Posts Tagged core

Recent Postings from core

On the age and formation mechanism of the core of the Quadrantid meteoroid stream

The Quadrantid meteor shower is among the strongest annual meteor showers, and has drawn the attention of scientists for several decades. The stream is unusual, among others, for several reasons: its very short duration around maximum activity (~12 – 14 hours) as detected by visual, photographic and radar observations, its recent onset (around 1835 AD) and because it had been the only major stream without an obvious parent body until 2003. Ever since, there have been debates as to the age of the stream and the nature of its proposed parent body, asteroid 2003 EH1. In this work, we present results on the most probable age and formation mechanism of the narrow portion of the Quadrantid meteoroid stream. For the first time we use data on eight high precision photographic Quadrantids, equivalent to gram – kilogram size, to constrain the most likely age of the core of the stream. Out of eight high-precision photographic Quadrantids, five pertain directly to the narrow portion of the stream. In addition, we also use data on five high-precision radar Quadrantids, observed within the peak of the shower. We performed backwards numerical integrations of the equations of motion of a large number of ‘clones’ of both, the eight high-precision photographic and five radar Quadrantid meteors, along with the proposed parent body, 2003 EH1. According to our results, from the backward integrations, the most likely age of the narrow structure of the Quadrantids is between 200 – 300 years. These presumed ejection epochs, corresponding to 1700 – 1800 AD, are then used for forward integrations of large numbers of hypothetical meteoroids, ejected from the parent 2003 EH$_1$, until the present epoch. The aim is to constrain whether the core of the Quadrantid meteoroid stream is consistent with a previously proposed relatively young age (~ 200 years).}

Limits on thermal variations in a dozen quiescent neutron stars over a decade

In quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) containing neutron stars, the origin of the thermal X-ray component may be either release of heat from the core of the neutron star, or continuing low-level accretion. In general, heat from the core should be stable on timescales $<10^4$ years, while continuing accretion may produce variations on a range of timescales. While some quiescent neutron stars (e.g. Cen X-4, Aql X-1) have shown variations in their thermal components on a range of timescales, several others, particularly those in globular clusters with no detectable nonthermal hard X-rays (fit with a powerlaw), have shown no measurable variations. Here, we constrain the spectral variations of 12 low mass X-ray binaries in 3 globular clusters over $\sim10$ years. We find no evidence of variations in 10 cases, with limits on temperature variations below 11% for the 7 qLMXBs without powerlaw components, and limits on variations below 20% for 3 other qLMXBs that do show non-thermal emission. However, in 2 qLMXBs showing powerlaw components in their spectra (NGC 6440 CX 1 & Terzan 5 CX 12) we find marginal evidence for a 10% decline in temperature, suggesting the presence of continuing low-level accretion. This work adds to the evidence that the thermal X-ray component in quiescent neutron stars without powerlaw components can be explained by heat deposited in the core during outbursts. Finally, we also investigate the correlation between hydrogen column density (N$_H$) and optical extinction (A$_V$) using our sample and current models of interstellar X-ray absorption, finding $N_H ({\rm cm}^{-2}) = (2.81\pm0.13)\times10^{21} A_V$.

A new period of activity in the core of NGC660

The core of the nearby galaxy NGC660 has recently undergone a spectacular radio outburst; using a combination of archival radio and Chandra X-ray data, together with new observations, the nature of this event is investigated. Radio observations made using e-MERLIN in mid-2013 show a new compact and extremely bright continuum source at the centre of the galaxy. High angular resolution observations carried out with the European VLBI Network show an obvious jet-like feature to the north east and evidence of a weak extension to the west, possibly a counter-jet. We also examine high angular resolution HI spectra of these new sources, and the radio spectral energy distribution using the new wide-band capabilities of e-MERLIN. We compare the properties of the new object with possible explanations, concluding that we are seeing a period of new AGN activity in the core of this polar ring galaxy.

Too big to be real? No depleted core in Holm 15A

Partially depleted cores, as measured by core-Sersic model "break radii", are typically tens to a few hundred parsecs in size. Here we investigate the unusually large (cusp radius of 4.57 kpc) depleted core recently reported for Holm 15A, the brightest cluster galaxy of Abell 85. We model the 1D light profile, and also the 2D image (using GALFIT-CORSAIR, a tool for fitting the core-Sersic model in 2D). We find good agreement between the 1D and 2D analyses, with minor discrepancies attributable to intrinsic ellipticity gradients. We show that a simple Sersic profile (with a low index n and no depleted core) plus the known outer exponential "halo" provide a good description of the stellar distribution. We caution that while almost every galaxy light profile will have a radius where the negative logarithmic slope of the intensity profile equals 0.5, this alone does not imply the presence of a partially depleted core within this radius.

Internal Structure of Asteroids Having Surface Shedding due to Rotational Instability

Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to such surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong enough core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.

Observational constraints on neutron star crust-core coupling during glitches

We demonstrate that observations of glitches in the Vela pulsar can be used to investigate the strength of the crust-core coupling in a neutron star, and suggest that recovery from the glitch is dominated by torque exerted by the re-coupling of superfluid components of the core that were decoupled from the crust during the glitch. Assuming that the recoupling is mediated by mutual friction between the superfluid neutrons and the charged components of the core, we use the observed magnitudes and timescales of the shortest timescale components of the recoveries from two recent glitches in the Vela pulsar to infer the fraction of the core that is coupled to the crust during the glitch, and hence spun up by the glitch event. Within the framework of a two-fluid hydrodynamic model of glitches, we analyze whether crustal neutrons alone are sufficient to drive the glitch activity observed in the Vela pulsar. We use two sets of neutron star equations of state (EOSs), both of which span crust and core consistently and cover a range of the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density $30 < L <120$ MeV. One set produces maximum masses $\approx$2.0$M_{\odot}$, the second $\approx$2.6$M_{\odot}$. We also include the effects of entrainment of crustal neutrons by the superfluid lattice. We find that for medium to stiff EOSs, observations imply $>70\%$ of the moment of inertia of the core is coupled to the crust during the glitch, though for softer EOSs $L\approx 30$MeV as little as $5\%$ could be coupled. No EOS is able to reproduce the observed glitch activity with crust neutrons alone, but extending the region where superfluid vortices are strongly pinned into the core by densities as little as 0.016fm$^{-3}$ above the crust-core transition density restores agreement with the observed glitch activity.

