Posts Tagged angular momentum transport

Recent Postings from angular momentum transport

Dissipative effects on the sustainment of a magnetorotational dynamo in Keplerian shear flow

The magnetorotational (MRI) dynamo has long been considered one of the possible drivers of turbulent angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. However, various numerical results suggest that this dynamo may be difficult to excite in the astrophysically relevant regime of magnetic Prandtl number (Pm) significantly smaller than unity, for reasons currently not well understood. The aim of this article is to present the first results of an ongoing numerical investigation of the role of both linear and nonlinear dissipative effects in this problem. Combining a parametric exploration and an energy analysis of incompressible nonlinear MRI dynamo cycles representative of the transitional dynamics in large aspect ratio shearing boxes, we find that turbulent magnetic diffusion makes the excitation and sustainment of this dynamo at moderate magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) increasingly difficult for decreasing Pm. This results in an increase in the critical Rm of the dynamo for increasing kinematic Reynolds number (Re), in agreement with earlier numerical results. Given its very generic nature, we argue that turbulent magnetic diffusion could be an important determinant of MRI dynamo excitation in disks, and may also limit the efficiency of angular momentum transport by MRI turbulence in low Pm regimes.

Vertical shear instability in accretion disc models with radiation transport

The origin of turbulence in accretion discs is still not fully understood. While the magneto-rotational instability is considered to operate in sufficiently ionized discs, its role in the poorly ionized protoplanetary disc is questionable. Recently, the vertical shear instability (VSI) has been suggested as a possible alternative. Our goal is to study the characteristics of this instability and the efficiency of angular momentum transport, in extended discs, under the influence of radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. We use multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to model a larger section of an accretion disc. First we study inviscid and weakly viscous discs using a fixed radial temperature profile in two and three spatial dimensions. The simulations are then extended to include radiative transport and irradiation from the central star. In agreement with previous studies we find for the isothermal disc a sustained unstable state with a weak positive angular momentum transport of the order of $\alpha \approx 10^{-4}$. Under the inclusion of radiative transport the disc cools off and the turbulence terminates. For discs irradiated from the central star we find again a persistent instability with a similar $\alpha$ value as for the isothermal case. We find that the VSI can indeed generate sustained turbulence in discs albeit at a relatively low level with $\alpha$ about few times $10^{-4}$

Angular Momentum Transport via Internal Gravity Waves in Evolving Stars

Recent asteroseismic advances have allowed for direct measurements of the internal rotation rates of many sub-giant and red giant stars. Unlike the nearly rigidly rotating Sun, these evolved stars contain radiative cores that spin faster than their overlying convective envelopes, but slower than they would in the absence of internal angular momentum transport. We investigate the role of internal gravity waves in angular momentum transport in evolving low mass stars. In agreement with previous results, we find that convectively excited gravity waves can prevent the development of strong differential rotation in the radiative cores of Sun-like stars. As stars evolve into sub-giants, however, low frequency gravity waves become strongly attenuated and cannot propagate below the hydrogen burning shell, allowing the spin of the core to decouple from the convective envelope. This decoupling occurs at the base of the sub-giant branch when stars have surface temperatures of roughly 5500 K. However, gravity waves can still spin down the upper radiative region, implying that the observed differential rotation is likely confined to the deep core near the hydrogen burning shell. The torque on the upper radiative region may also prevent the core from accreting high-angular momentum material and slow the rate of core spin-up. The observed spin-down of cores on the red giant branch cannot be totally attributed to gravity waves, but the waves may enhance shear within the radiative region and thus increase the efficacy of viscous/magnetic torques.

Angular momentum transport and evolution of lopsided galaxies

The surface brightness distribution in the majority of stellar galactic discs falls off exponentially. Often what lies beyond such a stellar disc is the neutral hydrogen gas whose distribution also follows a nearly exponential profile at least for a number of nearby disc galaxies. Both the stars and gas are commonly known to host lopsided asymmetry especially in the outer parts of a galaxy. The role of such asymmetry in the dynamical evolution of a galaxy has not been explored so far. Following Lindblad’s original idea of kinematic density waves, we show that the outer part of an exponential disc is ideally suitable for hosting lopsided asymmetry. Further, we compute the transport of angular momentum in the combined stars and gas disc embedded in a dark matter halo. We show that in a pure star and gas disc, there is a transition point where the free precession frequency of a lopsided mode, $\Omega -\kappa $, changes from retrograde to prograde and this in turn reverses the direction of angular momentum flow in the disc leading to an unphysical behaviour. We show that this problem is overcome in the presence of a dark matter halo, which sets the angular momentum flow outwards as required for disc evolution, provided the lopsidedness is leading in nature. This, plus the well-known angular momentum transport in the inner parts due to spiral arms, can facilitate an inflow of gas from outside perhaps through the cosmic filaments.

Asymmetric evolution of magnetic reconnection in collisionless accretion disk

An evolution of a magnetic reconnection in a collisionless accretion disk is investigated using a 2.5 dimensional hybrid code simulation. In astrophysical disks, magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered to play an important role by generating turbulence in the disk and contributes to an effective angular momentum transport through a turbulent viscosity. Magnetic reconnection, on the other hand, also plays an important role on the evolution of the disk through a dissipation of a magnetic field enhanced by a dynamo effect of MRI. In this study, we developed a hybrid code to calculate an evolution of a differentially rotating system. With this code, we first confirmed a linear growth of MRI. We also investigated a behavior of a particular structure of a current sheet, which would exist in the turbulence in the disk. From the calculation of the magnetic reconnection, we found an asymmetric structure in the out-of-plane magnetic field during the evolution of reconnection, which can be understood by a coupling of the Hall effect and the differential rotation. We also found a migration of X-point whose direction is determined only by an initial sign of J_0 \times \Omega_0, where J_0 is the initial current density in the neutral sheet and \Omega_0 is the rotational vector of the background Keplerian rotation. Associated with the migration of X-point, we also found a significant enhancement of the perpendicular magnetic field compared to an ordinary MRI. MRI-Magnetic reconnection coupling and the resulting magnetic field enhancement can be an effective process to sustain a strong turbulence in the accretion disk and to a transport of angular momentum.

Differential rotation in main-sequence solar-like stars: Qualitative inference from asteroseismic data [Replacement]

Understanding differential rotation of Sun-like stars is of great importance for insight into the angular momentum transport in these stars. One means of gaining such information is that of asteroseismology. By a forward modeling approach we analyze in a qualitative manner the impact of different differential rotation profiles on the splittings of p-mode oscillation frequencies. The optimum modes for inference on differential rotation are identified along with the best value of the stellar inclination angle. We find that in general it is not likely that asteroseismology can be used to make an unambiguous distinction between a rotation profile such as, e.g., a conical Sun-like profile and a cylindrical profile. In addition, it seems unlikely that asteroseismology of Sun-like stars will result in inferences on the radial profile of the differential rotation, such as can be done for, e.g., red giants. At best one could possibly obtain the sign of the radial differential rotation gradient. Measurements of the extent of the latitudinal differential from frequency splitting are, however, more promising. One very interesting aspect that could likely be tested from frequency splittings is whether the differential rotation is solar-like or anti-solar-like in nature, in the sense that a solar-like profile has an equator rotating faster than the poles.

