Posts Tagged core

Recent Postings from core

Effects of Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion on the formation and evolution of the first core, protostar and circumstellar disc

We investigate the formation and evolution of the first core, protostar, and circumstellar disc with a three-dimensional non-ideal (including both Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulation. We found that the magnetic flux is largely removed by magnetic diffusion in the first core phase and that the plasma $\beta$ of the centre of the first core becomes large, $\beta>10^4$. On the other hand, in an ideal simulation, $\beta\sim 10$ at the centre of the first core. Even though $\beta$ inside the first core thus differs significantly between the resistive and ideal model, the angular momentum of the first core does not. The simulations with magnetic diffusion show that the circumstellar disc forms at almost the same time of protostar formation even with a relatively strong initial magnetic field (the value for the initial mass-to-flux ratio of the cloud core relative to the critical value is $\mu=4$). The disc has a radius of $r \sim 1$ AU at the protostar formation epoch. We confirm that the disc is rotationally supported. We also show that the disc is massive ($Q\sim 1$) and that gravitational instability may play an important role in the subsequent disc evolution.

ALMA Observations of the IRDC Clump G34.43+00.24 MM3: DNC/HNC Ratio

We have observed the clump G34.43+00.24 MM3 associated with an infrared dark cloud in DNC $J$=3–2, HN$^{13}$C $J$=3–2, and N$_2$H$^+$ $J$=3–2 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The N$_2$H$^+$ emission is found to be relatively weak near the hot core and the outflows, and its distribution is clearly anti-correlated with the CS emission. This result indicates that a young outflow is interacting with cold ambient gas. The HN$^{13}$C emission is compact and mostly emanates from the hot core, whereas the DNC emission is extended around the hot core. Thus, the DNC and HN$^{13}$C emission traces warm regions near the protostar differently. The DNC emission is stronger than the HN$^{13}$C emission toward most parts of this clump. The DNC/HNC abundance ratio averaged within a $15^{\prime\prime} \times 15^{\prime\prime}$ area around the phase center is higher than 0.06. This ratio is much higher than the value obtained by the previous single-dish observations of DNC and HN$^{13}$C $J$=1–0 ($\sim$0.003). It seems likely that the DNC and HNC emission observed with the single-dish telescope traces lower density envelopes, while that observed with ALMA traces higher density and highly deuterated regions. We have compared the observational results with chemical-model results in order to investigate the behavior of DNC and HNC in the dense cores. Taking these results into account, we suggest that the low DNC/HNC ratio in the high-mass sources obtained by the single-dish observations are at least partly due to the low filling factor of the high density regions.

Analytical Model of Tidal Distortion and Dissipation for a Giant Planet with a Viscoelastic Core

We present analytical expressions for the tidal Love numbers of a giant planet with a solid core and a fluid envelope. We model the core as a uniform, incompressible, elastic solid, and the envelope as a non-viscous fluid satisfying the $n=1$ polytropic equation of state. We discuss how the Love numbers depend on the size, density, and shear modulus of the core. We then model the core as a viscoelastic Maxwell solid and compute the tidal dissipation rate in the planet as characterized by the imaginary part of the Love number $k_2$. Our results improve upon existing calculations based on planetary models with a solid core and a uniform ($n=0$) envelope. Our analytical expressions for the Love numbers can be applied to study tidal distortion and viscoelastic dissipation of giant planets with solid cores of various rheological properties, and our general method can be extended to study tidal distortion/dissipation of super-earths.

Relativistic effects on tidal disruption kicks of solitary stars [Replacement]

Solitary stars that wander too close to their galactic centres can become tidally disrupted, if the tidal forces due to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) residing there overcome the self-gravity of the star. If the star is only partially disrupted, so that a fraction survives as a self-bound object, this remaining core will experience a net gain in specific orbital energy, which translates into a velocity "kick" of up to $\sim 10^3$ km/s. In this paper, we present the result of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of such partial disruptions, and analyse the velocity kick imparted on the surviving core. We compare $\gamma$ = 5/3 and $\gamma$ = 4/3 polytropes disrupted in both a Newtonian potential, and a generalized potential that reproduces most relativistic effects around a Schwarzschild black hole either exactly or to excellent precision. For the Newtonian case, we confirm the results of previous studies that the kick velocity of the surviving core is virtually independent of the ratio of the black hole to stellar mass, and is a function of the impact parameter $\beta$ alone, reaching at most the escape velocity of the original star. For a given $\beta$, relativistic effects become increasingly important for larger black hole masses. In particular, we find that the kick velocity increases with the black hole mass, making larger kicks more common than in the Newtonian case, as low-$\beta$ encounters are statistically more likely than high-$\beta$ encounters. The analysis of the tidal tensor for the generalized potential shows that our results are robust lower limits on the true relativistic kick velocities, and are generally in very good agreement with the exact results.

Relativistic effects on tidal disruption kicks of solitary stars

Solitary stars that wander too close to their galactic centres can become tidally disrupted, if the tidal forces due to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) residing there overcome the self-gravity of the star. If the star is only partially disrupted, so that a fraction survives as a self-bound object, this remaining core will experience a net gain in specific orbital energy, which translates into a velocity "kick" of up to $\sim 10^3$ km/s. In this paper, we present the result of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of such partial disruptions, and analyse the velocity kick imparted on the surviving core. We compare $\gamma$ = 5/3 and $\gamma$ = 4/3 polytropes disrupted in both a Newtonian potential, and a generalized potential that reproduces most relativistic effects around a Schwarzschild black hole either exactly or to excellent precision. For the Newtonian case, we confirm the results of previous studies that the kick velocity of the surviving core is virtually independent of the ratio of the black hole to stellar mass, and is a function of the impact parameter $\beta$ alone, reaching at most the escape velocity of the original star. For a given $\beta$, relativistic effects become increasingly important for larger black hole masses. In particular, we find that the kick velocity increases with the black hole mass, making larger kicks more common than in the Newtonian case, as low-$\beta$ encounters are statistically more likely than high-$\beta$ encounters. The analysis of the tidal tensor for the generalized potential shows that our results are robust lower limits on the true relativistic kick velocities, and are generally in very good agreement with the exact results.

Spin and Magnetism of White Dwarfs

The magnetism and rotation of white dwarf (WD) stars are investigated in relation to a hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the progenitor during shell burning phases. We find that the downward pumping of angular momentum in the convective envelope can, by itself, trigger dynamo action near the core-envelope boundary in an isolated intermediate-mass star. A solar-mass star must receive additional angular momentum following its rotational braking on the main sequence, either by a merger with a planet, or by tidal interaction in a stellar binary. Several arguments point to the outer core as the source for a magnetic field in the WD remnant: i) the outer third of a ~0.55$M_\odot$ WD is processed during the shell burning phases of the progenitor; ii) escape of magnetic helicity through the envelope mediates the growth of (compensating) helicity in the core, as is needed to maintain a stable magnetic field in the remnant; and iii) intense radiation flux at the core boundary facilitates magnetic buoyancy within a relatively thick tachocline layer. The helicity flux into the core is dominated by a persistent magnetic twist, which maintains solid rotation in the core against a latitude-dependent convective stress. The magnetic field deposited in an isolated massive WD can reach ~10MG, and is enhanced in strength if the star experiences an interaction with a brown dwarf or low-mass star. A buried toroidal field experiences moderate ohmic decay above an age ~1 Gyr, which may lead to growth or decay of the external magnetic field. The final WD spin period is related to a critical Coriolis parameter below which magnetic activity shuts off, and core and envelope decouple; it generally sits in the range of hours to days. A wider range of spin periods is possible when the star spins rapidly enough that core and envelope remain magnetically coupled, ranging from less than a day up to a year. (abridged)

