Posts Tagged confidence level

Recent Postings from confidence level

Are long gamma-ray bursts standard candles?

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely proposed as an effective probe to trace the Hubble diagram of the Universe in high redshift range. However, the calibration of GRBs is not as easy as that of type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Most calibrating methods at present take use one or some of the empirical luminosity corrections, e.g., Amati relation. One of the underlying assumptions of these calibrating methods is that the empirical correlation is universal over all redshifts. In this paper, we check to what extent this assumption holds. Assuming that SNe Ia exactly trace the Hubble diagram of the Universe, we re-investigate the Amati relation for low redshift ($z<1.4$) and high redshift ($z>1.4$) GRBs, respectively. It is found that the Amati relation of low-$z$ GRBs differs from that of high-$z$ GRBs at more than $3\sigma$ confidence level. This result is insensitive to cosmological models.

An efficient probe of the cosmological CPT violation

We develop an efficient method based on the linear regression algorithm to probe the cosmological CPT violation using the CMB polarisation data. We validate this method using simulated CMB data and apply it to recent CMB observations. We find that a combined data sample of BICEP1 and BOOMERanG 2003 favours a nonzero isotropic rotation angle at $2.3\sigma$ confidence level, ie, $\Delta\alpha=-3.3 \pm1.4$ deg (68% CL) with systematics included.

Testing the isotropy of the Universe by using the JLA compilation of type-Ia supernovae

We probe the possible anisotropy in the accelerated expanding Universe by using the JLA compilation of type-Ia supernovae. We constrain the amplitude and direction of anisotropy in the anisotropic cosmological models. For the dipole-modulated $\Lambda$CDM model, the anisotropic amplitude has an upper bound $D<1.04\times10^{-3}$ at the $68\%$ confidence level. Similar results are found in the dipole-modulated $w$CDM and CPL models. Our studies show that there are no significant evidence for the anisotropic expansion of the Universe. Thus the Universe is still well compatible with the isotropy.

Testing the isotropy of the Universe by using the JLA compilation of type-Ia supernovae [Cross-Listing]

We probe the possible anisotropy in the accelerated expanding Universe by using the JLA compilation of type-Ia supernovae. We constrain the amplitude and direction of anisotropy in the anisotropic cosmological models. For the dipole-modulated $\Lambda$CDM model, the anisotropic amplitude has an upper bound $D<1.04\times10^{-3}$ at the $68\%$ confidence level. Similar results are found in the dipole-modulated $w$CDM and CPL models. Our studies show that there are no significant evidence for the anisotropic expansion of the Universe. Thus the Universe is still well compatible with the isotropy.

Probe Higgs boson pair production via the $3 \ell 2 j$ + missing $E_T$ mode

We perform a detailed hadron-level study on the sensitivity of Higgs boson pair production via the $WW^{*}WW^{*}$ channel with the final state $3 \ell 2 j$ + missing $E_T$ at the LHC with the collision energy $\sqrt{S} = 14$ TeV and a future 100 TeV collider. To avoid the huge background from $pp \to Z W + \textrm{jets}$ processes, we confine to consider the four lepton patterns: $e^\pm e^\pm \mu^\mp $ and $\mu^\pm \mu^\pm e^\mp$. We propose a partial reconstruction method to determine the most reliable combination. After that, we examine a few crucial observables which can discriminate efficiently signal and background events, especially we notice that the observable $m_{\rm T2}$ is very efficient. For the LHC 14 TeV collisions, with an accumulated 3000 fb$^{-1}$ dataset, we find that the sensitivity of this mode can reach up to 1.5 $\sigma$ for the Standard Model and the triple coupling of Higgs boson $\lambda_3$ in the simplest effective theory can be constrained into the range [-1, 8] at $95\%$ confidence level; at a 100 TeV collider with the integrated luminosity 3000 fb$^{-1}$, the sensitivity can reach up to 13 $\sigma$ for the Standard Model and we find that all values of $\lambda_3$ in the effective theory can be covered up to 3$\sigma$ even without optimising signals. To precisely measure the triple coupling of Higgs boson $\lambda_3=1$ of the Standard Model at a 100 TeV collider, by using the invariant mass of three leptons which is robust to against the contamination of underlying events and pileup effects and by performing a $\chi^2$ analysis, we find that it can be determined into a range [0.8, 1.5] at $95\%$ confidence level.

Probe Higgs boson pair production via the $3 \ell 2 j$ + missing $E_T$ mode [Replacement]

