Posts Tagged confidence level

Recent Postings from confidence level

Testing CCDM Cosmology with the Radiation Temperature-Redshift Relation

The standard $\Lambda$CDM model can be mimicked at the background and perturbative levels (linear and non-linear) by a class of gravitationally induced particle production cosmology dubbed CCDM cosmology. However, the radiation component in the CCDM model follows a slightly different temperature-redshift $T(z)$-law which depends on an extra parameter, $\nu_r$, describing the subdominant photon production rate. Here we perform a statistical analysis based on a compilation of 36 recent measurements of $T(z)$ at low and intermediate redshifts. The likelihood of the production rate in CCDM cosmologies is constrained by $\nu_r = 0.023 \pm 0.027$ ($1\sigma$ confidence level, thereby showing that $\Lambda$CDM ($\nu_r=0$) is still compatible with the adopted data sample. Although being hardly differentiated in the dynamic sector (cosmic history and matter fluctuations), the so-called thermal sector (temperature law, abundances of thermal relics and CMB power spectrum) offers a clear possibility for crucial tests confronting $\Lambda$CDM and CCDM cosmologies.

Testing CCDM Cosmology with the Radiation Temperature-Redshift Relation [Cross-Listing]

The standard $\Lambda$CDM model can be mimicked at the background and perturbative levels (linear and non-linear) by a class of gravitationally induced particle production cosmology dubbed CCDM cosmology. However, the radiation component in the CCDM model follows a slightly different temperature-redshift $T(z)$-law which depends on an extra parameter, $\nu_r$, describing the subdominant photon production rate. Here we perform a statistical analysis based on a compilation of 36 recent measurements of $T(z)$ at low and intermediate redshifts. The likelihood of the production rate in CCDM cosmologies is constrained by $\nu_r = 0.023 \pm 0.027$ ($1\sigma$ confidence level, thereby showing that $\Lambda$CDM ($\nu_r=0$) is still compatible with the adopted data sample. Although being hardly differentiated in the dynamic sector (cosmic history and matter fluctuations), the so-called thermal sector (temperature law, abundances of thermal relics and CMB power spectrum) offers a clear possibility for crucial tests confronting $\Lambda$CDM and CCDM cosmologies.

First complete study of hadroproduction of a $\Upsilon$ meson associated with a prompt $J/\psi$

We present the first complete study of $\Upsilon$ and prompt $J/\psi$ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_S^6)$ color-singlet contribution, the $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_S^2\alpha^2)$ electroweak contribution, the complete non-relativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study motivated by the recent evidence reported by D0 collaboration of prompt $J/\psi$ and $\Upsilon$ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double parton scattering contribution made by D0. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is $\sigma_{\rm eff}\le 8.2$ mb at $68\%$ confidence level from D0 measurement.

First complete study of hadroproduction of a $\Upsilon$ meson associated with a prompt $J/\psi$ [Cross-Listing]

We present the first complete study of $\Upsilon$ and prompt $J/\psi$ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_S^6)$ color-singlet contribution, the $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_S^2\alpha^2)$ electroweak contribution, the complete non-relativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study motivated by the recent evidence reported by D0 collaboration of prompt $J/\psi$ and $\Upsilon$ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double parton scattering contribution made by D0. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is $\sigma_{\rm eff}\le 8.2$ mb at $68\%$ confidence level from D0 measurement.

First complete study of hadroproduction of a $\Upsilon$ meson associated with a prompt $J/\psi$ [Cross-Listing]

We present the first complete study of $\Upsilon$ and prompt $J/\psi$ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_S^6)$ color-singlet contribution, the $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_S^2\alpha^2)$ electroweak contribution, the complete non-relativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study motivated by the recent evidence reported by D0 collaboration of prompt $J/\psi$ and $\Upsilon$ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double parton scattering contribution made by D0. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is $\sigma_{\rm eff}\le 8.2$ mb at $68\%$ confidence level from D0 measurement.

First complete study of hadroproduction of a $\Upsilon$ meson associated with a prompt $J/\psi$ [Cross-Listing]

We present the first complete study of $\Upsilon$ and prompt $J/\psi$ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_S^6)$ color-singlet contribution, the $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_S^2\alpha^2)$ electroweak contribution, the complete non-relativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study motivated by the recent evidence reported by D0 collaboration of prompt $J/\psi$ and $\Upsilon$ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double parton scattering contribution made by D0. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is $\sigma_{\rm eff}\le 8.2$ mb at $68\%$ confidence level from D0 measurement.