Spin and Magnetism of White Dwarfs [Replacement]

The magnetism and rotation of white dwarf (WD) stars are investigated in relation to a hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the progenitor during shell burning phases. We find that the downward pumping of angular momentum in the convective envelope can, by itself, trigger dynamo action near the core-envelope boundary in an isolated intermediate-mass star. A solar-mass star must receive additional angular momentum following its rotational braking on the main sequence, either by a merger with a planet, or by tidal interaction in a stellar binary. Several arguments point to the outer core as the source for a magnetic field in the WD remnant: i) the outer third of a ~0.55$M_\odot$ WD is processed during the shell burning phases of the progenitor; ii) escape of magnetic helicity through the envelope mediates the growth of (compensating) helicity in the core, as is needed to maintain a stable magnetic field in the remnant; and iii) intense radiation flux at the core boundary facilitates magnetic buoyancy within a relatively thick tachocline layer. The helicity flux into the core is dominated by a persistent magnetic twist, which maintains solid rotation in the core against a latitude-dependent convective stress. The magnetic field deposited in an isolated massive WD can reach ~10MG, and is enhanced in strength if the star experiences an interaction with a brown dwarf or low-mass star. A buried toroidal field experiences moderate ohmic decay above an age ~1 Gyr, which may lead to growth or decay of the external magnetic field. The final WD spin period is related to a critical Coriolis parameter below which magnetic activity shuts off, and core and envelope decouple; it generally sits in the range of hours to days. A wider range of spin periods is possible when the star spins rapidly enough that core and envelope remain magnetically coupled, ranging from less than a day up to a year. (abridged)

Supernova Seismology: Gravitational Wave Signatures of Rapidly Rotating Core Collapse

Gravitational waves (GW) generated during a core-collapse supernova open a window into the heart of the explosion. At core bounce, progenitors with rapid core rotation rates exhibit a characteristic GW signal which can be used to constrain the properties of the core of the progenitor star. We investigate the dynamics of rapidly rotating core collapse, focusing on hydrodynamic waves generated by the core bounce and the GW spectrum they produce. The centrifugal distortion of the rapidly rotating proto-neutron star (PNS) leads to the generation of axisymmetric quadrupolar oscillations within the PNS and surrounding envelope. Using linear perturbation theory, we estimate the frequencies, amplitudes, damping times, and GW spectra of the oscillations. Our analysis provides a qualitative explanation for several features of the GW spectrum and shows reasonable agreement with nonlinear hydrodynamic simulations, although a few discrepancies due to non-linear/rotational effects are evident. The dominant early postbounce GW signal is produced by the fundamental quadrupolar oscillation mode of the PNS, at a frequency $0.70 \, {\rm kHz} \lesssim f \lesssim 0.80\,{\rm kHz}$, whose energy is largely trapped within the PNS and leaks out on a $\sim\!10$ ms timescale. Quasi-radial oscillations are not trapped within the PNS and quickly propagate outwards until they steepen into shocks. Both the PNS structure and Coriolis/centrifugal forces have a strong impact on the GW spectrum, and a detection of the GW signal can therefore be used to constrain progenitor properties.

Persistent crust-core spin lag in neutron stars

It is commonly believed that the magnetic field threading a neutron star provides the ultimate mechanism (on top of fluid viscosity) for enforcing long-term corotation between the slowly spun down solid crust and the liquid core. We show that this argument fails for axisymmetric magnetic fields with closed field lines in the core, the commonly used `twisted torus’ field being the most prominent example. The failure of such magnetic fields to enforce global crust-core corotation leads to the development of a persistent spin lag between the core region occupied by the closed field lines and the rest of the crust and core. We discuss the repercussions of this spin lag for the evolution of the magnetic field, suggesting that, in order for a neutron star to settle to a stable state of crust-core corotation, the bulk of the toroidal field component should be deposited into the crust soon after the neutron star’s birth.

Multi-epoch, multi-frequency VLBI study of the parsec-scale jet in the blazar 3C 66A

We present the observational results of the Gamma-ray blazar, 3C 66A, at 2.3, 8.4, and 22 GHz at 4 epochs during 2004-05 with the VLBA. The resulting images show an overall core-jet structure extending roughly to the south with two intermediate breaks occurring in the region near the core. By model-fitting to the visibility data, the northmost component, which is also the brightest, is identified as the core according to its relatively flat spectrum and its compactness. As combined with some previous results to investigate the proper motions of the jet components, it is found the kinematics of 3C 66A is quite complicated with components of inward and outward, subluminal and superluminal motions all detected in the radio structure. The superluminal motions indicate strong Doppler boosting exists in the jet. The apparent inward motions of the innermost components last for at least 10 years and could not be caused by new-born components. The possible reason could be non-stationarity of the core due to opacity change.

Extragalactic sources in Cosmic Microwave Background maps

We discuss the potential of a next generation space-borne CMB experiment for studies of extragalactic sources with reference to COrE+, a project submitted to ESA in response to the M4 call. We consider three possible options for the telescope size: 1m, 1.5m and 2m (although the last option is probably impractical, given the M4 boundary conditions). The proposed instrument will be far more sensitive than Planck and will have a diffraction-limited angular resolution. These properties imply that even the 1m telescope option will perform substantially better than Planck for studies of extragalactic sources. The source detection limits as a function of frequency have been estimated by means of realistic simulations. The most significant improvements over Planck results are presented for each option. COrE+ will provide much larger samples of truly local star-forming galaxies, making possible analyses of the properties of galaxies (luminosity functions, dust mass functions, star formation rate functions, dust temperature distributions, etc.) across the Hubble sequence. Even more interestingly, COrE+ will detect, at |b|> 30 deg, thousands of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies. Such large samples are of extraordinary astrophysical and cosmological value in many fields. Moreover, COrE+ high frequency maps will be optimally suited to pick up proto-clusters of dusty galaxies, i.e. to investigate the evolution of large scale structure at larger redshifts than can be reached by other means. Thanks to its high sensitivity COrE+ will also yield a spectacular advance in the blind detection of extragalactic sources in polarization. This will open a new window for studies of radio source polarization and of the global properties of magnetic fields in star forming galaxies and of their relationships with SFRs.

Extragalactic sources in Cosmic Microwave Background maps [Replacement]

We discuss the potential of a next generation space-borne CMB experiment for studies of extragalactic sources with reference to COrE+, a project submitted to ESA in response to the M4 call. We consider three possible options for the telescope size: 1m, 1.5m and 2m (although the last option is probably impractical, given the M4 boundary conditions). The proposed instrument will be far more sensitive than Planck and will have a diffraction-limited angular resolution. These properties imply that even the 1m telescope option will perform substantially better than Planck for studies of extragalactic sources. The source detection limits as a function of frequency have been estimated by means of realistic simulations. The most significant improvements over Planck results are presented for each option. COrE+ will provide much larger samples of truly local star-forming galaxies, making possible analyses of the properties of galaxies (luminosity functions, dust mass functions, star formation rate functions, dust temperature distributions, etc.) across the Hubble sequence. Even more interestingly, COrE+ will detect, at |b|> 30 deg, thousands of strongly gravitationally lensed galaxies. Such large samples are of extraordinary astrophysical and cosmological value in many fields. Moreover, COrE+ high frequency maps will be optimally suited to pick up proto-clusters of dusty galaxies, i.e. to investigate the evolution of large scale structure at larger redshifts than can be reached by other means. Thanks to its high sensitivity COrE+ will also yield a spectacular advance in the blind detection of extragalactic sources in polarization. This will open a new window for studies of radio source polarization and of the global properties of magnetic fields in star forming galaxies and of their relationships with SFRs.

