Posts Tagged correlation

Recent Postings from correlation

GOODS-HERSCHEL: star formation, dust attenuation and the FIR-radio correlation on the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies up to z~4

We use the deep panchromatic dataset available in the GOODS-N field, spanning all the way from GALEX ultra-violet to VLA radio continuum data, to select a star-forming galaxy sample at z~[0.5-4] and robustly measure galaxy photometric redshifts, star formation rates, stellar masses and UV rest-frame properties. We quantitatively explore, using mass-complete samples, the evolution of the star formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies up to z~4. Our main results can be summarized as follows: i) we find that the slope of the SFR-M correlation is consistent with being constant, and equal to ~0.8 at least up to z~1.5, while the normalization keeps increasing to the highest redshift, z~4, we are able to explore; ii) for the first time in this work, we are able to explore the FIR-radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z~4; iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated; iv) strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 magnitudes over the redshift range [0.5-4] for a fixed stellar mass, as opposed to a tenfold increase of star formation rate; v) this finding explains the evolution of the SFR-Auv relation reported in literature: the same amount of star formation is less attenuated at higher redshift because it is hosted in less massive, and less metal rich, galaxies; vi) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves in redshift, with the median UV spectral slope of star-forming galaxies becoming bluer with redshift. By z~3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuation, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws…

The decays $\Xi_b \to \Lambda_b \, \pi$ and diquark correlations in hyperons

The decays $\Xi_b \to \Lambda_b \pi$ are strangeness changing weak transitions involving only the light diquark in the baryon. Thus these decays can test the properties of such diquarks, in particular the suggestions existing in the literature of enhanced correlations in $J^P=0^+$ light diquarks. We revisit the estimates of the rates of these decays and point out that with the enhanced correlation their branching fraction can reach a few percent and may become visible in the measurements of differences of the lifetimes of $b$ baryons.

Modeling the Ages and Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies in Fundamental Plane Space

Recent observations have probed the formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies by tracking correlations between the stellar population parameters, age and metallicity, and the structural parameters that enter the Fundamental Plane, radius and velocity dispersion sigma. These studies have found intriguing correlations between these four parameters. In this work, we make use of a semi-analytic model, based on halo merger trees extracted from the Bolshoi cosmological simulation, that predicts the structural properties of spheroid-dominated galaxies based on an analytic model that has been tested and calibrated against an extensive suite of hydrodynamic+N-body binary merger simulations. We predict the radius, sigma, luminosity, age, and metallicity of spheroid-dominated galaxies, enabling us to compare directly to observations. Our model predicts a strong correlation between age and sigma for early-type galaxies, and no significant correlation between age and radius, in agreement with observations. In addition we predict a strong correlation between metallicity and sigma, and a weak correlation between metallicity and radius, in qualitative agreement with observations. We find that the correlations with sigma arise as a result of the strong link between sigma and the galaxy assembly time. Minor mergers produce a large change in radius while leaving sigma nearly the same, which explains the weaker trends with radius.

Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation

An intrinsic correlation has been identified between the luminosity and duration of plateaus in the X-ray afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs; Dainotti et al. 2008), suggesting a central engine origin. The magnetar central engine model predicts an observable plateau phase, with plateau durations and luminosities being determined by the magnetic fields and spin periods of the newly formed magnetar. This paper analytically shows that the magnetar central engine model can explain, within the 1$\sigma$ uncertainties, the correlation between plateau luminosity and duration. The observed scatter in the correlation most likely originates in the spread of initial spin periods of the newly formed magnetar and provides an estimate of the maximum spin period of ~35 ms (assuming a constant mass, efficiency and beaming across the GRB sample). Additionally, by combining the observed data and simulations, we show that the magnetar emission is most likely narrowly beamed and has $\lesssim$20% efficiency in conversion of rotational energy from the magnetar into the observed plateau luminosity. The beaming angles and efficiencies obtained by this method are fully consistent with both predicted and observed values. We find that Short GRBs and Short GRBs with Extended Emission lie on the same correlation but are statistically inconsistent with being drawn from the same distribution as Long GRBs, this is consistent with them having a wider beaming angle than Long GRBs.

AGN Feedback models: Correlations with star formation and observational implications of time evolution

We examine the correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) across a suite of different AGN feedback models, using the time evolution of a merger simulation. By considering three different stages of evolution, and a distinction between the nuclear and outer regions of star formation, we consider 63 different cases. Despite many of the feedback models fitting the M-\sigma\ relationship well, there are often distinct differences in the SFR-BHAR correlations, with close to linear trends only being present after the merger. Some of the models also show evolution in the SFR-BHAR parameter space that is at times directly across the long-term averaged SFR-BHAR correlation. This suggests that the observational SFR-BHAR correlation found for ensembles of galaxies is an approximate statistical trend, as suggested by Hickox et al. Decomposing the SFR into nuclear and outer components also highlights notable differences between models and there is only modest agreement with observational studies examining this in Seyfert galaxies. For the fraction of the black hole mass growth from the merger event relative to the final black hole mass, we find as much as a factor of three variation among models. This also translates into a similar variation in the post-starburst black hole mass growth. Overall, we find that while qualitative features are often similar amongst models, precise quantitative analysis shows there can be quite distinct differences.

Intrinsic alignment of simulated galaxies in the cosmic web: implications for weak lensing surveys

The intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes and their cross-correlation with the surrounding dark matter tidal field are investigated using the 160 000, z=1.2 synthetic galaxies extracted from the high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. One- and two-point statistics of the spin of the stellar component are measured as a function of mass and colour. For the low-mass galaxies, this spin is locally aligned with the tidal field `filamentary’ direction while, for the high-mass galaxies, it is perpendicular to both filaments and walls. The bluest galaxies of our synthetic catalog are more strongly correlated with the surrounding tidal field than the reddest galaxies, and this correlation extends up to 10 Mpc/h comoving distance. We also report a correlation of the projected ellipticities of blue, intermediate mass galaxies on a similar scale at a level of 10^(-4) which could be a concern for cosmic shear measurements. We do not report any measurable intrinsic alignments of the reddest galaxies of our sample. This work is a first step toward the use of very realistic catalog of synthetic galaxies to evaluate the contamination of weak lensing measurement by the intrinsic galactic alignments.