We perform a detailed hadron-level study on the sensitivity of Higgs boson pair production via the $WW^{*}WW^{*}$ channel with the final state $3 \ell 2 j$ + missing $E_T$ at the LHC with the collision energy $\sqrt{S} = 14$ TeV and a future 100 TeV collider. To avoid the huge background from $pp \to Z W + \textrm{jets}$ processes, we confine to consider the four lepton patterns: $e^\pm e^\pm \mu^\mp $ and $\mu^\pm \mu^\pm e^\mp$. We propose a partial reconstruction method to determine the most reliable combination. After that, we examine a few crucial observables which can discriminate efficiently signal and background events, especially we notice that the observable $m_{\rm T2}$ is very efficient. For the LHC 14 TeV collisions, with an accumulated 3000 fb$^{-1}$ dataset, we find that the sensitivity of this mode can reach up to 1.5 $\sigma$ for the Standard Model and the triple coupling of Higgs boson $\lambda_3$ in the simplest effective theory can be constrained into the range [-1, 8] at $95\%$ confidence level; at a 100 TeV collider with the integrated luminosity 3000 fb$^{-1}$, the sensitivity can reach up to 13 $\sigma$ for the Standard Model and we find that all values of $\lambda_3$ in the effective theory can be covered up to 3$\sigma$ even without optimising signals. To precisely measure the triple coupling of Higgs boson $\lambda_3=1$ of the Standard Model at a 100 TeV collider, by using the invariant mass of three leptons which is robust to against the contamination of underlying events and pileup effects and by performing a $\chi^2$ analysis, we find that it can be determined into a range [0.8, 1.5] at $95\%$ confidence level.

Testing Cosmological Models with Type Ic Super Luminous Supernovae

The use of type Ic Super Luminous Supernovae (SLSN Ic) to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 11 SLSNe Ic, which have thus far been used solely in tests involving $\Lambda$CDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between the $R_{\rm h}=ct$ and $\Lambda$CDM cosmologies. We individually optimize the parameters in each cosmological model by minimizing the $\chi^{2}$ statistic. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations based on these current SLSN Ic measurements to estimate how large the sample would have to be in order to rule out either model at a $\sim 99.7\%$ confidence level. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of $\sim$$70-80\%$ that the $R_{\rm h}=ct$ Universe is the correct cosmology versus $\sim$$20-30\%$ for the standard model. These results are suggestive, though not yet compelling, given the current limited number of SLSNe Ic. We find that if the real cosmology is $\Lambda$CDM, a sample of $\sim$$240$ SLSNe Ic would be sufficient to rule out $R_{\rm h}=ct$ at this level of confidence, while $\sim$$480$ SLSNe Ic would be required to rule out $\Lambda$CDM if the real Universe is instead $R_{\rm h}=ct$. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with $\Lambda$CDM. If such SLSNe Ic are commonly detected in the future, they could be a powerful tool for constraining the dark-energy equation of state in $\Lambda$CDM, and differentiating between this model and the $R_{\rm h}=ct$ Universe.

Probing Cosmological Isotropy With Type IA Supernovae

We investigate the validity of the Cosmological Principle by mapping the cosmological parameters $H_0$ and $q_0$ through the celestial sphere. In our analysis, performed in a low-redshift regime to follow a model-independent approach, we use two compilations of type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia), namely the Union2.1 and the JLA datasets. Firstly, we show that the angular distributions for both SNe Ia datasets are statistically anisotropic at high confidence level ($p$-value $<$ 0.0001), in particular the JLA sample. Then we find that the cosmic expansion and acceleration are mainly of dipolar type, with maximal anisotropic expansion [acceleration] pointing towards $(l,b) \simeq (326^{\circ},12^{\circ})$ [$(l,b) \simeq (174^{\circ},27^{\circ})$], and $(l,b) \simeq (58^{\circ},-60^{\circ})$ [$(l,b) \simeq (225^{\circ},51^{\circ})$] for the Union2.1 and JLA data, respectively. Secondly, we use a geometrical method to test the hypothesis that the non-uniformly distributed SNe Ia events could introduce anisotropic imprints on the cosmological expansion and acceleration. For the JLA compilation, we found significant correlations between the celestial distribution of data points and the directional studies of $H_0$ and $q_0$, suggesting that these results can be attributed to the intrinsic anisotropy of the sample. In the case of the Union2.1 data, nonetheless, these correlations are less pronounced, and we verify that the dipole asymmetry found in the $H_0$ analyses coincides with the well-known bulk-flow motion of our local group. From these analyses, we conclude that the directional asymmetry on the cosmological parameters maps are mainly either of local origin or due to celestial incompleteness of current SNe Ia samples.

Probing Cosmological Isotropy With Type IA Supernovae [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the validity of the Cosmological Principle by mapping the cosmological parameters $H_0$ and $q_0$ through the celestial sphere. In our analysis, performed in a low-redshift regime to follow a model-independent approach, we use two compilations of type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia), namely the Union2.1 and the JLA datasets. Firstly, we show that the angular distributions for both SNe Ia datasets are statistically anisotropic at high confidence level ($p$-value $<$ 0.0001), in particular the JLA sample. Then we find that the cosmic expansion and acceleration are mainly of dipolar type, with maximal anisotropic expansion [acceleration] pointing towards $(l,b) \simeq (326^{\circ},12^{\circ})$ [$(l,b) \simeq (174^{\circ},27^{\circ})$], and $(l,b) \simeq (58^{\circ},-60^{\circ})$ [$(l,b) \simeq (225^{\circ},51^{\circ})$] for the Union2.1 and JLA data, respectively. Secondly, we use a geometrical method to test the hypothesis that the non-uniformly distributed SNe Ia events could introduce anisotropic imprints on the cosmological expansion and acceleration. For the JLA compilation, we found significant correlations between the celestial distribution of data points and the directional studies of $H_0$ and $q_0$, suggesting that these results can be attributed to the intrinsic anisotropy of the sample. In the case of the Union2.1 data, nonetheless, these correlations are less pronounced, and we verify that the dipole asymmetry found in the $H_0$ analyses coincides with the well-known bulk-flow motion of our local group. From these analyses, we conclude that the directional asymmetry on the cosmological parameters maps are mainly either of local origin or due to celestial incompleteness of current SNe Ia samples.