Efficient star cluster formation in the core of a galaxy cluster: The dwarf irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax [Replacement]

Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dIrr galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling towards the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes in a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshifts. Using HST/ACS and auxiliary VLT/FORS ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ~4×10^6 yr and stellar masses from a few thousand up to ~3×10^4 Msun, slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and IMF. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Ha imaging data to determine the current Star Formation Rate (SFR) in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Gamma, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Gamma to be exceptionally large, even after conservatively accounting for the possibility of contamination from intra-cluster light and other modelling uncertainties, implying that recent star formation predominantly occurred in star cluster complexes. This is the first time such high star cluster formation efficiency is reported in a dwarf galaxy within the confines of a galaxy cluster, strongly hinting at the possibility that is being triggered by its passage through the cluster environment.

Efficient star cluster formation in the core of a galaxy cluster: The dwarf irregular NGC 1427A in Fornax

Gas-rich galaxies in dense environments such as galaxy clusters and massive groups are affected by a number of possible types of interactions with the cluster environment, which make their evolution radically different than that of field galaxies. The dIrr galaxy NGC 1427A, presently infalling towards the core of the Fornax galaxy cluster, offers a unique opportunity to study those processes in a level of detail not possible to achieve for galaxies at higher redshits. Using HST/ACS and auxiliary VLT/FORS ground-based observations, we study the properties of the most recent episodes of star formation in this gas-rich galaxy, the only one of its type near the core of the Fornax cluster. We study the structural and photometric properties of young star cluster complexes in NGC 1427A, identifying 12 bright such complexes with exceptionally blue colors. The comparison of our broadband near-UV/optical photometry with simple stellar population models yields ages below ~4×10^6 yr and stellar masses from a few thousand up to ~3×10^4 Msun, slightly dependent on the assumption of cluster metallicity and IMF. Their grouping is consistent with hierarchical and fractal star cluster formation. We use deep Halpha imaging data to determine the current Star Formation Rate (SFR) in NGC 1427A and estimate the ratio, Gamma, of star formation occurring in these star cluster complexes to that in the entire galaxy. We find Gamma to be exceptionally large, even after conservatively accounting for the possibility of contamination from intra-cluster light and other modelling uncertainties, implying that recent star formation predominantly occurred in star cluster complexes. This is the first time such high star cluster formation efficiency is reported in a dwarf galaxy within the confines of a galaxy cluster, strongly hinting at the possibility that is being triggered by its passage through the cluster environment.

G305.136+0.068: A massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution

We report molecular line observations, made with ASTE and SEST, and dust continuum observations at 0.87 mm, made with APEX, towards the cold dust core G305.136+0.068. The molecular observations show that the core is isolated and roughly circularly symmetric and imply that it has a mass of $1.1\times10^3~M_\odot$. A simultaneous model fitting of the spectra observed in four transitions of CS, using a non-LTE radiative transfer code, indicates that the core is centrally condensed, with the density decreasing with radius as $r^{-1.8}$, and that the turbulent velocity increases towards the center. The dust observations also indicate that the core is highly centrally condensed and that the average column density is 1.1 g cm$^{-2}$, value slightly above the theoretical threshold required for the formation of high mass stars. A fit to the spectral energy distribution of the emission from the core indicates a dust temperature of $17\pm2$ K, confirming that the core is cold. Spitzer images show that the core is seen in silhouette from 3.6 to 24.0 $\mu$m and that is surrounded by an envelope of emission, presumably tracing an externally excited photo-dissociated region. We found two embedded sources within a region of 20" centered at the peak of the core, one of which is young, has a luminosity of $66~L_\odot$ and is accreting mass with a high accretion rate, of $\sim1\times10^{-4}~M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We suggest that this object corresponds to the seed of a high mass protostar still in the process of formation. The present observations support the hypothesis that G305.136+0.068 is a massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution, in which the formation of a high mass star has just started.

Vacuum currents induced by a magnetic flux around a cosmic string with finite core [Cross-Listing]

We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a massive complex scalar field in the generalized geometry of a straight cosmic string with a finite core enclosing an arbitrary distributed magnetic flux along the string axis. For the interior geometry, a general cylindrically symmetric static metric tensor is used with finite support. In the region outside the core, both the Hadamard function and the current density are decomposed into the idealized zero-thickness cosmic string and core-induced contributions. The only nonzero component corresponds to the azimuthal current. The zero-thickness part of the latter is a periodic function of the magnetic flux inside the core, with the period equal to the quantum flux. As a consequence of the direct interaction of the quantum field with the magnetic field inside the penetrable core, the core-induced contribution, in general, is not a periodic function of the flux. In addition, the vacuum current, in general, is not a monotonic function of the distance from the string and may change the sign. For a general model of the core interior, we also evaluate the magnetic fields generated by the vacuum current. As applications of the general results, we have considered an impenetrable core modeled by Robin boundary condition, a core with the Minkowski-like interior and a core with a constant positive curvature space. Various exactly solvable distributions of the magnetic flux are discussed.

Vacuum currents induced by a magnetic flux around a cosmic string with finite core [Cross-Listing]

We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a massive complex scalar field in the generalized geometry of a straight cosmic string with a finite core enclosing an arbitrary distributed magnetic flux along the string axis. For the interior geometry, a general cylindrically symmetric static metric tensor is used with finite support. In the region outside the core, both the Hadamard function and the current density are decomposed into the idealized zero-thickness cosmic string and core-induced contributions. The only nonzero component corresponds to the azimuthal current. The zero-thickness part of the latter is a periodic function of the magnetic flux inside the core, with the period equal to the quantum flux. As a consequence of the direct interaction of the quantum field with the magnetic field inside the penetrable core, the core-induced contribution, in general, is not a periodic function of the flux. In addition, the vacuum current, in general, is not a monotonic function of the distance from the string and may change the sign. For a general model of the core interior, we also evaluate the magnetic fields generated by the vacuum current. As applications of the general results, we have considered an impenetrable core modeled by Robin boundary condition, a core with the Minkowski-like interior and a core with a constant positive curvature space. Various exactly solvable distributions of the magnetic flux are discussed.

Vacuum currents induced by a magnetic flux around a cosmic string with finite core

We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a massive complex scalar field in the generalized geometry of a straight cosmic string with a finite core enclosing an arbitrary distributed magnetic flux along the string axis. For the interior geometry, a general cylindrically symmetric static metric tensor is used with finite support. In the region outside the core, both the Hadamard function and the current density are decomposed into the idealized zero-thickness cosmic string and core-induced contributions. The only nonzero component corresponds to the azimuthal current. The zero-thickness part of the latter is a periodic function of the magnetic flux inside the core, with the period equal to the quantum flux. As a consequence of the direct interaction of the quantum field with the magnetic field inside the penetrable core, the core-induced contribution, in general, is not a periodic function of the flux. In addition, the vacuum current, in general, is not a monotonic function of the distance from the string and may change the sign. For a general model of the core interior, we also evaluate the magnetic fields generated by the vacuum current. As applications of the general results, we have considered an impenetrable core modeled by Robin boundary condition, a core with the Minkowski-like interior and a core with a constant positive curvature space. Various exactly solvable distributions of the magnetic flux are discussed.