Differential rotation in main-sequence solar-like stars: Qualitative inference from asteroseismic data [Replacement]

Understanding differential rotation of Sun-like stars is of great importance for insight into the angular momentum transport in these stars. One means of gaining such information is that of asteroseismology. By a forward modeling approach we analyze in a qualitative manner the impact of different differential rotation profiles on the splittings of p-mode oscillation frequencies. The optimum modes for inference on differential rotation are identified along with the best value of the stellar inclination angle. We find that in general it is not likely that asteroseismology can be used to make an unambiguous distinction between a rotation profile such as, e.g., a conical Sun-like profile and a cylindrical profile. In addition, it seems unlikely that asteroseismology of Sun-like stars will result in inferences on the radial profile of the differential rotation, such as can be done for, e.g., red giants. At best one could possibly obtain the sign of the radial differential rotation gradient. Measurements of the extent of the latitudinal differential from frequency splitting are, however, more promising. One very interesting aspect that could likely be tested from frequency splittings is whether the differential rotation is solar-like or anti-solar-like in nature, in the sense that a solar-like profile has an equator rotating faster than the poles.

Differential rotation in main-sequence solar-like stars --- Qualitative inference from asteroseismic data ---

Understanding differential rotation of sun-like stars is of great importance for insight into the angular momentum transport in these stars. One means of gaining such information is that of asteroseismology. By a forward modeling approach we analyze in a qualitative manner the impact of different differential rotation profiles on the splittings of p-mode oscillation frequencies. The optimum modes for inference on differential rotation are identified along with the best value of the stellar inclination angle. We find that in general it is not likely that asteroseismology can be used to make an unambiguous distinction between a rotation profile such as, e.g., a conical sun-like profile and a cylindrical profile. In addition, it seems unlikely that asteroseismolgy of sun-like stars will result in inferences on the radial profile of the differential rotation, such as can be done for e.g. red giants. At best one could possibly obtain the sign of the radial differential rotation gradient. Measurements of the extent of the latitudinal differential from frequency splitting are, however, more promising. One very interesting aspect that could likely be tested from frequency splittings is whether the differential rotation is solar-like or anti-solar-like in nature, in the sense that a solar-like profile has an equator rotating faster than the poles.

Snow-lines as probes of turbulent diffusion in protoplanetary discs

Sharp chemical discontinuities can occur in protoplanetary discs, particularly at `snow-lines’ where a gas-phase species freezes out to form ice grains. Such sharp discontinuities will diffuse out due to the turbulence suspected to drive angular momentum transport in accretion discs. We demonstrate that the concentration gradient – in the vicinity of the snow-line – of a species present outside a snow-line but destroyed inside is strongly sensitive to the level of turbulent diffusion (provided the chemical and transport time-scales are decoupled) and provides a direct measurement of the radial `Schmidt number’ (the ratio of the angular momentum transport to radial turbulent diffusion). Taking as an example the tracer species N$_2$H$^+$, which is expected to be destroyed inside the CO snow-line (as recently observed in TW Hya) we show that ALMA observations possess significant angular resolution to constrain the Schmidt number. Since different turbulent driving mechanisms predict different Schmidt numbers, a direct measurement of the Schmidt number in accretion discs would allow inferences about the nature of the turbulence to be made.

VADER: A Flexible, Robust, Open-Source Code for Simulating Viscous Thin Accretion Disks

The evolution of thin axisymmetric viscous accretion disks is a classic problem in astrophysics. While such models provide only approximations to the true processes of instability-driven mass and angular momentum transport, their simplicity makes them invaluable tools for both semi-analytic modeling and simulations of long-term evolution where two- or three-dimensional calculations are too computationally costly. Despite the utility of these models, there is no publicly-available framework for simulating them. Here we describe a highly flexible, general numerical method for simulating viscous thin disks with arbitrary rotation curves, viscosities, boundary conditions, grid spacings, equations of state, and rates of gain or loss of mass (e.g., through winds) and energy (e.g., through radiation). Our method is based on a conservative, finite-volume, second-order accurate discretization of the equations, which we solve using an unconditionally-stable implicit scheme. We implement Anderson acceleration to speed convergence of the scheme, and show that this leads to factor of ~5 speed gains over non-accelerated methods in realistic problems. We have implemented our method in the new code Viscous Accretion Disk Evolution Resource (VADER), which is freely available for download from https://bitbucket.org/krumholz/vader/ under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

Dynamical Tides in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: Influence of Rotation

Tidal interactions play an important role in the evolution and ultimate fate of compact white dwarf (WD) binaries. Not only do tides affect the pre-merger state (such as temperature and rotation rate) of the WDs, but they may also determine which systems merge and which undergo stable mass transfer. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the effects of rotation on tidal angular momentum transport in binary stars, with specific calculations applied to WD stellar models. We incorporate the effect of rotation using the traditional approximation, in which the dynamically excited gravity waves within the WDs are transformed into gravito-inertial Hough waves. The Coriolis force has only a minor effect on prograde gravity waves, and previous results predicting the tidal spin-up and heating of inspiraling WDs are not significantly modified. However, rotation strongly alters retrograde gravity waves and inertial waves, with important consequences for the tidal spin-down of accreting WDs. We identify new dynamical tidal forcing terms that arise from a proper separation of the equilibrium and dynamical tide components; these new forcing terms are very important for systems near synchronous rotation. Additionally, we discuss the impact of Stokes drift currents on the wave angular momentum flux. Finally, we speculate on how tidal interactions will affect super-synchronously rotating WDs in accreting systems.

The Driving of Decretion by Maxwell Stress in Disks

Radial magnetic fields that resist orbital shear can explain the outwards angular momentum transport required for accretion in non-self-gravitating disks. This generates azimuthal magnetic fields and thus Maxwell stresses that transfer angular momentum radially. Variations on this idea include both the magnetorotational instability and disk winds. We demonstrate here that these transport mechanisms generate dynamically significant radial Poynting flux, so they are inherently not local. Simulations treating this problem typically use either the shear-periodic, shearing sheet approximation, or disk annuli with artificial radial boundary conditions. Spurious energy flows through these boundaries generally control the magnitude and even the sign of angular momentum transport. We then demonstrate that, when dominated by radial stresses, shearing sheets must decrete, as must self-similar regions of disks with power-law variations in physical quantities. Only the innermost edge of the disk, where magnetic energy increases with radius, can actually accrete. The transition radius between accretion and decretion varies vertically, resulting in a decreting midplane layer and accreting surface layers, similar to a viscous meridional circulation, except that here the power provided to the midplane outflow is transported radially, rather than vertically. Energy from the thin region deep in the potential well can drive decretion throughout the remainder of the disk. The short orbital time at the outer edge of this accretion region determines the viscous timescale, suggesting that disks are inherently unsteady. Among other implications, the decretion that we find may transport high-temperature minerals outwards in disks, explaining their presence in comet dust.