Fluctuation dynamo at finite correlation times and the Kazantsev spectrum [Cross-Listing]

We derive a generalized model of fluctuation dynamo with finite correlation time, $\tau$, using renovating flows. For $\tau \to 0$, we recover the standard Kazantsev equation for the evolution of longitudinal magnetic correlation, $M_L$. To the next order in $\tau$, the generalized equation involves third and fourth spatial derivatives of $M_L$. It can be recast using the Landau-Lifschitz approach, to one with at most second derivatives of $M_L$. Remarkably, we then find that the magnetic power spectrum, remains the Kazantsev spectrum of $M(k) \propto k^{3/2}$, in the large $k$ limit, independent of $\tau$.

Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

This chapter explores how we might use the observed {\em statistics} of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers – which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions – is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

On the lack of correlation between Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom and Lyman alpha emission in lensed star-forming galaxies

We examine the Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom, Lyman alpha, and nebular line emission in five bright star-forming galaxies at 1.66<z<1.91 that have been gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxy clusters. All five galaxies show prominent Mg II emission and absorption in a P Cygni profile. We find no correlation between the equivalent widths of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission. The Mg II emission has a broader range of velocities than do the nebular emission line profiles; the Mg II emission is redshifted with respect to systemic by 100 to 200 km/s. When present, Lyman alpha is even more redshifted. The reddest components of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission have tails to 500-600 km/s, implying a strong outflow. The lack of correlation in the Mg II and Lyman alpha equivalent widths, the differing velocity profiles, and the high ratios of Mg II to nebular line fluxes together suggest that the bulk of Mg II emission does not ultimately arise as nebular line emission, but may instead be reprocessed stellar continuum emission.

Faraday Rotation from Magnesium II Absorbers towards Polarized Background Radio Sources

Strong magnesium II (MgII) absorption lines in quasar spectra typically serve as a proxy for an intervening galaxy along the line of sight. Previous studies have found a correlation between the number of these MgII absorbers and the rotation measure (RM) at $\approx5$ GHz. We cross-match a sample of 35,752 optically-identified non-intrinsic MgII absorption systems with 25,649 polarized background radio sources for which we have measurements of both the spectral index and RM at 1.4 GHz. We use the spectral index to split the resulting sample of 599 sources into flat-spectrum and steep-spectrum subsamples. We find that our flat-spectrum sample shows significant ($\sim3.5\sigma$) evidence for a correlation between MgII absorption and RM at 1.4 GHz, while our steep-spectrum sample shows no such correlation. We argue that such an effect cannot be explained by either luminosity or other observational effects, by evolution in another confounding variable, by wavelength-dependent polarization structure in an active galactic nucleus, by the Galactic foreground, by a necessity for polarization $k$-corrections, or by partial coverage models. We conclude that our data are most consistent with intervenors directly contributing to the Faraday rotation along the line of sight, and that the intervening systems must therefore have coherent magnetic fields of substantial strength. Nevertheless, the weak nature of the correlation will require future high-resolution and broadband radio observations in order to place it on a much firmer statistical footing.

Relationship Between Solar Coronal X-Ray Brightness and Active Region Magnetic Fields: A Study Using High Resolution Observations

By utilizing high resolution observations of nearly co-temporal and co-spatial SOT spectropolarimeter and XRT coronal X-ray data onboard Hinode, we revisit the contentious issue of the relationship between global magnetic quantities and coronal X-ray intensity. Co-aligned vector magnetogram and X-ray data are used for this study. We find that there is no pixel-to-pixel correlation between the observed loop brightness and magnetic quantities. However, the X-ray brightness is well correlated with the integrated magnetic quantities such as total unsigned magnetic flux, total unsigned vertical current, area integrated square of the vertical magnetic field and horizontal magnetic fields. Comparing all these quantities we find that the total magnetic flux correlates well with the observed integrated X-ray brightness, though there is some differences in the strength of the correlation when we use the X-ray data from different filters. While we get a good correlation between X-ray brightness and total unsigned vertical current when we use the X-ray data sets obtained from the Al-poly filter, we find no correlation between them using data sets obtained from the Ti-poly filter. We confirm that there is no consistent correlation between measures of non-potentiality and coronal X-ray intensity in these high resolution observations; thus earlier results using low resolution observations in this context are validated. We discuss the implications of these observational results for the heating of the solar corona.

Understanding the correlation between $(g-2)_\mu$ and $\mu \rightarrow e \gamma$ in the MSSM

The supersymmetric contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_\mu$ and to the decay $\mu\to e\gamma$ are given by very similar Feynman diagrams. Previous works reported correlations in specific scenarios, in particular if $a_\mu$ is dominated by a single diagram. In this work we give an extensive survey of the possible correlations. We discuss examples of single-diagram domination with particularly strong correlations, and provide corresponding benchmark parameter points. We show how the correlations are weakened by significant cancellations between diagrams in large parts of the MSSM parameter space. Nevertheless, the order of magnitude of $\text{BR}(\mu \to e \gamma)$ for a fixed flavor-violating parameter can often be predicted. We summarize the behavior by plotting the correlations as well as resulting bounds on the flavor-violating parameters under various assumptions on the MSSM spectrum.