Colliding Filaments and a Massive Dense Core in the Cygnus OB 7 Molecular Cloud

We report results of molecular line observations carried out toward a massive dense core in the Cyg OB 7 molecular cloud. The core has an extraordinarily large mass ($\sim1.1 \times 10^4$ $M_\odot$) and size ($\sim2 \times 5$ pc$^2$), but there is no massive young star forming therein. We observed this core in various molecular lines such as C$^{18}$O($J=1-0$) using the 45m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. We find that the core has an elongated morphology consisting of several filaments and core-like structures. The filaments are massive ($10^2-10^3$ $M_\odot$), and they are apparently colliding against each other. Some candidates of YSOs are distributed around their intersection, suggesting that the collisions of the filaments may have influenced on their formation. To understand the formation and evolution of such colliding filaments, we performed numerical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique adopting the observed core parameters (e.g., the mass and size) as the initial conditions. Results indicate that the filaments are formed as seen in other earlier simulations for small cores in literature, but we could not reproduce the collisions of the filaments simply by assuming the large initial mass and size. We find that the collisions of the filaments occur only when there is a large velocity gradient in the initial core in a sense to compress it. We suggest that the observed core was actually compressed by an external effect, e.g., shocks of nearby supernova remnants including HB21 which has been suggested to be interacting with the Cyg OB 7 molecular cloud.

A Radio and X-ray Study of the Merging Cluster A2319

A2319 is a massive, merging galaxy cluster with a previously detected radio halo that roughly follows the X-ray emitting gas. We present the results from recent observations of A2319 at 20 cm with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and a re-analysis of the X-ray observations from XMM-Newton, to investigate the interactions between the thermal and nonthermal components of the ICM . We confirm previous reports of an X-ray cold front, and report on the discovery of a distinct core to the radio halo, 800 kpc in extent, that is strikingly similar in morphology to the X-ray emission, and drops sharply in brightness at the cold front. We detect additional radio emission trailing off from the core, which blends smoothly into the 2 Mpc halo detected with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT; Farnsworth et al., 2013). We speculate on the possible mechanisms for such a two-component radio halo, with sloshing playing a dominant role in the core. By directly comparing the X-ray and radio emission, we find that a hadronic origin for the cosmic ray electrons responsible for the radio halo would require a magnetic field and/or cosmic ray proton distribution that increases with radial distance from the cluster center, and is therefore disfavored.

An elongated iron-rich structure in the core of the group NGC4325

We used X-ray 2D spectrally resolved maps to resolve structure in temperature and metal abundance. To perform stellar population analysis we applied the spectral fitting technique with STARLIGHT to the optical spectrum of the central galaxy. To simulate the chemical evolution of the central galaxy we adopted the codes of Lanfranchi & Matteucci (2003,2004) While the temperature, pseudo-pressure and pseudo-entropy maps showed no inhomogeneities, the iron spatial distribution shows a filamentary structure in the core of this group, which is spatially correlated with the central galaxy, suggesting a connection between the two. The analysis of the optical spectrum of the central galaxy showed no contribution of any recent AGN activity. Using the star formation history as an input to chemical evolution models, we predicted the iron and oxygen mass released by supernovae (SNe) winds in the central galaxy up to the present time. Comparing the predicted amount of mass released by the NGC4325 galaxy to the ones derived through X-ray analysis we conclude that the winds from the central galaxy alone play a minor role in the IGM metal enrichment of this group inside r2500. The SNe winds are responsible for not more than 3% and of the iron mass and 21% of the oxygen mass enclosed within r2500. Our results suggest that oxygen has been produced in the early stages of the group formation, becoming well mixed and leading to an almost flat profile. Instead, the iron distribution is centrally peaked indicating that this element is still being added to the IGM specifically in the core by the SNIa. A possible scenario to explain the elongated iron-rich structure in the core of the NGC4325 is a past AGN activity, in which our results suggest an episode older than ~10^7-10^8 yrs and younger than 5×10^8.

A metal-rich elongated structure in the core of the group NGC4325 [Replacement]

We used X-ray 2D spectrally resolved maps to resolve structure in temperature and metal abundance. To perform stellar population analysis we applied the spectral fitting technique with STARLIGHT to the optical spectrum of the central galaxy. We simulated the chemical evolution of the central galaxy. While the temperature, pseudo-pressure, and pseudo-entropy maps showed no inhomogeneities, the iron spatial distribution shows a filamentary structure in the core of this group, which is spatially correlated with the central galaxy, suggesting a connection between the two. The analysis of the optical spectrum of the central galaxy showed no contribution by any recent AGN activity. Using the star formation history as input to chemical evolution models, we predicted the iron and oxygen mass released by supernovae (SNe) winds in the central galaxy up to the present time. Comparing the predicted amount of mass released by the NGC4325 galaxy to the ones derived through X-ray analysis we conclude that the winds from the central galaxy alone play a minor role in the IGM metal enrichment of this group inside r2500. The SNe winds are responsible for no more than 3% of it and of the iron mass and 21% of the oxygen mass enclosed within r2500. Our results suggest that oxygen has been produced in the early stages of the group formation, becoming well mixed and leading to an almost flat profile. Instead, the iron distribution is centrally peaked, indicating that this element is still being added to the IGM specifically in the core by the SNIa. A possible scenario to explain the elongated iron-rich structure in the core of the NGC4325 is a past AGN activity, in which our results suggest an episode older than ~10^7-10^8 yrs and younger than 5×10^8.

The growth of the galaxy cluster Abell 85: mergers, shocks, stripping and seeding of clumping [Replacement]

We present the results of deep Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 85, which is currently undergoing at least two mergers, and in addition shows evidence for gas sloshing which extends out to r ~ 600 kpc. One of the two infalling subclusters, to the south of the main cluster center, has a dense, X-ray bright cool core and a tail extending to the southeast. The northern edge of this tail is strikingly smooth and sharp (narrower than the Coulomb mean free path of the ambient gas) over a length of 200 kpc, while toward the southwest the boundary of the tail is blurred and bent, indicating a difference in the plasma transport properties between these two edges. The thermodynamic structure of the tail strongly supports an overall northwestward motion. We propose, that a sloshing-induced tangential, ambient, coherent gas flow is bending the tail eastward. The brightest galaxy of this subcluster is at the leading edge of the dense core, and is trailed by the tail of stripped gas, suggesting that the cool core of the subcluster has been almost completely destroyed by the time it reached its current radius of r ~ 500 kpc. The surface-brightness excess, likely associated with gas stripped from the infalling southern subcluster, extends toward the southeast out to at least r_500 of the main cluster, indicating that the stripping of infalling subclusters may seed gas inhomogeneities. The second merging subcluster appears to be a diffuse non-cool core system. Its merger is likely supersonic with a Mach number of ~ 1.4.

