Posts Tagged abundance

Recent Postings from abundance

Generating potassium abundance variations in the Solar Nebula

An intriguing aspect of chondritic meteorites is that they are complementary: while their separate components have wildly varying abundances, bulk chondrites have nearly solar composition. This implies that the nearly-solar reservoirs in which chondrites were born were in turn assembled from sub-reservoirs of differing compositions that birthed the different components. We focus on explaining the potassium abundance variations between chondrules even within a single chondrite, while maintaining the observed CI $^{41}$K to $^{39}$K ratios. This requires physically separating potassium and chondrules while the temperature is high enough for K to be in the gas phase. We examine several mechanisms which could drive the dust through gas and show that to do so locally would have required long (sub-orbital to many orbits) time scales; with shortest potassium depletion time scales occurring in a scenario where chondrules formed high above the midplane and settled out of the evaporated potassium. While orbital time scales are at odds with laboratory chondrule cooling rate estimates, any other model for the origin for the potassium abundance variation has to wrestle with the severe logistical difficulty of generating a plethora of correlated reservoirs which varied strongly in their potassium abundances, but not in their potassium isotope ratios.

First Detection of $^3$He$^+$ in the Planetary Nebula IC$\,$418

The $^3$He isotope is important to many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution, chemical evolution, and cosmology. The isotope is produced in low-mass stars which evolve through the planetary nebula (PN) phase. $^3$He abundances in PNe can help test models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. We present the detection of the $^3$He$^+$ emission line using the single dish Deep Space Station 63, towards the PN IC$\,$418. We derived a $^3$He/H abundance in the range 1.74$\pm$0.8$\times$10$^{-3}$ to 5.8$\pm$1.7$\times$10$^{-3}$, depending on whether part of the line arises in an outer ionized halo. The lower value for $^3$He/H ratio approaches values predicted by stellar models which include thermohaline mixing, but requires that large amounts of $^3$He are produced inside low-mass stars which enrich the interstellar medium (ISM). However, this over-predicts the $^3$He abundance in HII regions, the ISM, and proto-solar grains, which is known to be of the order of 10$^{-5}$. This discrepancy questions our understanding of the evolution of the $^3$He, from circumstellar environments to the ISM.

The Cannon 2: A data-driven model of stellar spectra for detailed chemical abundance analyses

We have shown that data-driven models are effective for inferring physical attributes of stars (labels; Teff, logg, [M/H]) from spectra, even when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here we explore whether this is possible when the dimensionality of the label space is large (Teff, logg, and 15 abundances: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni) and the model is non-linear in its response to abundance and parameter changes. We adopt ideas from compressed sensing to limit overall model complexity while retaining model freedom. The model is trained with a set of 12,681 red-giant stars with high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations and stellar parameters and abundances taken from the APOGEE Survey. We find that we can successfully train and use a model with 17 stellar labels. Validation shows that the model does a good job of inferring all 17 labels (typical abundance precision is 0.04 dex), even when we degrade the signal-to-noise by discarding ~50% of the observing time. The model dependencies make sense: the spectral derivatives with respect to abundances correlate with known atomic lines, and we identify elements belonging to atomic lines that were previously unknown. We recover (anti-)correlations in abundance labels for globular cluster stars, consistent with the literature. However we find the intrinsic spread in globular cluster abundances is 3--4 times smaller than previously reported. We deliver 17 labels with associated errors for 87,563 red giant stars, as well as open-source code to extend this work to other spectroscopic surveys.

Abundances of 59Co and 59Ni in the cosmic ray flux

Two main hypotheses for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays are the "supernova" and "superbubble" origin hypotheses. We analyse the evidence for the superbubble hypothesis provided by the measurements of the relativive abundances of isotopes of cobalt and nickel in the cosmic ray flux. We compare the measured upper limit on the abundance of 59Ni in the cosmic ray flux with the 59Ni abundance predictions of the up-to-date stellar evolution models. Non-detection of 59Ni in the cosmic ray flux has previously been attributed to a large time delay of the order of 1e5 yr between the moment of supernova explosion and the onset of particle acceleration process. This large time delay was considered as an argument in favour of the "superbubble" scenario. We show that the recent calculation of the 59Ni yield of massive stars, which takes into account the initial mass range up to 120 solar masses and includes stellar rotation, results in prediction of low 59Ni abundance relative to its decay product 59Co. The predicted abundance is consistent with the upper bound on 59Ni abundance in the cosmic ray flux for the supernova parameters assumed. This result removes the necessity of decay of 59Ni in the time interval between the supernova explosion and the onset of acceleration process and restores the consistency of measurements of 59Ni / 59Co abundances with the "supernova" hypothesis of the CR origin.

Evolution of dispersion in the cosmic deuterium abundance [Replacement]

Deuterium is created during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, and, in contrast to the other light stable nuclei, can only be destroyed thereafter by fusion in stellar interiors. In this paper we study the cosmic evolution of the deuterium abundance in the interstellar medium and its dispersion using realistic galaxy evolution models. We find that models that reproduce the observed metal abundance are compatible with observations of the deuterium abundance in the local ISM and z ~ 3 absorption line systems. In particular, we reproduce the low astration factor which we attribute to a low global star formation efficiency. We calculate the dispersion in deuterium abundance arising from different structure formation histories in different parts of the Universe. Our model also predicts an extremely tight correlation between deuterium and metal abundances which could be used to measure the primordial deuterium abundance.

Evolution of dispersion in the cosmic deuterium abundance

Deuterium is created during Bing Bang Nucleosynthesis, and, in contrast to the other light stable nuclei, can only be destroyed thereafter by fusion in stellar interiors. In this paper we study the cosmic evolution of the deuterium abundance in the interstellar medium and its dispersion using realistic galaxy evolution models. We find that models that reproduce the observed metal abundance are compatible with observations of the deuterium abundance in the local ISM and z ~ 3 absorption line systems. In particular, we reproduce the low astration factor which we attribute to a low global star formation efficiency. We calculate the dispersion in deuterium abundance arising from different structure formation histories in different parts of the Universe. Our model also predicts an extremely tight correlation between deuterium and metal abundances which could be used to measure the primordial deuterium abundance.