Unusual A2142 supercluster with a collapsing core: distribution of light and mass

We study the distribution, masses, and dynamical properties of galaxy groups in the A2142 supercluster. We analyse the global luminosity density distribution in the supercluster and divide the supercluster into the high-density core and the low-density outskirts regions. We find galaxy groups and filaments in the regions of different global density, calculate their masses and mass-to-light ratios and analyse their dynamical state with several 1D and 3D statistics. We use the spherical collapse model to study the dynamical state of the supercluster. We show that in A2142 supercluster groups and clusters with at least ten member galaxies lie along an almost straight line forming a 50 Mpc/h long main body of the supercluster. The A2142 supercluster has a very high density core surrounded by lower-density outskirt regions. The total estimated mass of the supercluster is M_est = 6.2 10^{15}M_sun. More than a half of groups with at least ten member galaxies in the supercluster lie in the high-density core of the supercluster, centered at the rich X-ray cluster A2142. Most of the galaxy groups in the core region are multimodal. In the outskirts of the supercluster, the number of groups is larger than in the core, and groups are poorer. The orientation of the cluster A2142 axis follows the orientations of its X-ray substructures and radio halo, and is aligned along the supercluster axis. The high-density core of the supercluster with the global density D8 > 17 and perhaps with D8 > 13 may have reached the turnaround radius and started to collapse. A2142 supercluster with luminous, collapsing core and straight body is an unusual object among galaxy superclusters. In the course of the future evolution the supercluster may be split into several separate systems.

Unusual A2142 supercluster with a collapsing core: distribution of light and mass [Replacement]

We study the distribution, masses, and dynamical properties of galaxy groups in the A2142 supercluster. We analyse the global luminosity density distribution in the supercluster and divide the supercluster into the high-density core and the low-density outskirts regions. We find galaxy groups and filaments in the regions of different global density, calculate their masses and mass-to-light ratios and analyse their dynamical state with several 1D and 3D statistics. We use the spherical collapse model to study the dynamical state of the supercluster. We show that in A2142 supercluster groups and clusters with at least ten member galaxies lie along an almost straight line forming a 50 Mpc/h long main body of the supercluster. The A2142 supercluster has a very high density core surrounded by lower-density outskirt regions. The total estimated mass of the supercluster is M_est = 6.2 10^{15}M_sun. More than a half of groups with at least ten member galaxies in the supercluster lie in the high-density core of the supercluster, centered at the rich X-ray cluster A2142. Most of the galaxy groups in the core region are multimodal. In the outskirts of the supercluster, the number of groups is larger than in the core, and groups are poorer. The orientation of the cluster A2142 axis follows the orientations of its X-ray substructures and radio halo, and is aligned along the supercluster axis. The high-density core of the supercluster with the global density D8 > 17 and perhaps with D8 > 13 may have reached the turnaround radius and started to collapse. A2142 supercluster with luminous, collapsing core and straight body is an unusual object among galaxy superclusters. In the course of the future evolution the supercluster may be split into several separate systems.

Angular momentum redistribution by mixed modes in evolved low-mass stars. II. Spin-down of the core of red giants induced by mixed modes

The detection of mixed modes in subgiants and red giants by the CoRoT and \emph{Kepler} space-borne missions allows us to investigate the internal structure of evolved low-mass stars. In particular, the measurement of the mean core rotation rate as a function of the evolution places stringent constraints on the physical mechanisms responsible for the angular momentum redistribution in stars. It showed that the current stellar evolution codes including the modelling of rotation fail to reproduce the observations. An additional physical process that efficiently extracts angular momentum from the core is thus necessary. Our aim is to assess the ability of mixed modes to do this. To this end, we developed a formalism that provides a modelling of the wave fluxes in both the mean angular momentum and the mean energy equations in a companion paper. In this article, mode amplitudes are modelled based on recent asteroseismic observations, and a quantitative estimate of the angular momentum transfer is obtained. This is performed for a benchmark model of 1.3 $M_{\odot}$ at three evolutionary stages, representative of the evolved pulsating stars observed by CoRoT and Kepler. We show that mixed modes extract angular momentum from the innermost regions of subgiants and red giants. However, this transport of angular momentum from the core is unlikely to counterbalance the effect of the core contraction in subgiants and early red giants. In contrast, for more evolved red giants, mixed modes are found efficient enough to balance and exceed the effect of the core contraction, in particular in the hydrogen-burning shell. Our results thus indicate that mixed modes are a promising candidate to explain the observed spin-down of the core of evolved red giants, but that an other mechanism is to be invoked for subgiants and early red giants.

Sound-Triggered Collapse of Stably Oscillating Low-Mass Cores in a Two-Phase Interstellar Medium

Inspired by Barnard 68, a Bok globule, that undergoes stable oscillations, we perform multi-phase hydrodynamic simulations to analyze the stability of Bok globules. We show that a high-density soft molecular core, with an adiabatic index $\gamma$ = 0.7 embedded in a warm isothermal diffuse gas, must have a small density gradient to retain the stability. Despite being stable, the molecular core can still collapse spontaneously as it will relax to develop a sufficiently large density gradient after tens of oscillations, or a few $10^7$ years. However, during its relaxation, the core may abruptly collapse triggered by the impingement of small-amplitude, long-wavelength ($\sim$ 6 $-$ 36 pc) sound waves in the warm gas. This triggered collapse mechanism is similar to a sonoluminescence phenomenon, where underwater ultrasounds can drive air bubble coalescence. The collapse configuration is found to be different from both inside-out and outside-in models of low-mass star formation; nonetheless the mass flux is close to the prediction of the inside-out model. The condition and the efficiency for this core collapse mechanism are identified. Generally speaking, a broad-band resonance condition must be met, where the core oscillation frequency and the wave frequency should match each other within a factor of several. A consequence of our findings predicts the possibility of propagating low-mass star formation, for which collapse of cores, within a mass range short of one order of magnitude, takes place sequentially tracing the wave front across a region of few tens of pc over $10^7$ years.

Effects of Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion on the formation and evolution of the first cores, protostars and circumstellar discs [Replacement]

We investigate the formation and evolution of a first core, protostar, and circumstellar disc with a three-dimensional non-ideal (including both Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulation. We found that the magnetic flux is largely removed by magnetic diffusion in the first core phase and that the plasma $\beta$ of the centre of the first core becomes large, $\beta>10^4$. Thus, proper treatment of first core phase is crucial in investigating the formation of protostar and disc. On the other hand, in an ideal simulation, $\beta\sim 10$ at the centre of the first core. The simulations with magnetic diffusion show that the circumstellar disc forms at almost the same time of protostar formation even with a relatively strong initial magnetic field (the value for the initial mass-to-flux ratio of the cloud core relative to the critical value is $\mu=4$). The disc has a radius of $r \sim 1$ AU at the protostar formation epoch. We confirm that the disc is rotationally supported. We also show that the disc is massive ($Q\sim 1$) and that gravitational instability may play an important role in the subsequent disc evolution.

Effects of Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion on the formation and evolution of the first cores, protostars and circumstellar discs [Replacement]

We investigate the formation and evolution of a first core, protostar, and circumstellar disc with a three-dimensional non-ideal (including both Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulation. We found that the magnetic flux is largely removed by magnetic diffusion in the first core phase and that the plasma $\beta$ of the centre of the first core becomes large, $\beta>10^4$. Thus, proper treatment of first core phase is crucial in investigating the formation of protostar and disc. On the other hand, in an ideal simulation, $\beta\sim 10$ at the centre of the first core. The simulations with magnetic diffusion show that the circumstellar disc forms at almost the same time of protostar formation even with a relatively strong initial magnetic field (the value for the initial mass-to-flux ratio of the cloud core relative to the critical value is $\mu=4$). The disc has a radius of $r \sim 1$ AU at the protostar formation epoch. We confirm that the disc is rotationally supported. We also show that the disc is massive ($Q\sim 1$) and that gravitational instability may play an important role in the subsequent disc evolution.

