Posts Tagged cluster core

Recent Postings from cluster core

The red sequence at birth in the galaxy cluster ClJ1449+0856 at z=2

We use HST/WFC3 imaging to study the red population in the IR-selected, X-ray detected, low-mass cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z=2, one of the few bona-fide established clusters discovered at this redshift, and likely a typical progenitor of an average massive cluster today. This study explores the presence and significance of an early red sequence in the core of this structure, investigating the nature of red sequence galaxies, highlighting environmental effects on cluster galaxy populations at high redshift, and at the same time underlining similarities and differences with other distant dense environments. Our results suggest that the red population in the core of Cl J1449+0856 is made of a mixture of quiescent and dusty star-forming galaxies, with a seedling of the future red sequence already growing in the very central cluster region, and already characterising the inner cluster core with respect to lower density environments. On the other hand, the color-magnitude diagram of this cluster is definitely different from that of lower-redshift (z<1) clusters, as well as of some rare particularly evolved massive clusters at similar redshift, and it is suggestive of a transition phase between active star formation and passive evolution occurring in the proto-cluster and established lower-redshift cluster regimes.

Stellar Mass Segregation in the Aged Galactic Open Star Cluster Berkeley 17

We present the analysis of the morphology of Berkeley\,17, the oldest known open cluster ($\sim10$ Gyr), using a probabilistic star counting of Pan-STARRS point sources, and confirm its core-tail shape, plus an antitail, previously detected with 2MASS data. The stellar population, as diagnosed by the color-magnitude diagram and theoretical isochrones, shows more massive than lower-mass members in the cluster core, whereas there is a paucity of massive members in both tails. This manifests mass segregation in this aged star cluster with the low-mass members being stripped away from the system. It has been claimed that Berkeley 17 is associated with an excessive number of blue stragglers. Our analysis in comparison of the cluster with nearby reference fields indicates that about half of the blue stragglers may be field contaminations, and some may be confused with the rare blue horizontal-branch stars in this cluster.

A large H$\alpha$ survey of star formation in relaxed and merging galaxy cluster environments at $z\sim0.15-0.3$ [Replacement]

We present the first results from the largest H$\alpha$ survey of star formation and AGN activity in galaxy clusters. Using 9 different narrow band filters, we select $>3000$ H$\alpha$ emitters within $19$ clusters and their larger scale environment over a total volume of $1.3\times10^5$ Mpc$^3$. The sample includes both relaxed and merging clusters, covering the $0.15-0.31$ redshift range and spanning from $5\times10^{14}$ $M_{\odot}$ to $30\times10^{14}$ $M_{\odot}$. We find that the H$\alpha$ luminosity function (LF) for merging clusters has a higher characteristic density $\phi^*$ compared to relaxed clusters. $\phi^*$ drops from cluster core to cluster outskirts for both merging and relaxed clusters, with the merging cluster values $\sim0.3$ dex higher at each projected radius. The characteristic luminosity $L^*$ drops over the $0.5-2.0$ Mpc distance from the cluster centre for merging clusters and increases for relaxed objects. Among disturbed objects, clusters hosting large-scale shock waves (traced by radio relics) are overdense in H$\alpha$ emitters compared to those with turbulence in their intra-cluster medium (traced by radio haloes). We speculate that the increase in star formation activity in disturbed, young, massive galaxy clusters can be triggered by interactions between gas-rich galaxies, shocks and/or the intra-cluster medium, as well as accretion of filaments and galaxy groups. Our results indicate that disturbed clusters represent vastly different environments for galaxy evolution compared to relaxed clusters or average field environments.

A large H$\alpha$ survey of star formation in relaxed and merging galaxy cluster environments at $z\sim0.15-0.3$

We present the first results from the largest H$\alpha$ survey of star formation and AGN activity in galaxy clusters. Using 9 different narrow band filters, we select $>3000$ H$\alpha$ emitters within $19$ clusters and their larger scale environment over a total volume of $1.3\times10^5$ Mpc$^3$. The sample includes both relaxed and merging clusters, covering the $0.15-0.31$ redshift range and spanning from $5\times10^{14}$ $M_{\odot}$ to $30\times10^{14}$ $M_{\odot}$. We find that the H$\alpha$ luminosity function (LF) for merging clusters has a higher characteristic density $\phi^*$ compared to relaxed clusters. $\phi^*$ drops from cluster core to cluster outskirts for both merging and relaxed clusters, with the merging cluster values $\sim0.3$ dex higher at each projected radius. The characteristic luminosity $L^*$ drops over the $0.5-2.0$ Mpc distance from the cluster centre for merging clusters and increases for relaxed objects. Among disturbed objects, clusters hosting large-scale shock waves (traced by radio relics) are overdense in H$\alpha$ emitters compared to those with turbulence in their intra-cluster medium (traced by radio haloes). We speculate that the increase in star formation activity in disturbed, young, massive galaxy clusters can be triggered by interactions between gas-rich galaxies, shocks and/or the intra-cluster medium, as well as accretion of filaments and galaxy groups. Our results indicate that disturbed clusters represent vastly different environments for galaxy evolution compared to relaxed clusters or average field environments.

WIYN Open Cluster Study. LXXII. A uvbyCa Hbeta CCD Analysis of the Metal-Deficient Open Cluster, NGC 2506

Precision uvbyCa Hbeta photometry of the metal-deficient, old open cluster, NGC 2506, is presented. The survey covers an area 20 by 20 arcminutes, and extends to V~18 for b-y and Hbeta and to V~17.0 for c_1 and hk. For V < 16.0, photometric scatter among the indices leads to the recovery of 6 known variables within the cluster core and 5 new variables in the outer 5 arcmin of the survey field. Proper motions, radial velocities, and precise multicolor indices are used to isolate a highly probable sample of cluster members from the very rich color-magnitude diagram (CMD). From 257 highly probable members at the cluster turnoff, we derive a reddening estimate of E(b-y) = 0.042 +/- 0.001 (E(B-V) = 0.058 +/- 0.001), where the errors refer to the internal standard errors of the mean. [Fe/H] is derived from the A/F dwarf members using both m_1 and hk, leading to [Fe/H] = -0.296 +/- 0.011 (sem) and -0.317 +/- 0.004 (sem), respectively. The weighted average, heavily dominated by hk, is [Fe/H] = -0.316 +/- 0.033. Based upon red giant members, we place an upper limit of +/- 0.010 on the variation in the reddening across the face of the cluster. We also identify two dozen potential red giant cluster members outside the cluster core. Victoria-Regina isochrones on the Stromgren system produce an excellent match to the cluster for an apparent modulus of (m-M) = 12.75 +/- 0.1 and an age of 1.85 +/- 0.05 Gyr.

Searching in the dark: the dark mass content of the Milky Way globular clusters NGC288 and NGC6218

We present an observational estimate of the fraction and distribution of dark mass in the innermost region of the two Galactic globular clusters NGC 6218 (M12) and NGC 288. Such an assessment has been made by comparing the dynamical and luminous mass profiles derived from an accurate analysis of the most extensive spectroscopic and photometric surveys performed on these stellar systems. We find that non-luminous matter constitutes more than 60% of the total mass in the region probed by our data (R<1.6 arcmin~r_h) in both clusters. We have carefully analyzed the effects of binaries and tidal heating on our estimate and ruled out the possibility that our result is a spurious consequence of these effects. The dark component appears to be more concentrated than the most massive stars suggesting that it is likely composed of dark remnants segregated in the cluster core.