Halo and Subhalo Demographics with Planck Cosmological Parameters: Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck Simulations

We report and provide fitting functions for the abundance of dark matter halos and subhalos as a function of mass, circular velocity, and redshift from the new Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck $\Lambda$CDM cosmological simulations, based on the Planck cosmological parameters. We also report the halo mass accretion rates, which may be connected with galaxy star formation rates. We show that the higher cosmological matter density of the Planck parameters compared with the WMAP parameters leads to higher abundance of massive halos at high redshifts. We find that the median halo spin parameter $\lambda_{\rm B} = J(2M_{\rm vir}R_{\rm vir}V_{\rm vir})^{-1}$ is nearly independent of redshift, leading to predicted evolution of galaxy sizes that is consistent with observations, while the significant decrease with redshift in median $\lambda_{\rm P} = J|E|^{-1/2}G^{-1}M^{-5/2}$ predicts more decrease in galaxy sizes than is observed. Using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations between galaxy velocity and mass, we show that a simple model of how galaxy velocity is related to halo maximum circular velocity leads to increasing overprediction of cosmic stellar mass density as redshift increases beyond redshifts $z\sim1$, implying that such velocity-mass relations must change at redshifts $z>1$. By making a realistic model of how observed galaxy velocities are related to halo circular velocity, we show that recent optical and radio observations of the abundance of galaxies are in good agreement with our $\Lambda$CDM simulations. Our halo demographics are based on updated versions of the \rockstar\ and \ctrees\ codes, and this paper includes appendices explaining all of their outputs. This paper is an introduction to a series of related papers presenting other analyses of the Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck simulations.

Far-infrared study of tracers of oxygen chemistry in diffuse clouds

Context. The chemistry of the diffuse interstellar medium rests upon three pillars: exothermic ion-neutral reactions (" cold chemistry "), endothermic neutral-neutral reactions with significant activation barriers (" warm chemistry "), and reactions on the surfaces of dust grains. While warm chemistry becomes important in the shocks associated with turbulent dissipation regions, the main path for the formation of interstellar OH and H2O is that of cold chemistry. Aims. The aim of this study is to observationally confirm the association of atomic oxygen with both atomic and molecular gas phases, and to understand the measured abundances of OH and OH + as a function of the available reservoir of H2. Methods. We obtained absorption spectra of the ground states of OH, OH+ and OI with high-velocity resolution, with GREAT on-board SOFIA, and with the THz receiver at the APEX. We analyzed them along with ancillary spectra of HF and CH from HIFI. To deconvolve them from the hyperfine structure and to separate the blend that is due to various velocity components on the sightline, we fit model spectra consisting of an appropriate number of Gaussian profiles using a method combining simulated annealing with downhill simplex minimization. Together with HF and/or CH as a surrogate for H2, and HI $\lambda$21 cm data, the molecular hydrogen fraction f^N\_H2 = N(H 2)/(N(H) + 2N(H 2)) can be determined. We then investigated abundance ratios as a function of f^N\_H2. Results. The column density of OI is correlated at a high significance with the amount of available molecular and atomic hydrogen, with an atomic oxygen abundance of $3 \times 10 ^{-4}$ relative to H nuclei. While the velocities of the absorption features of OH and OH+ are loosely correlated and reflect the spiral arm crossings on the sightline, upon closer inspection they display an anticorrespondence. The arm-to-interarm density contrast is found to be higher in OH than in OH+. While both species can coexist, with a higher abundance in OH than in OH+, the latter is found less frequently in absence of OH than the other way around, which is a direct consequence of the rapid destruction of OH+ by dissociative recombination when not enough H2 is available. This conjecture has been substantiated by a comparison between the OH/OH+ ratio with f^N\_H2, showing a clear correlation. The hydrogen abstraction reaction chain OH+ (H2,H) H2O+ (H2,H)H3O+ is confirmed as the pathway for the production of OH and H 2 O. Our estimate of the branching ratio of the dissociative recombination of H3O+ to OH and H2O is confined within the interval of 84 to 91%, which matches laboratory measurements (74 to 83%). -- A correlation between the linewidths and column densities of OH+ features is found to be significant with a false-alarm probability below 5%. Such a correlation is predicted by models of interstellar MHD turbulence. For OH the same correlation is found to be insignificant because there are more narrow absorption features. Conclusions. While it is difficult to assess the contributions of warm neutral-neutral chemistry to the observed abundances, it seems fair to conclude that the predictions of cold ion-neutral chemistry match the abundance patterns we observed.

Sulphur molecules in the circumstellar envelopes of M-type AGB stars

The sulphur compounds SO and SO$_2$ have not been widely studied in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. By presenting and modelling a large number of SO and SO$_2$ lines in the low mass-loss rate M-type AGB star R Dor, and modelling the available lines of those molecules in a further four M-type AGB stars, we aim to determine their circumstellar abundances and distributions. We use a detailed radiative transfer analysis based on the accelerated lambda iteration method to model circumstellar SO and SO$_2$ line emission and molecular data files for both SO and SO$_2$ that are more extensive than those previously available. Using 17 SO lines and 98 SO2 lines to constrain our models for R Dor, we find an SO abundance of 6.7x10$^{-6}$ and an SO$_2$ abundance of 5x10$^{-6}$ with both species having high abundances close to the star. We also modelled $^{34}$SO and found an abundance of 3.1x10$^{-7}$, giving an $^{32}$SO/$^{34}$SO ratio of 21.6. We derive similar results for the circumstellar SO and SO$_2$ abundances and their distributions for the low mass-loss rate object W Hya. For these stars, the circumstellar SO and SO$_2$ abundances are much higher than predicted by chemical models and these two species may account for all available sulphur. For the higher mass-loss rate stars, we find shell-like SO distributions with peak abundances that decrease and peak abundance radii that increase with increasing mass-loss rate. The positions of the peak SO abundance agree very well with the photodissociation radii of H$_2$O. We find evidence that SO is most likely through the photodissociation of H$_2$O and the subsequent reaction between S and OH. The S-bearing parent molecule appears not to be H$_2$S. The SO$_2$ models suggest an origin close to the star for this species, also disagreeing with current chemical models.

The Herschel-HIFI view of mid-IR quiet massive protostellar objects

We present Herschel/HIFI observations (WISH KP) of 14 water lines in a small sample of galactic massive protostellar objects: NGC6334I(N), DR21(OH), IRAS16272-4837, and IRAS05358+3543. We analyze the gas dynamics from the line profiles. Through modeling of the observations using RATRAN, we estimate outflow, infall, turbulent velocities, molecular abundances, and investigate any correlation with the evolutionary status of each source. The molecular line profiles exhibit a broad component coming from the shocks along the cavity walls associated with the protostars, and an infalling (or expansion for IRAS05358+3543) and passively heated envelope component, with highly supersonic turbulence likely increasing with the distance from the center. Accretion rates between 6.3 10^{-5} and 5.6 10^{-4} \msun yr^{-1} are derived from the infall observed in three of our sources. The outer water abundance is estimated to be at the typical value of a few 10^{-8} while the inner abundance varies from 1.7 10^{-6} to 1.4 10^{-4} with respect to H2 depending on the source. We confirm that regions of massive star formation are highly turbulent and that the turbulence likely increases in the envelope with the distance to the star. The inner abundances are lower than the expected 10^{-4} perhaps because our observed lines do not probe deep enough into the inner envelope, or because photodissociation through protostellar UV photons is more efficient than expected. We show that the higher the infall/expansion velocity in the protostellar envelope, the higher is the inner abundance, maybe indicating that larger infall/expansion velocities generate shocks that will sputter water from the ice mantles of dust grains in the inner region. High-velocity water must be formed in the gas-phase from shocked material.