Effects of Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion on the formation and evolution of the first core, protostar and circumstellar disc

We investigate the formation and evolution of the first core, protostar, and circumstellar disc with a three-dimensional non-ideal (including both Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulation. We found that the magnetic flux is largely removed by magnetic diffusion in the first core phase and that the plasma $\beta$ of the centre of the first core becomes large, $\beta>10^4$. On the other hand, in an ideal simulation, $\beta\sim 10$ at the centre of the first core. Even though $\beta$ inside the first core thus differs significantly between the resistive and ideal model, the angular momentum of the first core does not. The simulations with magnetic diffusion show that the circumstellar disc forms at almost the same time of protostar formation even with a relatively strong initial magnetic field (the value for the initial mass-to-flux ratio of the cloud core relative to the critical value is $\mu=4$). The disc has a radius of $r \sim 1$ AU at the protostar formation epoch. We confirm that the disc is rotationally supported. We also show that the disc is massive ($Q\sim 1$) and that gravitational instability may play an important role in the subsequent disc evolution.

ALMA Observations of the IRDC Clump G34.43+00.24 MM3: DNC/HNC Ratio

We have observed the clump G34.43+00.24 MM3 associated with an infrared dark cloud in DNC $J$=3–2, HN$^{13}$C $J$=3–2, and N$_2$H$^+$ $J$=3–2 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The N$_2$H$^+$ emission is found to be relatively weak near the hot core and the outflows, and its distribution is clearly anti-correlated with the CS emission. This result indicates that a young outflow is interacting with cold ambient gas. The HN$^{13}$C emission is compact and mostly emanates from the hot core, whereas the DNC emission is extended around the hot core. Thus, the DNC and HN$^{13}$C emission traces warm regions near the protostar differently. The DNC emission is stronger than the HN$^{13}$C emission toward most parts of this clump. The DNC/HNC abundance ratio averaged within a $15^{\prime\prime} \times 15^{\prime\prime}$ area around the phase center is higher than 0.06. This ratio is much higher than the value obtained by the previous single-dish observations of DNC and HN$^{13}$C $J$=1–0 ($\sim$0.003). It seems likely that the DNC and HNC emission observed with the single-dish telescope traces lower density envelopes, while that observed with ALMA traces higher density and highly deuterated regions. We have compared the observational results with chemical-model results in order to investigate the behavior of DNC and HNC in the dense cores. Taking these results into account, we suggest that the low DNC/HNC ratio in the high-mass sources obtained by the single-dish observations are at least partly due to the low filling factor of the high density regions.

Analytical Model of Tidal Distortion and Dissipation for a Giant Planet with a Viscoelastic Core

We present analytical expressions for the tidal Love numbers of a giant planet with a solid core and a fluid envelope. We model the core as a uniform, incompressible, elastic solid, and the envelope as a non-viscous fluid satisfying the $n=1$ polytropic equation of state. We discuss how the Love numbers depend on the size, density, and shear modulus of the core. We then model the core as a viscoelastic Maxwell solid and compute the tidal dissipation rate in the planet as characterized by the imaginary part of the Love number $k_2$. Our results improve upon existing calculations based on planetary models with a solid core and a uniform ($n=0$) envelope. Our analytical expressions for the Love numbers can be applied to study tidal distortion and viscoelastic dissipation of giant planets with solid cores of various rheological properties, and our general method can be extended to study tidal distortion/dissipation of super-earths.

Relativistic effects on tidal disruption kicks of solitary stars [Replacement]

Solitary stars that wander too close to their galactic centres can become tidally disrupted, if the tidal forces due to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) residing there overcome the self-gravity of the star. If the star is only partially disrupted, so that a fraction survives as a self-bound object, this remaining core will experience a net gain in specific orbital energy, which translates into a velocity "kick" of up to $\sim 10^3$ km/s. In this paper, we present the result of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of such partial disruptions, and analyse the velocity kick imparted on the surviving core. We compare $\gamma$ = 5/3 and $\gamma$ = 4/3 polytropes disrupted in both a Newtonian potential, and a generalized potential that reproduces most relativistic effects around a Schwarzschild black hole either exactly or to excellent precision. For the Newtonian case, we confirm the results of previous studies that the kick velocity of the surviving core is virtually independent of the ratio of the black hole to stellar mass, and is a function of the impact parameter $\beta$ alone, reaching at most the escape velocity of the original star. For a given $\beta$, relativistic effects become increasingly important for larger black hole masses. In particular, we find that the kick velocity increases with the black hole mass, making larger kicks more common than in the Newtonian case, as low-$\beta$ encounters are statistically more likely than high-$\beta$ encounters. The analysis of the tidal tensor for the generalized potential shows that our results are robust lower limits on the true relativistic kick velocities, and are generally in very good agreement with the exact results.

Relativistic effects on tidal disruption kicks of solitary stars

Solitary stars that wander too close to their galactic centres can become tidally disrupted, if the tidal forces due to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) residing there overcome the self-gravity of the star. If the star is only partially disrupted, so that a fraction survives as a self-bound object, this remaining core will experience a net gain in specific orbital energy, which translates into a velocity "kick" of up to $\sim 10^3$ km/s. In this paper, we present the result of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of such partial disruptions, and analyse the velocity kick imparted on the surviving core. We compare $\gamma$ = 5/3 and $\gamma$ = 4/3 polytropes disrupted in both a Newtonian potential, and a generalized potential that reproduces most relativistic effects around a Schwarzschild black hole either exactly or to excellent precision. For the Newtonian case, we confirm the results of previous studies that the kick velocity of the surviving core is virtually independent of the ratio of the black hole to stellar mass, and is a function of the impact parameter $\beta$ alone, reaching at most the escape velocity of the original star. For a given $\beta$, relativistic effects become increasingly important for larger black hole masses. In particular, we find that the kick velocity increases with the black hole mass, making larger kicks more common than in the Newtonian case, as low-$\beta$ encounters are statistically more likely than high-$\beta$ encounters. The analysis of the tidal tensor for the generalized potential shows that our results are robust lower limits on the true relativistic kick velocities, and are generally in very good agreement with the exact results.