The growth of the galaxy cluster Abell 85: mergers, shocks, stripping and seeding of clumping

We present the results of deep Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 85, which is currently undergoing at least two mergers, and in addition shows evidence for gas sloshing which extends out to r~600 kpc. One of the two infalling subclusters, to the south of the main cluster center, has a dense, X-ray bright cool core and a tail extending to the southeast. The northern edge of this tail is strikingly smooth and sharp (narrower than the Coulomb mean free path of the ambient gas) over a length of 200 kpc, while toward the southwest the boundary of the tail is blurred and bent, indicating a difference in the plasma transport properties between these two edges. The thermodynamic structure of the tail strongly supports an overall northwestward motion, with a sloshing-induced tangential ambient gas bulk flow bending the tail eastward. The brightest galaxy of this subcluster is at the leading edge of the dense core, and is trailed by the tail of stripped gas, suggesting that the cool core of the subcluster has been almost completely destroyed by the time it reached its current radius of r~500 kpc. The tail of the subcluster is visibly clumpy, and we see a clumpy surface-brightness excess extending toward the southeast out to at least r_500 of the main cluster. Thus, it appears that gas stripping from infalling subclusters can efficiently seed clumping in the intracluster medium. The second merging subcluster appears to be a diffuse non-cool core system. Its merger is supersonic with a Mach number of ~1.4.

Exploring the origin of a large cavity in Abell 1795 using deep Chandra observations

We examine deep stacked Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 1795 (over 700ks) to study in depth a large (34 kpc radius) cavity in the X-ray emission. Curiously, despite the large energy required to form this cavity (4PV=4×10^60 erg), there is no obvious counterpart to the cavity on the opposite side of the cluster, which would be expected if it has formed due to jets from the central AGN inflating bubbles. There is also no radio emission associated with the cavity, and no metal enhancement or filaments between it and the BCG, which are normally found for bubbles inflated by AGN which have risen from the core. One possibility is that this is an old ghost cavity, and that gas sloshing has dominated the distribution of metals around the core. Projection effects, particularly the long X-ray bright filament to the south east, may prevent us from seeing the companion bubble on the opposite side of the cluster core. We calculate that such a companion bubble would easily have been able to uplift the gas in the southern filament from the core. Interestingly, it has recently been found that inside the cavity is a highly variable X-ray point source coincident with a small dwarf galaxy. Given the remarkable spatial correlation of this point source and the X-ray cavity, we explore the possibility that an outburst from this dwarf galaxy in the past could have led to the formation of the cavity, but find this to be an unlikely scenario.

Dynamics of the envelope of a rapidly rotating star or giant planet in gravitational contraction

We wish to understand the processes that control the fluid flows of a gravitationally contracting and rotating star or giant planet. We consider a spherical shell containing an incompressible fluid that is slowly absorbed by the core so as to mimick gravitational contraction. We also consider the effects of a stable stratification that may also modify the dynamics of a pre-main sequence star of intermediate mass. This simple model reveals the importance of both the Stewartson layer attached to the core and the boundary conditions met by the fluid at the surface of the object. In the case of a pre-main sequence star of intermediate mass where the envelope is stably stratified, shortly after the birth line, the spin-up flow driven by contraction overwhelms the baroclinic flow that would take place otherwise.This model also shows that for a contracting envelope, a self-similar flow of growing amplitude controls the dynamics. It suggests that initial conditions on the birth line are most probably forgotten. Finally, the model shows that the near (Stewartson) layer that lies on the tangent cylinder of the core is likely a key feature of the dynamics that is missing in 1D models.This layer can explain the core and envelope rotational coupling that is required to explain the slow rotation of cores in giant and subgiants stars.

Unveiling the near-infrared structure of the massive-young stellar object NGC3603 IRS 9A with sparse aperture masking and spectroastrometry

According to the current theories, massive stars gather mass during their initial phases via accreting disk-like structures. However, those disks have remained elusive for massive young objects. This is mainly because of the observational challenges due to the large distances at which they are located, their rareness, and the high interstellar extinction. Therefore, the study of each young massive stellar object matters. NGC 3603 IRS 9A is a young massive stellar object still surrounded by an envelope of molecular gas. Previous mid-infrared observations with long-baseline interferometry provided evidence for a disk of 50 mas diameter at its core. This work studies the IRS 9A physics and morphology at near-infrared wavelengths. This study analyzed new sparse aperture masking data taken with NACO/VLT at K s and Lp filters in addition to archive CRIRES spectra of the H2 and Br_gamma lines. The calibrated visibilities trends of the Ks and Lp bands suggest the presence of a partially resolved compact object of 30 mas at the core of IRS 9A, and the presence of over-resolved flux. The spectroastrometric signal of the H2 line shows that this spectral feature proceeds from the large scale extended emission (300 mas), while the Br_gamma line appears to be formed at the core of the object (20 mas). Our best model supports the existence of the aforementioned compact disk, and the presence of an outer envelope with a polar cavity. This model also reproduces the MIR morphology previously derived in the literature. Furthermore, it also describes consistently the SED of the source. Moreover, the Br_gamma spectroastrometric signal suggests that the core of IRS 9A is more complex and that asymmetries in the disk and/or binary should be consider. New high-resolution observations are thus required to confirm the aforementioned hypothesis and to complement the physical scenario of IRS 9A.

Unveiling the near-infrared structure of the massive-young stellar object NGC 3603 IRS 9A with sparse aperture masking and spectroastrometry [Replacement]

Contemporary theory holds that massive stars gather mass during their initial phases via accreting disk-like structures. However, conclusive evidence for disks has remained elusive for the most massive young objects. This is mainly due to significant observational challenges. Incisive studies, even targeting individual objects, are therefore relevant to the progression of the field. NGC 3603 IRS 9A* is a young massive stellar object still surrounded by an envelope of molecular gas. Previous mid-infrared observations with long-baseline interferometry provided evidence for a disk of 50 mas diameter at its core. This work aims at a comprehensive study of the physics and morphology of IRS 9A physics at near-infrared wavelengths. New sparse aperture masking interferometry data taken with NaCo/VLT at Ks and Lp filters were obtained and analyzed together with archival CRIRES spectra of the H2 and BrG lines. The calibrated visibilities recorded at Ks and Lp bands suggest the presence of a partially resolved compact object of 30 mas at the core of IRS 9A, together with the presence of over-resolved flux. The spectroastrometric signal of the H2 line shows that this spectral feature proceeds from the large scale extended emission (300 mas) of IRS 9A, while the BrG line appears to be formed at the core of the object (20 mas). Our best model supports the existence of a compact disk together with an outer envelope exhibiting a polar cavity with an opening angle of 30 deg. This model reproduces the MIR morphology previously derived in the literature and also matches the SED of the source. On the other hand, the spectroastrometric signal of the BrG line shows that some component, but not all, of the ionized gas shares the disk’s orbital plane. This scenario is consistent with the brightness distribution of the source for near- and mid-infrared wavelengths at various spatial scales.

Detecting gravity modes in the solar $^8B$ neutrino flux

The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the $^{8}B$ neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order $2$, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun’s core is smaller than $5.8\times 10^{-4}$. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the $^8B$ neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the $^{8}B$ neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

Detecting gravity modes in the solar $^8B$ neutrino flux [Cross-Listing]

The detection of gravity modes produced in the solar radiative zone has been a challenge in modern astrophysics for more than 30 yr and their amplitude in the core is not yet determined. In this Letter, we develop a new strategy to look for standing gravity modes through solar neutrino fluxes. We note that due to a resonance effect, the gravity modes of low degree and low order have the largest impact on the $^{8}B$ neutrino flux. The strongest effect is expected to occur for the dipole mode with radial order $2$, corresponding to periods of about 1.5 hr. These standing gravity waves produce temperature fluctuations that are amplified by a factor of 170 in the boron neutrino flux for the corresponding period, in consonance with the gravity modes. From current neutrino observations, we determine that the maximum temperature variation due to the gravity modes in the Sun’s core is smaller than $5.8\times 10^{-4}$. This study clearly shows that due to their high sensitivity to the temperature, the $^8B$ neutrino flux time series is an excellent tool to determine the properties of gravity modes in the solar core. Moreover, if gravity mode footprints are discovered in the $^{8}B$ neutrino flux, this opens a new line of research to probe the physics of the solar core as non-standing gravity waves of higher periods cannot be directly detected by helioseismology but could leave their signature on boron neutrino or on other neutrino fluxes.