Constraining the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass through Ultra-Deep UV Luminosity Functions at z=2

We compute the mass function of galactic dark matter halos for different values of the Warm Dark Matter (WDM) particle mass m_X and compare it with the abundance of ultra-faint galaxies derived from the deepest UV luminosity function available so far at redshift z~2. The magnitude limit M_UV=-13 reached by such observations allows us to probe the WDM mass functions down to scales close to or smaller than the half-mass mode mass scale ~10^9 M_sun. This allowed for an efficient discrimination among predictions for different m_X which turn out to be independent of the star formation efficiency adopted to associate the observed UV luminosities of galaxies to the corresponding dark matter masses. Adopting a conservative approach to take into account the existing theoretical uncertainties in the galaxy halo mass function, we derive a robust limit m_X>1.8 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles when comparing with the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies, while m_X>1.5 keV is obtained when we compare with the Schechter fit to the observed luminosity function. The corresponding lower limit for sterile neutrinos depends on the modeling of the production mechanism; for instance m_sterile > 4 keV holds for the Shi-Fuller mechanism. We discuss the impact of observational uncertainties on the above bound on m_X. As a baseline for comparison with forthcoming observations from the HST Frontier Field, we provide predictions for the abundance of faint galaxies with M_UV=-13 for different values of m_X and of the star formation efficiency, valid up to z~4.

Constraining the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass through Ultra-Deep UV Luminosity Functions at z=2 [Cross-Listing]

We compute the mass function of galactic dark matter halos for different values of the Warm Dark Matter (WDM) particle mass m_X and compare it with the abundance of ultra-faint galaxies derived from the deepest UV luminosity function available so far at redshift z~2. The magnitude limit M_UV=-13 reached by such observations allows us to probe the WDM mass functions down to scales close to or smaller than the half-mass mode mass scale ~10^9 M_sun. This allowed for an efficient discrimination among predictions for different m_X which turn out to be independent of the star formation efficiency adopted to associate the observed UV luminosities of galaxies to the corresponding dark matter masses. Adopting a conservative approach to take into account the existing theoretical uncertainties in the galaxy halo mass function, we derive a robust limit m_X>1.8 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles when comparing with the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies, while m_X>1.5 keV is obtained when we compare with the Schechter fit to the observed luminosity function. The corresponding lower limit for sterile neutrinos depends on the modeling of the production mechanism; for instance m_sterile > 4 keV holds for the Shi-Fuller mechanism. We discuss the impact of observational uncertainties on the above bound on m_X. As a baseline for comparison with forthcoming observations from the HST Frontier Field, we provide predictions for the abundance of faint galaxies with M_UV=-13 for different values of m_X and of the star formation efficiency, valid up to z~4.

Constraining the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass through Ultra-Deep UV Luminosity Functions at z=2 [Cross-Listing]

We compute the mass function of galactic dark matter halos for different values of the Warm Dark Matter (WDM) particle mass m_X and compare it with the abundance of ultra-faint galaxies derived from the deepest UV luminosity function available so far at redshift z~2. The magnitude limit M_UV=-13 reached by such observations allows us to probe the WDM mass functions down to scales close to or smaller than the half-mass mode mass scale ~10^9 M_sun. This allowed for an efficient discrimination among predictions for different m_X which turn out to be independent of the star formation efficiency adopted to associate the observed UV luminosities of galaxies to the corresponding dark matter masses. Adopting a conservative approach to take into account the existing theoretical uncertainties in the galaxy halo mass function, we derive a robust limit m_X>1.8 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles when comparing with the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies, while m_X>1.5 keV is obtained when we compare with the Schechter fit to the observed luminosity function. The corresponding lower limit for sterile neutrinos depends on the modeling of the production mechanism; for instance m_sterile > 4 keV holds for the Shi-Fuller mechanism. We discuss the impact of observational uncertainties on the above bound on m_X. As a baseline for comparison with forthcoming observations from the HST Frontier Field, we provide predictions for the abundance of faint galaxies with M_UV=-13 for different values of m_X and of the star formation efficiency, valid up to z~4.

The Curious Case of Elemental Abundance Differences in the Dual Hot Jupiter Hosts WASP-94AB

Binary stars provide an ideal laboratory for investigating the potential effects of planet formation on stellar composition. Assuming the stars formed in the same environment/from the same material, any compositional anomalies between binary components might indicate differences in how material was sequestered in planets, or accreted by the star in the process of planet formation. We present here a study of the elemental abundance differences between WASP-94AB, a pair of stars that each host a hot Jupiter exoplanet. The two stars are very similar in spectral type (F8 and F9), and their ~2700 AU separation suggests their protoplanetary disks were likely not influenced by stellar interactions, but WASP-94Ab's orbit -- misaligned with the host star spin axis and likely retrograde -- points towards a dynamically active formation mechanism, perhaps different than that of WASP-94Bb, which is not misaligned and has nearly circular orbit. Based on our high-quality spectra and strictly relative abundance analysis, we detect a depletion of volatiles (~-0.02 dex, on average) and enhancement of refractories (~0.01 dex) in WASP-94A relative to B (standard errors are ~0.005 dex). This is different than every other published case of binary host star abundances, in which either no significant abundance differences are reported, or there is some degree of enhancement in all elements, including volatiles. Several scenarios that may explain the abundance trend are discussed, but none can be definitively accepted or rejected. Additional high-contrast imaging observations to search for companions that may be dynamically affecting the system, as well as a larger sample of binary host star studies, are needed to better understand the curious abundance trends we observe in WASP-94AB.