Rotation of Giant Stars [Replacement]

The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\,M_\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles $\Omega(r)$ is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the back reaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter ${\rm Co} \equiv \Omega \tau_{\rm con} \lesssim 1$ (here $\tau_{\rm con}$ is the convective time); and $\Omega(r) \propto r^{-1}$ where ${\rm Co} \gtrsim 1$. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

Spin and Magnetism of White Dwarfs [Replacement]

The magnetism and rotation of white dwarf (WD) stars are investigated in relation to a hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the progenitor during shell burning phases. The downward pumping of angular momentum in the convective envelope, in combination with the absorption of a planet or tidal spin-up from a binary companion, can trigger strong dynamo action near the core-envelope boundary. Several arguments point to the outer core as the source for a magnetic field in the WD remnant: the outer third of a $\sim 0.55\,M_\odot$ WD is processed during the shell burning phase(s) of the progenitor; the escape of magnetic helicity through the envelope mediates the growth of (compensating) helicity in the core, as is needed to maintain a stable magnetic field in the remnant; and the intense radiation flux at the core boundary facilitates magnetic buoyancy within a relatively thick tachocline layer. The helicity flux into the growing core is driven by a dynamical imbalance with a latitude-dependent rotational stress. The magnetic field deposited in an isolated massive WD is concentrated in an outer shell of mass $\lesssim 0.1\,M_\odot$ and can reach $\sim 10\,$MG. A buried toroidal field experiences moderate ohmic decay above an age $\sim 0.3$ Gyr, which may lead to growth or decay of the external magnetic field. The final WD spin period is related to a critical spin rate below which magnetic activity shuts off, and core and envelope decouple; it generally sits in the range of hours to days. WD periods ranging up to a year are possible if the envelope re-expands following a late thermal pulse.

Spin and Magnetism of White Dwarfs

The magnetism and rotation of white dwarf (WD) stars are investigated in relation to a hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the progenitor during shell burning phases. We find that the downward pumping of angular momentum in the convective envelope can, by itself, trigger dynamo action near the core-envelope boundary in an isolated intermediate-mass star. A solar-mass star must receive additional angular momentum following its rotational braking on the main sequence, either by a merger with a planet, or by tidal interaction in a stellar binary. Several arguments point to the outer core as the source for a magnetic field in the WD remnant: i) the outer third of a ~0.55$M_\odot$ WD is processed during the shell burning phases of the progenitor; ii) escape of magnetic helicity through the envelope mediates the growth of (compensating) helicity in the core, as is needed to maintain a stable magnetic field in the remnant; and iii) intense radiation flux at the core boundary facilitates magnetic buoyancy within a relatively thick tachocline layer. The helicity flux into the core is dominated by a persistent magnetic twist, which maintains solid rotation in the core against a latitude-dependent convective stress. The magnetic field deposited in an isolated massive WD can reach ~10MG, and is enhanced in strength if the star experiences an interaction with a brown dwarf or low-mass star. A buried toroidal field experiences moderate ohmic decay above an age ~1 Gyr, which may lead to growth or decay of the external magnetic field. The final WD spin period is related to a critical Coriolis parameter below which magnetic activity shuts off, and core and envelope decouple; it generally sits in the range of hours to days. A wider range of spin periods is possible when the star spins rapidly enough that core and envelope remain magnetically coupled, ranging from less than a day up to a year. (abridged)

Spin and Magnetism of White Dwarfs [Replacement]

The magnetism and rotation of white dwarf (WD) stars are investigated in relation to a hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the progenitor during shell burning phases. We find that the downward pumping of angular momentum in the convective envelope can, by itself, trigger dynamo action near the core-envelope boundary in an isolated intermediate-mass star. A solar-mass star must receive additional angular momentum following its rotational braking on the main sequence, either by a merger with a planet, or by tidal interaction in a stellar binary. Several arguments point to the outer core as the source for a magnetic field in the WD remnant: i) the outer third of a ~0.55$M_\odot$ WD is processed during the shell burning phases of the progenitor; ii) escape of magnetic helicity through the envelope mediates the growth of (compensating) helicity in the core, as is needed to maintain a stable magnetic field in the remnant; and iii) intense radiation flux at the core boundary facilitates magnetic buoyancy within a relatively thick tachocline layer. The helicity flux into the core is dominated by a persistent magnetic twist, which maintains solid rotation in the core against a latitude-dependent convective stress. The magnetic field deposited in an isolated massive WD can reach ~10MG, and is enhanced in strength if the star experiences an interaction with a brown dwarf or low-mass star. A buried toroidal field experiences moderate ohmic decay above an age ~1 Gyr, which may lead to growth or decay of the external magnetic field. The final WD spin period is related to a critical Coriolis parameter below which magnetic activity shuts off, and core and envelope decouple; it generally sits in the range of hours to days. A wider range of spin periods is possible when the star spins rapidly enough that core and envelope remain magnetically coupled, ranging from less than a day up to a year. (abridged)

Supernova Seismology: Gravitational Wave Signatures of Rapidly Rotating Core Collapse

Gravitational waves (GW) generated during a core-collapse supernova open a window into the heart of the explosion. At core bounce, progenitors with rapid core rotation rates exhibit a characteristic GW signal which can be used to constrain the properties of the core of the progenitor star. We investigate the dynamics of rapidly rotating core collapse, focusing on hydrodynamic waves generated by the core bounce and the GW spectrum they produce. The centrifugal distortion of the rapidly rotating proto-neutron star (PNS) leads to the generation of axisymmetric quadrupolar oscillations within the PNS and surrounding envelope. Using linear perturbation theory, we estimate the frequencies, amplitudes, damping times, and GW spectra of the oscillations. Our analysis provides a qualitative explanation for several features of the GW spectrum and shows reasonable agreement with nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations, although a few discrepancies due to non-linear/rotational effects are evident. The dominant early postbounce GW signal is produced by the fundamental quadrupolar oscillation mode of the PNS, at a frequency $0.70 \, {\rm kHz} \lesssim f \lesssim 0.80\,{\rm kHz}$, whose energy is largely trapped within the PNS and leaks out on a $\sim\!10$ ms timescale. Quasi-radial oscillations are not trapped within the PNS and quickly propagate outwards until they steepen into shocks. Both the PNS structure and Coriolis/centrifugal forces have a strong impact on the GW spectrum, and a detection of the GW signal can therefore be used to constrain progenitor properties.

Supernova Seismology: Gravitational Wave Signatures of Rapidly Rotating Core Collapse [Replacement]

Gravitational waves (GW) generated during a core-collapse supernova open a window into the heart of the explosion. At core bounce, progenitors with rapid core rotation rates exhibit a characteristic GW signal which can be used to constrain the properties of the core of the progenitor star. We investigate the dynamics of rapidly rotating core collapse, focusing on hydrodynamic waves generated by the core bounce and the GW spectrum they produce. The centrifugal distortion of the rapidly rotating proto-neutron star (PNS) leads to the generation of axisymmetric quadrupolar oscillations within the PNS and surrounding envelope. Using linear perturbation theory, we estimate the frequencies, amplitudes, damping times, and GW spectra of the oscillations. Our analysis provides a qualitative explanation for several features of the GW spectrum and shows reasonable agreement with nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations, although a few discrepancies due to non-linear/rotational effects are evident. The dominant early postbounce GW signal is produced by the fundamental quadrupolar oscillation mode of the PNS, at a frequency $0.70 \, {\rm kHz} \lesssim f \lesssim 0.80\,{\rm kHz}$, whose energy is largely trapped within the PNS and leaks out on a $\sim\!10$ ms timescale. Quasi-radial oscillations are not trapped within the PNS and quickly propagate outwards until they steepen into shocks. Both the PNS structure and Coriolis/centrifugal forces have a strong impact on the GW spectrum, and a detection of the GW signal can therefore be used to constrain progenitor properties.