Probing Cosmological Isotropy With Type IA Supernovae [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the validity of the Cosmological Principle by mapping the cosmological parameters $H_0$ and $q_0$ through the celestial sphere. In our analysis, performed in a low-redshift regime to follow a model-independent approach, we use two compilations of type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia), namely the Union2.1 and the JLA datasets. Firstly, we show that the angular distributions for both SNe Ia datasets are statistically anisotropic at high confidence level ($p$-value $<$ 0.0001), in particular the JLA sample. Then we find that the cosmic expansion and acceleration are mainly of dipolar type, with maximal anisotropic expansion [acceleration] pointing towards $(l,b) \simeq (326^{\circ},12^{\circ})$ [$(l,b) \simeq (174^{\circ},27^{\circ})$], and $(l,b) \simeq (58^{\circ},-60^{\circ})$ [$(l,b) \simeq (225^{\circ},51^{\circ})$] for the Union2.1 and JLA data, respectively. Secondly, we use a geometrical method to test the hypothesis that the non-uniformly distributed SNe Ia events could introduce anisotropic imprints on the cosmological expansion and acceleration. For the JLA compilation, we found significant correlations between the celestial distribution of data points and the directional studies of $H_0$ and $q_0$, suggesting that these results can be attributed to the intrinsic anisotropy of the sample. In the case of the Union2.1 data, nonetheless, these correlations are less pronounced, and we verify that the dipole asymmetry found in the $H_0$ analyses coincides with the well-known bulk-flow motion of our local group. From these analyses, we conclude that the directional asymmetry on the cosmological parameters maps are mainly either of local origin or due to celestial incompleteness of current SNe Ia samples.

Hubble Space Telescope observations of the NUV transit of WASP-12b

We present new observations of four closely-spaced NUV transits of the hot Jupiter-like exoplanet WASP-12b using HST/COS, significantly increasing the phase resolution of the observed NUV light curve relative to previous observations, while minimising the temporal variation of the system. We observe significant excess NUV absorption during the transit, with mean normalised in-transit fluxes of $F_\mathrm{norm}\simeq0.97$, i.e. $\simeq$2-5 $\sigma$ deeper than the optical transit level of $\simeq0.986$ for a uniform stellar disk (the exact confidence level depending on the normalisation method used). We further observe an asymmetric transit shape, such that the post-conjunction fluxes are overall $\simeq$2-3 $\sigma$ higher than pre-conjunction values, and characterised by rapid variations in count rate between the pre-conjunction and out of transit levels. We do not find evidence for an early ingress to the NUV transit as suggested by earlier HST observations. However, we show that the NUV count rate observed prior to the optical transit is highly variable, but overall $\simeq$2.2-3.0 $\sigma$ below the post-transit values and comparable in depth to the optical transit, possibly forming a variable region of NUV absorption from at least phase $\phi\simeq$0.83, limited by the data coverage.

No evidence for the blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves

In this paper, we constrain the tilt of the power spectrum of relic gravitational waves by combining the data from BICEP2/Keck array and Planck (BKP) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory (LIGO). From the data of BKP B-modes, the constraint on the tensor tilt is $n_t=0.66^{+1.83}_{-1.44}$ at the $68%$ confidence level. By further adding the LIGO upper limit on the energy density of gravitational waves, the constraint becomes $n_t=-0.76^{+1.37}_{-0.52}$ at the $68%$ confidence level. We conclude that there is no evidence for a blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves and either sign of the index of tensor power spectrum is compatible with the data.

No evidence for the blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we constrain the tilt of the power spectrum of relic gravitational waves by combining the data from BICEP2/Keck array and Planck (BKP) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory (LIGO). From the data of BKP B-modes, the constraint on the tensor tilt is $n_t=0.66^{+1.83}_{-1.44}$ at the $68%$ confidence level. By further adding the LIGO upper limit on the energy density of gravitational waves, the constraint becomes $n_t=-0.76^{+1.37}_{-0.52}$ at the $68%$ confidence level. We conclude that there is no evidence for a blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves and either sign of the index of tensor power spectrum is compatible with the data.

No evidence for the blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we constrain the tilt of the power spectrum of relic gravitational waves by combining the data from BICEP2/Keck array and Planck (BKP) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory (LIGO). From the data of BKP B-modes, the constraint on the tensor tilt is $n_t=0.66^{+1.83}_{-1.44}$ at the $68%$ confidence level. By further adding the LIGO upper limit on the energy density of gravitational waves, the constraint becomes $n_t=-0.76^{+1.37}_{-0.52}$ at the $68%$ confidence level. We conclude that there is no evidence for a blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves and either sign of the index of tensor power spectrum is compatible with the data.