A candidate optical counterpart to the middle-aged gamma-ray pulsar PSR J1741-2054

We carried out deep optical observations of the middle-aged $\gamma$-ray pulsar PSR J1741-2054 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We identified two objects, of magnitudes $m_v=23.10\pm0.05$ and $m_v=25.32\pm0.08$, at positions consistent with the very accurate Chandra coordinates of the pulsar, the faintest of which is more likely to be its counterpart. From the VLT images we also detected the known bow-shock nebula around PSR J1741-2054. The nebula is displaced by $\sim 0\farcs9$ (at the $3\sigma$ confidence level) with respect to its position measured in archival data, showing that the shock propagates in the interstellar medium consistently with the pulsar proper motion. Finally, we could not find evidence of large-scale extended optical emission associated with the pulsar wind nebula detected by Chandra, down to a surface brightness limit of $\sim 28.1$ magnitudes arcsec$^{-2}$. Future observations are needed to confirm the optical identification of \psr\ and characterise the spectrum of its counterpart.

A candidate optical counterpart to the middle-aged gamma-ray pulsar PSR J1741-2054 [Replacement]

We carried out deep optical observations of the middle-aged $\gamma$-ray pulsar PSR J1741-2054 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We identified two objects, of magnitudes $m_v=23.10\pm0.05$ and $m_v=25.32\pm0.08$, at positions consistent with the very accurate Chandra coordinates of the pulsar, the faintest of which is more likely to be its counterpart. From the VLT images we also detected the known bow-shock nebula around PSR J1741-2054. The nebula is displaced by $\sim 0\farcs9$ (at the $3\sigma$ confidence level) with respect to its position measured in archival data, showing that the shock propagates in the interstellar medium consistently with the pulsar proper motion. Finally, we could not find evidence of large-scale extended optical emission associated with the pulsar wind nebula detected by Chandra, down to a surface brightness limit of $\sim 28.1$ magnitudes arcsec$^{-2}$. Future observations are needed to confirm the optical identification of PSR J1741-2054 and characterise the spectrum of its counterpart.

Structural analysis of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

We present wide-field $g$ and $i$ band stellar photometry of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy and its surrounding area out to four times its half-light radius ($r_h=695\,$pc), based on images obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at the 4-m Blanco telescope at CTIO. We find clear evidence of stellar substructure associated with the galaxy, extending to a distance of $82\arcmin$ (2\,kpc) from its centre. We perform a statistical analysis of the over-densities and find three distinct features, as well as an extended halo-like structure, to be significant at the $99.7\%$ confidence level or higher. Unlike the extremely elongated and extended substructures surrounding the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy, the over-densities seen around Sextans are distributed evenly about its centre, and do not appear to form noticeable tidal tails. Fitting a King model to the radial distribution of Sextans stars yields a tidal radius $r_t =83.2\arcmin\pm7.1\arcmin$ (2.08$\pm$0.18\,kpc), which implies the majority of detected substructure is gravitationally bound to the galaxy. This finding suggests that Sextans is not undergoing significant tidal disruption from the Milky Way, supporting the scenario in which the orbit of Sextans has a low eccentricity.

Broadband short term variability of the quasar PDS 456

We present a detailed analysis of a recent $500$ ks net exposure \textit{Suzaku} observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby ($z=0.184$) luminous (L$_{\rm bol}\sim10^{47}$ erg s$^{-1}$) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. The short term X-ray spectral variability has been interpreted in terms of variable absorption and/or intrinsic continuum changes. In the former scenario, the spectral variability is due to variable covering factors of two regions of partially covering absorbers. We find that these absorbers are characterised by an outflow velocity comparable to that of the highly ionised wind, i.e. $\sim0.25$ c, at the $99.9\%$ $(3.26\sigma)$ confidence level. This suggests that the partially absorbing clouds may be the denser clumpy part of the inhomogeneous wind. Following an obscuration event we obtained a direct estimate of the size of the X-ray emitting region, to be not larger than $20~R_{\rm g}$ in PDS 456.

Study of the rare decays of $B^0_s$ and $B^0$ into muon pairs from data collected during the LHC Run 1 with the ATLAS detector

A study of the decays $B^0\to \mu^+\mu^-$ and $B^0_s\to \mu^+\mu^-$ has been performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $25$ fb$^{-1}$ of $7$ TeV and $8$ TeV proton--proton collisions collected with the ATLAS detector during the LHC Run 1. For $B^0$, an upper limit on the branching fraction is set at ${\cal B}(B^0 \to \mu^+\mu^-) < 4.2 \times 10^{-10}$ at $95\%$ confidence level. For $B^0_s$, the branching fraction ${\cal B}(B^0_s \to \mu^+\mu^-) = \left( 0.9^{+1.1}_{-0.8} \right) \times 10^{-9}$ is measured. The results are consistent with the Standard Model expectation with a $p$-value of $4.8\%$, corresponding to $2.0$ standard deviations.

Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-Life and Search for the Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ with the NEMO-3 Detector

The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory has investigated the double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$. Using $5.25$\,yr of data recorded with a $6.99\,{\rm g}$ sample of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$, approximately $150$ double-$\beta$ decay candidate events have been selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than $3$. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ has been measured to be \mbox{$T^{2\nu}_{1/2}\,=\,[6.4\, ^{+0.7}_{-0.6}{\rm (stat.)} \, ^{+1.2}_{-0.9}{\rm (syst.)}] \times 10^{19}\,{\rm yr}$}. A search for neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ yields a null result and a corresponding lower limit on the half-life is found to be $T^{0\nu}_{1/2} > 2.0 \times 10^{22}\,{\rm yr}$ at $90\%$ confidence level, translating into an upper limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of $< m_{\beta\beta} > < 6.0 - 26$\,${\rm eV}$, with the range reflecting different nuclear matrix element calculations. Limits are also set on models involving Majoron emission and right-handed currents.

Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-Life and Search for the Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ with the NEMO-3 Detector [Cross-Listing]

The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory has investigated the double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$. Using $5.25$\,yr of data recorded with a $6.99\,{\rm g}$ sample of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$, approximately $150$ double-$\beta$ decay candidate events have been selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than $3$. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ has been measured to be \mbox{$T^{2\nu}_{1/2}\,=\,[6.4\, ^{+0.7}_{-0.6}{\rm (stat.)} \, ^{+1.2}_{-0.9}{\rm (syst.)}] \times 10^{19}\,{\rm yr}$}. A search for neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ yields a null result and a corresponding lower limit on the half-life is found to be $T^{0\nu}_{1/2} > 2.0 \times 10^{22}\,{\rm yr}$ at $90\%$ confidence level, translating into an upper limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of $< m_{\beta\beta} > < 6.0 - 26$\,${\rm eV}$, with the range reflecting different nuclear matrix element calculations. Limits are also set on models involving Majoron emission and right-handed currents.

Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-Life and Search for the Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ with the NEMO-3 Detector [Replacement]

The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory has investigated the double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$. Using $5.25$ yr of data recorded with a $6.99\,{\rm g}$ sample of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$, approximately $150$ double-$\beta$ decay candidate events have been selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than $3$. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ has been measured to be $T^{2\nu}_{1/2}\,=\,[6.4\, ^{+0.7}_{-0.6}{\rm (stat.)} \, ^{+1.2}_{-0.9}{\rm (syst.)}] \times 10^{19}\,{\rm yr}$. A search for neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ yields a null result and a corresponding lower limit on the half-life is found to be $T^{0\nu}_{1/2} > 2.0 \times 10^{22}\,{\rm yr}$ at $90\%$ confidence level, translating into an upper limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of $< m_{\beta\beta} > < 6.0 - 26$ ${\rm eV}$, with the range reflecting different nuclear matrix element calculations. Limits are also set on models involving Majoron emission and right-handed currents.

Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-Life and Search for the Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ with the NEMO-3 Detector [Replacement]

The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory has investigated the double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$. Using $5.25$ yr of data recorded with a $6.99\,{\rm g}$ sample of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$, approximately $150$ double-$\beta$ decay candidate events have been selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than $3$. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ has been measured to be $T^{2\nu}_{1/2}\,=\,[6.4\, ^{+0.7}_{-0.6}{\rm (stat.)} \, ^{+1.2}_{-0.9}{\rm (syst.)}] \times 10^{19}\,{\rm yr}$. A search for neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\rm Ca}$ yields a null result and a corresponding lower limit on the half-life is found to be $T^{0\nu}_{1/2} > 2.0 \times 10^{22}\,{\rm yr}$ at $90\%$ confidence level, translating into an upper limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of $< m_{\beta\beta} > < 6.0 - 26$ ${\rm eV}$, with the range reflecting different nuclear matrix element calculations. Limits are also set on models involving Majoron emission and right-handed currents.

An optical transmission spectrum of the giant planet WASP-36 b

We present broad-band photometry of five transits in the planetary system WASP-36, totaling 17 high-precision light curves. Four of the transits were simultaneously observed in four passbands (g, r, i, z), using the telescope-defocussing technique, and achieving scatters of less than 1 mmag per observation. We used these data to improve the measured orbital and physical properties of the system, and obtain an optical transmission spectrum of the planet. We measured a decreasing radius from bluer to redder passbands with a confidence level of more than 5 sigma. The radius variation is roughly 11 pressure scale heights between the g and the z bands. This is too strong to be Rayleigh scattering in the planetary atmosphere, and implies the presence of a species which absorbs strongly at bluer wavelengths.