Angular momentum transport within evolved low-mass stars

Asteroseismology of 1.0-2.0 Msun red giants by the Kepler satellite has enabled the first definitive measurements of interior rotation in both first ascent red giant branch (RGB) stars and those on the Helium burning clump. The inferred rotation rates are 10-30 days for the ~0.2Msun He degenerate cores on the RGB and 30-100 days for the He burning core in a clump star. Using the MESA code we calculate state-of-the-art stellar evolution models of low mass rotating stars from the zero-age main sequence to the cooling white dwarf (WD) stage. We include transport of angular momentum due to rotationally induced instabilities and circulations, as well as magnetic fields in radiative zones (generated by the Tayler-Spruit dynamo). We find that all models fail to predict core rotation as slow as observed on the RGB and during core He burning, implying that an unmodeled angular momentum transport process must be operating on the early RGB of low mass stars. Later evolution of the star from the He burning clump to the cooling WD phase appears to be at nearly constant core angular momentum. We also incorporate the adiabatic pulsation code, ADIPLS, to explicitly highlight this shortfall when applied to a specific Kepler asteroseismic target, KIC8366239. The MESA inlist adopted to calculate the models in this paper can be found at \url{https://authorea.com/1608/} (bottom of the document).

Angular momentum transport by stochastically excited oscillations in rapidly rotating massive stars

We estimate the amount of angular momentum transferred by the low-frequency oscillations detected in the rapidly rotating hot Be star HD 51452. Here, we assume that the oscillations detected are stochastically excited by convective motions in the convective core of the star, that is, we treat the oscillations as forced oscillations excited by the periodic convective motions of the core fluids having the frequencies observationally determined. With the observational amplitudes of the photometric variations, we determine the oscillation amplitudes, which makes it possible to estimate the net amount of angular momentum transferred by the oscillations using the wave-meanflow interaction theory. Since we do not have any information concerning the azimuthal wavenumber $m$ and spherical harmonic degree $l$ for each of the oscillations, we assume that all the frequencies detected are prograde or retrograde in the observer’s frame and they are all associated with a single value of $m$ both for even modes ($l=|m|$) and for odd modes ($l=|m|+1$). We estimate the amount of angular momentum transferred by the oscillations for $|m|=1$ and 2, which are typical $|m|$ values for Be stars, and find that the amount is large enough for a decretion disc to form around the star. Therefore, transport of angular momentum by waves stochastically excited in the core of Be stars might be responsible for the Be phenomenon.

The angular momentum transport by unstable toroidal magnetic fields

We demonstrate with a nonlinear MHD code that angular momentum can be transported due to the magnetic instability of toroidal fields under the influence of differential rotation, and that the resulting effective viscosity may be high enough to explain the almost rigid-body rotation observed in radiative stellar cores. The fields are assumed strong enough and the density stratification weak enough that the influence of the ‘negative’ buoyancy in the radiative zones can be neglected. Only permanent current-free fields and only those combinations of rotation rates and magnetic field amplitudes which provide maximal numerical values of the viscosity are considered. We find that the dimensionless ratio of the turbulent over molecular viscosity, \nu_T/\nu, linearly grows with growing magnetic Reynolds number of the rotating fluid multiplied by the square root of the magnetic Prandtl number – which is of order unity for the considered red subgiant KIC 7341231, in contrast to the smaller values of the solar radiative interior. The outward angular momentum transport is thus stronger for hot and fast rotators than for solar-type stars. For the considered interval of magnetic Reynolds numbers – which is restricted by numerical constraints of the nonlinear MHD code – there is a remarkable influence of the magnetic Prandtl number on the relative importance of the contributions of the Reynolds stress and the Maxwell stress to the total viscosity, which is magnetically dominated only for Pm > 0.5. We also find that the magnetized plasma behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid, i.e. the resulting effective viscosity depends on the shear in the rotation law. The decay time of the differential rotation thus depends on its shear and becomes longer and longer during the spin-down of a stellar core, as the viscosity is reduced when the rotation law becomes flat.

Magnetic diffusivity and angular momentum transport in magnetized and differentially rotating stellar radiation zones

With a linear theory the instability of a toroidal background field system with dipolar parity for inner stellar radiative zones under the presence of density stratification, differential rotation and for realistically small Prandtl numbers is analyzed. The physical parameters are the normalized latitudinal shear $a$ and the normalized field amplitude $b \simeq \Omega_A/\Omega$. Only the solutions for the wavelengths with the maximal growth rates are considered. If these scales are combined to the radial values of velocity one finds that for $b \gsim 0.1$ the (very small) radial velocity does only slightly depend on $a$ and $b$ so that it can be used as the free parameter of the eigenvalue system. The resulting instability-generated tensors of magnetic diffusivity and eddy viscosity are highly anisotropic. The eddy diffusivity in latitudinal direction exceeds the eddy diffusivity in radial direction by orders of magnitude. Its latitudinal profile shows a strong concentration to the poles and (for rigid rotation) a numerical value of $10^{12}$ cm$^2$/s. On the other hand, the instability pattern transports angular momentum equatorward even for rigid rotation producing a slightly faster rotation of the equator of the radiative zone. The resulting effective magnetic Prandtl number reaches values of $O(10^3)$ so that differential rotation decays much faster than the toroidal background field which is {\em the} necessary condition to explain the observed slow rotation of the early red-giant and subgiant cores by means of magnetic instabilities.

Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence III: influence of field configuration and mass injection

The stresses produced by magnetorotational turbulence can provide effective angular momentum transport in accretion disks. However, questions remain about the ability of simulated disks to reproduce observationally inferred stress-to-gas-pressure ratios. In this paper we present a set of high resolution global magnetohydrodynamic disk simulations which are initialised with different field configurations: purely toroidal, vertical field lines, and nested poloidal loops. A mass source term is included which allows the total disk mass to equilibrate in simulations with long run times, and also enables the impact of rapid mass injection to be explored. Notably different levels of angular momentum transport are observed during the early-time transient disk evolution. However, given sufficient time to relax, the different models evolve to a statistically similar quasi-steady state with a stress-to-gas-pressure ratio, $\alpha \sim 0.032-0.036$. The indication from our results is that {\it steady, isolated} disks may be unable to maintain a large-scale magnetic field or produce values for the stress-to-gas-pressure ratio implied by some observations. Supplementary simulations exploring the influence of trapping magnetic field, injecting vertical field, and rapidly injecting additional mass into the disk show that large stresses ($\alpha \sim 0.1-0.25$) can be induced by these mechanisms. The simulations highlight the common late-time evolution and characteristics of turbulent disks for which the magnetic field is allowed to evolve freely. If the boundaries of the disk, the rate of injection of magnetic field, or the rate of mass replenishment are modified to mimic astrophysical disks, markedly different disk evolution occurs.

On characterizing nonlocality and anisotropy in magnetorotational instability

The extent to which angular momentum transport in accretion discs is primarily local or non-local and what determines this is an important avenue of study for understanding accretion engines. Taking a step along this path, we analyze simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) by calculating energy and stress power spectra in stratified isothermal shearing box simulations in several new ways. We divide our boxes in two regions, disc and corona where the disc is the MRI unstable region and corona is the magnetically dominated region. We calculate the fractional power in different quantities, including magnetic energy and Maxwell stresses and find that they are dominated by contributions from the lowest wave numbers. This is even more dramatic for the corona than the disc, suggesting that transport in the corona region is dominated by larger structures than the disc. By calculating averaged power spectra in one direction of $k$ space at a time, we also show that the MRI turbulence is strongly anisotropic on large scales when analyzed by this method, but isotropic on small scales. Although the shearing box itself is meant to represent a local section of an accretion disc, the fact that the stress and energy are dominated by the largest scales highlights that the locality is not captured within the box. This helps to quantify the intuitive importance of global simulations for addressing the question of locality of transport, for which similar analyses can be performed.