No evidence for the blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we constrain the tilt of the power spectrum of relic gravitational waves by combining the data from BICEP2/Keck array and Planck (BKP) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory (LIGO). From the data of BKP B-modes, the constraint on the tensor tilt is $n_t=0.66^{+1.83}_{-1.44}$ at the $68%$ confidence level. By further adding the LIGO upper limit on the energy density of gravitational waves, the constraint becomes $n_t=-0.76^{+1.37}_{-0.52}$ at the $68%$ confidence level. We conclude that there is no evidence for a blue-tilted power spectrum of relic gravitational waves and either sign of the index of tensor power spectrum is compatible with the data.

Nonparametric test of consistency between cosmological models and multiband CMB measurements

We present a novel approach to test the consistency of the cosmological models with multiband CMB data using a nonparametric approach. In our analysis we calibrate the REACT (Risk Estimation and Adaptation after Coordinate Transformation) confidence levels associated with distances in function space (confidence distances) based on the Monte Carlo simulations in order to test the consistency of an assumed cosmological model with observation. To show the applicability of our algorithm, we confront Planck 2013 temperature data with concordance model of cosmology considering two different Planck spectra combination. In order to have an accurate quantitative statistical measure to compare between the data and the theoretical expectations, we calibrate REACT confidence distances and perform a bias control using many realizations of the data. Our results in this work using Planck 2013 temperature data put the best fit $\Lambda$CDM model at $95\% (\sim 2\sigma)$ confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set which hints towards considerable inconsistency. Repeating the analysis excluding the Planck $217 \times 217$ GHz spectrum data, the best fit $\Lambda$CDM model shifts to $70\% (\sim 1\sigma)$ confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set. The most prominent features in the data deviating from the best fit $\Lambda$CDM model seems to be at low multipoles $ 18 < \ell < 26$ at greater than $2\sigma$, $\ell \sim 750$ at $\sim1$ to $2\sigma$ and $\ell \sim 1800$ at greater than $2\sigma$ level. Excluding the $217\times217$ GHz spectrum the feature at $\ell \sim 1800$ becomes substantially less significance at $\sim1$ to $2 \sigma$ confidence level. Results of our analysis based on the new approach we propose in this work are in agreement with other analysis done using alternative methods.

Nearly scale-invariant power spectrum and quantum cosmological perturbations in the gravity's rainbow scenario [Replacement]

We propose the gravity’s rainbow scenario as a possible alternative of the inflation paradigm to account for the flatness and horizon problems. We focus on studying the cosmological scalar perturbations which are seeded by the quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The scalar power spectrum is expected to be nearly scale-invariant. We estimate the rainbow index $\lambda$ and energy scale $M$ in the gravity’s rainbow scenario by analyzing the Planck temperature and WMAP polarization datasets. The constraints on them are given by $\lambda=2.933\pm0.012$ and $\ln (10^5M/M_p)= -0.401^{+0.457}_{-0.451}$ at the $68\%$ confidence level.

Nearly scale-invariant power spectrum and quantum cosmological perturbations in the gravity's rainbow scenario [Cross-Listing]

We propose the gravity’s rainbow scenario as a possible alternative of the inflation paradigm to account for the flatness and horizon problems. We focus on studying the cosmological scalar perturbations which are seeded by the quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The scalar power spectrum is expected to be nearly scale-invariant. We estimate the rainbow index $\lambda$ and energy scale $M$ in the gravity’s rainbow scenario by analyzing the Planck temperature and WMAP polarization datasets. The constraints on them are given by $\lambda=2.933\pm0.012$ and $\ln (10^5M/M_p)= -0.401^{+0.457}_{-0.451}$ at the $68\%$ confidence level.

Nearly scale-invariant power spectrum and quantum cosmological perturbations in the gravity's rainbow scenario

We propose the gravity’s rainbow scenario as a possible alternative of the inflation paradigm to account for the flatness and horizon problems. We focus on studying the cosmological scalar perturbations which are seeded by the quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The scalar power spectrum is expected to be nearly scale-invariant. We estimate the rainbow index $\lambda$ and energy scale $M$ in the gravity’s rainbow scenario by analyzing the Planck temperature and WMAP polarization datasets. The constraints on them are given by $\lambda=2.933\pm0.012$ and $\ln (10^5M/M_p)= -0.401^{+0.457}_{-0.451}$ at the $68\%$ confidence level.

Nearly scale-invariant power spectrum and quantum cosmological perturbations in the gravity's rainbow scenario [Cross-Listing]

We propose the gravity’s rainbow scenario as a possible alternative of the inflation paradigm to account for the flatness and horizon problems. We focus on studying the cosmological scalar perturbations which are seeded by the quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The scalar power spectrum is expected to be nearly scale-invariant. We estimate the rainbow index $\lambda$ and energy scale $M$ in the gravity’s rainbow scenario by analyzing the Planck temperature and WMAP polarization datasets. The constraints on them are given by $\lambda=2.933\pm0.012$ and $\ln (10^5M/M_p)= -0.401^{+0.457}_{-0.451}$ at the $68\%$ confidence level.