Search for QCD Instanton-Induced Processes at HERA in the High-$Q^2$ Domain

Signals of QCD instanton-induced processes are searched for in neutral current deep-inelastic scattering at the electron-proton collider HERA in the kinematic region defined by the Bjorken-scaling variable $x > 10^{-3}$, the inelasticity $0.2< y < 0.7$ and the photon virtuality $150 < Q^2 < 15000$ GeV$^2$. The search is performed using H1 data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of ~$351$ pb$^{-1}$. No evidence for the production of QCD instanton-induced events is observed. Upper limits on the cross section for instanton-induced processes between $1.5$~pb and $6$~pb, at $95\%$~ confidence level, are obtained depending on the kinematic domain in which instantons could be produced. Compared to earlier publications, the limits are improved by an order of magnitude and for the first time are challenging theory predictions.

Search for QCD Instanton-Induced Processes at HERA in the High-$Q^2$ Domain [Cross-Listing]

Signals of QCD instanton-induced processes are searched for in neutral current deep-inelastic scattering at the electron-proton collider HERA in the kinematic region defined by the Bjorken-scaling variable $x > 10^{-3}$, the inelasticity $0.2< y < 0.7$ and the photon virtuality $150 < Q^2 < 15000$ GeV$^2$. The search is performed using H1 data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of ~$351$ pb$^{-1}$. No evidence for the production of QCD instanton-induced events is observed. Upper limits on the cross section for instanton-induced processes between $1.5$~pb and $6$~pb, at $95\%$~ confidence level, are obtained depending on the kinematic domain in which instantons could be produced. Compared to earlier publications, the limits are improved by an order of magnitude and for the first time are challenging theory predictions.

Search for QCD Instanton-Induced Processes at HERA in the High-$Q^2$ Domain [Cross-Listing]

Signals of QCD instanton-induced processes are searched for in neutral current deep-inelastic scattering at the electron-proton collider HERA in the kinematic region defined by the Bjorken-scaling variable $x > 10^{-3}$, the inelasticity $0.2< y < 0.7$ and the photon virtuality $150 < Q^2 < 15000$ GeV$^2$. The search is performed using H1 data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of ~$351$ pb$^{-1}$. No evidence for the production of QCD instanton-induced events is observed. Upper limits on the cross section for instanton-induced processes between $1.5$~pb and $6$~pb, at $95\%$~ confidence level, are obtained depending on the kinematic domain in which instantons could be produced. Compared to earlier publications, the limits are improved by an order of magnitude and for the first time are challenging theory predictions.

Updated constraints on spatial variations of the fine-structure constant

Recent work by Webb {\it et al.} has provided indications of spatial variations of the fine-structure constant, $\alpha$, at a level of a few parts per million. Using a dataset of 293 archival measurements, they further show that a dipole provides a statistically good fit to the data, a result subsequently confirmed by other authors. Here we show that a more recent dataset of dedicated measurements further constrains these variations: although there are only 10 such measurements, their uncertainties are considerably smaller. We find that a dipolar variation is still a good fit to the combined dataset, but the amplitude of such a dipole must be somewhat smaller: $8.1\pm1.7$ ppm for the full dataset, versus $9.4\pm2.2$ ppm for the Webb {\it et al.} data alone, both at the $68.3\%$ confidence level. Constraints on the direction on the sky of such a dipole are also significantly improved. On the other hand the data can't yet discriminate between a pure spatial dipole and one with an additional redshift dependence.

Updated constraints on spatial variations of the fine-structure constant [Cross-Listing]

Recent work by Webb {\it et al.} has provided indications of spatial variations of the fine-structure constant, $\alpha$, at a level of a few parts per million. Using a dataset of 293 archival measurements, they further show that a dipole provides a statistically good fit to the data, a result subsequently confirmed by other authors. Here we show that a more recent dataset of dedicated measurements further constrains these variations: although there are only 10 such measurements, their uncertainties are considerably smaller. We find that a dipolar variation is still a good fit to the combined dataset, but the amplitude of such a dipole must be somewhat smaller: $8.1\pm1.7$ ppm for the full dataset, versus $9.4\pm2.2$ ppm for the Webb {\it et al.} data alone, both at the $68.3\%$ confidence level. Constraints on the direction on the sky of such a dipole are also significantly improved. On the other hand the data can't yet discriminate between a pure spatial dipole and one with an additional redshift dependence.