On characterizing nonlocality and anisotropy for the magnetorotational instability [Replacement]

The extent to which angular momentum transport in accretion discs is primarily local or non-local and what determines this is an important avenue of study for understanding accretion engines. Taking a step along this path, we analyze simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) by calculating energy and stress power spectra in stratified isothermal shearing box simulations in several new ways. We divide our boxes in two regions, disc and corona where the disc is the MRI unstable region and corona is the magnetically dominated region. We calculate the fractional power in different quantities, including magnetic energy and Maxwell stresses and find that they are dominated by contributions from the lowest wave numbers. This is even more dramatic for the corona than the disc, suggesting that transport in the corona region is dominated by larger structures than the disc. By calculating averaged power spectra in one direction of $k$ space at a time, we also show that the MRI turbulence is strongly anisotropic on large scales when analyzed by this method, but isotropic on small scales. Although the shearing box itself is meant to represent a local section of an accretion disc, the fact that the stress and energy are dominated by the largest scales highlights that the locality is not captured within the box. This helps to quantify the intuitive importance of global simulations for addressing the question of locality of transport, for which similar analyses can be performed.

Theoretical seismology in 3D : nonlinear simulations of internal gravity waves in solar-like stars

Internal gravity waves (hereafter IGWs) are studied for their impact on the angular momentum transport in stellar radiation zones and the information they provide about the structure and dynamics of deep stellar interiors. We here present the first 3D nonlinear numerical simulations of IGWs excitation and propagation in a solar-like star. The aim is to study the behavior of waves in a realistic 3D nonlinear time dependent model of the Sun and to characterize their properties. We compare our results with theoretical and 1D predictions. It allows us to point out the complementarity between theory and simulation and to highlight the convenience but also the limits of the asymptotic and linear theories. We show that a rich spectrum of IGWs is excited by the convection, representing about 0.4\% of the total solar luminosity. We study the spatial and temporal properties of this spectrum, the effect of thermal damping and nonlinear interactions between waves. We give quantitative results about the modes frequencies, evolution with time and rotational splitting and we discuss the amplitude of IGWs considering different regimes of parameters. This work points out the importance of high performance simulation for its complementarity with observation and theory. It opens a large field of investigation concerning IGWs propagating nonlinearly in 3D spherical structures. The extension of this work to other types of stars, with different masses, structures and rotation rates will lead to a deeper and more accurate comprehension of IGWs in stars.

Theoretical seismology in 3D : nonlinear simulations of internal gravity waves in solar-like stars [Replacement]

Internal gravity waves (hereafter IGWs) are studied for their impact on the angular momentum transport in stellar radiation zones and the information they provide about the structure and dynamics of deep stellar interiors. We here present the first 3D nonlinear numerical simulations of IGWs excitation and propagation in a solar-like star. The aim is to study the behavior of waves in a realistic 3D nonlinear time dependent model of the Sun and to characterize their properties. We compare our results with theoretical and 1D predictions. It allows us to point out the complementarity between theory and simulation and to highlight the convenience but also the limits of the asymptotic and linear theories. We show that a rich spectrum of IGWs is excited by the convection, representing about 0.4% of the total solar luminosity. We study the spatial and temporal properties of this spectrum, the effect of thermal damping and nonlinear interactions between waves. We give quantitative results about the modes frequencies, evolution with time and rotational splitting and we discuss the amplitude of IGWs considering different regimes of parameters. This work points out the importance of high performance simulation for its complementarity with observation and theory. It opens a large field of investigation concerning IGWs propagating nonlinearly in 3D spherical structures. The extension of this work to other types of stars, with different masses, structures and rotation rates will lead to a deeper and more accurate comprehension of IGWs in stars.

On the Viability of the Magnetorotational Instability in Circumplanetary Disks

We examine whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can serve as a mechanism of angular momentum transport in circumplanetary disks. For the MRI to operate the ionization degree must be sufficiently high and the magnetic pressure must be sufficiently lower than the gas pressure. We calculate the spatial distribution of the ionization degree and search for the MRI-active region where the two criteria are met. We find that there can be thin active layers at the disk surface depending on the model parameters, however, we find hardly any region which can sustain well-developed MRI turbulence; when the magnetic field is enhanced by MRI turbulence at the disk surface layer, a magnetically dominated atmosphere encroaches on a lower altitude and a region of well-developed MRI turbulence becomes smaller. We conclude that if there are no angular momentum transfer mechanisms other than MRI in gravitationally stable circumplanetary disks, gas is likely to pile up until disks become gravitationally unstable, and massive disks may survive for a long time.

On the Viability of the Magnetorotational Instability in Circumplanetary Disks [Replacement]

We examine whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can serve as a mechanism of angular momentum transport in circumplanetary disks. For the MRI to operate the ionization degree must be sufficiently high and the magnetic pressure must be sufficiently lower than the gas pressure. We calculate the spatial distribution of the ionization degree and search for the MRI-active region where the two criteria are met. We find that there can be thin active layers at the disk surface depending on the model parameters, however, we find hardly any region which can sustain well-developed MRI turbulence; when the magnetic field is enhanced by MRI turbulence at the disk surface layer, a magnetically dominated atmosphere encroaches on a lower altitude and a region of well-developed MRI turbulence becomes smaller. We conclude that if there are no angular momentum transfer mechanisms other than MRI in gravitationally stable circumplanetary disks, gas is likely to pile up until disks become gravitationally unstable, and massive disks may survive for a long time.

The fate of fallback matter around newly born compact objects

The presence of fallback disks around young neutron stars has been invoked over the years to explain a large variety of phenomena. Here we perform a numerical investigation of the formation of such disks during a supernova explosion, considering both neutron star (NS) and black hole (BH) remnants. Using the public code MESA, we compute the angular momentum distribution of the pre-supernova material, for stars with initial masses M in the range 13 – 40 Msun, initial surface rotational velocities vsurf between 25% and 75% of the critical velocity, and for metallicities Z of 1%, 10% and 100% of the solar value. These pre SN models are exploded with energies E varying between 10^{50} – 3×10^{52} ergs, and the amount of fallback material is computed. We find that, if magnetic torques play an important role in angular momentum transport, then fallback disks around NSs, even for low-metallicity main sequence stars, are not an outcome of SN explosions. Formation of such disks around young NSs can only happen under the condition of negligible magnetic torques and a fine-tuned explosion energy. For those stars which leave behind BH remnants, disk formation is ubiquitous if magnetic fields do not play a strong role; however, unlike the NS case, even with strong magnetic coupling in the interior, a disk can form in a large region of the {Z,M,vsurf,E} parameter space. Together with the compact, hyperaccreting fallback disks widely discussed in the literature, we identify regions in the above parameter space which lead to extended, long-lived disks around BHs. We find that the physical conditions in these disks may be conducive to planet formation, hence leading to the possible existence of planets orbiting black holes.

Angular momentum evolution of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs: observations and theory

This chapter aims at providing the most complete review of both the emerging concepts and the latest observational results regarding the angular momentum evolution of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. In the time since Protostars & Planets V, there have been major developments in the availability of rotation period measurements at multiple ages and in different star-forming environments that are essential for testing theory. In parallel, substantial theoretical developments have been carried out in the last few years, including the physics of the star-disk interaction, numerical simulations of stellar winds, and the investigation of angular momentum transport processes in stellar interiors. This chapter reviews both the recent observational and theoretical advances that prompted the development of renewed angular momentum evolution models for cool stars and brown dwarfs. While the main observational trends of the rotational history of low mass objects seem to be accounted for by these new models, a number of critical open issues remain that are outlined in this review.