A refined mass distribution of the cluster MACS J0416.1$-$2403 from a new large set of spectroscopic multiply lensed sources

We report the spectroscopic confirmation of 22 new multiply lensed sources behind the {\it Hubble Frontier Field} (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1$-$2403 (MACS 0416), using archival data from the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the VLT. Combining with previous spectroscopic measurements of other 15 multiply imaged sources, we obtain a sample of 102 secure multiple images with measured redshifts, the largest to date in a single strong lensing system. The newly identified sources are largely low-luminosity Lyman-$\alpha$ emitters with redshift in the range [3.1-6.15]. With such a large number of secure constraints, and a significantly improved sample of galaxy members in the cluster core, we have improved our previous strong lensing model and obtained a robust determination of the projected total mass distribution of MACS 0416. We find evidence of three cored dark-matter halos, adding to the known complexity of this merging system. The total mass density profile, as well as the sub-halo population, are found in good agreement with previous works. We make public an updated redshift catalog for MACS~0416 from our previous spectroscopic campaign, as well as lensing maps (convergence, shear, magnification) in the standard HFF format.

A refined mass distribution of the cluster MACS J0416.1$-$2403 from a new large set of spectroscopic multiply lensed sources [Replacement]

We report the spectroscopic confirmation of 22 new multiply lensed sources behind the Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS~J0416.1$-$2403 (MACS 0416), using archival data from the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the VLT. Combining with previous spectroscopic measurements of 15 other multiply imaged sources, we obtain a sample of 102 secure multiple images with measured redshifts, the largest to date in a single strong lensing system. The newly confirmed sources are largely low-luminosity Lyman-$\alpha$ emitters with redshift in the range [3.08-6.15]. With such a large number of secure constraints, and a significantly improved sample of galaxy members in the cluster core, we have improved our previous strong lensing model and obtained a robust determination of the projected total mass distribution of MACS 0416. We find evidence of three cored dark-matter halos, adding to the known complexity of this merging system. The total mass density profile, as well as the sub-halo population, are found in good agreement with previous works. We update and make public the redshift catalog of MACS 0416 from our previous spectroscopic campaign with the new MUSE redshifts. We also release lensing maps (convergence, shear, magnification) in the standard HFF format.

A dynamical gravitational wave source in a dense cluster

Making use of a new N-body model to describe the evolution of a moderate-size globular cluster we investigate the characteristics of the population of black holes within such a cluster. This model reaches core-collapse and achieves a peak central density typical of the dense globular clusters of the Milky Way. Within this high-density environment we see direct confirmation of the merging of two stellar remnant black-holes in a dynamically-formed binary, a gravitational wave source. We describe how the formation, evolution and ultimate ejection/destruction of binary systems containing black holes impacts the evolution of the cluster core. Also, through comparison with previous models of lower density, we show that the period distribution of black hole binaries formed through dynamical interactions in this high-density model favours the production of gravitational wave sources. We confirm that the number of black holes remaining in a star cluster at late times and the characteristics of the binary black hole population depend on the nature of the star cluster, critically on the number density of stars and by extension the relaxation timescale.

Formation and evolution of heavy sub-structures in the centre of galaxy clusters: the local effect of dark energy

We discuss how the centres of galaxy clusters evolve in time, showing the results of a series of direct N-body simulations. In particular, we followed the evolution of a galaxy cluster with a mass $M_{clus} \simeq 10^{14} $M$_{\odot}$ in different configurations. The dynamical evolution of the system leads in all the cases to the formation of dense and massive sub-structures in the cluster centre, that form in consequence of a series of collisions and merging among galaxies travelling in the cluster core. We investigate how the structural properties of the main merging product depends on the characteristics of those galaxies that contributed to its formation.

Precise strong lensing mass profile of the CLASH galaxy cluster MACS 2129

We present a detailed strong lensing mass reconstruction of the core of the galaxy cluster MACSJ 2129.4-0741 ($\rm z_{cl}=0.589$) obtained by combining high-resolution HST photometry from the CLASH survey with new spectroscopic observations from the CLASH-VLT survey. A background bright red passive galaxy at $\rm z_{sp}=1.36$, sextuply lensed in the cluster core, has four radial lensed images located over the three central cluster members. Further 19 background lensed galaxies are spectroscopically confirmed by our VLT survey, including 3 additional multiple systems. A total of 27 multiple images are used in the lensing analysis. This allows us to trace with high precision the total mass profile of the cluster in its very inner region ($\rm R<100$ kpc). Our final lensing mass model reproduces the multiple images systems identified in the cluster core with high accuracy of $0.4''$. This translates in an high precision mass reconstruction of MACS 2129, which is constrained at level of 3%. The cluster has Einstein radius $\theta_E=(15\pm2)''$, for a source at $z_s=1.36$ and a projected total mass of $\rm M_{tot}(<\theta_E)=(3.4\pm0.1)\times 10^{13}M_{\odot}$ within such radius. Together with the cluster mass profile, we provide here also the complete spectroscopic dataset for the cluster members and lensed images measured with VLT/VIMOS within the CLASH-VLT survey.

Large scale structure around a z=2.1 cluster

The most prodigious starburst galaxies are absent in massive galaxy clusters today, but their connection with large scale environments is less clear at $z\gtrsim2$. We present a search of large scale structure around a galaxy cluster core at $z=2.095$ using a set of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies. We find that both color-selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) show significant overdensities around the $z=2.095$ cluster. A total of 8 DSFGs (including 3 X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei, AGNs) and 34 SFGs are found within a 10 arcmin radius (corresponds to $\sim$15 cMpc at $z\sim2.1$) from the cluster center and within a redshift range of $\Delta z=0.02$, which leads to galaxy overdensities of $\delta_{\rm DSFG}\sim12.3$ and $\delta_{\rm SFG}\sim2.8$. The cluster core and the extended DSFG- and SFG-rich structure together demonstrate an active cluster formation phase, in which the cluster is accreting a significant amount of material from large scale structure while the more mature core may begin to virialize. Our finding of this DSFG-rich structure, along with a number of other protoclusters with excess DSFGs and AGNs found to date, suggest that the overdensities of these rare sources indeed trace significant mass overdensities. However, it remains puzzling how these intense star formers are triggered concurrently. Although an increased probability of galaxy interactions and/or enhanced gas supply can trigger the excess of DSFGs, our stacking analysis based on 850 $\mu$m images and morphological analysis based on rest-frame optical imaging do not show such enhancements of merger fraction and gas content in this structure.

BUDHIES III: The fate of HI and the quenching of galaxies in evolving environments

In a hierarchical Universe clusters grow via the accretion of galaxies from the field, groups and even other clusters. As this happens, galaxies can lose their gas reservoirs via different mechanisms, eventually quenching their star-formation. We explore the diverse environmental histories of galaxies through a multi-wavelength study of the combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and group "processing" in Abell 963, a massive growing cluster at $z=0.2$ from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES). We incorporate hundreds of new optical redshifts (giving a total of 566 cluster members), as well as Subaru and XMM-Newton data from LoCuSS, to identify substructures and evaluate galaxy morphology, star-formation activity, and HI content (via HI deficiencies and stacking) out to $3\times R_{200}$. We find that Abell 963 is being fed by at least 7 groups, that contribute to the large number of passive galaxies outside the cluster core. More massive groups have a higher fraction of passive and HI-poor galaxies, while low-mass groups host younger (often interacting) galaxies. For cluster galaxies not associated with groups we corroborate our previous finding that HI gas (if any) is significantly stripped via ram-pressure during their first passage through the intra-cluster medium, and find mild evidence for a starburst associated with this event. In addition, we find an overabundance of morphologically peculiar and/or star-forming galaxies near the cluster core. We speculate that these arise as groups pass through the cluster (post-processing). Our study highlights the importance of environmental quenching and the complexity added by evolving environments.