Feedback, scatter and structure in the core of the PKS 0745-191 galaxy cluster

We present Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the core of the galaxy cluster PKS 0745-191. Its centre shows X-ray cavities caused by AGN feedback and cold fronts with an associated spiral structure. The cavity energetics imply they are powerful enough to compensate for cooling. Despite the evidence for AGN feedback, the Chandra and XMM-RGS X-ray spectra are consistent with a few hundred solar masses per year cooling out of the X-ray phase, sufficient to power the emission line nebula. The coolest X-ray emitting gas and brightest nebula emission is offset by around 5 kpc from the radio and X-ray nucleus. Although the cluster has a regular appearance, its core shows density, temperature and pressure deviations over the inner 100 kpc, likely associated with the cold fronts. After correcting for ellipticity and projection effects, we estimate density fluctuations of ~4 per cent, while temperature, pressure and entropy have variations of 10-12 per cent. We describe a new code, MBPROJ, able to accurately obtain thermodynamical cluster profiles, under the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. The forward-fitting code compares model to observed profiles using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and is applicable to surveys, operating on 1000 or fewer counts. In PKS0745 a very low gravitational acceleration is preferred within 40 kpc radius from the core, indicating a lack of hydrostatic equilibrium, deviations from spherical symmetry or non-thermal sources of pressure.

Thermal conductivity due to phonons in the core of superfluid neutron stars

We compute the contribution of phonons to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the phonon scattering rates, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. We also calculate the phonon dispersion law beyond linear order, which depends on the gap of superfluid neutron matter. With all these ingredients, we solve the Boltzmann equation numerically using a variational approach. We find that the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ is dominated by combined small and large angle binary collisions. As in the color-flavor-locked superfluid, we find that our result can be well approximated by $\kappa \propto 1/ \Delta^6$, where $\Delta$ is the neutron gap, the constant of proportionality depending on the density. We further comment on the possible relevance of electron and superfluid phonon collisions in obtaining the total contribution to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars.

Thermal conductivity due to phonons in the core of superfluid neutron stars [Replacement]

We compute the contribution of phonons to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the phonon scattering rates, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. We also calculate the phonon dispersion law beyond linear order, which depends on the gap of superfluid neutron matter. With all these ingredients, we solve the Boltzmann equation numerically using a variational approach. We find that the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ is dominated by combined small and large angle binary collisions. As in the color-flavor-locked superfluid, we find that our result can be well approximated by $\kappa \propto 1/ \Delta^6$, where $\Delta$ is the neutron gap, the constant of proportionality depending on the density. We further comment on the possible relevance of electron and superfluid phonon collisions in obtaining the total contribution to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars.

Thermal conductivity due to phonons in the core of superfluid neutron stars [Cross-Listing]

We compute the contribution of phonons to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the phonon scattering rates, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. We also calculate the phonon dispersion law beyond linear order, which depends on the gap of superfluid neutron matter. With all these ingredients, we solve the Boltzmann equation numerically using a variational approach. We find that the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ is dominated by combined small and large angle binary collisions. As in the color-flavor-locked superfluid, we find that our result can be well approximated by $\kappa \propto 1/ \Delta^6$, where $\Delta$ is the neutron gap, the constant of proportionality depending on the density. We further comment on the possible relevance of electron and superfluid phonon collisions in obtaining the total contribution to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars.

Thermal conductivity due to phonons in the core of superfluid neutron stars [Replacement]

We compute the contribution of phonons to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the phonon scattering rates, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. We also calculate the phonon dispersion law beyond linear order, which depends on the gap of superfluid neutron matter. With all these ingredients, we solve the Boltzmann equation numerically using a variational approach. We find that the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ is dominated by combined small and large angle binary collisions. As in the color-flavor-locked superfluid, we find that our result can be well approximated by $\kappa \propto 1/ \Delta^6$, where $\Delta$ is the neutron gap, the constant of proportionality depending on the density. We further comment on the possible relevance of electron and superfluid phonon collisions in obtaining the total contribution to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars.

Thermal conductivity due to phonons in the core of superfluid neutron stars [Replacement]

We compute the contribution of phonons to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the phonon scattering rates, written as a function of the equation of state of the system. We also calculate the phonon dispersion law beyond linear order, which depends on the gap of superfluid neutron matter. With all these ingredients, we solve the Boltzmann equation numerically using a variational approach. We find that the thermal conductivity $\kappa$ is dominated by combined small and large angle binary collisions. As in the color-flavor-locked superfluid, we find that our result can be well approximated by $\kappa \propto 1/ \Delta^6$, where $\Delta$ is the neutron gap, the constant of proportionality depending on the density. We further comment on the possible relevance of electron and superfluid phonon collisions in obtaining the total contribution to the thermal conductivity in the core of superfluid neutron stars.

Constraints on Core Collapse from the Black Hole Mass Function

We model the observed black hole mass function under the assumption that black hole formation is controlled by the compactness of the stellar core at the time of collapse. Low compactness stars are more likely to explode as supernovae and produce neutron stars, while high compactness stars are more likely to be failed supernovae that produce black holes with the mass of the helium core of the star. Using three sequences of stellar models and marginalizing over a model for the completeness of the black hole mass function, we find that the compactness xi(2.5) above which 50% of core collapses produce black holes is xi(2.5)=0.24 (0.15 < xi(2.5) < 0.37) at 90% confidence). While models with a sharp transition between successful and failed explosions are always the most likely, the width of the transition between the minimum compactness for black hole formation and the compactness above which all core collapses produce black holes is not well constrained. The models also predict that f=0.18 (0.09 < f < 0.39) of core collapses fail assuming a minimum mass for core collapse of 8Msun. We tested four other criteria for black hole formation based on xi(2.0) and xi(3.0), the compactnesses at enclosed masses of 2.0 or 3.0 rather than 2.5Msun, the mass of the iron core, and the mass inside the oxygen burning shell. We found that xi(2.0) works as well as xi(2.5), while the compactness xi(3.0) works significantly worse, as does using the iron core mass or the mass enclosed by the oxygen burning shell. As expected from the high compactness of 20-25Msun stars, black hole formation in this mass range provides a natural explanation of the red supergiant problem.

A very deep Chandra observation of Abell 1795: The Cold Front and Cooling Wake

We present a new analysis of very deep \cha \ observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 1795. Utilizing nearly 750 ks of net ACIS imaging, we are able to resolve the thermodynamic structure of the Intracluster Medium (ICM) on length scales of $\sim 1 \kpc$ near the cool core. We find several previously unresolved structures, including a high pressure feature to the north of the BCG that appears to arise from the bulk motion of Abell 1795′s cool core. To the south of the cool core, we find low temperature ($ \sim 3 \keV$), diffuse ICM gas extending for distances of $\sim 50 \kpc$ spatially coincident with previously identified filaments of H$\alpha$ emission. Gas at similar temperatures is also detected in adjacent regions without any H$\alpha$ emission. The X-ray gas coincident with the H$\alpha$ filament has been measured to be cooling spectroscopically at a rate of $\sim 1 \msolar \yr^{-1}$, consistent with measurements of the star formation rate in this region as inferred from UV observations, suggesting that the star formation in this filament as inferred by its H$\alpha$ and UV emission can trace its origin to the rapid cooling of dense, X-ray emitting gas. The H$\alpha$ filament is not a unique site of cooler ICM, however, as ICM at similar temperatures and even higher metallicities not cospatial with H$\alpha$ emission is observed just to the west of the H$\alpha$ filament, suggesting that it may have been uplifted by Abell 1795′s central active galaxy. Further simulations of cool core sloshing and AGN feedback operating in concert with one another will be necessary to understand how such a dynamic cool core region may have originated and why the H$\alpha$ emission is so localized with respect to the cool X-ray gas despite the evidence for a catastrophic cooling flow.