The curvature of spectral energy distribution of blazars

The SED of blazars show significant curvature. In this paper, we study the curvature properties for a large sample of Fermi/LAT bright blazars based on quasi-simultaneous SED. Both SEDs of synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) components are fitted by a log-parabolic law in log_v-log_vfv diagram. The second-degree term of log-parabola measures the curvature of SED. We find a statistically significant correlation between synchrotron peak frequency and its curvature. This result is in agreement with the theoretical prediction, and confirms previous studies, which dealt with single source with various epoch observations or a small sample. If a broken power-law is employed to fit the SED, the difference between the two spectral indexes (alpha2-alpha1) can be considered as a "surrogate" of the SED curvature. We collect spectral parameters of a sample blazars from literature, and find a correlation between the synchrotron peak frequency and the spectral difference. We do not find a significant correlation between the IC peak frequency and its curvature, which may be caused by complicated seed photon field. It is also found that the synchrotron curvatures are on average larger than that of IC curvatures, and there is no correlation between these two parameters. As suggested by previous works in literature, both the log-parabolic law of SED and above correlation can be explained by statistical and/or stochastic particle accelerations. Stochastic particle acceleration predicts a different slope of the correlation from that of statistical one, and our result seems favor stochastic acceleration mechanisms and emission processes. Some of other evidences also seem to support that the electron energy distribution (and/or synchrotron SED) may be log-parabolic, which include SED modeling, particle acceleration simulation, and comparisons between some predictions and empirical relations/correlations.

Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using $\mu$-distortion [Cross-Listing]

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field’s strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today’s redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$; for field strengths $B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, the signal of this bispectrum in $\langle\mu T\rangle$ would dominate over the signal from $b_{\text{NL}}$. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using $\mu$-distortion

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field’s strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today’s redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$; for field strengths $B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, the signal of this bispectrum in $\langle\mu T\rangle$ would dominate over the signal from $b_{\text{NL}}$. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using $\mu$-distortion [Cross-Listing]

The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about $10^4$ and $10^6$ injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called $\mu$-distortion. We can calculate the correlation $\langle\mu T\rangle$ of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy $T$ of the CMB to search for a correlation $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ between the magnetic field $B$ and the curvature perturbation $\zeta$. Since the perturbations which produce the $\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\text{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\approx 1.0 \times b_{\text{NL}} (\tilde B_\mu/10\text{ nG})^2$, where $\tilde B_\mu$ is the magnetic field’s strength on $\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today’s redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\text{NL}}=\mathcal{O}(1)$. However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum $\langle\zeta^3\rangle$; for field strengths $B_\mu\gtrsim 1$ nG, the signal of this bispectrum in $\langle\mu T\rangle$ would dominate over the signal from $b_{\text{NL}}$. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a $\langle B^2\zeta\rangle$ correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

Herschel-ATLAS: Far-infrared properties of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

We have constructed a sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars from the Faint Im- ages Radio Sky at Twenty-one centimetres (FIRST) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), over the H-ATLAS Phase 1 Area (9h, 12h and 14.5h). Using a stacking analysis we find a significant correlation between the far-infrared luminosity and 1.4-GHz luminosity for radio-loud quasars. Partial correlation analysis confirms the intrinsic correlation after removing the redshift contribution while for radio-quiet quasars no partial correlation is found. Using a single-temperature grey-body model we find a general trend of lower dust temperatures in the case of radio-loud quasars comparing to radio-quiet quasars. Also, radio-loud quasars are found to have almost constant mean values of dust mass along redshift and optical luminosity bins. In addition, we find that radio-loud quasars at lower optical luminosities tend to have on average higher FIR and 250-micron luminosity with respect to radio-quiet quasars with the same optical luminosites. Even if we use a two-temperature grey-body model to describe the FIR data, the FIR luminosity excess remains at lower optical luminosities. These results suggest that powerful radio jets are associated with star formation especially at lower accretion rates.

Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

Recently an `outliers’ track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries (XRBs) with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. Firstly, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, $\Gamma$, are anti- and positively correlated to X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, $F_{\rm 3-9keV}$, is below and above a critical flux, $F_{\rm X,crit}$, which are consistent with prediction of advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) and disk-corona model respectively. Secondly and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux that defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with $F_{\rm 3-9keV}\gtrsim F_{\rm X,crit}$ have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation ($F_{\rm X}\propto F_{\rm R}^{b}$ and $b\sim 1.1-1.4$), which roughly form the `outliers’ track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of $\Gamma-F_{\rm 3-9keV}$ either stay in the universal track with $b\sim0.61$ or stay in transition track (from the universal to `outliers’ tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and `outliers’ tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model respectively.

Probing the diffuse baryon distribution with the lensing-tSZ cross-correlation

Approximately half of the Universe’s baryons are in a form that has been hard to detect directly. However, the missing component can be traced through the cross-correlation of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect with weak gravitational lensing. We build a model for this correlation and use it to constrain the extended baryon component, employing data from the Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey and the Planck satellite. The measured correlation function is consistent with an isothermal $\beta$-model for the halo gas pressure profile, and the 1- and 2- halo terms are both detected at the 4$\sigma$ level. The effective virial temperature of the gas is found to be in the range ($7\times10^{5}$–$3 \times10^{8}$) K, with approximately $50%$ of the baryons appearing to lie beyond the virial radius of the halos, consistent with current expectations for the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

Jet correlations - opportunities and pitfalls

The simplest observables used to probe the interaction of hard partons with a QCD medium in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions measure disappearance, such as the nuclear modification factor R_AA. The information content of such observables is however limited. More differential information is obtained from triggered correlation observables where a trigger condition ensures that a hard event has taken place and the correlation of other objects in the event with the trigger contains information about the nature of parton-medium interaction. By construction, triggered correlation observables are conditional probabilities, i.e. they measure events biased by the trigger condition. The presence of this bias makes the interpretation of observables non-intuitive, but at the same time represents an opportunity to design future measurements to selectively probe particular physics. In this work, an overview over the four types of biases occuring in triggered hard correlation observables is given, followed by a study of current jet correlation phenomenology in the light of the preceding discussion.