BUDHIES III: The fate of HI and the quenching of galaxies in evolving environments [Replacement]

In a hierarchical Universe clusters grow via the accretion of galaxies from the field, groups and even other clusters. As this happens, galaxies can lose their gas reservoirs via different mechanisms, eventually quenching their star-formation. We explore the diverse environmental histories of galaxies through a multi-wavelength study of the combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and group "processing" in Abell 963, a massive growing cluster at $z=0.2$ from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES). We incorporate hundreds of new optical redshifts (giving a total of 566 cluster members), as well as Subaru and XMM-Newton data from LoCuSS, to identify substructures and evaluate galaxy morphology, star-formation activity, and HI content (via HI deficiencies and stacking) out to $3\times R_{200}$. We find that Abell 963 is being fed by at least 7 groups, that contribute to the large number of passive galaxies outside the cluster core. More massive groups have a higher fraction of passive and HI-poor galaxies, while low-mass groups host younger (often interacting) galaxies. For cluster galaxies not associated with groups we corroborate our previous finding that HI gas (if any) is significantly stripped via ram-pressure during their first passage through the intra-cluster medium, and find mild evidence for a starburst associated with this event. In addition, we find an overabundance of morphologically peculiar and/or star-forming galaxies near the cluster core. We speculate that these arise as groups pass through the cluster (post-processing). Our study highlights the importance of environmental quenching and the complexity added by evolving environments.

Deep Chandra study of the truncated cool core of the Ophiuchus cluster

We present the results of a deep (280 ks) Chandra observation of the Ophiuchus cluster, the second-brightest galaxy cluster in the X-ray sky. The cluster hosts a truncated cool core, with a temperature increasing from kT~1 keV in the core to kT~9 keV at r~30 kpc. Beyond r~30 kpc the intra-cluster medium (ICM) appears remarkably isothermal. The core is dynamically disturbed with multiple sloshing induced cold fronts, with indications for both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The sloshing is the result of the strongly perturbed gravitational potential in the cluster core, with the central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) being displaced southward from the global center of mass. The residual image reveals a likely subcluster south of the core at the projected distance of r~280 kpc. The cluster also harbors a likely radio phoenix, a source revived by adiabatic compression by gas motions in the ICM. Even though the Ophiuchus cluster is strongly dynamically active, the amplitude of density fluctuations outside of the cooling core is low, indicating velocities smaller than ~100 km/s. The density fluctuations might be damped by thermal conduction in the hot and remarkably isothermal ICM, resulting in our underestimate of gas velocities. We find a surprising, sharp surface brightness discontinuity, that is curved away from the core, at r~120 kpc to the southeast of the cluster center. We conclude that this feature is most likely due to gas dynamics associated with a merger and not a result of an extraordinary active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst. The cooling core lacks any observable X-ray cavities and the AGN only displays weak, point-like radio emission, lacking lobes or jets, indicating that currently it may be largely dormant. The lack of strong AGN activity may be due to the bulk of the cooling taking place offset from the central supermassive black hole.

A shock front at the radio relic of Abell 2744 [Replacement]

Radio relics are Mpc-scale diffuse radio sources at the peripheries of galaxy clusters which are thought to trace outgoing merger shocks. We present XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 (z=0.306), which reveal the presence of a shock front 1.5 Mpc East of the cluster core. The surface-brightness jump coincides with the position of a known radio relic. Although the surface-brightness jump indicates a weak shock with a Mach number $\mathcal{M}=1.7_{-0.3}^{+0.5}$, the plasma in the post-shock region has been heated to a very high temperature ($\sim13$ keV) by the passage of the shock wave. The low acceleration efficiency expected from such a weak shock suggests that mildly relativistic electrons have been re-accelerated by the passage of the shock front.

A shock front at the radio relic of Abell 2744

Radio relics are Mpc-scale diffuse radio sources at the peripheries of galaxy clusters which are thought to trace outgoing merger shocks. We present XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 (z=0.306), which reveal the presence of a shock front 1.5 Mpc East of the cluster core. The surface-brightness jump coincides with the position of a known radio relic. Although the surface-brightness jump indicates a weak shock with a Mach number $\mathcal{M}=1.7_{-0.3}^{+0.5}$, the plasma in the post-shock region has been heated to a very high temperature ($\sim13$ keV) by the passage of the shock wave. The low acceleration efficiency expected from such a weak shock suggests that mildly relativistic electrons have been re-accelerated by the passage of the shock front.

The Hydra I cluster core. I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311

(Abridged for arXiv) The history of the mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies may be studied by the mapping the stellar populations at large radial distances from the galaxy centre. We provide extended and robust measurements of the stellar population parameters in NGC 3311, the cD galaxy at the centre of the Hydra I cluster and out to three effective radii. Using seven absorption-features defined in the Lick/IDS system and single stellar populations models, we obtained luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities and alpha element abundances. The trends in the Lick indices and the distribution of the stellar population parameters indicate that the stars of NGC 3311 may be divided into two radial regimes, one within and the another beyond one effective radius, $R_e = 8.4$ kpc, similar to the distinction between inner galaxy and external halo derived from the NGC 3311 velocity dispersion profile. The inner galaxy ($R\leq R_e$) is old (age $\sim 14$ Gyr), have negative metallicity gradients and positive alpha element gradients. The external halo is also very old, but the metal and element abundances of the external halo have both a large scatter, indicating that stars from a variety of satellites with different masses have been accreted. The region in the extended halo associated with the off-centred envelope at 0$^o$ < P.A.< 90$^o$ (Arnaboldi et al. 2012) has higher metallicity with respect to the symmetric external halo. The different stellar populations in the inner galaxy and extended halo reflect the dominance of in situ stars in the former and the accreted origin for the large majority of the stars in the latter. These results provide supporting evidence to the recent theoretical models of formation of massive ellipticals as a two-phase process.

Separating Galaxies from the Cluster Dark Matter Halo in Abell 611

We investigate the mass content of galaxies in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 611. We perform a strong lensing analysis of the cluster core and use velocity dispersion measurements for individual cluster members as additional constraints. Despite the small number of multiply-imaged systems and cluster members with central velocity dispersions available in the core of A611, the addition of velocity dispersion measurements leads to tighter constraints on the mass associated with the galaxy component, and as a result, on the mass associated with the dark matter halo. Without the spectroscopic velocity dispersions, we would overestimate the mass of the galaxy component by a factor of $\sim1.5$, or, equivalently, we would underestimate the mass of the cluster dark halo by $\sim5\%$. We perform an additional lensing analysis using surface brightness (SB) reconstruction of the tangential giant arc. This approach improves the constraints on the mass parameters of the 5 galaxies close to the arc by up to a factor $\sim10$. The galaxy velocity dispersions resulting from the SB analysis are consistent at the 1$\sigma$ confidence level with the spectroscopic measurements and with the prediction from the simple pointlike analysis. In contrast the truncation radii for 2-3 galaxies depart significantly from the galaxy scaling relation and suggest differences in the stripping history from galaxy to galaxy.