A very deep Chandra observation of Abell 1795: The Cold Front and Cooling Wake [Replacement]

We present a new analysis of very deep Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 1795. Utilizing nearly 750 ks of net ACIS imaging, we are able to resolve the thermodynamic structure of the Intracluster Medium (ICM) on length scales of ~ 1 kpc near the cool core. We find several previously unresolved structures, including a high pressure feature to the north of the BCG that appears to arise from the bulk motion of Abell 1795′s cool core. To the south of the cool core, we find low temperature (~ 3 keV), diffuse ICM gas extending for distances of ~ 50 kpc spatially coincident with previously identified filaments of H-alpha emission. Gas at similar temperatures is also detected in adjacent regions without any H-alpha emission. The X-ray gas coincident with the H-alpha filament has been measured to be cooling spectroscopically at a rate of ~ 1 Solar Masses/ yr, consistent with measurements of the star formation rate in this region as inferred from UV observations, suggesting that the star formation in this filament as inferred by its H$\alpha$ and UV emission can trace its origin to the rapid cooling of dense, X-ray emitting gas. The H-alpha filament is not a unique site of cooler ICM, however, as ICM at similar temperatures and even higher metallicities not cospatial with H$\alpha$ emission is observed just to the west of the H-alpha filament, suggesting that it may have been uplifted by Abell 1795′s central active galaxy. Further simulations of cool core sloshing and AGN feedback operating in concert with one another will be necessary to understand how such a dynamic cool core region may have originated and why the H-alpha emission is so localized with respect to the cool X-ray gas despite the evidence for a catastrophic cooling flow.

Thermal emission of neutron stars with internal heaters

Using 1D and 2D cooling codes we study thermal emission from neutron stars with steady state internal heaters of various intensities and geometries (blobs or spherical layers) located at different depths in the crust. The generated heat tends to propagate radially, from the heater down to the stellar core and up to the surface; it is also emitted by neutrinos. In local regions near the heater the results are well described with the 1D code. The heater’s region projects onto the stellar surface forming a hot spot. There are two heat propagation regimes. In the first, conduction outflow regime (realized at heat rates $H_0 \lesssim 10^{20}$ erg cm$^{-3}$ s$^{-1}$ or temperatures $T_\mathrm{h} \lesssim 10^9$ K in the heater) the thermal surface emission of the star depends on the heater’s power and neutrino emission in the stellar core. In the second, neutrino outflow regime ($H_0 \gtrsim 10^{20}$ erg cm$^{-3}$ s$^{-1}$ or $T_\mathrm{h} \gtrsim 10^9$ K) the surface thermal emission becomes independent of heater’s power and the physics of the core. The largest (a few per cent) fraction of heat power is carried to the surface if the heater is in the outer crust and the heat regime is intermediate. The results can be used for modeling young cooling neutron stars (prior to the end of internal thermal relaxation), neutron stars in X-ray transients, magnetars and high-$B$ pulsars, as well as merging neutron stars.

Growth of Jupiter: Enhancement of Core Accretion by a Voluminous Low-Mass Envelope

We present calculations of the early stages of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core begins as a seed body of about 350 kilometers in radius and orbits in a swarm of planetesimals whose initial radii range from 15 meters to 50 kilometers. The evolution of the swarm accounts for growth and fragmentation, viscous and gravitational stirring, and for drag-assisted migration and velocity damping. During this evolution, less than 9% of the mass is in planetesimals smaller than 1 kilometer in radius; < ~25% is in planetesimals with radii between 1 and 10 kilometers; and < ~7% is in bodies with radii larger than 100 kilometers. Gas capture by the core substantially enhances the size-dependent cross-section of the planet for accretion of planetesimals. The calculation of dust opacity in the planet’s envelope accounts for coagulation and sedimentation of dust particles released as planetesimals are ablated. The calculation is carried out at an orbital semi-major axis of 5.2 AU and the initial solids’ surface density is 10 g/cm^2 at that distance. The results give a core mass of nearly 7.3 Earth masses (Mearth) and an envelope mass of approximately 0.15 Mearth after about 4e5 years, at which point the envelope growth rate surpasses that of the core. The same calculation without the envelope yields a core of only about 4.4 Mearth.

Growth of Jupiter: Enhancement of Core Accretion by a Voluminous Low-Mass Envelope [Replacement]

We present calculations of the early stages of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core begins as a seed body of about 350 kilometers in radius and orbits in a swarm of planetesimals whose initial radii range from 15 meters to 50 kilometers. The evolution of the swarm accounts for growth and fragmentation, viscous and gravitational stirring, and for drag-assisted migration and velocity damping. During this evolution, less than 9% of the mass is in planetesimals smaller than 1 kilometer in radius; < ~25% is in planetesimals with radii between 1 and 10 kilometers; and < ~7% is in bodies with radii larger than 100 kilometers. Gas capture by the core substantially enhances the size-dependent cross-section of the planet for accretion of planetesimals. The calculation of dust opacity in the planet’s envelope accounts for coagulation and sedimentation of dust particles released as planetesimals are ablated. The calculation is carried out at an orbital semi-major axis of 5.2 AU and the initial solids’ surface density is 10 g/cm^2 at that distance. The results give a core mass of nearly 7.3 Earth masses (Mearth) and an envelope mass of approximately 0.15 Mearth after about 4e5 years, at which point the envelope growth rate surpasses that of the core. The same calculation without the envelope yields a core of only about 4.4 Mearth.

Sterile neutrino oscillations in core-collapse supernovae [Replacement]

We have made core-collapse supernova simulations that allow oscillations between electron neutrinos (or their anti particles) with right-handed sterile neutrinos. We have considered a range of mixing angles and sterile neutrino masses including those consistent with sterile neutrinos as a dark matter candidate. We examine whether such oscillations can impact the core bounce and shock reheating in supernovae. We identify the optimum ranges of mixing angles and masses that can dramatically enhance the supernova explosion by efficiently transporting electron anti-neutrinos from the core to behind the shock where they provide additional heating leading to much larger explosion kinetic energies. We show that this effect can cause stars to explode that otherwise would have collapsed. We find that an interesting periodicity in the neutrino luminosity develops due to a cycle of depletion of the neutrino density by conversion to sterile neutrinos that shuts off the conversion, followed by a replenished neutrino density as neutrinos transport through the core.

Sterile neutrino oscillations in core-collapse supernova simulations

We have made core-collapse supernova simulations that allow oscillations between electron neutrinos (or their anti particles) with right-handed sterile neutrinos. We have considered a range of mixing angles and sterile neutrino masses including those consistent with sterile neutrinos as a dark matter candidate. We examine whether such oscillations can impact the core bounce and shock reheating in supernovae. We identify the optimum ranges of mixing angles and masses that can dramatically enhance the supernova explosion by efficiently transporting electron anti-neutrinos from the core to behind the shock where they provide additional heating leading to much larger explosion kinetic energies. We show that an interesting oscillation in the neutrino luminosity develops due to a cycle of depletion of the neutrino density by conversion to sterile neutrinos that shuts off the conversion, followed by a replenished neutrino density as neutrinos transport through the core.

