.99<z<9.4$.

 

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