Star formation and accretion in the circumnuclear disks of active galaxies

We explore the evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBH) centered in a circumnuclear disk (CND) as a function of the mass supply from the host galaxy and considering different star formation laws, which may give rise to a self-regulation via the injection of supernova-driven turbulence. A system of equations describing star formation, black hole accretion and angular momentum transport was solved for an axisymmetric disk in which the gravitational potential includes contributions from the black hole, the disk and the hosting galaxy. Our model extends the framework provided by Kawakatu et al. (2008) by separately considering the inner and outer part of the disk, and by introducing a potentially non-linear dependence of the star formation rate on the gas surface density and the turbulent velocity. The star formation recipes are calibrated using observational data for NGC 1097, while the accretion model is based on turbulent viscosity as a source of angular momentum transport in a thin viscous accretion disk. We find that current data provide no strong constraint on the star formation recipe, and can in particular not distinguish between models entirely regulated by the surface density, and models including a dependence on the turbulent velocity. The evolution of the black hole mass, on the other hand, strongly depends on the applied star formation law, as well as the mass supply from the host galaxy. We suggest to explore the star formation process in local AGN with high-resolution ALMA observations to break the degeneracy between different star formation models.

MHD Simulation of a Disk Subjected to Lense-Thirring Precession

When matter orbits around a central mass obliquely with respect to the mass’s spin axis, the Lense-Thirring effect causes it to precess at a rate declining sharply with radius. Ever since the work of Bardeen & Petterson (1975), it has been expected that when a fluid fills an orbiting disk, the orbital angular momentum at small radii should then align with the mass’s spin. Nearly all previous work has studied this alignment under the assumption that a phenomenological "viscosity" isotropically degrades fluid shears in accretion disks, even though it is now understood that internal stress in flat disks is due to anisotropic MHD turbulence. In this paper we report a pair of matched simulations, one in MHD and one in pure (non-viscous) HD in order to clarify the specific mechanisms of alignment. As in the previous work, we find that disk warps induce radial flows that mix angular momentum of different orientation; however, we also show that the speeds of these flows are generically transonic and are only very weakly influenced by internal stresses other than pressure. In particular, MHD turbulence does not act in a manner consistent with an isotropic viscosity. When MHD effects are present, the disk aligns, first at small radii and then at large; alignment is only partial in the HD case. We identify the specific angular momentum transport mechanisms causing alignment and show how MHD effects permit them to operate more efficiently. Lastly, we relate the speed at which an alignment front propagates outward (in the MHD case) to the rate at which Lense-Thirring torques deliver angular momentum at smaller radii.

Multidimensional Simulations of Rotating Pair Instability Supernovae

We study the effects of rotation on the dynamics, energetics and Ni-56 production of Pair Instability Supernova explosions by performing rotating two-dimensional ("2.5-D") hydrodynamics simulations. We calculate the evolution of eight low metallicity (Z = 10^-3, 10^-4 Zsun) massive (135-245 Msun) PISN progenitors with initial surface rotational velocities 50% that of the critical Keplerian value using the stellar evolution code MESA. We allow for both the inclusion and the omission of the effects of magnetic fields in the angular momentum transport and in chemical mixing, resulting in slowly-rotating and rapidly-rotating final carbon-oxygen cores, respectively. Increased rotation for carbon-oxygen cores of the same mass and chemical stratification leads to less energetic PISN explosions that produce smaller amounts of Ni-56 due to the effect of the angular momentum barrier that develops and slows the dynamical collapse. We find a non-monotonic dependence of Ni-56 production on rotational velocity in situations when smoother composition gradients form at the outer edge of the rotating cores. In these cases, the PISN energetics are determined by the competition of two factors: the extent of chemical mixing in the outer layers of the core due to the effects of rotation in the progenitor evolution and the development of angular momentum support against collapse. Our 2.5-D PISN simulations with rotation are the first presented in the literature. They reveal hydrodynamic instabilities in several regions of the exploding star and increased explosion asymmetries with higher core rotational velocity.

Dynamics of warped accretion discs

Accretion discs are present around both stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binaries and supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. A wide variety of circumstantial evidence implies that many of these discs are warped. The standard Bardeen–Petterson model attributes the shape of the warp to the competition between Lense–Thirring torque from the central black hole and viscous angular-momentum transport within the disc. We show that this description is incomplete, and that torques from the companion star (for X-ray binaries) or the self-gravity of the disc (for active galactic nuclei) can play a major role in determining the properties of the warped disc. Including these effects leads to a rich set of new phenomena. For example, (i) when a companion star is present and the warp arises from a misalignment between the companion’s orbital axis and the black hole’s spin axis, there is no steady-state solution of the Pringle–Ogilvie equations for a thin warped disc when the viscosity falls below a critical value; (ii) in AGN accretion discs, the warp can excite short-wavelength bending waves that propagate inward with growing amplitude until they are damped by the disc viscosity. We show that both phenomena can occur for plausible values of the black hole and disc parameters, and briefly discuss their observational implications.

Non-axisymmetric vertical shear and convective instabilities as a mechanism of angular momentum transport

Discs with a rotation profile depending on radius and height are subject to an axisymmetric linear instability, the vertical shear instability. Here we show that non-axisymmetric perturbations, while eventually stabilized, can sustain huge exponential amplifications with growth rate close to the axisymmetric one. Transient growths are therefore to all effects genuine instabilities. The ensuing angular momentum transport is positive. These growths occur when the product of the radial times the vertical wavenumbers (both evolving with time) is positive for a positive local vertical shear, or negative for a negative local vertical shear. We studied, as well, the interaction of these vertical shear induced growths with a convective instability. The asymptotic behaviour depends on the relative strength of the axisymmetric vertical shear (s_v) and convective (s_c) growth rates. For s_v > s_c we observed the same type of behaviour described above – large growths occur with asymptotic stabilization. When s_c > s_v the system is asymptotically unstable, with a growth rate which can be slightly enhanced with respect to s_c. The most interesting feature is the sign of the angular momentum transport. This is always positive in the phase in which the vertical shear driven transients growths occur, even in the case s_c > s_v . Thermal diffusion has a stabilizing influence on the convective instability, specially for short wavelengths.

Implications of Rapid Core Rotation in Red Giants for Internal Angular Momentum Transport in Stars

Core rotation rates have been measured for red giant stars using asteroseismology. This data, along with helioseismic measurements and open cluster spin down studies, provide powerful clues about the nature and timescale for internal angular momentum transport in stars. We focus on two cases: the metal poor red giant KIC 7341231 ("Otto") and intermediate mass core helium burning stars. For both we examine limiting case studies for angular momentum coupling between cores and envelopes under the assumption of rigid rotation on the main sequence. We discuss the expected pattern of core rotation as a function of mass and radius. In the case of Otto, strong post-main-sequence coupling is ruled out and the measured core rotation rate is in the range of 23 to 33 times the surface value expected from standard spin down models. The minimum coupling time scale (.17 to .45 Gyr) is significantly longer than that inferred for young open cluster stars. This implies ineffective internal angular momentum transport in early first ascent giants. By contrast, the core rotation rates of evolved secondary clump stars are found to be consistent with strong coupling given their rapid main sequence rotation. An extrapolation to the white dwarf regime predicts rotation periods between 330 and .0052 days depending on mass and decoupling time. We identify two key ingredients that explain these features: the presence of a convective core and inefficient angular momentum transport in the presence of larger mean molecular weight gradients. Observational tests that can disentangle these effects are discussed.