Observations and modelling of CO and [CI] in disks. First detections of [CI] and constraints on the carbon abundance

The gas-solid budget of carbon in protoplanetary disks is related to the composition of the cores and atmospheres of the planets forming in them. The key gas-phase carbon carriers CO, C$^{0}$ and C$^{+}$ can now be observed in disks. The gas-phase carbon abundance in disks has not yet been well characterized, we aim to obtain new constraints on the [C]/[H] ratio in a sample of disks, and to get an overview of the strength of [CI] and warm CO emission. We carried out a survey of the CO$\,6$--$5$ and [CI]$\,1$--$0$ and $2$--$1$ lines towards $37$ disks with APEX, and supplemented it with [CII] data from the literature. The data are interpreted using a grid of models produced with the DALI code. We also investigate how well the gas-phase carbon abundance can be determined in light of parameter uncertainties. The CO$\,6$--$5$ line is detected in $13$ out of $33$ sources, the [CI]$\,1$--$0$ in $6$ out of $12$, and the [CI]$\,2$--$1$ in $1$ out of $33$. With deep integrations, the first unambiguous detections of [CI]~$1$--$0$ in disks are obtained, in TW~Hya and HD~100546. Gas-phase carbon abundance reductions of a factor $5$--$10$ or more can be identified robustly based on CO and [CI] detections. The atomic carbon detection in TW~Hya confirms a factor $100$ reduction of [C]/[H]$_{\rm gas}$ in that disk, while the data are consistent with an ISM-like carbon abundance for HD~100546. In addition, BP~Tau, T~Cha, HD~139614, HD~141569, and HD~100453 are either carbon-depleted or gas-poor disks. The low [CI]~$2$--$1$ detection rates in the survey mostly reflect insufficient sensitivity to detect T~Tauri disks. The Herbig~Ae/Be disks with CO and [CII] upper limits below the models are debris disk like systems. A roughly order of magnitude increase in sensitivity compared to our survey is required to obtain useful constraints on the gas-phase [C]/[H] ratio in most of the targeted systems.

Detection of lensing substructure using ALMA observations of the dusty galaxy SDP.81

We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations, we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a $M=10^{8.96\pm 0.12} M_{\odot}$ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of $6.9\sigma$ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter subhalos down to $M\sim 2\times 10^7 M_{\odot}$, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted dark matter subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 dataset (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of $\Lambda$CDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.

Helium diffusion during formation of the first galaxies

We investigate the possible impact of diffusion on the abundance of helium and other primordial elements during formation of the first structures in the early Universe. We consider the primary collapse of a perturbation and subsequent accretion of matter onto the virialized halo, restricting our consideration to halos with masses considerably above the Jeans limit. We find that diffusion in the cold and nearly neutral primordial gas at the end of the Dark Ages could raise the abundance of primordial elements relative to hydrogen in the first virialized halos: helium enrichment could reach $\delta Y_p/Y_p \sim 10^{-4}$ in the first star-forming minihalos of $ \sim 10^5-10^6 M_{\odot}$. A moderate (to ~ 100 K) preheating of the primordial gas at the beginning of cosmic reionization could increase this effect to $\delta Y_p/Y_p \sim 3\times 10^{-4}$ for $\sim 10^6 M_{\odot}$ halos. Even stronger abundance enhancements, $\delta Y_p/Y_p$ ~ a few $10^{-3}$, may arise at much later, post-reionization epochs, z ~ 2, in protogroups of galaxies ($\sim 10^{13} M_{\odot}$) as a result of accretion of warm-hot intergalactic medium with T ~ 10^6 K. The diffusion-induced abundance changes discussed here are small but comparable to the already achieved ~ 0.1 % precision of cosmological predictions of the primordial He abundance. If direct helium abundance measurements (in particular, in low-metallicity HII regions in dwarf galaxies) achieve the same level of precision in the future, their comparison with the BBN predictions may require consideration of the effects discussed here.

Helium diffusion during formation of the first galaxies [Replacement]

We investigate the possible impact of diffusion on the abundance of helium and other primordial elements during formation of the first structures in the early Universe. We consider the primary collapse of a perturbation and subsequent accretion of matter onto the virialized halo, restricting our consideration to halos with masses considerably above the Jeans limit. We find that diffusion in the cold and nearly neutral primordial gas at the end of the Dark Ages could raise the abundance of primordial elements relative to hydrogen in the first virialized halos: helium enrichment could reach $\delta Y_p/Y_p \sim 10^{-4}$ in the first star-forming minihalos of $ \sim 10^5-10^6 M_{\odot}$. A moderate (to ~ 100 K) preheating of the primordial gas at the beginning of cosmic reionization could increase this effect to $\delta Y_p/Y_p \sim 3\times 10^{-4}$ for $\sim 10^6 M_{\odot}$ halos. Even stronger abundance enhancements, $\delta Y_p/Y_p$ ~ a few $10^{-3}$, may arise at much later, post-reionization epochs, z ~ 2, in protogroups of galaxies ($\sim 10^{13} M_{\odot}$) as a result of accretion of warm-hot intergalactic medium with T ~ 10^6 K. The diffusion-induced abundance changes discussed here are small but comparable to the already achieved ~ 0.1 % precision of cosmological predictions of the primordial He abundance. If direct helium abundance measurements (in particular, in low-metallicity HII regions in dwarf galaxies) achieve the same level of precision in the future, their comparison with the BBN predictions may require consideration of the effects discussed here.

Iron-Group Abundances in the Metal-Poor Main Sequence Turnoff Star HD~84937

We have derived new very accurate abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn (Z = 21-30) in the bright main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937, based on high-resolution spectra covering the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. New or recent laboratory transition data for 14 species of seven elements have been used. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species have been combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. The abundances have been determined from both neutral and ionized transitions, which generally are in agreement with each other. We find no substantial departures from standard LTE Saha ionization balance in this [Fe/H] = -2.32 star. Noteworthy among the abundances are: [Co/Fe] = 0.14 and [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, in agreement with past studies abundance trends in this and other low metallicity stars; and <[Sc,Ti,V/Fe]> = 0.31, which has not been noted previously. A detailed examination of scandium, titanium, and vanadium abundances in large-sample spectroscopic surveys reveals that they are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2; HD 84937 lies at the high end of this correlation. These trends constrain the synthesis mechanisms of Fe-group elements. We also examine the GCE abundance trends of the Fe-group elements, including a new nucleosynthesis model with jet-like explosion effects.

New primordial $^4\text{He}$ constraints on inelastic macro dark matter

At present, the best model for the evolution of the cosmos requires that dark matter makes up approximately 25% of the energy content of the Universe. Most approaches to explain the microscopic nature of dark matter, to date, have assumed its composition to be of intrinsically weakly-interacting particles; however, this need not be the case to have consistency with all extant observations. Given decades of no conclusive evidence to support any dark matter candidate so far, there is strong motivation to consider alternatives to the standard particle scenario. One such example is macro dark matter, a class of candidates that could interact quite strongly with the particles of the Standard Model, have large masses and physical sizes, yet behave as dark matter. Here we reconsider the effect of inelastically interacting macro dark matter on the abundance of primordially produced $^4\text{He}$, revising older constraints by both revisiting the phenomenology and taking into account recent improved measurements of the primordial $^4\text{He}$ abundance. An important aspect of our analysis is that even neutral Macros could affect the abundance of the light elements because, due to differences in their masses, those elements would be absorbed at rates that differ from each other by order unity.