Nearly scale-invariant power spectrum and quantum cosmological perturbations in the gravity's rainbow scenario [Replacement]

We propose the gravity’s rainbow scenario as a possible alternative of the inflation paradigm to account for the flatness and horizon problems. We focus on studying the cosmological scalar perturbations which are seeded by the quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The scalar power spectrum is expected to be nearly scale-invariant. We estimate the rainbow index $\lambda$ and energy scale $M$ in the gravity’s rainbow scenario by analyzing the Planck temperature and WMAP polarization datasets. The constraints on them are given by $\lambda=2.933\pm0.012$ and $\ln (10^5M/M_p)= -0.401^{+0.457}_{-0.451}$ at the $68\%$ confidence level.

Nearly scale-invariant power spectrum and quantum cosmological perturbations in the gravity's rainbow scenario [Replacement]

We propose the gravity’s rainbow scenario as a possible alternative of the inflation paradigm to account for the flatness and horizon problems. We focus on studying the cosmological scalar perturbations which are seeded by the quantum fluctuations in the very early universe. The scalar power spectrum is expected to be nearly scale-invariant. We estimate the rainbow index $\lambda$ and energy scale $M$ in the gravity’s rainbow scenario by analyzing the Planck temperature and WMAP polarization datasets. The constraints on them are given by $\lambda=2.933\pm0.012$ and $\ln (10^5M/M_p)= -0.401^{+0.457}_{-0.451}$ at the $68\%$ confidence level.

Is there a population of unidentified gamma-ray sources distributed along the super-galactic plane?

The distribution on the sky of unidentified sources at the highest energies where such a population is evident is investigated. For this purpose, sources without identification in the first Fermi-LAT catalog >10 GeV (1FHL) that are good candidates for detection above the 50-100 GeV regime are selected. The distributions of these objects around the Galactic and super-galactic plane are explored. By using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test it is examined if these sources are distributed homogeneously around these planes. Surprisingly, an indication for an inhomogeneous distribution is found for the case of the super-galactic plane where a homogeneous distribution can be excluded by a confidence level of 95%. On a 90% confidence level also a homogeneous distribution of sources around the Galactic plane can be excluded. For the hypothesis that this reflects the true distribution of sources rather than a statistical fluctuation, implications for the underlying source populations are discussed.

Dimension-six anomalous $tq\gamma$ couplings in $\gamma \gamma$ collision at the LHC

We have investigated the flavor changing top quark physics on the dimension-six anomalous $tq\gamma$ ($q=u,c$) couplings through the process $pp\to p\gamma \gamma p\to p t\bar{q}p$ at the LHC by considering different forward detector acceptances. In this paper, we have taken into account and examine the effects of top quark decay. The sensitivity bounds on the anomalous couplings and, $t\to q\gamma$ branching ratio have been obtained at the $95\%$ confidence level for the effective lagrangian approach. Besides, we have investigated the effect of the anomalous couplings on single top quark spin asymmetry.

Very Weak Primordial Gravitational Waves Signal from BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353GHz Dust Polarization

The dust polarization is parameterized as a power law form of the multipole $l$: $D^{XX}_{l}=A^{XX}l(l+1)l^{\alpha_{XX}}/(2\pi)$ ($XX$ denotes $BB$ or $EE$), where $A^{XX}$ is its amplitude with the ratio $A^{BB}/A^{EE}=0.52\pm 0.02$ and $\alpha_{BB,EE}=-2.42\pm 0.02$. Extrapolating to $150$GHz from $353$GHz yields a value of $D^{BB}_{l=80}=(1.32\pm 0.29)\times 10^{-2}\mu K^2$ (and an additional uncertainty $(+0.28,-0.24)\times 10^{-2}\mu K^2$) over the range $40<l<120$. Based on these data, in this brief paper, we report the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r=A_{t}/A_{s}$ defined at $k_0=0.05 \text{Mpc} ^{-1}$ by joining the BICEP2+{\it Planck}2013+WMAP9+BAO+HST and {\it Planck} HFI $353$GHz dust polarization and its implication to the detection of the primordial gravitational waves. Considering the $\Lambda$CDM+$r$ model, we found $r<0.108$ at $95\%$ confidence level with $\sigma_{stat}=0.29$ and $r<0.129$ at $95\%$ confidence level with $\sigma_{stat+extr}=0.29+0.28$. The results imply no significant evidence for the primordial gravitational waves in $1\sigma$ regions. However the post probability distribution of $r$ peaks at a small positive value. And $r$ moves to larger positive values when the extrapolation error bars are included. This might imply a very weak signal of the primordial gravitational waves. It also implies the crucial fact in calibrating the amplitude of the dust polarizations in detecting the primordial gravitational waves in the future.