Updated constraints on spatial variations of the fine-structure constant [Cross-Listing]

Recent work by Webb {\it et al.} has provided indications of spatial variations of the fine-structure constant, $\alpha$, at a level of a few parts per million. Using a dataset of 293 archival measurements, they further show that a dipole provides a statistically good fit to the data, a result subsequently confirmed by other authors. Here we show that a more recent dataset of dedicated measurements further constrains these variations: although there are only 10 such measurements, their uncertainties are considerably smaller. We find that a dipolar variation is still a good fit to the combined dataset, but the amplitude of such a dipole must be somewhat smaller: $8.1\pm1.7$ ppm for the full dataset, versus $9.4\pm2.2$ ppm for the Webb {\it et al.} data alone, both at the $68.3\%$ confidence level. Constraints on the direction on the sky of such a dipole are also significantly improved. On the other hand the data can't yet discriminate between a pure spatial dipole and one with an additional redshift dependence.

Measurements of the Soft Gamma-ray Emission from SN2014J with Suzaku

The hard X-ray detector (HXD) onboard {\it Suzaku} measured soft $\gamma$-rays from the Type Ia supernova SN2014J at $77\pm2$ days after the explosion. Although the confidence level of the signal is about 90\% (i.e., $2 \sigma$), the $3 \sigma$ upper limit has been derived at $< 2.2 \times10^{-4}$ ph s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ in the 170 -- 250 keV band as the first independent measurement of soft $\gamma$-rays with an instrument other than {\it INTEGRAL}. For this analysis, we have examined the reproducibility of the NXB model of HXD/GSO using blank sky data. We find that the residual count rate in the 90 -- 500 keV band is distributed around an average of 0.19\% with a standard deviation of 0.42\% relative to the NXB rate. The averaged residual signals are consistent with that expected from the cosmic X-ray background. The flux of SN2014J derived from {\it Suzaku} measurements taken in one snapshot at $t=77\pm2$ days after the explosion is consistent with the {\it INTEGRAL} values averaged over the period between $t=$50 and 100 days and also with explosion models of single or double degenerate scenarios. Being sensitive to the total ejecta mass surrounding the radioactive material, the ratio between continuum and line flux in the soft gamma-ray regime might distinguish different progenitor models. The {\it Suzaku} data have been examined with this relation at $t=77\pm2$ days, but could not distinguish models between single and double degenerate-progenitors. We disfavor explosion models with larger $^{56}$Ni masses than 1 $M_\odot$, from our $1 \sigma$ error on the 170-250 keV X-ray flux of $(1.2\pm0.7) \times10^{-4}$ ph s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$.

Constraining cosmic isotropy with type Ia supernovae

We investigate the validity of the Cosmological Principle by constraining the cosmological parameters $H_0$ and $q_0$ through the celestial sphere. Our analyses are performed in a low-redshift regime in order to follow a model independent approach, using both Union2.1 and JLA Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) compilations. We find that the preferred direction of the $H_0$ parameter in the sky is consistent with the bulk flow motion of our local Universe in the Union2.1 case, while the $q_0$ directional analysis seem to be anti-correlated with the $H_0$ for both data sets. Furthermore, we test the consistency of these results with Monte Carlo (MC) realisations, finding that the anisotropy on both parameters are significant within $2-3\sigma$ confidence level, albeit we find a significant correlation between the $H_0$ and $q_0$ mapping with the angular distribution of SNe from the JLA compilation. Therefore, we conclude that the detected anisotropies are either of local origin, or induced by the non-uniform celestial coverage of the SNe data set.

Constraining cosmic isotropy with type Ia supernovae [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the validity of the Cosmological Principle by constraining the cosmological parameters $H_0$ and $q_0$ through the celestial sphere. Our analyses are performed in a low-redshift regime in order to follow a model independent approach, using both Union2.1 and JLA Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) compilations. We find that the preferred direction of the $H_0$ parameter in the sky is consistent with the bulk flow motion of our local Universe in the Union2.1 case, while the $q_0$ directional analysis seem to be anti-correlated with the $H_0$ for both data sets. Furthermore, we test the consistency of these results with Monte Carlo (MC) realisations, finding that the anisotropy on both parameters are significant within $2-3\sigma$ confidence level, albeit we find a significant correlation between the $H_0$ and $q_0$ mapping with the angular distribution of SNe from the JLA compilation. Therefore, we conclude that the detected anisotropies are either of local origin, or induced by the non-uniform celestial coverage of the SNe data set.