Variations in the initial mass function in early-type galaxies: A critical comparison between dynamical and spectroscopic results [Replacement]

I present a comparison between published dynamical (ATLAS3D) and spectroscopic (Conroy & van Dokkum) constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies, using the 34 galaxies in common between the two works. Both studies infer an average IMF mass factor $\alpha$ (the stellar mass relative to a Kroupa-IMF population of similar age and metallicity) greater than unity, i.e. both methods favour an IMF which is heavier than that of the Milky Way, on average over the sample. However, on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis, there is no correlation between $\alpha$ inferred from the two approaches. I investigate how the two estimates of $\alpha$ are correlated systematically with the galaxy velocity dispersion, $\sigma$, and with the Mg/Fe abundance ratio. The spectroscopic method, based on the strengths of metal absorption lines, yields a correlation only with metal abundance ratios: at fixed Mg/Fe, there is no residual correlation with $\sigma$. The dynamical method, applied to exactly the same galaxy sample, yields the opposite result: the IMF variation correlates only with dynamics, with no residual correlation with Mg/Fe after controlling for $\sigma$. Hence although both methods indicate a heavy IMF on average in ellipticals, they lead to incompatible results for the systematic trends, when applied to the same set of galaxies. The sense of the disagreement could suggest that one (or both) of the methods has not accounted fully for the main confounding factors, i.e. element abundance ratios or dark matter contributions. Alternatively, the poor agreement might indicate additional variation in the detailed shape of the IMF, beyond what can currently be inferred from the spectroscopic features.

$D$ and $D^{\ast}$ meson mixing in spin-isospin correlated cold nuclear matter [Replacement]

We propose to study the mass spectrum of the heavy-light mesons to probe the structure of the spin-isospin correlation in the nuclear medium. We point out that the spin-isospin correlation in the nuclear medium generates a mixing among the heavy-light mesons carrying different spins and isospins such as $D^+$, $D^0$, $D^{\ast +}$, and $D^{\ast 0}$ mesons. We use two types of correlations motivated by the skyrmion crystal and the chiral density wave as typical examples to obtain the mass splitting caused by the mixing. Our result shows that the structure of the mixing reflects the pattern of the correlation, i.e., the remaining symmetry. Furthermore, the magnitude of the mass modification provides information of the strength of the correlation.

$D$ and $D^{\ast}$ meson mixing in cold nuclear matter

We propose to study the mass spectrum of the heavy-light mesons to probe the structure of the spin-isospin correlation in the nuclear medium. We point out that the spin-isospin correlation in the nuclear medium generates a mixing among the heavy-light mesons carrying different spins and isospins such as $D^+$, $D^0$, $D^{\ast +}$ and $D^{\ast 0}$ mesons. We use two types of correlation motivated by the skyrmion crystal and the chiral density wave as typical examples to obtain the mass modification caused by the mixing. Our result shows that the structure of the mixing reflects the pattern of the correlation, i.e. the remaining symmetry. Furthemore, the size of the mass modification provides an information of the strength of the correlation.

On the possible correlation of Galactic VHE source locations and enhancements of the surface density in the Galactic plane

The association of very-high energy sources with regions of the sky rich in dust and gas has been noticed in the study of individual VHE sources. However, the statistical significance of such correlation for the whole population of TeV detections has not been assessed yet. Here we present a study of the association of VHE sources in the central Galactic region with positions of enhanced material content. We obtain estimates of the material content through two classical tracers: dust emission and intensity of the $^\textrm{12}$CO(1$\rightarrow$0) line. We make use of the recently released all-sky maps of astrophysical foregrounds of the Planck Collaboration and of the extensive existing CO mapping of the Galactic sky. In order to test the correlation, we construct randomized samples of VHE source positions starting from the inner Galactic plane survey sources detected by the H.E.S.S. array. We find hints of a positive correlation between positions of VHE sources and regions rich in molecular material, which in the best of cases reaches the 3.9sigma level. The latter confidence is however decreased if variations in the selection criteria are considered, what lead us to conclude that a positive correlation cannot be firmly established yet. Forthcoming VHE facilities will be needed in order to firmly establish the correlation.

Stop on Top

The most natural supersymmetric solution to the hierarchy problem prefers the scalar top partner to be close in mass to the top quark. Experimental searches exclude top squarks across a wide range of masses, but a gap remains when the difference between the masses of the stop and the lightest supersymmetric particle is close to the top mass. We propose to search for stops in this regime by exploiting the azimuthal angular correlation of forward tagging jets in (s)top pair production. As shown in earlier work, this correlation is sensitive to the spin of the heavy states, allowing one to distinguish between top and stop pair production. Here, we demonstrate that this angular information can give a statistically significant stop pair production signal in the upcoming LHC run. While the appropriate simulation including parton showering and detector simulation requires some care, we find stable predictions for the angular correlation using multi-jet merging.

On the impact of correlation information on the orientation parameters between celestial reference frame realizations

In this study, we compared results of determination of the orientation angles between celestial reference frames realized by radio source position catalogues using three methods of accounting for correlation information: using the position errors only, using additionally the correlations be-tween the right ascension and declination (RA/DE correlations) reported in radio source position catalogues published in the IERS format, and using the full covariance matrix. The computations were performed with nine catalogues computed at eight analysis centres. Our analysis has shown that using the RA/DE correlations only slightly influences the computed rotational angles, whereas using the full correlation matrices leads to substantial change in the orientation parameters be-tween the compared catalogues.

Solar Energetic Particle Events in the 23rd Solar Cycle: Interplanetary Magnetic Field Configuration and Statistical Relationship with Flares and CMEs

We study the influence of the large-scale interplanetary magnetic field configuration on the solar energetic particles (SEPs) as detected at different satellites near Earth and on the correlation of their peak intensities with the parent solar activity. We selected SEP events associated with X and M-class flares at western longitudes, in order to ensure good magnetic connection to Earth. These events were classified into two categories according to the global interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) configuration present during the SEP propagation to 1AU: standard solar wind or interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Our analysis shows that around 20% of all particle events are detected when the spacecraft is immersed in an ICME. The correlation of the peak particle intensity with the projected speed of the SEP-associated coronal mass ejection is similar in the two IMF categories of proton and electron events, $\approx 0.6$. The SEP events within ICMEs show stronger correlation between the peak proton intensity and the soft X-ray flux of the associated solar flare, with correlation coefficient $r=\,$0.67$\pm$0.13, compared to the SEP events propagating in the standard solar wind, $r=\,$0.36$\pm$0.13. The difference is more pronounced for near-relativistic electrons. The main reason for the different correlation behavior seems to be the larger spread of the flare longitude in the SEP sample detected in the solar wind as compared to SEP events within ICMEs. We discuss to which extent observational bias, different physical processes (particle injection, transport, etc.), and the IMF configuration can influence the relationship between SEPs and coronal activity.