Detecting Primordial Gravitational Waves Signal from BICEP2 and {\it Planck} HFI $353$GHz Dust Polarization [Replacement]

The dust polarization is parameterized as a power law form of the multipole $l$: $D^{XX}_{l}=A^{XX}l(l+1)l^{\alpha_{XX}}/(2\pi)$ ($XX$ denotes $BB$ or $EE$), where $A^{XX}$ is its amplitude with the ratio $A^{BB}/A^{EE}=0.52\pm 0.02$ and $\alpha_{BB,EE}=-2.42\pm 0.02$. Extrapolating to $150$GHz from $353$GHz yields a value of $D^{BB}_{l=80}=(1.32\pm 0.29)\times 10^{-2}\mu K^2$ (and an additional uncertainty $(+0.28,-0.24)\times 10^{-2}\mu K^2$) over the range $40<l<120$. Based on these data, we report the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r=A_{t}/A_{s}$ defined at $k_0=0.05 \text{Mpc} ^{-1}$ by joining the BICEP2+{\it Planck}2013+WMAP9+BAO+HST and {\it Planck} HFI $353$GHz dust polarization and its implication to the detection of the primordial gravitational waves. Considering the $\Lambda$CDM+$r$ model, we found $r<0.108$ at $95\%$ confidence level with $\sigma_{stat}=0.29$ and $r<0.129$ at $95\%$ confidence level with $\sigma_{stat+extr}=0.29+0.28$. The results imply no significant evidence for the primordial gravitational waves in $1\sigma$ regions. However the post probability distribution of $r$ peaks at a small positive value. And $r$ moves to larger positive values when the extrapolation error bars are included. This might imply a very weak signal of the primordial gravitational waves. It also implies the crucial fact in calibrating the amplitude of the dust polarizations in detecting the primordial gravitational waves in the future. When the running of the scalar spectral tilt is included, we found $r<0.079$ at $95\%$ confidence level with $\sigma_{stat}=0.29$ and $r=0.091_{-0.069}^{+0.042}$ at $95\%$ confidence level with $\sigma_{stat+extr}=0.29+0.28$. The later one implies the detection of the primordial gravitational waves in $1\sigma$ regions at the cost of decreasing the value of $D^{BB}_{l=80}$ to $0.67_{-0.25}^{+0.25}$.

Evidence of $\Upsilon(1S) \to J/\psi+\chi_{c1}$ and search for double-charmonium production in $\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\Upsilon(2S)$ decays [Replacement]

Using data samples of $102\times10^6$ $\Upsilon(1S)$ and $158\times10^6$ $\Upsilon(2S)$ events collected with the Belle detector, a first experimental search has been made for double-charmonium production in the exclusive decays $\Upsilon(1S,2S)\rightarrow J/\psi(\psi’)+X$, where $X=\eta_c$, $\chi_{cJ} (J=~0,~1,~2)$, $\eta_c(2S)$, $X(3940)$, and $X(4160)$. No significant signal is observed in the spectra of the mass recoiling against the reconstructed $J/\psi$ or $\psi’$ except for the evidence of $\chi_{c1}$ production with a significance of $4.6\sigma$ for $\Upsilon(1S)\rightarrow J/\psi+\chi_{c1}$. The measured branching fraction $\BR(\Upsilon(1S)\rightarrow J/\psi+\chi_{c1})$ is $(3.90\pm1.21(\rm stat.)\pm0.23 (\rm syst.))\times10^{-6}$. The $90\%$ confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions of the other modes having a significance of less than $3\sigma$ are determined. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations using the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach.

Evidence of $\Upsilon(1S) \to J/\psi+\chi_{c1}$ and search for double-charmonium production in $\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\Upsilon(2S)$ decays [Cross-Listing]

Using data samples of $102\times10^6$ $\Upsilon(1S)$ and $158\times10^6$ $\Upsilon(2S)$ events collected with the Belle detector, a first experimental search has been made for double-charmonium production in the exclusive decays $\Upsilon(1S,2S)\rightarrow J/\psi(\psi’)+X$, where $X=\eta_c$, $\chi_{cJ} (J=~0,~1,~2)$, $\eta_c(2S)$, and $X(3940)$. No significant signal is observed in the spectra of the mass recoiling against the reconstructed $J/\psi$ or $\psi’$ except for the evidence of $\chi_{c1}$ production with a significance of $4.6\sigma$ for $\Upsilon(1S)\rightarrow J/\psi+\chi_{c1}$. The measured branching fraction $\BR(\Upsilon(1S)\rightarrow J/\psi+\chi_{c1})$ is $(3.98\pm1.24(\rm stat.)\pm0.22 (\rm syst.))\times10^{-6}$. The $90\%$ confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions of the other modes having a significance of less than $3\sigma$ are determined. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations using the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Cross-Listing]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at 95% confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.117$ at 95% confidence level. Our results imply that the chaotic inflation model is marginally disfavored at 95% confidence level. Especially, the $\half m^2\phi^2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Cross-Listing]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at 95% confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.117$ at 95% confidence level. Our results imply that the chaotic inflation model is marginally disfavored at 95% confidence level. Especially, the $\half m^2\phi^2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Replacement]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at $95%$ confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.116$ at $95%$ confidence level. Our results imply that the inflation model with a single monomial potential is marginally disfavored at around $95%$ confidence level. Especially, the $m^2\phi^2/2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Cross-Listing]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at 95% confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.117$ at 95% confidence level. Our results imply that the chaotic inflation model is marginally disfavored at 95% confidence level. Especially, the $\half m^2\phi^2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Replacement]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at $95%$ confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.116$ at $95%$ confidence level. Our results imply that the inflation model with a single monomial potential is marginally disfavored at around $95%$ confidence level. Especially, the $m^2\phi^2/2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Replacement]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at $95%$ confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.116$ at $95%$ confidence level. Our results imply that the inflation model with a single monomial potential is marginally disfavored at around $95%$ confidence level. Especially, the $m^2\phi^2/2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Replacement]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at $95%$ confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.116$ at $95%$ confidence level. Our results imply that the inflation model with a single monomial potential is marginally disfavored at around $95%$ confidence level. Especially, the $m^2\phi^2/2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Replacement]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at $95\%$ confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.116$ at $95\%$ confidence level. Our results imply that the inflation model with a single monomial potential is marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. Especially, the $m^2\phi^2/2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Replacement]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at $95\%$ confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.116$ at $95\%$ confidence level. Our results imply that the inflation model with a single monomial potential is marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. Especially, the $m^2\phi^2/2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Replacement]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at $95\%$ confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.116$ at $95\%$ confidence level. Our results imply that the inflation model with a single monomial potential is marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. Especially, the $m^2\phi^2/2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Constraint on the primordial gravitational waves from the joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data [Replacement]