New primordial $^4\text{He}$ constraints on inelastic macro dark matter [Cross-Listing]

At present, the best model for the evolution of the cosmos requires that dark matter makes up approximately 25% of the energy content of the Universe. Most approaches to explain the microscopic nature of dark matter, to date, have assumed its composition to be of intrinsically weakly-interacting particles; however, this need not be the case to have consistency with all extant observations. Given decades of no conclusive evidence to support any dark matter candidate so far, there is strong motivation to consider alternatives to the standard particle scenario. One such example is macro dark matter, a class of candidates that could interact quite strongly with the particles of the Standard Model, have large masses and physical sizes, yet behave as dark matter. Here we reconsider the effect of inelastically interacting macro dark matter on the abundance of primordially produced $^4\text{He}$, revising older constraints by both revisiting the phenomenology and taking into account recent improved measurements of the primordial $^4\text{He}$ abundance. An important aspect of our analysis is that even neutral Macros could affect the abundance of the light elements because, due to differences in their masses, those elements would be absorbed at rates that differ from each other by order unity.

Herschel HIFI Observations of the Sgr A +50 km/s Cloud. Deep Searches for O2 in Emission and Foreground Absorption

To date O2 has definitely been detected in only two sources, namely rho Oph A and Orion, reflecting the extremely low abundance of O2 in the interstellar medium. One of the sources in the HOP program is the +50 km/s Cloud in the Sgr A Complex in the centre of the Milky Way. The Herschel HIFI is used to search for the 487 and 774 GHz emission lines of O2. No O2 emission is detected towards the Sgr A +50 km/s Cloud, but a number of strong emission lines of methanol (CH3OH) and absorption lines of chloronium (H2Cl+) are observed. A 3 sigma upper limit for the fractional abundance ratio of (O2)/(H2) in the Sgr A +50 km/s Cloud is found to be X(O2) less than 5 x 10(-8). However, since we can find no other realistic molecular candidate than O2 itself, we very tentatively suggest that two weak absorption lines at 487.261 and 487.302 GHz may be caused by the 487 GHz line of O2 in two foreground spiral arm clouds. By considering that the absorption may only be apparent, the estimated upper limit to the O2 abundance of less than (10-20) x 10(-6) in these foreground clouds is very high. This abundance limit was determined also using Odin non-detection limits. If the absorption is due to a differential Herschel OFF-ON emission, the O2 fractional abundance may be of the order of (5-10) x 10(-6). With the assumption of pure absorption by foreground clouds, the unreasonably high abundance of (1.4-2.8) x 10(-4) was obtained. The rotation temperatures for CH3OH-A and CH3OH-E lines in the +50 km/s Cloud are found to be 64 and 79 K, respectively, and the fractional abundance of CH3OH is approximately 5 x 10(-7).

Constraints on deviations from ${\Lambda}$CDM within Horndeski gravity [Replacement]

Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard $\Lambda$CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from $\Lambda$CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time $\alpha_i(t)$ are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy $\Omega_{DE}(t)$. Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with $\Lambda$CDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against $\Lambda$CDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to $\Lambda$CDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from $\Lambda$CDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

Constraints on deviations from ${\Lambda}$CDM within Horndeski gravity [Replacement]

Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard $\Lambda$CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from $\Lambda$CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time $\alpha_i(t)$ are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy $\Omega_{DE}(t)$. Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with $\Lambda$CDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against $\Lambda$CDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to $\Lambda$CDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from $\Lambda$CDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

Constraints on deviations from ${\Lambda}$CDM within Horndeski gravity [Replacement]

Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard $\Lambda$CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from $\Lambda$CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time $\alpha_i(t)$ are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy $\Omega_{DE}(t)$. Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with $\Lambda$CDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against $\Lambda$CDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to $\Lambda$CDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from $\Lambda$CDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

Constraints on deviations from {\Lambda}CDM within Horndeski gravity

Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard {\Lambda}CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from {\Lambda}CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time {\alpha}_i(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy {\Omega}_DE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with {\Lambda}CDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against {\Lambda}CDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to {\Lambda}CDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from {\Lambda}CDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

Constraints on deviations from ${\Lambda}$CDM within Horndeski gravity [Replacement]

Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard $\Lambda$CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from $\Lambda$CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time $\alpha_i(t)$ are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy $\Omega_{DE}(t)$. Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with $\Lambda$CDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against $\Lambda$CDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to $\Lambda$CDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from $\Lambda$CDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

Constraints on deviations from {\Lambda}CDM within Horndeski gravity [Cross-Listing]

Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard {\Lambda}CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from {\Lambda}CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time {\alpha}_i(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy {\Omega}_DE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with {\Lambda}CDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against {\Lambda}CDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to {\Lambda}CDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from {\Lambda}CDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

Constraints on deviations from {\Lambda}CDM within Horndeski gravity [Cross-Listing]

Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard {\Lambda}CDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from {\Lambda}CDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time {\alpha}_i(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy {\Omega}_DE(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with {\Lambda}CDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against {\Lambda}CDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to {\Lambda}CDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from {\Lambda}CDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

Global constraints on vector-like WIMP effective interactions

In this work we combine information from relic abundance, direct detection, cosmic microwave background, positron fraction, gamma rays, and colliders to explore the existing constraints on effective couplings between Dark Matter and Standard Model constituents when no underlying model or correlation is assumed. Our results show that Dark Matter masses below 20 GeV are disfavoured at the $3 \sigma$ level by tension between the relic abundance requirement and upper constraints on the Dark Matter couplings. Furthermore, large couplings are typically only allowed in combinations which avoid effective couplings to the nuclei used in direct detection experiments.

On the central abundances of Active Galactic Nuclei and Star-forming Galaxies

We examine the relation between oxygen abundances in the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from the optical emission lines through the strong-line method (the theoretical calibration of Storchi-Bergmann et al.(1998)), via the direct Te-method, and the central intersect abundances in the host galaxies determined from the radial abundance gradients. We found that the Te-method underestimates the oxygen abundances by up to ~2 dex (with average value of ~0.8 dex) compared to the abundances derived through the strong-line method. This confirms the existence of the so-called "temperature problem" in AGNs. We also found that the abundances in the centres of galaxies obtained from their spectra trough the strong-line method are close to or slightly lower than the central intersect abundances estimated from the radial abundance gradient both in AGNs and Star-forming galaxies. The oxygen abundance of the NLR is usually lower than the maximum attainable abundance in galaxies (~2 times the solar value). This suggests that there is no extraordinary chemical enrichment of the NLRs of AGNs.