Persistent crust-core spin lag in neutron stars

It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus’ field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star’s birth.

Persistent crust-core spin lag in neutron stars [Replacement]

It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus’ field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star’s birth.

Multi-epoch, multi-frequency VLBI study of the parsec-scale jet in the blazar 3C 66A

We present the observational results of the Gamma-ray blazar, 3C 66A, at 2.3, 8.4, and 22 GHz at 4 epochs during 2004-05 with the VLBA. The resulting images show an overall core-jet structure extending roughly to the south with two intermediate breaks occurring in the region near the core. By model-fitting to the visibility data, the northmost component, which is also the brightest, is identified as the core according to its relatively flat spectrum and its compactness. As combined with some previous results to investigate the proper motions of the jet components, it is found the kinematics of 3C 66A is quite complicated with components of inward and outward, subluminal and superluminal motions all detected in the radio structure. The superluminal motions indicate strong Doppler boosting exists in the jet. The apparent inward motions of the innermost components last for at least 10 years and could not be caused by new-born components. The possible reason could be non-stationarity of the core due to opacity change.

Extragalactic sources in Cosmic Microwave Background maps

We discuss the potential of a next generation space-borne CMB experiment for studies of extragalactic sources with reference to COrE+, a project submitted to ESA in response to the M4 call. We consider three possible options for the telescope size: 1m, 1.5m and 2m (although the last option is probably impractical, given the M4 boundary conditions). The proposed instrument will be far more sensitive than Planck and will have a diffraction-limited angular resolution. These properties imply that even the 1m telescope option will perform substantially better than Planck for studies of extragalactic sources. The source detection limits as a function of frequency have been estimated by means of realistic simulations. The most significant improvements over Planck results are presented for each option. COrE+ will provide much larger samples of truly local star-forming galaxies, making possible analyses of the properties of galaxies (luminosity functions, dust mass functions, star formation rate functions, dust temperature distributions, etc.) across the Hubble sequence. Even more interestingly, COrE+ will detect, at |b|> 30 deg, thousands of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies. Such large samples are of extraordinary astrophysical and cosmological value in many fields. Moreover, COrE+ high frequency maps will be optimally suited to pick up proto-clusters of dusty galaxies, i.e. to investigate the evolution of large scale structure at larger redshifts than can be reached by other means. Thanks to its high sensitivity COrE+ will also yield a spectacular advance in the blind detection of extragalactic sources in polarization. This will open a new window for studies of radio source polarization and of the global properties of magnetic fields in star forming galaxies and of their relationships with SFRs.

Extragalactic sources in Cosmic Microwave Background maps [Replacement]

We discuss the potential of a next generation space-borne CMB experiment for studies of extragalactic sources with reference to COrE+, a project submitted to ESA in response to the M4 call. We consider three possible options for the telescope size: 1m, 1.5m and 2m (although the last option is probably impractical, given the M4 boundary conditions). The proposed instrument will be far more sensitive than Planck and will have a diffraction-limited angular resolution. These properties imply that even the 1m telescope option will perform substantially better than Planck for studies of extragalactic sources. The source detection limits as a function of frequency have been estimated by means of realistic simulations. The most significant improvements over Planck results are presented for each option. COrE+ will provide much larger samples of truly local star-forming galaxies, making possible analyses of the properties of galaxies (luminosity functions, dust mass functions, star formation rate functions, dust temperature distributions, etc.) across the Hubble sequence. Even more interestingly, COrE+ will detect, at |b|> 30 deg, thousands of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies. Such large samples are of extraordinary astrophysical and cosmological value in many fields. Moreover, COrE+ high frequency maps will be optimally suited to pick up proto-clusters of dusty galaxies, i.e. to investigate the evolution of large scale structure at larger redshifts than can be reached by other means. Thanks to its high sensitivity COrE+ will also yield a spectacular advance in the blind detection of extragalactic sources in polarization. This will open a new window for studies of radio source polarization and of the global properties of magnetic fields in star forming galaxies and of their relationships with SFRs.

Efficient star cluster formation in the core of a galaxy cluster: The dwarf irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax

Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dIrr galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling towards the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes in a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshits. Using HST/ACS and auxiliary VLT/FORS ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ~4×10^6 yr and stellar masses from a few thousand up to ~3×10^4 Msun, slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and IMF. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Halpha imaging data to determine the current Star Formation Rate (SFR) in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Gamma, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Gamma to be exceptionally large, even after conservatively accounting for the possibility of contamination from intra-cluster light and other modelling uncertainties, implying that recent star formation predominantly occurred in star cluster complexes. This is the first time such high star cluster formation efficiency is reported in a dwarf galaxy within the confines of a galaxy cluster, strongly hinting at the possibility that is being triggered by its passage through the cluster environment.

Efficient star cluster formation in the core of a galaxy cluster: The dwarf irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax [Replacement]

Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dIrr galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling towards the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes in a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshifts. Using HST/ACS and auxiliary VLT/FORS ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ~4×10^6 yr and stellar masses from a few thousand up to ~3×10^4 Msun, slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and IMF. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Ha imaging data to determine the current Star Formation Rate (SFR) in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Gamma, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Gamma to be exceptionally large, even after conservatively accounting for the possibility of contamination from intra-cluster light and other modelling uncertainties, implying that recent star formation predominantly occurred in star cluster complexes. This is the first time such high star cluster formation efficiency is reported in a dwarf galaxy within the confines of a galaxy cluster, strongly hinting at the possibility that is being triggered by its passage through the cluster environment.

G305.136+0.068: A massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution

We report molecular line observations, made with ASTE and SEST, and dust continuum observations at 0.87 mm, made with APEX, towards the cold dust core G305.136+0.068. The molecular observations show that the core is isolated and roughly circularly symmetric and imply that it has a mass of $1.1\times10^3~M_\odot$. A simultaneous model fitting of the spectra observed in four transitions of CS, using a non-LTE radiative transfer code, indicates that the core is centrally condensed, with the density decreasing with radius as $r^{-1.8}$, and that the turbulent velocity increases towards the center. The dust observations also indicate that the core is highly centrally condensed and that the average column density is 1.1 g cm$^{-2}$, value slightly above the theoretical threshold required for the formation of high mass stars. A fit to the spectral energy distribution of the emission from the core indicates a dust temperature of $17\pm2$ K, confirming that the core is cold. Spitzer images show that the core is seen in silhouette from 3.6 to 24.0 $\mu$m and that is surrounded by an envelope of emission, presumably tracing an externally excited photo-dissociated region. We found two embedded sources within a region of 20" centered at the peak of the core, one of which is young, has a luminosity of $66~L_\odot$ and is accreting mass with a high accretion rate, of $\sim1\times10^{-4}~M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We suggest that this object corresponds to the seed of a high mass protostar still in the process of formation. The present observations support the hypothesis that G305.136+0.068 is a massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution, in which the formation of a high mass star has just started.