Internal Gravity Waves in Massive Stars: Angular Momentum Transport

We present numerical simulations of internal gravity waves (IGW) in a star with a convective core and extended radiative envelope. We report on amplitudes, spectra, dissipation and consequent angular momentum transport by such waves. We find that these waves are generated efficiently and transport angular momentum on short timescales over large distances. We show that, as in the Earth’s atmosphere, IGW drive equatorial flows which change magnitude and direction on short timescales. These results have profound consequences for the observational inferences of massive stars, as well as their long term angular momentum evolution. We suggest IGW angular momentum transport may explain many observational mysteries, such as: the misalignment of hot Jupiters around hot stars, the Be class of stars, Ni enrichment anomalies in massive stars and the non-synchronous orbits of interacting binaries.

Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence I: convergence and the quasi-steady state

Magnetorotational turbulence provides a viable mechanism for angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We present global, three dimensional (3D), MHD accretion disk simulations that investigate the dependence of the turbulent stresses on resolution. Convergence in the time-and-volume-averaged stress-to-gas-pressure ratio, at a value of $\sim0.04$, is found for a model with radial, vertical, and azimuthal resolution of 12-51, 27, and 12.5 cells per scale-height (the simulation mesh is such that cells per scale-height varies in the radial direction). A control volume analysis is performed on the main body of the disk (|z|<2H) to examine the production and removal of magnetic energy. Maxwell stresses in combination with the mean disk rotation are mainly responsible for magnetic energy production, whereas turbulent dissipation (facilitated by numerical resistivity) predominantly removes magnetic energy from the disk. Re-casting the magnetic energy equation in terms of the power injected by Maxwell stresses on the boundaries of, and by Lorentz forces within, the control volume highlights the importance of the boundary conditions (of the control volume). The different convergence properties of shearing-box and global accretion disk simulations can be readily understood on the basis of choice of boundary conditions, the magnetic field configuration, and the value of resistivity. Periodic boundary conditions restrict the establishment of large-scale gradients in the magnetic field, limiting the power that can be delivered to the disk by Lorentz forces and by stresses at the surfaces. The factor of three lower resolution required for convergence in turbulent stresses for our global disk models compared to stratified shearing-boxes is explained by this finding. (Abridged)

Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence I: convergence and the quasi-steady state [Replacement]

Magnetorotational turbulence provides a viable mechanism for angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We present global, three dimensional (3D), MHD accretion disk simulations that investigate the dependence of the turbulent stresses on resolution. Convergence in the time-and-volume-averaged stress-to-gas-pressure ratio, at a value of $\sim0.04$, is found for a model with radial, vertical, and azimuthal resolution of 12-51, 27, and 12.5 cells per scale-height (the simulation mesh is such that cells per scale-height varies in the radial direction). A control volume analysis is performed on the main body of the disk (|z|<2H) to examine the production and removal of magnetic energy. Maxwell stresses in combination with the mean disk rotation are mainly responsible for magnetic energy production, whereas turbulent dissipation (facilitated by numerical resistivity) predominantly removes magnetic energy from the disk. Re-casting the magnetic energy equation in terms of the power injected by Maxwell stresses on the boundaries of, and by Lorentz forces within, the control volume highlights the importance of the boundary conditions (of the control volume). The different convergence properties of shearing-box and global accretion disk simulations can be readily understood on the basis of choice of boundary conditions, the magnetic field configuration, and the value of resistivity. Periodic boundary conditions restrict the establishment of large-scale gradients in the magnetic field, limiting the power that can be delivered to the disk by Lorentz forces and by stresses at the surfaces. The factor of three lower resolution required for convergence in turbulent stresses for our global disk models compared to stratified shearing-boxes is explained by this finding. (Abridged)

Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence I: convergence and the quasi-steady state [Replacement]

Magnetorotational turbulence provides a viable mechanism for angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We present global, three dimensional (3D), MHD accretion disk simulations that investigate the dependence of the turbulent stresses on resolution. Convergence in the time-and-volume-averaged stress-to-gas-pressure ratio, at a value of $\sim0.04$, is found for a model with radial, vertical, and azimuthal resolution of 12-51, 27, and 12.5 cells per scale-height (the simulation mesh is such that cells per scale-height varies in the radial direction). A control volume analysis is performed on the main body of the disk (|z|<2H) to examine the production and removal of magnetic energy. Maxwell stresses in combination with the mean disk rotation are mainly responsible for magnetic energy production, whereas turbulent dissipation (facilitated by numerical resistivity) predominantly removes magnetic energy from the disk. Re-casting the magnetic energy equation in terms of the power injected by Maxwell stresses on the boundaries of, and by Lorentz forces within, the control volume highlights the importance of the boundary conditions (of the control volume). The different convergence properties of shearing-box and global accretion disk simulations can be readily understood on the basis of choice of boundary conditions and the magnetic field configuration. Periodic boundary conditions restrict the establishment of large-scale gradients in the magnetic field, limiting the power that can be delivered to the disk by Lorentz forces and by stresses at the surfaces. The factor of three lower resolution required for convergence in turbulent stresses for our global disk models compared to stratified shearing-boxes is explained by this finding. (Abridged)

Wind-driven Accretion in Protoplanetary Disks --- II: Radial Dependence and Global Picture

Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects play a crucial role in determining the mechanism and efficiency of angular momentum transport as well as the level of turbulence in protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are key to understanding PPD evolution and planet formation. It was shown in our previous work that at 1 AU, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed when both Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD) are taken into account, resulting in a laminar flow with accretion driven by magnetocentrifugal wind. In this work, we study the radial dependence of the laminar wind solution using local shearing-box simulations. Scaling relation on the angular momentum transport for the laminar wind is obtained, and we find that the wind-driven accretion rate can be approximated as M_dot~0.91×10^(-8)R_AU^(1.21)(B_z/10mG)^(0.93)M_Sun/yr, where B_z is the strength of the large-scale vertical magnetic field threading the disk. The result is independent of disk surface density. Four criteria are outlined for the existence of the laminar wind solution: 1). Ohmic resistivity dominated midplane region; 2). AD dominated disk upper layer; 3). Presence of (not too weak) net vertical magnetic flux. 4). Sufficiently well ionized gas beyond disk surface. All these criteria are likely to be met in the inner region of the disk from ~0.3 AU to about 5-10 AU for typical PPD accretion rates. Beyond this radius, angular momentum transport is likely to proceed due to a combination of the MRI and disk wind, and eventually dominated by the MRI (in the presence of strong AD) in the outer disk. Our simulation results provide key ingredients for a new paradigm on the accretion processes in PPDs.