Modelling the `outliers' track of the radio--X-ray correlation in X-ray binaries based on disc-corona model

The universal radio–X-ray correlation (F_R \propto F_X^{b}, b~0.5-0.7) has been found for a sample of black-hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) in their low/hard states, which can roughly be explained by the coupled model of jet and radiatively inefficient advection dominated accretion flow. However, more and more `outliers’ were found in last few years, which evidently deviate from the universal radio-X-ray correlation and usually show a much steeper correlation with an index of ~1.4. Based on simple physical assumptions, the radiatively efficient accretion flows are speculated to exist in these `outliers’. In this work, we test this issue by modelling the `outliers’ track based on the radiatively efficient disc-corona model and the hybrid jet model. We find that our model predicts a steeper radio–X-ray correlation with slopes >~1.2 for the typical viscosity parameter of \alpha~0.05-0.2. In particular, the slope is ~1.4 for the case of \alpha~0.1, which is consistent with the observational results of H1743-322 very well. Our results suggest that the `outliers’ track may be regulated by the disc-corona model.

Short Gamma Ray Burst Formation Rate from BATSE data using E_p-L_p correlation and the minimum gravitational wave event rate of coalescing compact binary [Cross-Listing]

Using 72 Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and the luminosity by applying $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. (2013). For 53 SGRBs with the observed flux brighter than $4 \times 10^{-6}~{\rm erg~cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the cumulative redshift distribution up to $z=1$ agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. Especially good agreement is seen for $z < 0.4$ with the KS chance probability of 5.3\%. This suggests that the redshift determination by the $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs works very well. The minimum event rate at $z=0$ is estimated as $R_{\rm on-axis}^{\rm min} = 2 \times 10^{-10}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ so that the minimum beaming angle is $0.57^\circ-3.6^\circ$ assuming the merging rate of $10^{-7}-4\times 10^{-6}~{\rm events~yr^{-1}galaxy^{-1}}$ suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB~130603B of $\sim 4^\circ-8^\circ$ (Fong et al. 2013). On the other hand, if we assume the beaming angle of $\sim 6^\circ$ suggested from four SGRBs, the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as $R_{\rm all}^{\rm min}\sim 4\times 10^{-8}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$. If SGRBs are induced by coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), this event rate leads to the minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of $\rm 1.3 (50)~events~yr^{-1}$ for NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by KAGRA, adv-LIGO, adv-Virgo and GEO network.

Short Gamma Ray Burst Formation Rate from BATSE data using E_p-L_p correlation and the minimum gravitational wave event rate of coalescing compact binary [Replacement]

Using 72 Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and the luminosity by applying $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs found by \cite{tsutsui13}. For 53 SGRBs with the observed flux brighter than $4 \times 10^{-6}~{\rm erg~cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the cumulative redshift distribution up to $z=1$ agrees well with that of 22 {\it Swift}~SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at $z=0$ is estimated as $R_{\rm on-axis}^{\rm min} = 6.3_{-3.9}^{+3.1} \times 10^{-10}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ so that the minimum beaming angle is $0.6^\circ-7.8^\circ$ assuming the merging rate of $10^{-7}-4\times 10^{-6}~{\rm events~yr^{-1}Mpc^{-3}}$ suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB130603B of $\sim 4^\circ-8^\circ$\citep{fong13b}. On the other hand, if we assume the beaming angle of $\sim 6^\circ$ suggested from four SGRBs with the observed value of beaming angle, the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as $R_{\rm all}^{\rm min}=1.15_{-0.66}^{+0.56}\times 10^{-7}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$. If SGRBs are induced by coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), this event rate leads to the minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of $\rm 3.8_{-2.2}^{+1.8} (146_{-83}^{+71})~events~y^{-1}$ for NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by KAGRA, adv-LIGO, adv-Virgo and GEO network.

Short Gamma Ray Burst Formation Rate from BATSE data using E_p-L_p correlation and the minimum gravitational wave event rate of coalescing compact binary

Using 72 Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and the luminosity by applying $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. (2013). For 53 SGRBs with the observed flux brighter than $4 \times 10^{-6}~{\rm erg~cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the cumulative redshift distribution up to $z=1$ agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. Especially good agreement is seen for $z < 0.4$ with the KS chance probability of 5.3\%. This suggests that the redshift determination by the $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs works very well. The minimum event rate at $z=0$ is estimated as $R_{\rm on-axis}^{\rm min} = 2 \times 10^{-10}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ so that the minimum beaming angle is $0.57^\circ-3.6^\circ$ assuming the merging rate of $10^{-7}-4\times 10^{-6}~{\rm events~yr^{-1}galaxy^{-1}}$ suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB~130603B of $\sim 4^\circ-8^\circ$ (Fong et al. 2013). On the other hand, if we assume the beaming angle of $\sim 6^\circ$ suggested from four SGRBs, the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as $R_{\rm all}^{\rm min}\sim 4\times 10^{-8}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$. If SGRBs are induced by coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), this event rate leads to the minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of $\rm 1.3 (50)~events~yr^{-1}$ for NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by KAGRA, adv-LIGO, adv-Virgo and GEO network.