A textbook example of ram-pressure stripping in the Hydra A/A780 cluster

In the current epoch, one of the main mechanisms driving the growth of galaxy clusters is the continuous accretion of group-scale halos. In this process, the ram pressure applied by the hot intracluster medium on the gas content of the infalling group is responsible for stripping the gas from its dark-matter halo, which gradually leads to the virialization of the infalling gas in the potential well of the main cluster. Using deep wide-field observations of the poor cluster Hydra A/A780 with XMM-Newton and Suzaku, we report the discovery of an infalling galaxy group 1.1 Mpc south of the cluster core. The presence of a substructure is confirmed by a dynamical study of the galaxies in this region. A wake of stripped gas is trailing behind the group over a projected scale of 760 kpc. The temperature of the gas along the wake is constant at kT ~ 1.3 keV, which is about a factor of two less than the temperature of the surrounding plasma. We observe a cold front pointing westwards compared to the peak of the group, which indicates that the group is currently not moving in the direction of the main cluster, but is moving along an almost circular orbit. The overall morphology of the group bears remarkable similarities with high-resolution numerical simulations of such structures, which greatly strengthens our understanding of the ram-pressure stripping process.

Deep observation of the NGC 1275 region with MAGIC: search of diffuse gamma-ray emission from cosmic rays in the Perseus cluster

Clusters of galaxies are expected to be reservoirs of cosmic rays (CRs) that should produce diffuse gamma-ray emission due to their hadronic interactions with the intra-cluster medium. The nearby Perseus cool-core cluster, identified as the most promising target to search for such an emission, has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes at very-high energies (VHE, E>100 GeV) for a total of 253 hr from 2009 to 2014. The active nuclei of NGC 1275, the central dominant galaxy of the cluster, and IC 310, lying at about 0.6$^\circ$ from the centre, have been detected as point-like VHE gamma-ray emitters during the first phase of this campaign. We report an updated measurement of the NGC 1275 spectrum, which is well described by a power law with a photon index of $3.6\pm0.2_{stat}\pm0.2_{syst}$ between 90 GeV and 1.2 TeV. We do not detect any diffuse gamma-ray emission from the cluster and set stringent constraints on its CR population. In order to bracket the uncertainties over the CR spatial and spectral distributions, we adopt different spatial templates and power-law spectral indexes $\alpha$. For $\alpha=2.2$, the CR-to-thermal pressure within the cluster virial radius is constrained to be below 1-2%, except if CRs can propagate out of the cluster core, generating a flatter radial distribution and releasing the CR-to-thermal pressure constraint to <20%. Assuming that the observed radio mini-halo of Perseus is generated by secondary electrons from CR hadronic interactions, we can derive lower limits on the central magnetic field, $B_0$, that depend on the CR distribution. For $\alpha=2.2$, $B_0\gtrsim5-8 \mu$G, which is below the 25 $\mu$G inferred from Faraday rotation measurements, whereas, for $\alpha\lesssim2.1$, the hadronic interpretation of the diffuse radio emission is in contrast with our gamma-ray flux upper limits independently of the magnetic field strength.

A mature galaxy cluster at z=1.58 around the radio galaxy 7C1753+6311

We report on the discovery of a z=1.58 mature cluster around the high-redshift radio galaxy 7C1753+6311, first identified in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN survey. Two-thirds of the excess galaxies within the central 1Mpc lie on a red sequence with a colour that is consistent with an average formation redshift of zf~3. We show that 80+/-6% of the red sequence galaxies in the cluster core are quiescent, while the remaining 20% are red due to dusty star formation. We demonstrate that the cluster has an enhanced quiescent galaxy fraction that is three times that of the control field. We also show that this enhancement is mass dependent: 91+/-9% of the M* >10^{10.5}Msun cluster galaxies are quiescent, compared to only 36+/-2% of field galaxies, whereas the fraction of quiescent galaxies with lower masses is the same in the cluster and field environments. The presence of a dense core and a well-formed, quiescent red sequence suggest that this is a mature cluster. This means that distant radio galaxies do not solely reside in young, uncollapsed protoclusters, rather they can be found in clusters in a wide range of evolutionary states.

Signatures of star formation by cold collapse

Sub-virial gravitational collapse is one mechanism by which star clusters may form. Here we investigate whether this mechanism can be inferred from observations of young clusters. To address this question, we have computed SPH simulations of the initial formation and evolution of a dynamically young star cluster through cold (sub-virial) collapse, starting with an ellipsoidal, turbulently seeded distribution of gas, and forming sink particles representing (proto)stars. While the initial density distributions of the clouds do not have large initial mass concentrations, gravitational focusing due to the global morphology leads to cluster formation. We use the resulting structures to extract observable morphological and kinematic signatures for the case of sub-virial collapse. We find that the signatures of the initial conditions can be erased rapidly as the gas and stars collapse, suggesting that kinematic observations need to be made either early in cluster formation and/or at larger scales, away from the growing cluster core. Our results emphasize that a dynamically young system is inherently evolving on short timescales, so that it can be highly misleading to use current-epoch conditions to study aspects such as star formation rates as a function of local density. Our simulations serve as a starting point for further studies of collapse including other factors such as magnetic fields and stellar feedback.

The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~4"), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~30"), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever before. Using the the WSRT, we detect HI in absorption against the center of the radio source. The absorption profile is relatively broad (FWHM of 288 km/s), similar to what is found in other clusters. Understanding the duty cycle of the radio emission as well as the triggering mechanism for starting (or restarting) the radio-loud activity can provide important constraints to quantify the impact of AGN feedback on galaxy evolution. The study of these mechanisms at low frequencies using morphological and spectral information promises to bring new important insights in this field.

The behaviour of dark matter associated with 4 bright cluster galaxies in the 10kpc core of Abell 3827

Galaxy cluster Abell 3827 hosts the stellar remnants of four almost equally bright elliptical galaxies within a core of radius 10kpc. Such corrugation of the stellar distribution is very rare, and suggests recent formation by several simultaneous mergers. We map the distribution of associated dark matter, using new Hubble Space Telescope imaging and VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy of a gravitationally lensed system threaded through the cluster core. We find that each of the central galaxies retains a dark matter halo, but that (at least) one of these is spatially offset from its stars. The best-constrained offset is 1.62+/-0.48kpc, where the 68% confidence limit includes both statistical error and systematic biases in mass modelling. Such offsets are not seen in field galaxies, but are predicted during the long infall to a cluster, if dark matter self-interactions generate an extra drag force. With such a small physical separation, it is difficult to definitively rule out astrophysical effects operating exclusively in dense cluster core environments - but if interpreted solely as evidence for self-interacting dark matter, this offset implies a cross-section sigma/m=(1.7+/-0.7)x10^{-4}cm^2/g x (t/10^9yrs)^{-2}, where t is the infall duration.