Detection of a possible X-ray Quasi-periodic Oscillation in the Active Galactic Nucleus 1H~0707-495

Quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) detected in the X-ray radiation of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) is thought to originate from dynamical processes in the close vicinity of the black holes (BHs), and thus carries important physical information therein. Such a feature is extremely rare in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with supermassive BHs. Here we report on the detection of a possible X-ray QPO signal with a period of 3800\,s at a confidence level $>99.99\%$ in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) 1H~0707-495 in one data set in 0.2-10\,keV taken with {\it XMM-Newton}. The statistical significance is higher than that of most previously reported QPOs in AGNs. The QPO is highly coherent (quality factor $Q=\nu/\Delta\nu \geqslant 15$) with a high rms fractional variability ($\sim15\%$). A comprehensive analysis of the optical spectra of this AGN is also performed, yielding a central BH mass $5.2\times10^6\,M_{\odot}$ from the broad emission lines based on the scaling relation. The QPO follows closely the known frequency-BH mass relation, which spans from stellar-mass to supermassive BHs. The absence of the QPO in other observations of the object suggests it a transient phenomenon. We suggest that the (high-frequency) QPOs tend to occur in highly accreting BH systems, from BHXBs to supermassive BHs. Future precise estimation of the BH mass may be used to infer the BH spin from the QPO frequency.

Neutrino observables from predictive flavour patterns [Replacement]

We look for predictive flavour patterns of the effective Majorana neutrino mass matrix that are compatible with current neutrino oscillation data. Our search is based on the assumption that the neutrino mass matrix contains equal elements and a minimal number of parameters, in the flavour basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal and real. Three unique patterns that can successfully explain neutrino observables at the $3\sigma$ confidence level with just three physical parameters are presented. Neutrino textures described by four and five parameters are also studied. The predictions for the lightest neutrino mass, the effective mass parameter in neutrinoless double beta decays and the CP-violating phases in the leptonic mixing are given.

Neutrino observables from predictive flavour patterns

We look for predictive flavour patterns of the effective Majorana neutrino mass matrix that are compatible with current neutrino oscillation data. Our search is based on the assumption that the neutrino mass matrix contains equal elements and a minimal number of parameters, in the flavour basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal and real. Three unique patterns that can successfully explain neutrino observables at the $3\sigma$ confidence level with just three physical parameters are presented. Neutrino textures described by four and five parameters are also studied. The predictions for the lightest neutrino mass, the effective mass parameter in neutrinoless double beta decays and the CP-violating phases in the leptonic mixing are given.

Dodging the cosmic curvature to probe the constancy of the speed of light [Cross-Listing]

We develop a new model-independent method to probe the constancy of the speed of light $c$. In our method, the degeneracy between the cosmic curvature and the speed of light can be eliminated, which makes the test more natural and general. Combining the independent observations of Hubble parameter $H(z)$ and luminosity distance $d_L(z)$, we use the model-independent smoothing technique, Gaussian processes, to reconstruct them and then detect variation of the speed of light. We find no signal of deviation from the present value of the speed of light $c_0$. Moreover, to demonstrate the improvement in probing the constancy of the speed of light from future experiments, we produce a series of simulated data. The Dark Energy Survey will be able to detect $\Delta c /c_0 \sim 4\%$ at $2\sigma$ confidence level. If the errors are reduced to one-tenth of the expected DES ones, it is easy to detect a $\Delta c /c_0 \sim 0.1\%$ variation at $2\sigma$ confidence level.

Dodging the cosmic curvature to probe the constancy of the speed of light

We develop a new model-independent method to probe the constancy of the speed of light $c$. In our method, the degeneracy between the cosmic curvature and the speed of light can be eliminated, which makes the test more natural and general. Combining the independent observations of Hubble parameter $H(z)$ and luminosity distance $d_L(z)$, we use the model-independent smoothing technique, Gaussian processes, to reconstruct them and then detect variation of the speed of light. We find no signal of deviation from the present value of the speed of light $c_0$. Moreover, to demonstrate the improvement in probing the constancy of the speed of light from future experiments, we produce a series of simulated data. The Dark Energy Survey will be able to detect $\Delta c /c_0 \sim 4\%$ at $2\sigma$ confidence level. If the errors are reduced to one-tenth of the expected DES ones, it is easy to detect a $\Delta c /c_0 \sim 0.1\%$ variation at $2\sigma$ confidence level.

The inflation models 2015 [Replacement]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a concave potential is preferred and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

Inflation model constraints from data released in 2015 [Replacement]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a convex potential is not favored and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

The inflation models 2015 [Replacement]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a concave potential is preferred and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

Inflation model constraints from data released in 2015 [Replacement]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a convex potential is not favored and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

The inflation models 2015 [Replacement]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a concave potential is preferred and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

Inflation model constraints from data released in 2015 [Replacement]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a convex potential is not favored and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

The inflation models 2015

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a concave potential is preferred and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

The inflation models 2015 [Cross-Listing]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a concave potential is preferred and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

The inflation models 2015 [Cross-Listing]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a concave potential is preferred and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

Inflation model constraints from data released in 2015 [Replacement]

We provide the latest constraints on the power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations from the CMB data (including \textit{Planck}~2015, BICEP2 \& \textit{Keck Array} experiments) and the new BAO scales from SDSS-III BOSS observation. We find that the inflation model with a convex potential is not favored and both the inflation model with a monomial potential and the natural inflation model are marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. But both the Brane inflation model and the Starobinsky inflation model fit the data quite well.