Short Gamma Ray Burst Formation Rate from BATSE data using E_p-L_p correlation and the minimum gravitational wave event rate of coalescing compact binary [Replacement]

Using 72 Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and the luminosity by applying $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs found by \cite{tsutsui13}. For 53 SGRBs with the observed flux brighter than $4 \times 10^{-6}~{\rm erg~cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the cumulative redshift distribution up to $z=1$ agrees well with that of 22 {\it Swift}~SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the $E_p$–$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at $z=0$ is estimated as $\rho_{SGRB}(0) = 6.3_{-3.9}^{+3.1} \times 10^{-10}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ so that the minimum beaming angle is $0.6^\circ-7.8^\circ$ assuming the merging rate of $10^{-7}-4\times 10^{-6}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB130603B of $\sim 4^\circ-8^\circ$\citep{fong13b}. On the other hand, if we assume the beaming angle of $\sim 6^\circ$ suggested from four SGRBs with the observed value of beaming angle, the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as $\rho_{SGRB,all}^{min}(0)=1.15_{-0.71}^{+0.57}\times 10^{-7}~{\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$. If SGRBs are induced by coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), this event rate leads to the minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of $\rm 3.9_{-2.4}^{+1.9} (152_{-94}^{+75})~events~y^{-1}$ for NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by a worldwide network with KAGRA, advanced-LIGO, advanced-Virgo, and GEO.

Constraints on Gauge Field Production during Inflation [Replacement]

In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored.

Constraints on Gauge Field Production during Inflation [Replacement]

In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored.

Constraints on Gauge Field Production during Inflation [Replacement]

In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored.

Constraints on Gauge Field Production during Inflation

In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored.

Outflows from active galactic nuclei: The BLR-NLR metallicity correlation

The metallicity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which can be measured by emission line ratios in their broad and narrow line regions (BLRs and NLRs), provides invaluable information about the physical connection between the different components of AGNs. From the archival databases of the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have assembled the largest sample available of AGNs which have adequate spectra in both the optical and ultraviolet bands to measure the narrow line ratio [N II]/H{\alpha} and also, in the same objects, the broad-line N V/C IV ratio. These permit the measurement of the metallicities in the NLRs and BLRs in the same objects. We find that neither the BLR nor the NLR metallicity correlate with black hole masses or Eddington ratios, but there is a strong correlation between NLR and BLR metallicities. This metallicity correlation implies that outflows from BLRs carry metal-rich gas to NLRs at characteristic radial distances of ~ 1.0 kiloparsec. This chemical connection provides evidence for a kinetic feedback of the outflows to their hosts. Metals transported into the NLR enhance the cooling of the ISM in this region, leading to local star formation after the AGNs turn to narrow line LINERs. This post-AGN star formation is predicted to be observable as an excess continuum emission from the host galaxies in the near infrared and ultraviolet, which needs to be further explored.

Relationship Between the Kinetic Power and Bolometric Luminosity of Jets: limitation from black hole X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts

The correlation between the kinetic power $P_{\rm jet}$ and intrinsic bolometric luminosity $L_{\rm jet}$ of jets may reveal the underlying jet physics in various black hole systems. Based on the recent work by Nemmen et al. (2012), we re-investigate this correlation with additional sources of black-hole X-ray binaries (BXBs) in hard/quiescent states and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). The new sample includes 29 sets of data from 7 BXBs and 20 LLAGNs, with $P_{\rm jet}$ and $L_{\rm jet}$ being derived from spectral modeling of the quasi-simultaneous multi-band spectra under the accretion-jet scenario. Compared to previous works, the range of luminosity is now enlarged to more than $20$ decades, i.e. from $10^{31}{\rm erg/s}$ to $10^{52}{\rm erg/s}$, which is possible to better constrain the correlation. One notable result is that the jets in BXBs and LLAGNs almost follow the same $P_{\rm jet} – L_{\rm jet}$ correlation that was obtained from blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The slope indices we derived are $1.03\pm0.01$ for the whole sample, $0.85\pm0.06$ for BXB subsample, $0.71\pm0.11$ for LLAGN subsample, and $1.01\pm0.05$ for the LLAGN-blazar subsample, respectively. The correlation index about unit implies the independence of jet efficiency on the luminosity or kinetic power. Our results may further support the hypothesis that similar physical processes exist in the jets of various black hole systems.

Relationship Between the Kinetic Power and Bolometric Luminosity of Jets: limitation from black hole X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts [Replacement]

The correlation between the kinetic power $P_{\rm jet}$ and intrinsic bolometric luminosity $L_{\rm jet}$ of jets may reveal the underlying jet physics in various black hole systems. Based on the recent work by Nemmen et al. (2012), we re-investigate this correlation with additional sources of black-hole X-ray binaries (BXBs) in hard/quiescent states and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). The new sample includes 29 sets of data from 7 BXBs and 20 LLAGNs, with $P_{\rm jet}$ and $L_{\rm jet}$ being derived from spectral modeling of the quasi-simultaneous multi-band spectra under the accretion-jet scenario. Compared to previous works, the range of luminosity is now enlarged to more than $20$ decades, i.e. from $10^{31}{\rm erg/s}$ to $10^{52}{\rm erg/s}$, which allows for better constraining of the correlation. One notable result is that the jets in BXBs and LLAGNs almost follow the same $P_{\rm jet} – L_{\rm jet}$ correlation that was obtained from blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The slope indices we derived are $1.03\pm0.01$ for the whole sample, $0.85\pm0.06$ for BXB subsample, $0.71\pm0.11$ for LLAGN subsample, and $1.01\pm0.05$ for the LLAGN-blazar subsample, respectively. The correlation index around unit implies the independence of jet efficiency on the luminosity or kinetic power. Our results may further support the hypothesis that similar physical processes exist in the jets of various black hole systems.

Lensing and time-delay contributions to galaxy correlations

Galaxy clustering on very large scales can be probed via the 2-point correlation function in the general case of wide and deep separations, including all the lightcone and relativistic effects. Using our recently developed formalism, we analyze the behavior of the local and integrated contributions for a baseline future survey and how these depend on redshift range, linear and angular separations and luminosity function. Relativistic corrections to the local part of the correlation can be non-negligible but they remain generally sub-dominant. On the other hand, the additional correlations arising from lensing convergence and time-delay effects can become very important and even dominate the observed total correlation function. We investigate different configurations formed by the observer and the pair of galaxies, and we find that the case of near-radial large-scale separations is where these effects will be the most important.