The behaviour of dark matter associated with 4 bright cluster galaxies in the 10kpc core of Abell 3827 [Cross-Listing]

Galaxy cluster Abell 3827 hosts the stellar remnants of four almost equally bright elliptical galaxies within a core of radius 10kpc. Such corrugation of the stellar distribution is very rare, and suggests recent formation by several simultaneous mergers. We map the distribution of associated dark matter, using new Hubble Space Telescope imaging and VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy of a gravitationally lensed system threaded through the cluster core. We find that each of the central galaxies retains a dark matter halo, but that (at least) one of these is spatially offset from its stars. The best-constrained offset is 1.62+/-0.48kpc, where the 68% confidence limit includes both statistical error and systematic biases in mass modelling. Such offsets are not seen in field galaxies, but are predicted during the long infall to a cluster, if dark matter self-interactions generate an extra drag force. With such a small physical separation, it is difficult to definitively rule out astrophysical effects operating exclusively in dense cluster core environments - but if interpreted solely as evidence for self-interacting dark matter, this offset implies a cross-section sigma/m=(1.7+/-0.7)x10^{-4}cm^2/g x (t/10^9yrs)^{-2}, where t is the infall duration.

A First Look at the X-ray Population of the Young Massive Cluster VVV CL077

Multi-wavelength analysis of the young massive cluster VVV CL077 is presented for the first time. Our Chandra survey of this region enabled the detection of three X-ray emitting stellar members of the cluster, as well as a possible diffuse X-ray component that extends a few arcseconds from the cluster core with an intrinsic flux of (9+/-3)x10^-14 erg cm^-2 s^-1 in the 0.5-10 keV band. Infrared spectra we obtained for two of these X-ray point sources show absorption lines typical of the atmospheres of massive O stars. The X-ray spectrum from the visible extent of VVV CL077 i.e., a 15"-radius around the cluster, can be modeled with an absorbed power law with nH = (6+/-4)x10^22 cm^-2 and gamma = 2+/-1. In addition, the X-ray core of VVV CL077 coincides with diffuse emission seen in the infrared band and with a local maximum in the radio continuum map. A possible association with a neighboring H II region would place VVV CL077 at a distance of around 11 kpc; on the far side of the Norma Arm. At this distance, the cluster is 0.8 pc wide with a mass density of (1-4)x10^3 Msol pc^-3.

Abundance and temperature distributions in the hot intra-cluster gas of Abell 4059

Using the EPIC and RGS data from a deep (~200 ks) XMM-Newton observation, we investigate the temperature structure (kT and sigma_T ) and the abundances of 9 elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe and Ni) of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in the nearby (z=0.046) cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 4059. Next to a deep analysis of the cluster core, a careful modelling of the EPIC background allows us to build radial profiles up to 12' (~650 kpc) from the core. Probably because of projection effects, the temperature ICM is found not to be in single phase, even in the outer parts of the cluster. The abundances of Ne, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe, but also O are peaked towards the core. Fe and O are still significantly detected in the outermost annuli; suggesting that the enrichment by both type Ia and core-collapse SNe started in the early stages of the cluster formation. However, the particularly high Ca/Fe ratio that we find in the core is not well reproduced by the standard SNe yield models. Finally, 2-D maps of temperature and Fe abundance are presented and confirm the existence of a denser, colder, and Fe-rich ridge southwest of the core, previously observed by Chandra. The origin of this asymmetry in the hot gas of the cluster core is still unclear, but might be explained by a past intense ram-pressure stripping event near the central cD galaxy.

Abundance and temperature distributions in the hot intra-cluster gas of Abell 4059 [Replacement]

Using the EPIC and RGS data from a deep (~200 ks) XMM-Newton observation, we investigate the temperature structure (kT and sigma_T ) and the abundances of 9 elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe and Ni) of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in the nearby (z=0.046) cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 4059. Next to a deep analysis of the cluster core, a careful modelling of the EPIC background allows us to build radial profiles up to 12' (~650 kpc) from the core. Probably because of projection effects, the temperature ICM is found not to be in single phase, even in the outer parts of the cluster. The abundances of Ne, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe, but also O are peaked towards the core. Fe and O are still significantly detected in the outermost annuli; suggesting that the enrichment by both type Ia and core-collapse SNe started in the early stages of the cluster formation. However, the particularly high Ca/Fe ratio that we find in the core is not well reproduced by the standard SNe yield models. Finally, 2-D maps of temperature and Fe abundance are presented and confirm the existence of a denser, colder, and Fe-rich ridge southwest of the core, previously observed by Chandra. The origin of this asymmetry in the hot gas of the cluster core is still unclear, but might be explained by a past intense ram-pressure stripping event near the central cD galaxy.

Abundance and temperature distributions in the hot intra-cluster gas of Abell 4059 [Replacement]

Using the EPIC and RGS data from a deep (~200 ks) XMM-Newton observation, we investigate the temperature structure (kT and sigma_T ) and the abundances of 9 elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe and Ni) of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in the nearby (z=0.046) cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 4059. Next to a deep analysis of the cluster core, a careful modelling of the EPIC background allows us to build radial profiles up to 12' (~650 kpc) from the core. Probably because of projection effects, the temperature ICM is found not to be in single phase, even in the outer parts of the cluster. The abundances of Ne, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe, but also O are peaked towards the core. Fe and O are still significantly detected in the outermost annuli; suggesting that the enrichment by both type Ia and core-collapse SNe started in the early stages of the cluster formation. However, the particularly high Ca/Fe ratio that we find in the core is not well reproduced by the standard SNe yield models. Finally, 2-D maps of temperature and Fe abundance are presented and confirm the existence of a denser, colder, and Fe-rich ridge southwest of the core, previously observed by Chandra. The origin of this asymmetry in the hot gas of the cluster core is still unclear, but might be explained by a past intense ram-pressure stripping event near the central cD galaxy.

A 3D view of the Hydra I cluster core - II. Stellar populations

Several observations of the central region of the Hydra I galaxy cluster point to a multi-epoch assembly history. Using our novel FORS2/VLT spectroscopic data set, we were able to map the luminosity-weighted age, [Fe/H] and [$\alpha$/Fe] distributions for the stellar populations around the cD galaxy NGC 3311. Our results indicate that the stellar populations follow the trends of the photometric substructures, with distinct properties that may aid to constrain the evolutionary scenarios for the formation of the cluster core.

Hubble Frontier Fields : A High-Precision Strong-Lensing Mass Model of the Massive Galaxy Cluster Abell 2744 using ~150 Multiple Images

We present a high-precision mass model of galaxy cluster Abell 2744, based on a strong-gravitational-lensing analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data, which now include both Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide-Field Camera 3 observations to the final depth. Taking advantage of the unprecedented depth of the visible and near-infrared data, we identify 33 new multiply imaged galaxies, bringing the total to 51, comprising 159 individual lensed images. In the process, we correct previous erroneous identifications and positions of multiple systems in the northern part of the cluster core. With the Lenstool software and the new sets of multiple images, we model the cluster using two cluster-scale dark matter halos plus galaxy-scale halos for the cluster members. Our best-fit model predicts image positions with an RMS error of 0.69'', which constitutes an improvement by almost a factor of two over previous parametric models of this cluster. We measure the total projected mass inside a 200~kpc aperture as ($2.156\pm 0.003$)$\times 10^{14}M_{\odot}$, thus reaching 1% level precision for the second time, following the recent HFF measurement of MACSJ0416.1-2403. Importantly, the higher quality of the mass model translates into an overall improvement by a factor of 4 of the derived magnification factor for the high-redshift lensed background galaxies. Together with our previous HFF gravitational lensing analysis, this work demonstrates that the HFF data enables high-precision mass measurements for massive galaxy clusters and the derivation of robust magnification maps to probe the early Universe.