Sterile neutrino oscillations in core-collapse supernovae [Replacement]

We have made core-collapse supernova simulations that allow oscillations between electron neutrinos (or their anti particles) with right-handed sterile neutrinos. We have considered a range of mixing angles and sterile neutrino masses including those consistent with sterile neutrinos as a dark matter candidate. We examine whether such oscillations can impact the core bounce and shock reheating in supernovae. We identify the optimum ranges of mixing angles and masses that can dramatically enhance the supernova explosion by efficiently transporting electron anti-neutrinos from the core to behind the shock where they provide additional heating leading to much larger explosion kinetic energies. We show that this effect can cause stars to explode that otherwise would have collapsed. We find that an interesting periodicity in the neutrino luminosity develops due to a cycle of depletion of the neutrino density by conversion to sterile neutrinos that shuts off the conversion, followed by a replenished neutrino density as neutrinos transport through the core.

The hot core towards the intermediate mass protostar NGC7129 FIRS 2: Chemical similarities with Orion KL

NGC 7129 FIRS 2 (hereafter FIRS 2) is an intermediate-mass (2 to 8 Msun) protostar located at a distance of 1250 pc. High spatial resolution observations are required to resolve the hot core at its center. We present a molecular survey from 218200 MHz to 221800 MHz carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. These observations were complemented with a long integration single-dish spectrum taken with the IRAM 30m telescope. We used a Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) single temperature code to model the whole dataset. The interferometric spectrum is crowded with a total of ~300 lines from which a few dozens remain unidentified yet. The spectrum has been modeled with a total of 20 species and their isomers, isotopologues and deuterated compounds. Complex molecules like methyl formate (CH3OCHO), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), acetone (CH3COCH3), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) and the aGg’ conformer of ethylene glycol (aGg’-(CH2OH)_2) are among the detected species. The detection of vibrationally excited lines of CH3CN, CH3OCHO, CH3OH, OCS, HC3N and CH3CHO proves the existence of gas and dust at high temperatures. In fact, the gas kinetic temperature estimated from the vibrational lines of CH3CN, ~405 K, is similar to that measured in massive hot cores. Our data allow an extensive comparison of the chemistry in FIRS~2 and the Orion hot core. We find a quite similar chemistry in FIRS 2 and Orion. Most of the studied fractional molecular abundances agree within a factor of 5. Larger differences are only found for the deuterated compounds D2CO and CH2DOH and a few molecules (CH3CH2CN, SO2, HNCO and CH3CHO). Since the physical conditions are similar in both hot cores, only different initial conditions (warmer pre-collapse phase in the case of Orion) and/or different crossing time of the gas in the hot core can explain this behavior.

Asteroseismic measurement of surface-to-core rotation in a main sequence A star, KIC 11145123 [Replacement]

We have discovered rotationally split core g-mode triplets and surface p-mode triplets and quintuplets in a terminal age main sequence A star, KIC 11145123, that shows both $\delta$ Sct p-mode pulsations and $\gamma$ Dor g-mode pulsations. This gives the first robust determination of the rotation of the deep core and surface of a main sequence star, essentially model-independently. We find its rotation to be nearly uniform with a period near 100 d, but we show with high confidence that the surface rotates slightly faster than the core. A strong angular momentum transfer mechanism must be operating to produce the nearly rigid rotation, and a mechanism other than viscosity must be operating to produce a more rapidly rotating surface than core. Our asteroseismic result, along with previous asteroseismic constraints on internal rotation in some B stars, and measurements of internal rotation in some subgiant, giant and white dwarf stars, has made angular momentum transport in stars throughout their lifetimes an observational science.

Mapping the particle acceleration in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX J1720.1+2638 [Replacement]

We present new deep, high-resolution radio images of the diffuse minihalo in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX J1720.1+2638. The images have been obtained with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 317, 617 and 1280 MHz and with the Very Large Array at 1.5, 4.9 and 8.4 GHz, with angular resolutions ranging from 1" to 10". This represents the best radio spectral and imaging dataset for any minihalo. Most of the radio flux of the minihalo arises from a bright central component with a maximum radius of ~80 kpc. A fainter tail of emission extends out from the central component to form a spiral-shaped structure with a length of ~230 kpc, seen at frequencies 1.5 GHz and below. We find indication of a possible steepening of the total radio spectrum of the minihalo at high frequencies. Furthermore, a spectral index image shows that the spectrum of the diffuse emission steepens with the increasing distance along the tail. A striking spatial correlation is observed between the minihalo emission and two cold fronts visible in the Chandra X-ray image of this cool core. These cold fronts confine the minihalo, as also seen in numerical simulations of minihalo formation by sloshing-induced turbulence. All these observations favor the hypothesis that the radio emitting electrons in cluster cool cores are produced by turbulent reacceleration.

Mapping the particle acceleration in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX J1720.1+2638

We present new deep, high-resolution radio images of the diffuse minihalo in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX ,J1720.1+2638. The images have been obtained with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 317, 617 and 1280 MHz and with the Very Large Array at 1.5, 4.9 and 8.4 GHz, with angular resolutions ranging from 1" to 10". This represents the best radio spectral and imaging dataset for any minihalo. Most of the radio flux of the minihalo arises from a bright central component with a maximum radius of ~80 kpc. A fainter tail of emission extends out from the central component to form a spiral-shaped structure with a length of ~230 kpc, seen at frequencies 1.5 GHz and below. We observe steepening of the total radio spectrum of the minihalo at high frequencies. Furthermore, a spectral index image shows that the spectrum of the diffuse emission steepens with the increasing distance along the tail. A striking spatial correlation is observed between the minihalo emission and two cold fronts visible in the Chandra X-ray image of this cool core. These cold fronts confine the minihalo, as also seen in numerical simulations of minihalo formation by sloshing-induced turbulence. All these observations provide support to the hypothesis that the radio emitting electrons in cluster cool cores are produced by turbulent reacceleration.

Core-assisted gas capture instability: a new mode of giant planet formation by gravitationally unstable discs

Giant planet formation in the core accretion (CA) paradigm is predicated by the formation of a core, assembled by the coagulation of grains and later by planetesimals within a protoplanetary disc. In contrast, in the disc instability paradigm, giant planet formation is believed to be independent of core formation: massive self-gravitating gas fragments cool radiatively and collapse as a whole. We show that giant planet formation in the disc instability model may be also enhanced by core formation for reasons physically very similar to the CA paradigm. In the model explored here, efficient grain sedimentation within an initial fragment (rather than the disc) leads to the formation of a core composed of heavy elements. We find that massive atmospheres form around cores and undergo collapse as a critical core mass is exceeded, analogous to CA theory. The critical mass of the core to initiate such a collapse depends on the fragment mass and metallicity, as well as core luminosity, but ranges from less than 1 to as much as $\sim80$ Earth masses. We therefore suggest that there are two channels for the collapse of a gaseous fragment to planetary scales within the disc instability model: (i) H$_2$ dissociative collapse of the entire gaseous clump, and (ii) core-assisted gas capture, as presented here. We suggest that the first of these two is favoured in metal-poor environments and for fragments more massive than $\sim 5-10$ Jupiter masses, whereas the second is favored in metal-rich environments and fragments of lower mass. [Abridged]

 

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