On the long-term correlation between the flux in the Ca II H & K and Halpha lines for FGK stars

The re-emission in the cores of the Ca II H & K and H$\alpha$ lines, are well known proxies of stellar activity. However, these activity indices probe different activity phenomena, the first being more sensitive to plage variation, while the other one being more sensitive to filaments. In this paper we study the long-term correlation between $\log R’_{HK}$ and $\log I_{H\alpha}$, two indices based on the Ca II H & K and H$\alpha$ lines respectively, for a sample of 271 FGK stars using measurements obtained over a $\sim$9 year time span. Because stellar activity is one of the main obstacles to the detection of low-mass and long-period planets, understanding further this activity index correlation can give us some hints about the optimal target to focus on, and ways to correct for these activity effects. We found a great variety of long-term correlations between $\log R’_{HK}$ and $\log I_{H\alpha}$. Around 20% of our sample has strong positive correlation between the indices while about 3% show strong negative correlation. These fractions are compatible with those found for the case of early-M dwarfs. Stars exhibiting a positive correlation have a tendency to be more active when compared to the median of the sample, while stars showing a negative correlation are more present among higher metallicity stars. There is also a tendency for the positively correlated stars to be more present among the coolest stars, a result which is probably due to the activity level effect on the correlation. Activity level and metallicity seem therefore to be playing a role on the correlation between $\log R’_{HK}$ and $\log I_{H\alpha}$. Possible explanations based on the influence of filaments for the diversity in the correlations between these indices are discussed in this paper.

On the Sodium versus Iron Correlation in Late B-Type Stars

With an aim to study whether the close correlation between [Na/H] and [Fe/H] recently found in A-type stars further persists in the regime of B-type stars, the abundances of Na were determined for 30 selected sharp-lined late B-type stars (10000K < T_eff < 14000K) from the Na I 5890/5896 doublet. These Na abundances were then compared with the O and Fe abundances (derived from the O I 6156-8 and Fe II 6147/6149 lines) showing anti-correlated peculiarities. It turned out that, unlike the case of A-type stars, [Na/H] is roughly constant at a slightly subsolar level ([Na/H] ~ -0.2 (+/-0.2)) without any significant correlation with [Fe/H] which shows considerable dispersion ranging from ~ -0.6 to ~ +1.0. This may serve as an important observational constraint for understanding the abundance peculiarities along with the physical mechanism of atomic diffusion in upper main-sequence stars of late A through late B-type including Am and HgMn stars.

Cosmology from cross correlation of CMB lensing and galaxy surveys

In recent years cross correlation of lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with other large scale structure (LSS) tracers has been used as a method to detect CMB lensing. Current experiments are also becoming sensitive enough to measure CMB lensing without the help of auxiliary tracers. As data quality improves rapidly, it has been suggested that the CMB lensing-LSS cross correlation may provide new insights into parameters describing cosmological structure growth. In this work we perform forecasts that combine the lensing potential auto power spectrum from various future CMB experiments, the galaxy power spectrum from galaxy surveys, as well as the cross power spectrum between the two, marginalizing over a number galactic and non-galactic cosmological parameters. We find that the CMB lensing-LSS cross correlation contains significant information on parameters such as the redshift distribution and bias of LSS tracers. We also find that the cross correlation information will lead to independent probes of cosmological parameters such as neutrino mass and the reionization optical depth.

Dust Scattering In Turbulent Media: Correlation Between The Scattered Light and Dust Column Density

Radiative transfer models in a spherical, turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) in which the photon source is situated at the center are calculated to investigate the correlation between the scattered light and the dust column density. The medium is modeled using fractional Brownian motion structures that are appropriate for turbulent ISM. The correlation plot between the scattered light and optical depth shows substantial scatter and deviation from simple proportionality. It was also found that the overall density contrast is smoothed out in scattered light. In other words, there is an enhancement of the dust-scattered flux in low-density regions, while the scattered flux is suppressed in high-density regions. The correlation becomes less significant as the scattering becomes closer to be isotropic and the medium becomes more turbulent. Therefore, the scattered light observed in near-infrared wavelengths would show much weaker correlation than the observations in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. We also find that the correlation plot between scattered lights at two different wavelengths shows a tighter correlation than that of the scattered light versus the optical depth.

The Metal-Rich Stars Get Richer in Planets For All But Planets With R_P <= 2 R_E

The metallicity of exoplanet systems serves as a critical diagnostic of planet formation mechanisms. Previous studies have obtained followup observations to measure the metallicity of Kepler planet candidates host stars and show that the planet-metallicity correlation holds for large planets (R_P >= 4 R_E); however, this correlation is not found for smaller planets. Here we define a sample of 1166 multi-planet candidates from Kepler Objects of Interest and use the host star metallicities from Kepler In- put Catalog to study the planet-metallicity correlation. This sample is a factor of 3-5 larger than those used in previous studies. We compare the fraction of sub-solar and super-solar metallicity stars with transiting planets. Although any sample of stars will have incompleteness in the number of detected transiting planets, we expect that these incompleteness factors essentially affect metal-poor and metal-rich stars equally. For orbital period less than 100 days, we confirm a strong planet-metallicity correlation for gas giant planets (5 R_E < R_P <= 22 R_E). The gas giant planet occurrence rate is 2.6 times higher around stars with super-solar metallicity than around stars with the sub-solar metallicity. For Neptune-like planets (2 R_E < RP <= 5 R_E), the planet occurrence rate for the super-solar metallicity sample is 1.4 times higher than the sub- solar metallicity sample. No correlation of planet occurrence rate with metallicity exists for small-radii planets (R_P <= 2 R_E).