We make a joint analysis of BICEP2 and recently released Planck HFI 353 GHz dust polarization data, and find that there is no evidence for the primordial gravitational waves and the bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio becomes $r<0.083$ at $95\%$ confidence level in the base $\Lambda$CDM + tensor model. Extending to the model with running of scalar spectral index, the bound is a little bit relaxed to $r<0.116$ at $95\%$ confidence level. Our results imply that the inflation model with a single monomial potential is marginally disfavored at around $95\%$ confidence level. Especially, the $m^2\phi^2/2$ inflation model is disfavored at more than $2\sigma$ level. However, the Starobinsky inflation model gives a nice fit.

Search for Trilepton Nucleon Decay via $p \rightarrow e^+ \nu \nu$ and $p \rightarrow \mu^+ \nu \nu$ in the Super-Kamiokande Experiment [Cross-Listing]

The trilepton nucleon decay modes $p \rightarrow e^+ \nu \nu$ and $p \rightarrow \mu^+ \nu \nu$ violate $|\Delta (B – L)|$ by two units. Using data from a 273.4 kiloton year exposure of Super-Kamiokande a search for these decays yields a fit consistent with no signal. Accordingly, lower limits on the partial lifetimes of $\tau_{p \rightarrow e^+ \nu \nu} > 1.7 \times 10^{32}$ years and $\tau_{p \rightarrow \mu^+ \nu \nu} > 2.2 \times 10^{32}$ years at a $90 \% $ confidence level are obtained. These limits can constrain Grand Unified Theories which allow for such processes.

Reducing the Tension Between the BICEP2 and the Planck Measurements: A Complete Exploration of the Parameter Space

A large inflationary tensor-to-scalar ratio $r_\mathrm{0.002} = 0.20^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$ is reported by the BICEP2 team based on their B-mode polarization detection, which is outside of the $95\%$ confidence level of the Planck best fit model. We explore several possible ways to reduce the tension between the two by considering a model in which $\alpha_\mathrm{s}$, $n_\mathrm{t}$, $n_\mathrm{s}$ and the neutrino parameters $N_\mathrm{eff}$ and $\Sigma m_\mathrm{\nu}$ are set as free parameters. Using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to survey the complete parameter space with and without the BICEP2 data, we find that the resulting constraints on $r_\mathrm{0.002}$ are consistent with each other and the apparent tension seems to be relaxed. Further detailed investigations on those fittings suggest that $N_\mathrm{eff}$ probably plays the most important role in reducing the tension. We also find that the results obtained from fitting without adopting the consistency relation do not deviate much from the consistency relation. With available Planck, WMAP, BICEP2 and BAO datasets all together, we obtain $r_{0.002} = 0.14_{-0.11}^{+0.05}$, $n_\mathrm{t} = 0.35_{-0.47}^{+0.28}$, $n_\mathrm{s}=0.98_{-0.02}^{+0.02}$, and $\alpha_\mathrm{s}=-0.0086_{-0.0189}^{+0.0148}$; if the consistency relation is adopted, we get $r_{0.002} = 0.22_{-0.06}^{+0.05}$.

Correlation between the phase and the log-amplitude of a wave through the vertical atmospheric propagation [Replacement]

Expressions of the correlation between the log-amplitude and the phase of a wavefront propagating through the atmospheric turbulence are presented. These expressions are useful to evaluate the feasibility of proposed methods to increase the confidence level of the detection of faint transient astronomical objects. The properties of the derived angular correlation functions are discussed using usual synthetic turbulence profiles. The close formulation between the phase and the log-amplitude allows an analytic formulation in the Rytov approximation. Equations contain the product of an arbitrary number of hypergeometric functions that are evaluated using the Mellin transforms integration method.

Correlation between the phase and the log-amplitude of a wave through the vertical atmospheric propagation [Replacement]

Expressions of the correlation between the log-amplitude and the phase of a wavefront propagating through the atmospheric turbulence are presented. These expressions are useful to evaluate the feasibility of proposed methods to increase the confidence level of the detection of faint transient astronomical objects. The properties of the derived angular correlation functions are discussed using usual synthetic turbulence profiles. The close formulation between the phase and the log-amplitude allows an analytic formulation in the Rytov approximation. Equations contain the product of an arbitrary number of hypergeometric functions that are evaluated using the Mellin transforms integration method.