MUSE observations of the lensing cluster SMACSJ2031.8-4036: new constraints on the mass distribution in the cluster core

We present new observations of the lensing cluster SMACSJ2031.8-4036 obtained with the MUSE integral field spectrograph as part of its commissioning on the Very Large Telescope. By providing medium-resolution spectroscopy over the full 4750-9350 Angstroms domain and a 1x1 arcmin2 field of view, MUSE is ideally suited for identifying lensed galaxies in the cluster core, in particular multiple-imaged systems. We perform a redshift analysis of all sources in the datacube and identify a total of 12 systems ranging from $z=1.46$ to $z=6.4$, with all images of each system confirmed by a spectroscopic redshift. This allows us to accurately constrain the cluster mass profile in this region. We foresee that future MUSE observations of cluster cores should help us discover very faint Lyman-alpha emitters thanks to the strong magnification and the high sensitivity of this instrument.

Cooling Time, Freefall Time, and Precipitation in the Cores of ACCEPT Galaxy Clusters

Star formation in the universe's largest galaxies---the ones at the centers of galaxy clusters---depends critically on the thermodynamic state of their hot gaseous atmospheres. Central galaxies with low-entropy, high-density atmospheres frequently contain multiphase star-forming gas, while those with high-entropy, low-density atmospheres never do. The dividing line between these two populations in central entropy, and therefore central cooling time, is amazingly sharp. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the dichotomy. One points out that thermal conduction can prevent radiative cooling of cluster cores above the dividing line. The other holds that cores below the dividing line are subject to thermal instability that fuels the central AGN through a cold-feedback mechanism. Here we explore those hypotheses with an analysis of the H-alpha properties of ACCEPT galaxy clusters. We find that the two hypotheses are likely to be complementary. Our results support a picture in which cold clouds inevitably precipitate out of cluster cores in which cooling outcompetes thermal conduction and rain down on the central black hole, causing AGN feedback that stabilizes the cluster core. In particular, the observed distribution of the cooling-time to freefall-time ratio is nearly identical to that seen in simulations of this cold-feedback process, implying that cold-phase accretion, and not Bondi-like accretion of hot-phase gas, is responsible for the AGN feedback that regulates star formation in large galaxies.

Abell 2384: the galaxy population of a cluster post-merger

We combine multi-object spectroscopy from the 2dF and EFOSC2 spectrographs with optical imaging of the inner 30'x30' of A2384 taken with the ESO Wide Field Imager. We carry out a kinematical analysis using the EMMIX algorithm and biweight statistics. We address the possible presence of cluster substructures with the Dressler-Shectman test. Cluster galaxies are investigated with respect to [OII] and H{\alpha} equivalent width. Galaxies covered by our optical imaging observations are additionally analysed in terms of colour, star formation rate and morphological descriptors such as Gini coefficient and M20 index. We study cluster galaxy properties as a function of clustercentric distance and investigate the distribution of various galaxy types in colour-magnitude and physical space. The Dressler-Shectman test reveals a substructure in the east of the 2dF field-of-view. We determine the mass ratio between the northern and southern subcluster to be 1.6:1. In accordance with other cluster studies, we find that a large fraction of the disk galaxies close to the cluster core show no detectable star formation. Probably these are systems which are quenched due to ram-pressure stripping. The sample of quenched disks populates the transition area between the blue cloud and the red sequence in colour-magnitude space. We also find a population of morphologically distorted galaxies in the central cluster region. The substructure in the east of A2384 might be a group of galaxies falling onto the main cluster. We speculate that our sample of quenched spirals represents an intermediate phase in the ram-pressure driven transformation of infalling field spirals into cluster S0s. This is motivated by their position in colour-magnitude space. The occurrence of morphologically distorted galaxies in the cluster core complies with the hypothesis of A2384 representing a post merger system.

Abell 2384: the galaxy population of a cluster post-merger [Replacement]

We combine multi-object spectroscopy from the 2dF and EFOSC2 spectrographs with optical imaging of the inner 30'x30' of A2384 taken with the ESO Wide Field Imager. We carry out a kinematical analysis using the EMMIX algorithm and biweight statistics. We address the possible presence of cluster substructures with the Dressler-Shectman test. Cluster galaxies are investigated with respect to [OII] and H{\alpha} equivalent width. Galaxies covered by our optical imaging observations are additionally analysed in terms of colour, star formation rate and morphological descriptors such as Gini coefficient and M20 index. We study cluster galaxy properties as a function of clustercentric distance and investigate the distribution of various galaxy types in colour-magnitude and physical space. The Dressler-Shectman test reveals a substructure in the east of the 2dF field-of-view. We determine the mass ratio between the northern and southern subcluster to be 1.6:1. In accordance with other cluster studies, we find that a large fraction of the disk galaxies close to the cluster core show no detectable star formation. Probably these are systems which are quenched due to ram-pressure stripping. The sample of quenched disks populates the transition area between the blue cloud and the red sequence in colour-magnitude space. We also find a population of morphologically distorted galaxies in the central cluster region. The substructure in the east of A2384 might be a group of galaxies falling onto the main cluster. We speculate that our sample of quenched spirals represents an intermediate phase in the ram-pressure driven transformation of infalling field spirals into cluster S0s. This is motivated by their position in colour-magnitude space. The occurrence of morphologically distorted galaxies in the cluster core complies with the hypothesis of A2384 representing a post merger system.

Abell 2384: the galaxy population of a cluster post-merger [Replacement]

We combine multi-object spectroscopy from the 2dF and EFOSC2 spectrographs with optical imaging of the inner 30'x30' of A2384 taken with the ESO Wide Field Imager. We carry out a kinematical analysis using the EMMIX algorithm and biweight statistics. We address the possible presence of cluster substructures with the Dressler-Shectman test. Cluster galaxies are investigated with respect to [OII] and H{\alpha} equivalent width. Galaxies covered by our optical imaging observations are additionally analysed in terms of colour, star formation rate and morphological descriptors such as Gini coefficient and M20 index. We study cluster galaxy properties as a function of clustercentric distance and investigate the distribution of various galaxy types in colour-magnitude and physical space. The Dressler-Shectman test reveals a substructure in the east of the 2dF field-of-view. We determine the mass ratio between the northern and southern subcluster to be 1.6:1. In accordance with other cluster studies, we find that a large fraction of the disk galaxies close to the cluster core show no detectable star formation. Probably these are systems which are quenched due to ram-pressure stripping. The sample of quenched disks populates the transition area between the blue cloud and the red sequence in colour-magnitude space. We also find a population of morphologically distorted galaxies in the central cluster region. The substructure in the east of A2384 might be a group of galaxies falling onto the main cluster. We speculate that our sample of quenched spirals represents an intermediate phase in the ram-pressure driven transformation of infalling field spirals into cluster S0s. This is motivated by their position in colour-magnitude space. The occurrence of morphologically distorted galaxies in the cluster core complies with the hypothesis of A2384 representing a post merger system.