Understanding angular momentum transport in red giants: the case of KIC 7341231

Context. Thanks to recent asteroseismic observations, it has been possible to infer the radial differential rotation profile of subgiants and red giants. Aims. We want to reproduce through modeling the observed rotation profile of the early red giant KIC 7341231 and constrain the physical mechanisms responsible for angular momentum transport in stellar interiors. Methods. We compute models of KIC 7341231 including a treatment of shellular rotation and we compare the rotation profiles obtained with the one derived by Deheuvels et al. (2012). We then modify some modeling parameters in order to quantify their effect on the obtained rotation profile. Moreover, we mimic a powerful angular momentum transport during the Main Sequence and study its effect on the evolution of the rotation profile during the subgiant and red giant phases. Results. We show that meridional circulation and shear mixing alone produce a rotation profile for KIC 7341231 too steep compared to the observed one. An additional mechanism is then needed to increase the internal transport of angular momentum. We find that this undetermined mechanism has to be efficient not only during the Main Sequence but also during the much quicker subgiant phase. Moreover, we point out the importance of studying the whole rotational history of a star in order to explain its rotation profile during the red giant evolution.

Growth of a Protostar and a Young Circumstellar Disk with High Mass Accretion Rate onto the Disk

The growing process of both a young protostar and a circumstellar disk is investigated. Viscous evolution of a disk around a single star is considered with a model where a disk increases its mass by dynamically accreting envelope and simultaneously loses its mass via viscous accretion onto the central star. We focus on the circumstellar disk with high mass accretion rate onto the disk $\dot{M}=8.512c_{\rm s}^3/G$ as a result of dynamical collapse of rotating molecular cloud core. We study the origin of the surface density distribution and the origin of the disk-to-star mass ratio by means of numerical calculations of unsteady viscous accretion disk in one-dimensional axisymmetric model. It is shown that the radial profiles of the surface density $\Sigma$, azimuthal velocity $v_{\phi}$, and mass accretion rate $\dot{M}$ in the inner region approach to the quasi-steady state. Profile of the surface density distribution in the quasi-steady state is determined as a result of angular momentum transport rather than its original distribution of angular momentum in the cloud core. It is also shown that the disk mass becomes larger than the central star in the long time limit as long as temporary constant mass flux onto the disk is assumed. After the mass infall rate onto the disk declines owing to the depletion of the parent cloud core, the disk-to-star mass ratio $M_{\rm disk}/M_*$ decreases. The disk-to-star mass ratio becomes smaller than unity after $t> 10^5 \rm yr$ and $t>10^6 \rm yr$ from the beginning of the accretion phase in the case with $\alpha_0 =1 {\rm and} 0.1$, respectively, where $\alpha_0 $ is the constant part of viscous parameter. In the case with $\alpha_0 \leq 10^{-2}$, $M_{\rm disk}/M_*$ is still larger than unity at $2 \rm Myr$ from the beginning of the accretion phase.

On the Offset of Barred Galaxies From the Black Hole M_BH-sigma Relationship

We use collisionless N-body simulations to determine how the growth of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) influences the nuclear kinematics in both barred and unbarred galaxies. In the presence of a bar, the increase in the velocity dispersion sigma (within the effective radius) due to the growth of an SMBH is on average <= 10%, whereas the increase is only ~4% in an unbarred galaxy. In a barred galaxy, the increase results from a combination of three separate factors (a) orientation and inclination effects; (b) angular momentum transport by the bar that results in an increase in the central mass density; (c) an increase in the vertical and radial velocity anisotropy of stars in the vicinity of the SMBH. In contrast the growth of the SMBH in an unbarred galaxy causes the velocity distribution in the inner part of the nucleus to become less radially anisotropic. We argue that using an axisymmetric stellar dynamical modeling code to measure SMBH masses in barred galaxies could result in a slight overestimate of the derived M_BH. We conclude that the growth of a black hole in the presence of a bar could result in an offset in sigma, perhaps partially accounting for the claimed offset of barred galaxies and pseudo-bulges from the M_BH-sigma relation for unbarred galaxies. If the black hole grows significantly in a pre-existing barred galaxy, the resultant secular evolution would alter both the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge.

MRI-driven angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks

Angular momentum transport in accretion disk has been the focus of intense research in theoretical astrophysics for many decades. In the past twenty years, MHD turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability has emerged as an efficient mechanism to achieve that goal. Yet, many questions and uncertainties remain, among which the saturation level of the turbulence. The consequences of the magnetorotational instability for planet formation models are still being investigated. This lecture, given in September 2012 at the school "Role and mechanisms of angular momentum transport in the formation and early evolution of stars" in Aussois (France), aims at introducing the historical developments, current status and outstanding questions related to the magnetorotational instability that are currently at the forefront of academic research.

A Self-Gravitating Disc Around L1527 IRS?

Recent observations of the Class 0 protostar L1527 IRS have revealed a rotationally supported disc with an outer radius of at least 100 au. Measurements of the integrated flux at 870 microns suggest a disc mass that is too low for gravitational instability to govern angular momentum transport. However, if parts of the disc are optically thick at sub-mm wavelengths, the sub-mm fluxes will underestimate the disc mass, and the disc’s actual mass may be substantially larger, potentially sufficient to be self-gravitating. We investigate this possibility using simple self-gravitating disc models. To match the observed mass accretion rates requires a disc-to-star mass ratio of at least ~0.5, which produces sub-mm fluxes that are similar to those observed for L1527 IRS in the absence of irradiation from the envelope or central star. If irradiation is significant, then the predicted fluxes exceed the observed fluxes by around an order of magnitude. Our model also indicates that the stresses produced by the gravitational instability are low enough to prevent disc fragmentation. As such, we conclude that observations do not rule out the possibility that the disc around L1527 IRS is self-gravitating, but it is more likely that despite being a very young system, this disc may already have left the self-gravitating phase.

Rotational suppression of the Tayler instability in stellar radiation zones

The study of the magnetic field in stellar radiation zones is an important topic in modern astrophysics because the magnetic field can play an important role in several transport phenomena such as mixing and angular momentum transport. We consider the influence of rotation on stability of a predominantly toroidal magnetic field in the radiation zone. We find that the effect of rotation on the stability depends on the magnetic configuration of the basic state. If the toroidal field increases sufficiently rapidly with the spherical radius, the instability cannot be suppressed entirely even by a very fast rotation although the strength of the instability can be significantly reduced. On the other hand, if the field increases slowly enough with the radius or decreases, the instability has a threshold and can be completely suppressed in rapidly rotating stars. We find that in the regions where the instability is entirely suppressed a particular type of magnetohydrodynamic waves may exist which are marginally stable.

Extending the range of the inductionless magnetorotational instability [Replacement]

The magnetorotational instability (MRI) can destabilize hydrodynamically stable rotational flows, thereby allowing angular momentum transport in accretion disks. A notorious problem for MRI is its questionable applicability in regions with low magnetic Prandtl number, as they are typical for protoplanetary disks and the outer parts of accretion disks around black holes. Using the WKB method, we extend the range of applicability of MRI by showing that the inductionless versions of MRI, such as the helical MRI and the azimuthal MRI, can easily destabilize Keplerian profiles ~ 1/r^(3/2) if the radial profile of the azimuthal magnetic field is only slightly modified from the current-free profile ~ 1/r. This way we further show how the formerly known lower Liu limit of the critical Rossby number, Ro=-0.828, connects naturally with the upper Liu limit, Ro=+4.828.