Explorations of two empirical formulae for fermion masses [Replacement]

Two empirical formulae for the lepton and quark masses (i.e. Kartavtsev's extended Koide formulae), $K_l=(\sum_l m_l)/(\sum_l\sqrt{m_l})^2=2/3$ and $K_q=(\sum_q m_q)/(\sum_q\sqrt{m_q})^2=2/3$, are explored in this paper. For the lepton sector, we show that $K_l=2/3$, only if the uncertainty of the tauon mass is relaxed to about $2\sigma$ confidence level, and the neutrino masses can consequently be extracted with the current experimental data. For the quark sector, the extended Koide formula should only be applied to the running quark masses, and $K_q$ is found to be rather insensitive to the renormalization effects in a large range of energy scales from GeV to $10^{12}$ GeV. However, $K_q$ is always slightly larger than $2/3$, but the discrepancy is merely about $5\%$.

Explorations of two empirical formulae for fermion masses

Two empirical formulae for the lepton and quark masses (i.e. Kartavtsev's extended Koide formulae), $K_l=(\sum_l m_l)/(\sum_l\sqrt{m_l})^2=2/3$ and $K_q=(\sum_q m_q)/(\sum_q\sqrt{m_q})^2=2/3$, are explored in this paper. For the lepton sector, we show that $K_l=2/3$, only if the uncertainty of the tauon mass is relaxed to about $2\sigma$ confidence level, and the neutrino masses can consequently be extracted with the current experimental data. For the quark sector, the extended Koide formula should only be applied to the running quark masses, and $K_q$ is found to be rather insensitive to the renormalization effects in a large range of energy scales from GeV to $10^{12}$ GeV. However, $K_q$ is always slightly larger than $2/3$, but the discrepancy is merely about $5\%$.

Search for the rare decay $D^0\to\gamma\gamma$ at Belle

We search for the rare radiative decay $D^0\to\gamma\gamma$ using a data sample with an integrated luminosity of $832{\rm fb^{-1}}$ recorded by the Belle detector at the KEKB $e^+e^-$ asymmetric-energy collider. We find no statistically significant signal and set an upper limit on the branching fraction of ${\cal B}(D^0\to\gamma\gamma)<8.5\times10^{-7}$ at $90\%$ confidence level. This is the most restrictive limit on the decay channel to date.

A search for cosmogenic production of $\beta$-neutron emitting radionuclides in water

Here we present the first results of WATCHBOY, a water Cherenkov detector designed to measure the yield of $\beta$-neutron emitting radionuclides produced by cosmic ray muons in water. In addition to the $\beta$-neutron measurement, we also provide a first look at isolating single-$\beta$ producing radionuclides following showering muons as a check of the detection capabilities of WATCHBOY. The data taken over $207$ live days indicates a $^{9}$Li production yield upper limit of $1.9\times10^{-7}\mu^{-1}g^{-1}\mathrm{cm}^2$ at $\sim400$ meters water equivalent (m.w.e.) overburden at the $90\%$ confidence level. In this work the $^{9}$Li signal in WATCHBOY was used as a proxy for the combined search for $^{9}$Li and $^{8}$He production. This result will provide a constraint on estimates of antineutrino-like backgrounds in future water-based antineutrino detectors.

A search for cosmogenic production of $\beta$-neutron emitting radionuclides in water [Cross-Listing]

Here we present the first results of WATCHBOY, a water Cherenkov detector designed to measure the yield of $\beta$-neutron emitting radionuclides produced by cosmic ray muons in water. In addition to the $\beta$-neutron measurement, we also provide a first look at isolating single-$\beta$ producing radionuclides following showering muons as a check of the detection capabilities of WATCHBOY. The data taken over $207$ live days indicates a $^{9}$Li production yield upper limit of $1.9\times10^{-7}\mu^{-1}g^{-1}\mathrm{cm}^2$ at $\sim400$ meters water equivalent (m.w.e.) overburden at the $90\%$ confidence level. In this work the $^{9}$Li signal in WATCHBOY was used as a proxy for the combined search for $^{9}$Li and $^{8}$He production. This result will provide a constraint on estimates of antineutrino-like backgrounds in future water-based antineutrino detectors.