Hubble Space Telescope Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Bright CEMP-s Stars

We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the bright carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars HD196944 (V = 8.40, [Fe/H] = -2.41) and HD201626 (V = 8.16, [Fe/H] = -1.51), based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Both of these stars belong to the sub-class CEMP-s, and exhibit clear over-abundances of heavy elements associated with production by the slow neutron-capture process. HD196944 has been well-studied in the optical region, but we are able to add abundance results for six species (Ge, Nb, Mo, Lu, Pt, and Au) that are only accessible in the NUV. In addition, we provide the first determination of its orbital period, P=1325 days. HD201626 has only a limited number of abundance results based on previous optical work -- here we add five new species from the NUV, including Pb. We compare these results with models of binary-system evolution and s-process element production in stars on the asymptotic giant branch, aiming to explain their origin and evolution. Our best-fitting models for HD 196944 (M1,i = 0.9Mo, M2,i = 0.86Mo, for [Fe/H]=-2.2), and HD 201626 (M1,i = 0.9Mo , M2,i = 0.76Mo , for [Fe/H]=-2.2; M1,i = 1.6Mo , M2,i = 0.59Mo, for [Fe/H]=-1.5) are consistent with the current accepted scenario for the formation of CEMP-s stars.

Local associations and the barium puzzle

We have observed high-dispersion echelle spectra of main-sequence stars in five nearby young associations -- Argus, Carina-Near, Hercules-Lyra, Orion and Subgroup B4 -- and derived abundances for elements ranging from Na to Eu. These are the first chemical abundance measurements for two of the five associations, while the remaining three associations are analysed more extensively in our study. Our results support the presence of chemical homogeneity among association members with a typical star-to-star abundance scatter of about 0.06 dex or less over many elements. The five associations show log$\epsilon$(Li) consistent with their age and share a solar chemical composition for all elements with the exception of Ba. We find that all the heavy elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Eu) exhibit solar ratios, i.e., [X/Fe] $\simeq$ 0, while Ba is overabundant by about 0.2-0.3 dex. The origin of the overabundance of Ba is a puzzle. Within the formulation of the s-process, it is difficult to create a higher Ba abundance without a similar increase in the s-process contributions to other heavy elements (La-Sm). Given that Ba is represented by strong lines of Ba II and La-Sm are represented by rather weak ionized lines, the suggestion, as previously made by other studies, is that the Ba abundance may be systematically overestimated by standard methods of abundance analysis perhaps because the upper reaches of the stellar atmospheres are poorly represented by standard model atmospheres. A novel attempt to analyse the Ba I line at 5535 \AA\ gives a solar Ba abundance for stars with effective temperatures hotter than about 5800 K but increasingly subsolar Ba abundances for cooler stars with apparent Ba deficiencies of 0.5 dex at 5100 K. This trend with temperature may signal a serious non-LTE effect on the Ba I line.

Oxygen abundance distributions in six late-type galaxies based on SALT spectra of HII regions

Spectra of 34 H II regions in the late-type galaxies NGC1087, NGC2967, NGC3023, NGC4030, NGC4123, and NGC4517A were observed with the South African Large Telescope (SALT). In all 34 H II regions, oxygen abundances were determined through the "counterpart" method (C method). Additionally, in two H II regions in which the auroral lines were detected oxygen abundances were measured through the classic Te method. We also estimated the abundances in our H II regions using the O3N2 and N2 calibrations and compared those with the C-based abundances. With these data we examined the radial abundance distributions in the disks of our target galaxies. We derived surface-brightness profiles and other characteristics of the disks (the surface brightness at the disk center and the disk scale length) in three photometric bands for each galaxy using publicly available photometric imaging data. The radial distributions of the oxygen abundances predicted by the relation between abundance and disk surface brightness in the W1 band obtained for spiral galaxies in our previous study are close to the radial distributions of the oxygen abundances determined from the analysis of the emission line spectra for four galaxies where this relation is applicable. Hence, when the surface-brightness profile of a late-type galaxy is known, this parametric relation can be used to estimate the likely present-day oxygen abundance in its disk.

APOGEE chemical tagging constraint on the maximum star cluster mass in the $\alpha$-enhanced Galactic disk

Stars born from the same molecular cloud should be nearly homogeneous in their element abundances. The concept of chemical tagging is to identify members of disrupted clusters by their clustering in element abundance space. Chemical tagging requires large samples of stars with precise abundances for many individual elements. With uncertainties of $\sigma_{[X/{\rm Fe}]}$ and $\sigma_{\rm [Fe/H]} \simeq 0.05$ for 10 elements measured for $> 10^4$ stars, the APOGEE DR12 spectra may be the first well-suited data set to put this idea into practice. We find that even APOGEE data offer only $\sim 500$ independent volume elements in the 10-dimensional abundance space, when we focus on the $\alpha$-enhanced Galactic disk. We develop and apply a new algorithm to search for chemically homogeneous sets of stars against a dominant background. By injecting star clusters into the APOGEE data set we show that chemically homogeneous clusters with masses $\gtrsim 3 \times 10^7 \, {\rm M}_\odot$ would be easily detectable and yet no such signal is seen in the data. By generalizing this approach, we put a first abundance-based constraint on the cluster mass function for the old disk stars in the Milky Way.

APOGEE chemical tagging constraint on the maximum star cluster mass in the $\alpha$-enhanced Galactic disk [Replacement]

Stars born from the same molecular cloud should be nearly homogeneous in their element abundances. The concept of chemical tagging is to identify members of disrupted clusters by their clustering in element abundance space. Chemical tagging requires large samples of stars with precise abundances for many individual elements. With uncertainties of $\sigma_{[X/{\rm Fe}]}$ and $\sigma_{\rm [Fe/H]} \simeq 0.05$ for 10 elements measured for $>10^4$ stars, the APOGEE DR12 spectra may be the first well-suited data set to put this idea into practice. We find that even APOGEE data offer only $\sim 500$ independent volume elements in the 10-dimensional abundance space, when we focus on the $\alpha$-enhanced Galactic disk. We develop and apply a new algorithm to search for chemically homogeneous sets of stars against a dominant background. By injecting star clusters into the APOGEE data set we show that chemically homogeneous clusters with masses $\gtrsim 3 \times 10^7 \, {\rm M}_\odot$ would be easily detectable and yet no such signal is seen in the data. By generalizing this approach, we put a first abundance-based constraint on the cluster mass function for the old disk stars in the Milky Way.