Detection of warm and diffuse baryons in large scale structure from the cross-correlation of gravitational lensing and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect [Replacement]

We report the first detection of a correlation between gravitational lensing by large scale structure and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect. Using the mass map from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and a newly-constructed tSZ map from Planck, we measure a non-zero correlation between the two maps out to one degree angular separation on the sky, with an overall significance of 6 sigma. The tSZ maps are formed in a manner that removes primary cosmic microwave background fluctuations and minimizes residual contamination by galactic and extragalactic dust emission, and by CO line emission. We perform numerous tests to show that our measurement is immune to these residual contaminants. The resulting correlation function is consistent with the existence of a warm baryonic gas tracing the large scale structure with a bias b_gas. Given the shape of the lensing kernel, our signal sensitivity peaks at a redshift z~0.4, where half a degree separation on the sky corresponds to a physical scale of ~10 Mpc. The amplitude of the signal constrains the product (b_gas/1)(T_e / 0.1 keV)(n_e / 1 m^-3)=2.01\pm 0.31\pm 0.21, at redshift zero. Our study suggests that a substantial fraction of the "missing" baryons in the universe may reside in a low density warm plasma that traces dark matter.

Detection of warm and diffuse baryons in large scale structure from the cross-correlation of gravitational lensing and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect

We report the first detection of a correlation between gravitational lensing by large scale structure and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect. Using the mass map from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and a newly-constructed tSZ map from Planck, we measure a non-zero correlation between the two maps out to one degree angular separation on the sky, with an overall significance of 6 sigma. The tSZ maps are formed in a manner that removes primary cosmic microwave background fluctuations and minimizes residual contamination by galactic and extragalactic dust emission, and by CO line emission. We perform numerous tests to show that our measurement is immune to these residual contaminants. The resulting correlation function is consistent with the existence of a warm baryonic gas tracing the large scale structure with a bias $b_{\rm gas}$. Given the shape of the lensing kernel, our signal sensitivity peaks at a redshift z~0.4, where half a degree separation on the sky corresponds to a physical scale of ~10 Mpc. The amplitude of the signal constrains the product (b_gas/1)(T_e / 1 keV)(n_e / 1 m^-3)=2.01\pm 0.31\pm 0.21, at redshift zero. Our study suggests that a substantial fraction of the "missing" baryons in the universe may reside in a low density warm plasma that traces dark matter.

Detection of warm and diffuse baryons in large scale structure from the cross-correlation of gravitational lensing and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect [Replacement]

We report the first detection of a correlation between gravitational lensing by large scale structure and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect. Using the mass map from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and a newly-constructed tSZ map from Planck, we measure a non-zero correlation between the two maps out to one degree angular separation on the sky, with an overall significance of 6 sigma. The tSZ maps are formed in a manner that removes primary cosmic microwave background fluctuations and minimizes residual contamination by galactic and extragalactic dust emission, and by CO line emission. We perform numerous tests to show that our measurement is immune to these residual contaminants. The resulting correlation function is consistent with the existence of a warm baryonic gas tracing the large scale structure with a bias b_gas. Given the shape of the lensing kernel, our signal sensitivity peaks at a redshift z~0.4, where half a degree separation on the sky corresponds to a physical scale of ~10 Mpc. The amplitude of the signal constrains the product (b_gas/1)(T_e / 1 keV)(n_e / 1 m^-3)=2.01\pm 0.31\pm 0.21, at redshift zero. Our study suggests that a substantial fraction of the "missing" baryons in the universe may reside in a low density warm plasma that traces dark matter.

Detection of warm and diffuse baryons in large scale structure from the cross-correlation of gravitational lensing and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect [Replacement]

We report the first detection of a correlation between gravitational lensing by large scale structure and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect. Using the mass map from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and a newly-constructed tSZ map from Planck, we measure a non-zero correlation between the two maps out to one degree angular separation on the sky, with an overall significance of 6 sigma. The tSZ maps are formed in a manner that removes primary cosmic microwave background fluctuations and minimizes residual contamination by galactic and extragalactic dust emission, and by CO line emission. We perform numerous tests to show that our measurement is immune to these residual contaminants. The resulting correlation function is consistent with the existence of a warm baryonic gas tracing the large scale structure with a bias b_gas. Given the shape of the lensing kernel, our signal sensitivity peaks at a redshift z~0.4, where half a degree separation on the sky corresponds to a physical scale of ~10 Mpc. The amplitude of the signal constrains the product (b_gas/1)(T_e / 0.1 keV)(n_e / 1 m^-3)=2.01\pm 0.31\pm 0.21, at redshift zero. Our study suggests that a substantial fraction of the "missing" baryons in the universe may reside in a low density warm plasma that traces dark matter.

Quark-Novae Ia in the Hubble diagram: Implications For Dark Energy

The accelerated expansion of the Universe was proposed through the use of Type-Ia SNe as standard candles. The standardization depends on an empirical correlation between the stretch/color and peak luminosity of the light curves. The use of Type Ia SN as standard candles rests on the assumption that their properties (and this correlation) do not vary with red-shift. We consider the possibility that the majority of Type-Ia SNe are in fact caused by a Quark-Nova detonation in a tight neutron-star-CO-white-dwarf binary system; a Quark-Nova Ia. The spin-down energy injected by the Quark Nova remnant (the quark star) contributes to the post-peak light curve and neatly explains the observed correlation between peak luminosity and light curve shape. We demonstrate that the parameters describing Quark-Novae Ia are NOT constant in red-shift. Simulated Quark-Nova Ia light curves provide a test of the stretch/color correlation by comparing the true distance modulus with that determined using SN light curve fitters. We determine a correction between the true and fitted distance moduli which when applied to Type-Ia SNe in the Hubble diagram recovers the Omega_M = 1 cosmology. We conclude that Type-Ia SNe observations do not necessitate the need for an accelerating expansion of the Universe (if the observed SNe-Ia are dominated by QNe-Ia) and by association the need for Dark Energy.

 

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