The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations [Replacement]

The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle Solar System that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

Long-term K$_S$-band photometric monitoring of L dwarfs

(abridged) We perform photometric time-series analysis of a sample of ten early to mid-L dwarfs in the field over three years of $K_s$-band observations with the OMEGA 2000 infrared camera of the 3.5m telescope on Calar Alto Observatory between January 2010 and December 2012. We perform $K_s$-band differential photometry of our targets (with typical errors of $\pm$15-30~mmag at the 1$\sigma$ level) by subtracting a reference flux from each photometric measurement. This reference flux is computed using three nearby, probably constant stars in the target’s field-of-view. We then construct and visually inspect the light curves to search for variability, and use four different periodogram algorithms to look for possible periods in our photometric data. Our targets do not display long-term variability over 1$\sigma$ compared to other nearby stars of similar brightness, nor do the periodograms unveil any possible periodicity for these objects, with two exceptions: 2MASS~J02411151-0326587 and G196-3B. In the case of 2MASS~J02411151-0326587 (L0), our data suggest a tentative period of 307$\pm$21~days, at 40% confidence level, which seems to be associated with peak-to-peak variability of 44$\pm$10~mmag. This object may also display variability in timescales of years, as suggested by the comparison of our Ks-band photometry with 2MASS. For G196-3B (L3), we find peak-to-peak variations of 42$\pm$10~mmag, with a possible photometric period of 442$\pm$7~days, at 95% confidence level. This is roughly the double of the astrometric period reported by Zapatero Osorio (2014). Given the significance of these results, further photometric data are required to confirm the long-term variability.These results suggest that early- to mid-L dwarfs are fairly stable in the $K_s$-band within $\pm$90 mmag at the 3 $\sigma$ level over months to years, which covers hundreds to tens of thousands of rotation cycles.

Higgs couplings and Naturalness in the littlest Higgs model with T-parity at the LHC and TLEP

Motivated by the recent LHC Higgs data and null results in searches for any new physics, we investigate the Higgs couplings and naturalness in the littlest Higgs model with T-parity. By performing the global fit of the latest Higgs data, electroweak precise observables and $R_{b}$ measurements, we find that the scale $f$ can be excluded up to 600 GeV at $2\sigma$ confidence level. The expected Higgs coupling measurements at the future collider TLEP will improve this lower limit to above 3 TeV. Besides, the top parnter mass $m_{T_{+}}$ can be excluded up to 880 GeV at $2\sigma$ confidence level. The future HL-LHC can constrain this mass in the region $m_{T_{+}} < 2.2$ TeV corresponding to the fine-tuning being lager than 1\%.

Higgs couplings and Naturalness in the littlest Higgs model with T-parity at the LHC and TLEP [Replacement]

Motivated by the recent LHC Higgs data and null results in searches for any new physics, we investigate the Higgs couplings and naturalness in the littlest Higgs model with T-parity. By performing the global fit of the latest Higgs data, electroweak precise observables and $R_{b}$ measurements, we find that the scale $f$ can be excluded up to 600 GeV at $2\sigma$ confidence level. The expected Higgs coupling measurements at the future collider TLEP will improve this lower limit to above 3 TeV. Besides, the top parnter mass $m_{T_{+}}$ can be excluded up to 880 GeV at $2\sigma$ confidence level. The future HL-LHC can constrain this mass in the region $m_{T_{+}} < 2.2$ TeV corresponding to the fine-tuning being lager than 1%.

Higgs couplings and Naturalness in the littlest Higgs model with T-parity at the LHC and TLEP [Replacement]

Motivated by the recent LHC Higgs data and null results in searches for any new physics, we investigate the Higgs couplings and naturalness in the littlest Higgs model with T-parity. By performing the global fit of the latest Higgs data, electroweak precise observables and $R_{b}$ measurements, we find that the scale $f$ can be excluded up to 600 GeV at $2\sigma$ confidence level. The expected Higgs coupling measurements at the future collider TLEP will improve this lower limit to above 3 TeV. Besides, the top parnter mass $m_{T_{+}}$ can be excluded up to 880 GeV at $2\sigma$ confidence level. The future HL-LHC can constrain this mass in the region $m_{T_{+}} < 2.2$ TeV corresponding to the fine-tuning being lager than 1%.

A study of electroweak vacuum metastablity with a singlet scalar dark matter

We study several aspects of electroweak vacuum metastability when an extra gauge singlet scalar, a viable candidate for a dark matter particle, is added to the standard model of particle physics, which is assumed to be valid up to the Planck scale. Phase diagrams are drawn for different parameter spaces, and based on that, we graphically demonstrate how the confidence level, at which stability of electroweak vacuum is excluded, depends on such new physics parameters.

A study of electroweak vacuum metastability with a singlet scalar dark matter [Replacement]

We study several aspects of electroweak vacuum metastability when an extra gauge singlet scalar, a viable candidate for a dark matter particle, is added to the standard model of particle physics, which is assumed to be valid up to the Planck scale. Phase diagrams are drawn for different parameter spaces, and based on that, we graphically demonstrate how the confidence level, at which stability of electroweak vacuum is excluded, depends on such new physics parameters.

 

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