Vacuum currents induced by a magnetic flux around a cosmic string with finite core [Cross-Listing]

We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a massive complex scalar field in the generalized geometry of a straight cosmic string with a finite core enclosing an arbitrary distributed magnetic flux along the string axis. For the interior geometry, a general cylindrically symmetric static metric tensor is used with finite support. In the region outside the core, both the Hadamard function and the current density are decomposed into the idealized zero-thickness cosmic string and core-induced contributions. The only nonzero component corresponds to the azimuthal current. The zero-thickness part of the latter is a periodic function of the magnetic flux inside the core, with the period equal to the quantum flux. As a consequence of the direct interaction of the quantum field with the magnetic field inside the penetrable core, the core-induced contribution, in general, is not a periodic function of the flux. In addition, the vacuum current, in general, is not a monotonic function of the distance from the string and may change the sign. For a general model of the core interior, we also evaluate the magnetic fields generated by the vacuum current. As applications of the general results, we have considered an impenetrable core modeled by Robin boundary condition, a core with the Minkowski-like interior and a core with a constant positive curvature space. Various exactly solvable distributions of the magnetic flux are discussed.

Vacuum currents induced by a magnetic flux around a cosmic string with finite core [Cross-Listing]

We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a massive complex scalar field in the generalized geometry of a straight cosmic string with a finite core enclosing an arbitrary distributed magnetic flux along the string axis. For the interior geometry, a general cylindrically symmetric static metric tensor is used with finite support. In the region outside the core, both the Hadamard function and the current density are decomposed into the idealized zero-thickness cosmic string and core-induced contributions. The only nonzero component corresponds to the azimuthal current. The zero-thickness part of the latter is a periodic function of the magnetic flux inside the core, with the period equal to the quantum flux. As a consequence of the direct interaction of the quantum field with the magnetic field inside the penetrable core, the core-induced contribution, in general, is not a periodic function of the flux. In addition, the vacuum current, in general, is not a monotonic function of the distance from the string and may change the sign. For a general model of the core interior, we also evaluate the magnetic fields generated by the vacuum current. As applications of the general results, we have considered an impenetrable core modeled by Robin boundary condition, a core with the Minkowski-like interior and a core with a constant positive curvature space. Various exactly solvable distributions of the magnetic flux are discussed.

Vacuum currents induced by a magnetic flux around a cosmic string with finite core

We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a massive complex scalar field in the generalized geometry of a straight cosmic string with a finite core enclosing an arbitrary distributed magnetic flux along the string axis. For the interior geometry, a general cylindrically symmetric static metric tensor is used with finite support. In the region outside the core, both the Hadamard function and the current density are decomposed into the idealized zero-thickness cosmic string and core-induced contributions. The only nonzero component corresponds to the azimuthal current. The zero-thickness part of the latter is a periodic function of the magnetic flux inside the core, with the period equal to the quantum flux. As a consequence of the direct interaction of the quantum field with the magnetic field inside the penetrable core, the core-induced contribution, in general, is not a periodic function of the flux. In addition, the vacuum current, in general, is not a monotonic function of the distance from the string and may change the sign. For a general model of the core interior, we also evaluate the magnetic fields generated by the vacuum current. As applications of the general results, we have considered an impenetrable core modeled by Robin boundary condition, a core with the Minkowski-like interior and a core with a constant positive curvature space. Various exactly solvable distributions of the magnetic flux are discussed.

Colliding Filaments and a Massive Dense Core in the Cygnus OB 7 Molecular Cloud

We report results of molecular line observations carried out toward a massive dense core in the Cyg OB 7 molecular cloud. The core has an extraordinarily large mass ($\sim1.1 \times 10^4$ $M_\odot$) and size ($\sim2 \times 5$ pc$^2$), but there is no massive young star forming therein. We observed this core in various molecular lines such as C$^{18}$O($J=1-0$) using the 45m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. We find that the core has an elongated morphology consisting of several filaments and core-like structures. The filaments are massive ($10^2-10^3$ $M_\odot$), and they are apparently colliding against each other. Some candidates of YSOs are distributed around their intersection, suggesting that the collisions of the filaments may have influenced on their formation. To understand the formation and evolution of such colliding filaments, we performed numerical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique adopting the observed core parameters (e.g., the mass and size) as the initial conditions. Results indicate that the filaments are formed as seen in other earlier simulations for small cores in literature, but we could not reproduce the collisions of the filaments simply by assuming the large initial mass and size. We find that the collisions of the filaments occur only when there is a large velocity gradient in the initial core in a sense to compress it. We suggest that the observed core was actually compressed by an external effect, e.g., shocks of nearby supernova remnants including HB21 which has been suggested to be interacting with the Cyg OB 7 molecular cloud.

A Radio and X-ray Study of the Merging Cluster A2319

A2319 is a massive, merging galaxy cluster with a previously detected radio halo that roughly follows the X-ray emitting gas. We present the results from recent observations of A2319 at 20 cm with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and a re-analysis of the X-ray observations from XMM-Newton, to investigate the interactions between the thermal and nonthermal components of the ICM . We confirm previous reports of an X-ray cold front, and report on the discovery of a distinct core to the radio halo, 800 kpc in extent, that is strikingly similar in morphology to the X-ray emission, and drops sharply in brightness at the cold front. We detect additional radio emission trailing off from the core, which blends smoothly into the 2 Mpc halo detected with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT; Farnsworth et al., 2013). We speculate on the possible mechanisms for such a two-component radio halo, with sloshing playing a dominant role in the core. By directly comparing the X-ray and radio emission, we find that a hadronic origin for the cosmic ray electrons responsible for the radio halo would require a magnetic field and/or cosmic ray proton distribution that increases with radial distance from the cluster center, and is therefore disfavored.

A metal-rich elongated structure in the core of the group NGC4325 [Replacement]

We used X-ray 2D spectrally resolved maps to resolve structure in temperature and metal abundance. To perform stellar population analysis we applied the spectral fitting technique with STARLIGHT to the optical spectrum of the central galaxy. We simulated the chemical evolution of the central galaxy. While the temperature, pseudo-pressure, and pseudo-entropy maps showed no inhomogeneities, the iron spatial distribution shows a filamentary structure in the core of this group, which is spatially correlated with the central galaxy, suggesting a connection between the two. The analysis of the optical spectrum of the central galaxy showed no contribution by any recent AGN activity. Using the star formation history as input to chemical evolution models, we predicted the iron and oxygen mass released by supernovae (SNe) winds in the central galaxy up to the present time. Comparing the predicted amount of mass released by the NGC4325 galaxy to the ones derived through X-ray analysis we conclude that the winds from the central galaxy alone play a minor role in the IGM metal enrichment of this group inside r2500. The SNe winds are responsible for no more than 3% of it and of the iron mass and 21% of the oxygen mass enclosed within r2500. Our results suggest that oxygen has been produced in the early stages of the group formation, becoming well mixed and leading to an almost flat profile. Instead, the iron distribution is centrally peaked, indicating that this element is still being added to the IGM specifically in the core by the SNIa. A possible scenario to explain the elongated iron-rich structure in the core of the NGC4325 is a past AGN activity, in which our results suggest an episode older than ~10^7-10^8 yrs and younger than 5×10^8.