Hubble Frontier Fields: The Geometry and Dynamics of the Massive Galaxy Cluster Merger MACSJ0416.1-2403 [Replacement]

We use a joint optical/X-ray analysis to constrain the geometry and history of the ongoing merging event in the massive galaxy cluster MACSJ0416.1-2403 (z=0.397). Our investigation of cluster substructure rests primarily on a combined strong- and weak-lensing mass reconstruction based on the deep, high-resolution images obtained for the Hubble Frontier Fields initiative. To reveal the system's dynamics, we complement this lensing analysis with a study of the intra-cluster gas using shallow Chandra data, and a three-dimensional model of the distribution and motions of cluster galaxies derived from over 100 spectroscopic redshifts. The multi-scale grid model obtained from our combined lensing analysis extends the high-precision strong-lensing mass reconstruction recently performed to cluster-centric distances of almost 1 Mpc. Our analysis detects the two well known mass concentrations in the cluster core. A pronounced offset between collisional and collisionless matter is only observed for the SW cluster component, while excellent alignment is found for the NE cluster. Both the lensing analysis and the distribution of cluster light strongly suggest the presence of a third massive structure, almost 2 arcmin SW of the cluster centre. Since no X-ray emission is detected in this region, we conclude that this structure is non-virialised and speculate that it might be part of a large-scale filament almost aligned with our line of sight. Combining all evidence from the distribution of dark and luminous matter, we propose two alternative scenarios for the trajectories of the components of MACSJ0416.1-2403. Upcoming deep X-ray observations that allow the detection of shock fronts, cold cores, and sloshing gas (all key diagnostics for studies of cluster collisions) will allow us to test, and distinguish between these two scenarios.

Hubble Frontier Fields: The Geometry and Dynamics of the Massive Galaxy Cluster Merger MACSJ0416.1-2403 [Replacement]

We use a joint optical/X-ray analysis to constrain the geometry and history of the ongoing merging event in the massive galaxy cluster MACSJ0416.1-2403 (z=0.397). Our investigation of cluster substructure rests primarily on a strong and weak lensing mass reconstruction based on the deep, high-resolution images obtained for the HFF initiative. To reveal the system's dynamics, we complement this lensing analysis with a study of the intra-cluster gas using Chandra data, and a 3D model of the distribution and motions of cluster galaxies derived from >100 spectroscopic redshifts. The multi-scale grid model obtained from our combined weak and strong lensing analysis extends high-precision mass reconstruction for the cluster core to cluster-centric distances of almost 1 Mpc. Our analysis detects the two well known mass concentrations near the centre of the field. A pronounced offset between collisional and collisionless matter is only observed for the SW cluster component, while excellent alignment is found for the NE cluster. Both the lensing analysis and the distribution of cluster light strongly suggest the presence of a third massive structure, almost 2arcmin SW of the cluster centre. Since no X-ray emission is detected in this region, we conclude that this structure is non-virialised and speculate that it might be part of a large-scale filament that is almost aligned with our line of sight. Combining all evidence from the distribution of dark and luminous matter, we propose two alternative scenarios for the trajectories of the components of MACSJ0416.1-2403 (one pre-, the other post-collision), a merger that features a significant impact parameter and is proceeding along an axis that is highly inclined with respect to the plane of the sky.

The VMC Survey. XI. Radial Stellar Population Gradients in the Galactic Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

We present a deep near-infrared color--magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K_s survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red-giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color--magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant-branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ~0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005 in the cluster core to Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003 in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-generation stars, which decreases with increasing radius; the stellar population in the 47 Tuc periphery is well approximated by a simple stellar population.

The environmental impacts on the star formation main sequence: an H-alpha study of the newly discovered rich cluster at z=1.52

We report the discovery of a strong over-density of galaxies in the field of a radio galaxy at z=1.52 (4C65.22) based on our broad-band and narrow-band (H-alpha) photometry with Subaru Telescope. We find that H-alpha emitters are located in the outskirts of the density peak (cluster core) dominated by passive red-sequence galaxies. This resembles the situation in lower-redshift clusters, suggesting that the newly discovered structure is a well-evolved rich galaxy cluster at z=1.5. Our data suggest that the color-density and stellar mass-density relations are already in place at z~1.5, mostly driven by the passive red massive galaxies residing within Rc<200 kpc from the cluster core. These environmental trends almost disappear when we consider only star-forming (SF) galaxies. We do not find SFR-density or SSFR-density relations amongst SF galaxies, and the location of the SF main sequence does not significantly change with environment. Nevertheless, we find a tentative hint that star-bursting galaxies (up-scattered objects from the main sequence) are preferentially located in a small group at ~1-Mpc away from the main body of the cluster. We also argue that the scatter of the SF main sequence could be dependent on the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy.

Large scale gas sloshing out to half the virial radius in the strongest cool core REXCESS galaxy cluster, RXJ2014.8-2430

We search the cool core galaxy clusters in the REXCESS sample for evidence of large scale gas sloshing, and find clear evidence for sloshing in RXJ2014.8-2430, the strongest cool core cluster in the REXCESS cluster sample. The residuals of the surface brightness distribution from the azimuthal average for RXJ2014 show a prominent swirling excess feature extending out to an abrupt surface brightness discontinuity at 800 kpc from the cluster core (half the virial radius) to the south, which the XMM-Newton observations confirm to be cold, low entropy gas. The gas temperature is significantly higher outside this southern surface brightness discontinuity, indicating that this is a cold front 800 kpc from the cluster core. Chandra observations of the central 200 kpc show two clear younger cold fronts on opposite sides of the cluster. The scenario appears qualitatively consistent with simulations of gas sloshing due to minor mergers which raise cold, low entropy gas from the core to higher radius, resulting in a swirling distribution of opposing cold fronts at increasing radii. However the scale of the observed sloshing is much larger than that which has been simulated at present, and is similar to the large scale sloshing recently observed in the Perseus cluster and Abell 2142.

Galaxy properties in clusters. II. Backsplash Galaxies

We explore the properties of galaxies on the outskirts of clusters and their dependence on recent dynamical history in order to understand the real impact that the cluster core has on the evolution of galaxies. We analyse the properties of more than 1000 galaxies brighter than $M_{^{0.1}r}$=-19.6 on the outskirts of 90 clusters ($1<r/r_{vir}<2$) in the redshift range $0.05<z<0.10$. Using the line of sight velocity, we selected high and low velocity subsamples. Theoretical predictions indicate that a significant fraction of the first subsample should be backsplash galaxies, that is, objects that have already orbited near the cluster centre. A significant proportion of the sample of high relative velocity HV galaxies seems to be composed of infalling objects. Our results suggest that, at fixed stellar mass, late type galaxies in the low velocity LV sample are systematically older, redder and have formed fewer stars during the last 3 Gyrs than galaxies in the HV sample. This result is consistent with models that assume that the central regions of clusters are effective in quenching the star formation by means of processes such as ram pressure stripping or strangulation. At fixed stellar mass, LV galaxies show some evidence of having higher surface brightness and smaller size than HV galaxies. These results are consistent with the scenario where galaxies that have orbited the central regions of clusters are more likely to suffer tidal effects, producing loss of mass as well as a redistribution of matter towards more compact configurations. Finally, we found a higher fraction of ET galaxies in the LV sample, supporting the idea that the central region of clusters of galaxies may contribute to the transformation of morphological types towards earlier types.