Extending the range of magnetorotational instability

The magnetorotational instability (MRI) can destabilize hydrodynamically stable rotational flows, thereby allowing angular momentum transport in accretion disks. A notorious problem for MRI is its questionable applicability in regions with low magnetic Prandtl number, as they are typical for protoplanetary disks and the outer parts of accretion disks around black holes. Using the WKB method, we extend the range of applicability of MRI by showing that the inductionless versions of MRI, such as the helical MRI and the azimuthal MRI, can easily destabilize Keplerian profiles if the radial profile of the azimuthal magnetic field is only slightly modified. This way we further show how the formerly known lower Liu limit of the critical Rossby number, Ro=-0.828, connects naturally with the corresponding upper Liu limit, Ro=+4.828.

Extending the range of magnetorotational instability [Replacement]

The magnetorotational instability (MRI) can destabilize hydrodynamically stable rotational flows, thereby allowing angular momentum transport in accretion disks. A notorious problem for MRI is its questionable applicability in regions with low magnetic Prandtl number, as they are typical for protoplanetary disks and the outer parts of accretion disks around black holes. Using the WKB method, we extend the range of applicability of MRI by showing that the inductionless versions of MRI, such as the helical MRI and the azimuthal MRI, can easily destabilize Keplerian profiles if the radial profile of the azimuthal magnetic field is only slightly modified. This way we further show how the formerly known lower Liu limit of the critical Rossby number, Ro=-0.828, connects naturally with the corresponding upper Liu limit, Ro=+4.828.

The coupling between internal waves and shear-induced turbulence in stellar radiation zones: the critical layer

Internal gravity waves (hereafter IGWs) are known as one of the candidates for explaining the angular velocity profile in the Sun and in solar-type main-sequence and evolved stars, due to their role in the transport of angular momentum. Our bringing concerns critical layers, a process poorly explored in stellar physics, defined as the location where the local relative frequency of a given wave to the rotational frequency of the fluid tends to zero (i.e that corresponds to co-rotation resonances). IGW propagate through stably-stratified radiative regions, where they extract or deposit angular momentum through two processes: radiative and viscous dampings and critical layers. Our goal is to obtain a complete picture of the effects of this latters. First, we expose a mathematical resolution of the equation of propagation for IGWs in adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases near critical layers. Then, the use of a dynamical stellar evolution code, which treats the secular transport of angular momentum, allows us to apply these results to the case of a solar-like star.The analysis reveals two cases depending on the value of the Richardson number at critical layers: a stable one, where IGWs are attenuated as they pass through a critical level, and an unstable turbulent case where they can be reflected/transmitted by the critical level with a coefficient larger than one. Such over-reflection/transmission can have strong implications on our vision of angular momentum transport in stellar interiors. This paper highlights the existence of two regimes defining the interaction between an IGW and a critical layer. An application exposes the effect of the first regime, showing a strengthening of the damping of the wave. Moreover, this work opens new ways concerning the coupling between IGWs and shear instabilities in stellar interiors.

Stability of the toroidal magnetic field in rotating stars

The magnetic field in stellar radiation zones can play an important role in phenomena such as mixing, angular momentum transport, etc. We study the effect of rotation on the stability of a predominantly toroidal magnetic field in the radiation zone. In particular we considered the stability in spherical geometry by means of a linear analysis in the Boussinesq approximation. It is found that the effect of rotation on the stability depends on a magnetic configuration. If the toroidal field increases with the spherical radius, the instability cannot be suppressed entirely even by a very fast rotation. Rotation can only decrease the growth rate of instability. If the field decreases with the radius, the instability has a threshold and can be completey suppressed.

Evolution of rotational velocities of A-type stars

It was found that the equatorial velocity of A-type stars undergoes an acceleration in the first third of the main sequence (MS) stage, but the velocity decreases as if the stars were not undergoing any redistribution of angular momentum in the external layers in the last stage of the MS phase. Our calculations show that the acceleration and the decrease of the equatorial velocity can be reproduced by the evolution of the differential rotation zero-age MS model with the angular momentum transport caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the MS stage. The acceleration results from the fact that the angular momentum stored in the interiors of the stars is transported outwards. In the last stage, the core and the radiative envelope are uncoupling, and the rotation of the envelope is a quasi-solid rotation; the uncoupling and the expansion of the envelope lead to that the decrease of the equatorial velocity approximately follows the slope for the change in the equatorial velocity of the model without any redistribution of angular momentum. When the fractional age 0.3 $\lesssim\mathrm{t/t_{MS}}\lesssim$ 0.5, the equatorial velocity remains almost constant for the stars whose central density increases with age in the early stage of the MS phase, while the velocity decreases with age for the stars whose central density decreases with age in the early stage of the MS phase.

Water transport in protoplanetary disks and the hydrogen isotopic composition of chondrites

The D/H ratios of carbonaceous chondrites, believed to reflect that of water in the inner early solar system, are intermediate between the protosolar value and that of most comets. The isotopic composition of cometary water has been accounted for by several models where the isotopic composition of water vapor evolved by isotopic exchange with hydrogen gas in the protoplanetary disk. However, the position and the wide variations of the distribution of D/H ratios in carbonaceous chondrites have yet to be explained. In this paper, we assume that the D/H composition of cometary ice was achieved in the disk building phase and model the further isotopic evolution of water in the inner disk in the classical T Tauri stage. Reaction kinetics compel isotopic exchange between water and hydrogen gas to stop at $\sim$500 K, but equilibrated water can be transported to the snow line (and beyond) via turbulent diffusion and consequently mix with isotopically comet-like water. Under certain simplifying assumptions, we calculate analytically this mixing and the resulting probability distribution function of the D/H ratio of ice accreted in planetesimals and compare it with observational data. The distribution essentially depends on two parameters: the radial Schmidt number Sc$_R$, which ratios the efficiencies of angular momentum transport and turbulent diffusion, and the range of heliocentric distances of accretion sampled by chondrites. The minimum D/H ratio of the distribution corresponds to the composition of water condensed at the snow line, which is primarily set by Sc$_R$. Observations constrain the latter to low values (0.1-0.3), which suggests that turbulence in the planet-forming region was hydrodynamical in nature, as would be expected in a dead zone. Such efficient outward diffusion would also account for the presence of high-temperature minerals in comets.

Angular Momentum Transport by Acoustic Modes Generated in the Boundary Layer II: MHD Simulations

We perform global unstratified 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an astrophysical boundary layer (BL) — an interface region between an accretion disk and a weakly magnetized accreting object such as a white dwarf — with the goal of understanding the effects of magnetic field on the BL. We use cylindrical coordinates with an isothermal equation of state and investigate a number of initial field geometries including toroidal, vertical, and vertical with zero net flux. Our initial setup consists of a Keplerian disk attached to a non-rotating star. In a previous work, we found that in hydrodynamical simulations, sound waves excited by shear in the BL were able to efficiently transport angular momentum and drive mass accretion onto the star. Here we confirm that in MHD simulations, waves serve as an efficient means of angular momentum transport in the vicinity of the BL, despite the magnetorotational instability (MRI) operating in the disk. In particular, the angular momentum current due to waves is at times larger than the angular momentum current due to MRI. Our results suggest that angular momentum transport in the BL and its vicinity is a global phenomenon occurring through dissipation of waves and shocks. This point of view is quite different from the standard picture of transport by a local anomalous turbulent viscosity. In addition to angular momentum transport, we also study magnetic field amplification within the BL. We find that the field is indeed amplified in the BL, but only by a factor of a few and remains subthermal.

 

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