An elongated iron-rich structure in the core of the group NGC4325

We used X-ray 2D spectrally resolved maps to resolve structure in temperature and metal abundance. To perform stellar population analysis we applied the spectral fitting technique with STARLIGHT to the optical spectrum of the central galaxy. To simulate the chemical evolution of the central galaxy we adopted the codes of Lanfranchi & Matteucci (2003,2004) While the temperature, pseudo-pressure and pseudo-entropy maps showed no inhomogeneities, the iron spatial distribution shows a filamentary structure in the core of this group, which is spatially correlated with the central galaxy, suggesting a connection between the two. The analysis of the optical spectrum of the central galaxy showed no contribution of any recent AGN activity. Using the star formation history as an input to chemical evolution models, we predicted the iron and oxygen mass released by supernovae (SNe) winds in the central galaxy up to the present time. Comparing the predicted amount of mass released by the NGC4325 galaxy to the ones derived through X-ray analysis we conclude that the winds from the central galaxy alone play a minor role in the IGM metal enrichment of this group inside r2500. The SNe winds are responsible for not more than 3% and of the iron mass and 21% of the oxygen mass enclosed within r2500. Our results suggest that oxygen has been produced in the early stages of the group formation, becoming well mixed and leading to an almost flat profile. Instead, the iron distribution is centrally peaked indicating that this element is still being added to the IGM specifically in the core by the SNIa. A possible scenario to explain the elongated iron-rich structure in the core of the NGC4325 is a past AGN activity, in which our results suggest an episode older than ~10^7-10^8 yrs and younger than 5×10^8.

The growth of the galaxy cluster Abell 85: mergers, shocks, stripping and seeding of clumping [Replacement]

We present the results of deep Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 85, which is currently undergoing at least two mergers, and in addition shows evidence for gas sloshing which extends out to r ~ 600 kpc. One of the two infalling subclusters, to the south of the main cluster center, has a dense, X-ray bright cool core and a tail extending to the southeast. The northern edge of this tail is strikingly smooth and sharp (narrower than the Coulomb mean free path of the ambient gas) over a length of 200 kpc, while toward the southwest the boundary of the tail is blurred and bent, indicating a difference in the plasma transport properties between these two edges. The thermodynamic structure of the tail strongly supports an overall northwestward motion. We propose, that a sloshing-induced tangential, ambient, coherent gas flow is bending the tail eastward. The brightest galaxy of this subcluster is at the leading edge of the dense core, and is trailed by the tail of stripped gas, suggesting that the cool core of the subcluster has been almost completely destroyed by the time it reached its current radius of r ~ 500 kpc. The surface-brightness excess, likely associated with gas stripped from the infalling southern subcluster, extends toward the southeast out to at least r_500 of the main cluster, indicating that the stripping of infalling subclusters may seed gas inhomogeneities. The second merging subcluster appears to be a diffuse non-cool core system. Its merger is likely supersonic with a Mach number of ~ 1.4.

The growth of the galaxy cluster Abell 85: mergers, shocks, stripping and seeding of clumping

We present the results of deep Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 85, which is currently undergoing at least two mergers, and in addition shows evidence for gas sloshing which extends out to r~600 kpc. One of the two infalling subclusters, to the south of the main cluster center, has a dense, X-ray bright cool core and a tail extending to the southeast. The northern edge of this tail is strikingly smooth and sharp (narrower than the Coulomb mean free path of the ambient gas) over a length of 200 kpc, while toward the southwest the boundary of the tail is blurred and bent, indicating a difference in the plasma transport properties between these two edges. The thermodynamic structure of the tail strongly supports an overall northwestward motion, with a sloshing-induced tangential ambient gas bulk flow bending the tail eastward. The brightest galaxy of this subcluster is at the leading edge of the dense core, and is trailed by the tail of stripped gas, suggesting that the cool core of the subcluster has been almost completely destroyed by the time it reached its current radius of r~500 kpc. The tail of the subcluster is visibly clumpy, and we see a clumpy surface-brightness excess extending toward the southeast out to at least r_500 of the main cluster. Thus, it appears that gas stripping from infalling subclusters can efficiently seed clumping in the intracluster medium. The second merging subcluster appears to be a diffuse non-cool core system. Its merger is supersonic with a Mach number of ~1.4.

Exploring the origin of a large cavity in Abell 1795 using deep Chandra observations

We examine deep stacked Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 1795 (over 700ks) to study in depth a large (34 kpc radius) cavity in the X-ray emission. Curiously, despite the large energy required to form this cavity (4PV=4×10^60 erg), there is no obvious counterpart to the cavity on the opposite side of the cluster, which would be expected if it has formed due to jets from the central AGN inflating bubbles. There is also no radio emission associated with the cavity, and no metal enhancement or filaments between it and the BCG, which are normally found for bubbles inflated by AGN which have risen from the core. One possibility is that this is an old ghost cavity, and that gas sloshing has dominated the distribution of metals around the core. Projection effects, particularly the long X-ray bright filament to the south east, may prevent us from seeing the companion bubble on the opposite side of the cluster core. We calculate that such a companion bubble would easily have been able to uplift the gas in the southern filament from the core. Interestingly, it has recently been found that inside the cavity is a highly variable X-ray point source coincident with a small dwarf galaxy. Given the remarkable spatial correlation of this point source and the X-ray cavity, we explore the possibility that an outburst from this dwarf galaxy in the past could have led to the formation of the cavity, but find this to be an unlikely scenario.

Dynamics of the envelope of a rapidly rotating star or giant planet in gravitational contraction

We wish to understand the processes that control the fluid flows of a gravitationally contracting and rotating star or giant planet. We consider a spherical shell containing an incompressible fluid that is slowly absorbed by the core so as to mimick gravitational contraction. We also consider the effects of a stable stratification that may also modify the dynamics of a pre-main sequence star of intermediate mass. This simple model reveals the importance of both the Stewartson layer attached to the core and the boundary conditions met by the fluid at the surface of the object. In the case of a pre-main sequence star of intermediate mass where the envelope is stably stratified, shortly after the birth line, the spin-up flow driven by contraction overwhelms the baroclinic flow that would take place otherwise.This model also shows that for a contracting envelope, a self-similar flow of growing amplitude controls the dynamics. It suggests that initial conditions on the birth line are most probably forgotten. Finally, the model shows that the near (Stewartson) layer that lies on the tangent cylinder of the core is likely a key feature of the dynamics that is missing in 1D models.This layer can explain the core and envelope rotational coupling that is required to explain the slow rotation of cores in giant and subgiants stars.