Sub-percent constraints on cosmological temperature evolution

The redshift dependence of the cosmic microwave background temperature is one of the key cosmological observables. In the standard cosmological model one has $T(z)=T_0(1+z)$, where $T_0$ is the present-day temperature. Deviations from this behavior would imply the presence of new physics. Here we discuss how the combination of all currently available direct and indirect measurements of $T(z)$ constrains the common phenomenological parametrization $T(z)=T_0(1+z)^{1-\beta}$, and obtain the first sub-percent constraint on the $\beta$ parameter, specifically $\beta=(7.6\pm8.0)\times10^{-3}$ at the $68.3\%$ confidence level.

Search for exclusive photoproduction of $Z_c(3900)$ at COMPASS

The $Z_{c}(3900)$ hadron state has been found by the BES-III and Belle experiments in the decay of the hadron state with higher mass. The first attempt to search for the direct exclusive production of the $Z_c^{\pm}(3900)$ hadron by virtual photons has been performed in the reaction $\mu^+ N \rightarrow \mu^+ N' Z_c(3900)^{\pm} \rightarrow \mu^+ N' J/\psi \pi^{\pm}$ at COMPASS \cite{Adolph:2014hba}. The data cover the range from 7~GeV to 19~GeV in the centre-of-mass energy of the photon-nucleon system. The full COMPASS data set collected with a muon beam between 2002 and 2011 has been used. An upper limit for the ratio $BR(Z_c^{\pm}(3900)\rightarrow J/\psi \pi^{\pm} )\times (\sigma_{ \gamma~N \rightarrow Z_c^{\pm}(3900)~ N} /\sigma_{ \gamma~N \rightarrow J/\psi~ N})$ of $3.7\times10^{-3}$ has been established at the confidence level of 90\%.

Galaxy alignment as a probe of large-scale filaments

The orientations of the red galaxies in a filament are aligned with the orientation of the filament. We thus develop a location-alignment-method (LAM) of detecting filaments around clusters of galaxies, which uses both the alignments of red galaxies and their distributions in two-dimensional images. For the first time, the orientations of red galaxies are used as probes of filaments. We apply LAM to the environment of Coma cluster, and find four filaments (two filaments are located in sheets) in two selected regions, which are compared with the filaments detected with the method of \cite{Falco14}. We find that LAM can effectively detect the filaments around a cluster, even with $3\sigma$ confidence level, and clearly reveal the number and overall orientations of the detected filaments. LAM is independent of the redshifts of galaxies, and thus can be applied at relatively high redshifts and to the samples of red galaxies without the information of redshifts. We also find that the images of background galaxies (interlopers) which are lensed by the gravity of foreground filaments are amplifiers to probe the filaments.

Galaxy alignment as a probe of large-scale filaments [Replacement]

The orientations of the red galaxies in a filament are aligned with the orientation of the filament. We thus develop a location-alignment-method (LAM) of detecting filaments around clusters of galaxies, which uses both the alignments of red galaxies and their distributions in two-dimensional images. For the first time, the orientations of red galaxies are used as probes of filaments. We apply LAM to the environment of Coma cluster, and find four filaments (two filaments are located in sheets) in two selected regions, which are compared with the filaments detected with the method of \cite{Falco14}. We find that LAM can effectively detect the filaments around a cluster, even with $3\sigma$ confidence level, and clearly reveal the number and overall orientations of the detected filaments. LAM is independent of the redshifts of galaxies, and thus can be applied at relatively high redshifts and to the samples of red galaxies without the information of redshifts. We also find that the images of background galaxies (interlopers) which are lensed by the gravity of foreground filaments are amplifiers to probe the filaments.

Low-$\ell$ CMB from String-Scale SUSY Breaking? [Cross-Listing]

Models of inflation are instructive playgrounds for supersymmetry breaking in Supergravity and String Theory. In particular, combinations of branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS can lead to \emph{brane supersymmetry breaking}, a phenomenon where non--linear realizations are accompanied, in tachyon--free vacua, by the emergence of steep exponential potentials. When combined with milder terms, these exponentials can lead to slow--roll after a fast ascent and a turning point. This leaves behind distinctive patterns of scalar perturbations, where pre--inflationary peaks can lie well apart from an almost scale invariant profile. I review recent attempts to connect these power spectra to the low--$\ell$ CMB, and a corresponding one--parameter extension of $\Lambda$CDM with a low--frequency cut $\Delta$. A detailed likelihood analysis led to $\Delta = (0.351 \pm 0.114) \times 10^{-3} \, \mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$, at $99.4\%$ confidence level, in an extended Galactic mask with $f_{sky}=39\%$, to be compared with a nearby value at $88.5\%$ in the standard Planck 2015 mask with $f_{sky}=94\%$. In these scenarios one would be confronted, in the CMB, with relics of an epoch of deceleration that preceded the onset of slow--roll.

 

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