Photometric studies of Abell 1664: The subtle effect a minor merger has on cluster galaxies

A combination of $BRI$ photometry and archival Chandra X-ray data have been used to analyse the effects a minor merger has on the galaxy population of A1664. We utilise adaptive smoothing techniques in the 2D spatial distribution of cluster galaxies to reveal substructure $\sim$ 800 kpc South of the cluster core. We identify this substructure as most likely the remnant core of a merging group which has passed pericentre and responsible for triggering a cold front in the cluster core. We define two samples to represent two different environments within A1664 in accordance with the location of the substructure. We apply a morphological analysis using CAS, M$_{20}$ and Gini to these samples to deduce if there has been any significant effect on the cluster galaxies due to this interaction. We find there are more asymmetric galaxies found in the inner sample (at the 3.7$\sigma$ level) which is likely due to galaxy-galaxy interactions as the merging group passed through core passage. No other differences were found between the inner and outer cluster in our morphological analysis, which we attribute to the limited resolution of our imagery. The colour profiles of the galaxies are found to be consistent with the morphology-density relation suggesting there is no unique environmental effect in A1664 that has enhanced galaxy transformations. This study favours the star formation of cluster galaxies being quenched well before it is able to interact with the merging group and demonstrates that a minor cluster merger has little effect on the observable parameters of cluster galaxies such as morphology and colour.

Diffuse optical intracluster light as a measure of stellar tidal stripping: the cluster CL0024+17 at $z\sim $0.4 observed at LBT

We have evaluated the diffuse intracluster light (ICL) in the central core of the galaxy cluster CL0024+17 at $z\sim 0.4$ observed with the prime focus camera (LBC) at LBT. The measure required an accurate removal of the galaxies light within $\sim 200$ kpc from the center. The residual background intensity has then been integrated in circular apertures to derive the average ICL intensity profile. The latter shows an approximate exponential decline as expected from theoretical cold dark matter models. The radial profile of the ICL over the galaxies intensity ratio (ICL fraction) is increasing with decreasing radius but near the cluster center it starts to bend and then decreases where the overlap of the halos of the brightest cluster galaxies becomes dominant. Theoretical expectations in a simplified CDM scenario show that the ICL fraction profile can be estimated from the stripped over galaxy stellar mass ratio in the cluster. It is possible to show that the latter quantity is almost independent of the properties of the individual host galaxies but mainly depends on the average cluster properties. The predicted ICL fraction profile is thus very sensitive to the assumed CDM profile, total mass and concentration parameter of the cluster. Adopting values very similar to those derived from the most recent lensing analysis in CL0024+17 we find a good agreement with the observed ICL fraction profile. The galaxy counts in the cluster core have then been compared with that derived from composite cluster samples in larger volumes, up to the clusters virial radius. The galaxy counts in the CL0024+17 core appear flatter and the amount of bending respect to the average cluster galaxy counts imply a loss of total emissivity in broad agreement with the measured ICL fraction.

Diffuse optical intracluster light as a measure of stellar tidal stripping: the cluster CL0024+17 at $z\sim $0.4 observed at LBT [Replacement]

We have evaluated the diffuse intracluster light (ICL) in the central core of the galaxy cluster CL0024+17 at $z\sim 0.4$ observed with the prime focus camera (LBC) at LBT. The measure required an accurate removal of the galaxies light within $\sim 200$ kpc from the center. The residual background intensity has then been integrated in circular apertures to derive the average ICL intensity profile. The latter shows an approximate exponential decline as expected from theoretical cold dark matter models. The radial profile of the ICL over the galaxies intensity ratio (ICL fraction) is increasing with decreasing radius but near the cluster center it starts to bend and then decreases where the overlap of the halos of the brightest cluster galaxies becomes dominant. Theoretical expectations in a simplified CDM scenario show that the ICL fraction profile can be estimated from the stripped over galaxy stellar mass ratio in the cluster. It is possible to show that the latter quantity is almost independent of the properties of the individual host galaxies but mainly depends on the average cluster properties. The predicted ICL fraction profile is thus very sensitive to the assumed CDM profile, total mass and concentration parameter of the cluster. Adopting values very similar to those derived from the most recent lensing analysis in CL0024+17 we find a good agreement with the observed ICL fraction profile. The galaxy counts in the cluster core have then been compared with that derived from composite cluster samples in larger volumes, up to the clusters virial radius. The galaxy counts in the CL0024+17 core appear flatter and the amount of bending respect to the average cluster galaxy counts imply a loss of total emissivity in broad agreement with the measured ICL fraction.

Linear Structures in the Core of the Coma Cluster of Galaxies

The hot X-ray emitting plasma in galaxy clusters is predicted to have turbulent motions which can contribute around ten percent of the cluster's central energy density. We report deep Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the Coma cluster core, showing the presence of quasi-linear high-density arms spanning 150 kpc, consisting of low-entropy material likely stripped from merging subclusters. Two appear to be connected with a subgroup of galaxies at 650 kpc radius that is merging into the cluster, implying coherence over several hundred Myr. Such long lifetime implies that strong isotropic turbulence and conduction are suppressed in the core, despite the unrelaxed state of the cluster. Magnetic fields are presumably responsible. The structures seen in Coma present insight into the past Gyr of subcluster merger activity.

UB CCD photometry of the old, metal rich, open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819 and NGC 7142

We report on a UV-oriented imaging survey in the fields of the old, metal-rich open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819 and NGC 7142. These three clusters represent both very near and ideal stellar aggregates to match the distinctive properties of the evolved stellar populations, as in elliptical galaxies and bulges of spirals. The CMD of the three clusters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis to the hot stellar component. We report, in this regard, one new extreme horizontal-branch star candidate in NGC 6791. For NGC 6819 and 7142, the stellar luminosity function points to a looser radial distribution of faint lower Main Sequence stars, either as a consequence of cluster dynamical interaction with the Galaxy or as an effect of an increasing fraction of binary stars toward the cluster core, as actually observed in NGC 6791 too.

Suzaku observations of the type 2 QSO in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster

We report the \Suzaku/XIS and HXD and \Chandra/ACIS-I results on the X-ray spectra of the Phoenix cluster at the redshift $z=0.596$. The spectrum of the intracluster medium (ICM) is well-reproduced with the emissions from a low temperature ($\sim3.0$\,keV and $\sim0.76$\,solar) and a high temperature ($\sim11$\,keV and $\sim0.33$\,solar) plasmas; the former is localized at the cluster core, while the latter distributes over the cluster. In addition to these ICM emissions, a strongly absorbed power-law component is found, which is due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the cluster center. The absorption column density and unobscured luminosity of the AGN are $\sim3.2\times10^{23}$\,cm$^{-2}$ and $\sim4.7\times10^{45}$\,ergs\,s$^{-1}$ (2-10\,keV), respectively. Furthermore, a neutral iron (\ion{Fe}{1}) K-shell line is discovered for the first time with the equivalent width (EW) of $\sim150$\,eV at the rest frame. The column density and the EW of the \ion{Fe}{1} line are exceptionally large for such a high luminosity AGN, and hence the AGN is classified as a type 2 quasi-stellar object (QSO). We speculate that the significant fraction of the ICM cooled gas would be consumed to maintain the torus and to activate the type 2 QSO. The Phoenix cluster has a massive starburst in the central galaxy, indicating suppression in the cooling flow is less effective. This may be because the onset of the latest AGN feedback has occurred recently and it has not yet been effective. Alternatively, the AGN feedback is predominantly in radiative-mode not in kinetic-mode and the torus may work as a shield to reduce its effect.

Understanding the Unusual X-Ray Emission Properties of the Massive, Close Binary WR 20a: A High Energy Window into the Stellar Wind Initiation Region [Replacement]

The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf- Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal that includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively-driven stellar winds initiate and interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 to 0.6, but provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

 

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