Unveiling the near-infrared structure of the massive-young stellar object NGC3603 IRS 9A with sparse aperture masking and spectroastrometry

According to the current theories, massive stars gather mass during their initial phases via accreting disk-like structures. However, those disks have remained elusive for massive young objects. This is mainly because of the observational challenges due to the large distances at which they are located, their rareness, and the high interstellar extinction. Therefore, the study of each young massive stellar object matters. NGC 3603 IRS 9A is a young massive stellar object still surrounded by an envelope of molecular gas. Previous mid-infrared observations with long-baseline interferometry provided evidence for a disk of 50 mas diameter at its core. This work studies the IRS 9A physics and morphology at near-infrared wavelengths. This study analyzed new sparse aperture masking data taken with NACO/VLT at K s and Lp filters in addition to archive CRIRES spectra of the H2 and Br_gamma lines. The calibrated visibilities trends of the Ks and Lp bands suggest the presence of a partially resolved compact object of 30 mas at the core of IRS 9A, and the presence of over-resolved flux. The spectroastrometric signal of the H2 line shows that this spectral feature proceeds from the large scale extended emission (300 mas), while the Br_gamma line appears to be formed at the core of the object (20 mas). Our best model supports the existence of the aforementioned compact disk, and the presence of an outer envelope with a polar cavity. This model also reproduces the MIR morphology previously derived in the literature. Furthermore, it also describes consistently the SED of the source. Moreover, the Br_gamma spectroastrometric signal suggests that the core of IRS 9A is more complex and that asymmetries in the disk and/or binary should be consider. New high-resolution observations are thus required to confirm the aforementioned hypothesis and to complement the physical scenario of IRS 9A.

Unveiling the near-infrared structure of the massive-young stellar object NGC 3603 IRS 9A with sparse aperture masking and spectroastrometry [Replacement]

Contemporary theory holds that massive stars gather mass during their initial phases via accreting disk-like structures. However, conclusive evidence for disks has remained elusive for the most massive young objects. This is mainly due to significant observational challenges. Incisive studies, even targeting individual objects, are therefore relevant to the progression of the field. NGC 3603 IRS 9A* is a young massive stellar object still surrounded by an envelope of molecular gas. Previous mid-infrared observations with long-baseline interferometry provided evidence for a disk of 50 mas diameter at its core. This work aims at a comprehensive study of the physics and morphology of IRS 9A physics at near-infrared wavelengths. New sparse aperture masking interferometry data taken with NaCo/VLT at Ks and Lp filters were obtained and analyzed together with archival CRIRES spectra of the H2 and BrG lines. The calibrated visibilities recorded at Ks and Lp bands suggest the presence of a partially resolved compact object of 30 mas at the core of IRS 9A, together with the presence of over-resolved flux. The spectroastrometric signal of the H2 line shows that this spectral feature proceeds from the large scale extended emission (300 mas) of IRS 9A, while the BrG line appears to be formed at the core of the object (20 mas). Our best model supports the existence of a compact disk together with an outer envelope exhibiting a polar cavity with an opening angle of 30 deg. This model reproduces the MIR morphology previously derived in the literature and also matches the SED of the source. On the other hand, the spectroastrometric signal of the BrG line shows that some component, but not all, of the ionized gas shares the disk’s orbital plane. This scenario is consistent with the brightness distribution of the source for near- and mid-infrared wavelengths at various spatial scales.

Detecting gravity modes in the solar $^8B$ neutrino flux

The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the $^{8}B$ neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order $2$, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun’s core is smaller than $5.8\times 10^{-4}$. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the $^8B$ neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the $^{8}B$ neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

Detecting gravity modes in the solar $^8B$ neutrino flux [Cross-Listing]

The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the $^{8}B$ neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order $2$, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun’s core is smaller than $5.8\times 10^{-4}$. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the $^8B$ neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the $^{8}B$ neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

Feedback, scatter and structure in the core of the PKS 0745-191 galaxy cluster

We present Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the core of the galaxy cluster PKS 0745-191. Its centre shows X-ray cavities caused by AGN feedback and cold fronts with an associated spiral structure. The cavity energetics imply they are powerful enough to compensate for cooling. Despite the evidence for AGN feedback, the Chandra and XMM-RGS X-ray spectra are consistent with a few hundred solar masses per year cooling out of the X-ray phase, sufficient to power the emission line nebula. The coolest X-ray emitting gas and brightest nebula emission is offset by around 5 kpc from the radio and X-ray nucleus. Although the cluster has a regular appearance, its core shows density, temperature and pressure deviations over the inner 100 kpc, likely associated with the cold fronts. After correcting for ellipticity and projection effects, we estimate density fluctuations of ~4 per cent, while temperature, pressure and entropy have variations of 10-12 per cent. We describe a new code, MBPROJ, able to accurately obtain thermodynamical cluster profiles, under the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. The forward-fitting code compares model to observed profiles using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and is applicable to surveys, operating on 1000 or fewer counts. In PKS0745 a very low gravitational acceleration is preferred within 40 kpc radius from the core, indicating a lack of hydrostatic equilibrium, deviations from spherical symmetry or non-thermal sources of pressure.

Thermal conductivity due to phonons in the core of superfluid neutron stars [Replacement]

We compute the contribution of phonons to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the phonon scattering rates, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. We also calculate the phonon dispersion law beyond linear order, which depends on the gap of superfluid neutron matter. With all these ingredients, we solve the Boltzmann equation numerically using a variational approach. We find that the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ is dominated by combined small and large angle binary collisions. As in the color-flavor-locked superfluid, we find that our result can be well approximated by $\kappa \propto 1/ \Delta^6$, where $\Delta$ is the neutron gap, the constant of proportionality depending on the density. We further comment on the possible relevance of electron and superfluid phonon collisions in obtaining the total contribution to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars.

Thermal conductivity due to phonons in the core of superfluid neutron stars

We compute the contribution of phonons to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the phonon scattering rates, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. We also calculate the phonon dispersion law beyond linear order, which depends on the gap of superfluid neutron matter. With all these ingredients, we solve the Boltzmann equation numerically using a variational approach. We find that the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ is dominated by combined small and large angle binary collisions. As in the color-flavor-locked superfluid, we find that our result can be well approximated by $\kappa \propto 1/ \Delta^6$, where $\Delta$ is the neutron gap, the constant of proportionality depending on the density. We further comment on the possible relevance of electron and superfluid phonon collisions in obtaining the total contribution to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars.

Thermal conductivity due to phonons in the core of superfluid neutron stars [Replacement]

We compute the contribution of phonons to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the phonon scattering rates, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. We also calculate the phonon dispersion law beyond linear order, which depends on the gap of superfluid neutron matter. With all these ingredients, we solve the Boltzmann equation numerically using a variational approach. We find that the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ is dominated by combined small and large angle binary collisions. As in the color-flavor-locked superfluid, we find that our result can be well approximated by $\kappa \propto 1/ \Delta^6$, where $\Delta$ is the neutron gap, the constant of proportionality depending on the density. We further comment on the possible relevance of electron and superfluid phonon collisions in obtaining the total contribution to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars.

 

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