Grid of theoretical NLTE equivalent widths of four Ba II lines and barium abundance in cool stars

We present a grid of computed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) equivalent widths (EW) and NLTE abundance corrections for four Ba II lines: 4554, 5853, 6141, and 6496 A. The grid can be useful in deriving the NLTE barium abundance in stars having parameters in the following ranges: effective temperature from 4000 K to 6500 K, surface gravity log g from 0 to 5, microturbulent velocity 0 km s^-1 to 3 km s^-1, metallicity [Fe/H] from -2 to +0.5, and [Ba/Fe] from -0.4 to +0.6. The NLTE abundance can be either derived by EW interpolation (using the observed Ba II line EW) or by using the NLTE correction applied to a previously determined LTE abundance. Ba II line equivalent widths and the NLTE corrections were calculated using the updated MULTI code and the Ba II atomic model that was previously applied to determine the NLTE barium abundance in different types of stars. The grid is available on-line through the web, and we find that the grid Ba NLTE corrections are almost as accurate as direct NLTE profile fitting (to within 0.05-0.08 dex). For the weakest Ba II line (5853 A) the LTE abundances almost agree with the NLTE abundances, whereas the other three Ba II lines, 4554, 6141, and 6496 A, need NLTE corrections even at the highest metallicities tested here. The 4554 A line is extremely strong and should not be used for abundance analysis above [Fe/H]= -1. Furthermore, we tested the impact of different model atmospheres and spectrum synthesis codes and found average differences of 0.06 dex and 0.09 dex, respectively, for all four lines. At these metallicities we find an average Delta NLTE of +/-0.1 dex for the three useful Ba lines for subsolar cool dwarfs.

Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water in Hot, Hydrogen-dominated Atmospheres [Replacement]

We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres in hot, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. We construct novel analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios, we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if the metallicity is greatly enhanced, but this property is negated by temperatures above 1000 K. For hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, our generic result has the implication that retrieval studies may wish to set the subdominance of carbon dioxide as a prior of the calculation and not let its abundance completely roam free as a fitting parameter, because it directly affects the inferred value of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio and may produce unphysical conclusions. We discuss the relevance of these implications for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b and suggest that some of the previous results are chemically impossible. The relative abundance of carbon dioxide to acetylene is potentially a sensitive diagnostic of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio.

Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if the metallicity is greatly enhanced, but this property is negated by temperatures above 1000 K. For hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, our generic result has the implication that retrieval studies need to set the subdominance of carbon dioxide as a prior of the calculation and not let its abundance completely roam free as a fitting parameter, because it directly affects the inferred value of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio and may produce unphysical conclusions. We discuss the relevance of these implications for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b and suggest that some of the previous results are chemically impossible. The relative abundance of carbon dioxide to acetylene is potentially a sensitive diagnostic of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio.

The Abundance of Fluorine in Normal G and K Stars of the Galactic Thin Disk

The abundance of fluorine is determined from the (2-0) R9 2.3358 micron feature of the molecule HF for several dozen normal G and K stars in the Galactic thin disk from spectra obtained with the Phoenix IR spectrometer on the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak. The abundances are analyzed in the context of Galactic chemical evolution to explore the contributions of supernovae and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the abundance of fluorine in the thin disk. The average abundance of fluorine in the thin disk is found to be [F/Fe] = +0.23 +/- 0.03, and the [F/Fe] ratio is flat or declines slowly with metallicity in the range from -0.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, within the limits of our estimated uncertainty. The measured abundance of fluorine and lack of variation with metallicity in Galactic thin disk stars suggest neutrino spallation in Type II supernovae contributes significantly to the Galactic fluorine abundance, although contributions from AGB stars may also be important.

The Tully$-$Fisher and Mass$-$Size Relations from Halo Abundance Matching

The Tully$-$Fisher relation (TFR) expresses the connection between rotating galaxies and the dark matter haloes they inhabit, and therefore contains a wealth of information about galaxy formation. We construct a general framework to investigate whether models based on halo abundance matching are able to reproduce the observed stellar mass TFR and mass$-$size relation (MSR), and use the data to constrain galaxy formation parameters. Our model tests a range of plausible scenarios, differing in the response of haloes to disc formation, the relative angular momentum of baryons and dark matter, the impact of selection effects, and the abundance matching parameters. We show that agreement with the observed TFR puts an upper limit on the scatter between galaxy and halo properties, requires weak or reversed halo contraction, and favours selection effects that preferentially eliminate fast-rotating galaxies. The MSR constrains the ratio of the disc to halo specific angular momentum to be approximately in the range 0.6$-$1.2. We identify and quantify two problems that models of this nature face: 1) They predict too large an intrinsic scatter for the MSR, and 2) they predict too strong an anticorrelation between the TFR and MSR residuals. We argue that resolving these problems requires introducing a correlation between stellar surface density and enclosed dark matter mass, which could be achieved by correlating abundance matching scatter with halo spin, or by performing a second abundance match between galaxy size and halo mass or concentration. Finally, we explore the expected difference between the TFRs of central and satellite galaxies, and find that in the favoured models this difference should be detectable in a sample of $\sim$700 galaxies.

The Carina Project. VIII. On the {\alpha}-element abundances

We have performed a new abundance analysis of Carina Red Giant (RG) stars from spectroscopic data collected with UVES (high resolution) and FLAMES/GIRAFFE (high and medium resolution) at ESO/VLT. The former sample includes 44 RGs, while the latter consists of 65 (high) and ~800 (medium resolution) RGs, covering a significant fraction of the galaxy's RG branch (RGB), and red clump stars. To improve the abundance analysis at the faint magnitude limit, the FLAMES/GIRAFFE data were divided into ten surface gravity and effective temperature bins. The spectra of the stars belonging to the same gravity/temperature bin were stacked. This approach allowed us to increase by at least a factor of five the signal-to-noise ratio in the faint limit (V>20.5mag). We took advantage of the new photometry index cU,B,I introduced by Monelli et al. (2014), as an age and probably a metallicity indicator, to split stars along the RGB. These two stellar populations display distinct [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] distributions: their mean Fe abundances are -2.15$\pm$0.06dex (sig=0.28), and -1.75$\pm$0.03dex (sig=0.21), respectively. The two iron distributions differ at the 75% level. This supports preliminary results by Lemasle et al. (2012) and by Monelli et al. (2014). Moreover, we found that the old and intermediate-age stellar populations have mean [Mg/H] abundances of -1.91$\pm$0.05dex (sig=0.22) and -1.35$\pm$0.03dex (sig=0.22); these differ at the 83% level. Carina's {\alpha}-element abundances agree, within 1sigma, with similar abundances for field Halo stars and for cluster (Galactic, Magellanic) stars. The same outcome applies to nearby dwarf spheroidals and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, in the iron range covered by Carina stars. Finally, we found evidence of a clear correlation between Na and O abundances, thus suggesting that Carina's chemical enrichment history is quite different than in the globular clusters.

Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Brane World Cosmology

Relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in brane world cosmological scenario is investigated in this article. Hubble expansion rate is enhanced in brane world cosmology and it affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles. We analyze how the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter is changed in this model. We show that in such kind of nonstandard cosmological scenario, indirect detection of asymmetric Dark Matter is possible if the cross section is small enough which let the anti--particle abundance kept in the same amount with the particle. We show the indirect detection signal like Fermi--LAT constraints can be used to such model only when the cross section and the 5 dimensional Planck mass scale are in appropriate values.

Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Brane World Cosmology [Replacement]

Relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in brane world cosmological scenario is investigated in this article. Hubble expansion rate is enhanced in brane world cosmology and it affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles. We analyze how the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter is changed in this model. We show that in such kind of nonstandard cosmological scenario, indirect detection of asymmetric Dark Matter is possible if the cross section is small enough which let the anti--particle abundance kept in the same amount with the particle. We show the indirect detection signal constraints can be used to such model only when the cross section and the 5 dimensional Planck mass scale are in appropriate values.

Oxygen isotopic ratios in intermediate-mass red giants

Context. The abundances of the three main isotopes of oxygen are altered in the course of the CNO-cycle. When the first dredge-up mixes the burning products to the surface, the nucleosynthesis processes can be probed by measuring oxygen isotopic ratios. Aims. By measuring 16O/17O and 16O/18O in red giants of known mass we compare the isotope ratios with predictions from stellar and galactic evolution modelling. Methods. Oxygen isotopic ratios were derived from the K-band spectra of six red giants. The sample red giants are open cluster members with known masses of between 1.8 and 4.5 Msun . The abundance determination employs synthetic spectra calculated with the COMARCS code. The effect of uncertainties in the nuclear reaction rates, the mixing length, and of a change in the initial abundance of the oxygen isotopes was determined by a set of nucleosynthesis and mixing models using the FUNS code. Results. The observed 16O/17O ratios are in good agreement with the model results, even if the measured values do not present clear evidence of a variation with the stellar mass. The observed 16O/18O ratios are clearly lower than the predictions from our reference model. Variations in nuclear reaction rates and mixing length parameter both have only a very weak effect on the predicted values. The 12C/13C ratios of the K giants studied implies the absence of extra-mixing in these objects. Conclusions. A comparison with galactic chemical evolution models indicates that the 16O/18O abundance ratio underwent a faster decrease than predicted. To explain the observed ratios, the most likely scenario is a higher initial 18O abundance combined with a lower initial 16 O abundance. Comparing the measured 18 O/17 O ratio with the corresponding value for the ISM points towards an initial enhancement of 17O as well. Limitations imposed by the observations prevent this from being a conclusive result.

Relic Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter and the Scalar--Tensor Model [Replacement]

The relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in the scalar--tensor model is analysized in this article. We extend the numeric and analytic calculation of the relic density of the asymmetric Dark Matter in the standard cosmological scenario to the nonstandard cosmological scenario. We focus on the scalar--tensor model. Hubble expansion rate is changed in the nonstandard cosmological scenario. This leaves its imprint on the relic density of Dark Matter particles. In this article we investigate to what extent the asymmetric Dark Matter particle's relic density is changed in the scalar--tensor model. We use the observed present day Dark Matter abundance to find the constraints on the parameter space in this model.

Relic Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Scalar--Tensor Model

The relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in the scalar--tensor model is analysized in this article. We extend the numeric and analytic calculation of the relic density of the asymmetric Dark Matter in the standard cosmological scenario to the nonstandard cosmological scenario. We focus on the scalar--tensor model. Hubble expansion rate is changed in the nonstandard cosmological scenario. This leaves its imprint on the relic density of Dark Matter particles. In this article we investigate to what extent the asymmetric Dark Matter particle's relic density is changed in the scalar--tensor model. We use the observed present day Dark Matter abundance to find the constraints on the parameter space in this model.

The normal chemistry of multiple stellar populations in the dense globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80)

We present the abundance analysis of 82 red giant branch stars in the dense, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80), the largest sample of stars analyzed in this way for this cluster. From high resolution UVES spectra of 14 stars and intermediate resolution GIRAFFE spectra for the other stars we derived abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu. On our UVES metallicity scale the mean metal abundance of M 80 is [Fe/H]=-1.791+/-0.006+/-0.076 (+/-statistical +/-systematic error) with rms=0.023 (14 stars). M 80 shows star to star variations in proton-capture elements, and the extension of the Na-O anticorrelation perfectly fit the relations with (i) total cluster mass, (ii) horizontal branch morphology, and (iii) cluster concentration previously found by our group. The chemistry of multiple stellar populations in M 80 does not look extreme. The cluster is also a typical representative of halo globular clusters for what concerns the pattern of alpha-capture and Fe-group elements. However we found that a significant contribution from the s-process is required to account for the distribution of neutron-capture elements. A minority of stars in M 80 seem to exhibit slightly enhanced abundances of s-process species, compatible with those observed in M 22 and NGC 1851, although further confirmation from larger samples is required.

A Comprehensive Analysis of the Magnetic Standard Star HD 94660: Host of a Massive Compact Companion?

Detailed information about the magnetic geometry, atmospheric abundances and radial velocity variations has been obtained for the magnetic standard star HD 94660 based on high-dispersion spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observations from the UVES, HARPSpol and ESPaDOnS instruments. We perform a detailed chemical abundance analysis using the spectrum synthesis code zeeman for a total of 17 elements. Using both line-of-sight and surface magnetic field measurements, we derive a simple magnetic field model that consists of dipole, quadrupole and octupole components. The observed magnetic field variations of HD 94660 are complex and suggest an inhomogeneous distribution of chemical elements over the stellar surface. This inhomogeneity is not reflected in the abundance analysis, from which all available spectra are modelled, but only a mean abundance is reported for each element. The derived abundances are mostly non-solar, with striking overabundances of Fe-peak and rare-earth elements. Of note are the clear signatures of vertical chemical stratification throughout the stellar atmosphere, most notably for the Fe-peak elements. We also report on the detection of radial velocity variations with a total range of 35 km/s in the spectra of HD 94660. A preliminary analysis shows the most likely period of these variations to be of order 840 d and, based on the derived orbital parameters of this star, suggests the first detection of a massive compact companion for a main sequence magnetic star. HD 94660 exhibits interestingly complex magnetic field variations and remarkable radial velocity variations. Long term monitoring is necessary to provide further constraints on the nature of these radial velocity variations. Detection of a companion will help establish the role of binarity in the origin of magnetism in stars with radiative envelopes.

Exploring Anticorrelations and Light Element Variations in Northern Globular Clusters Observed by the APOGEE Survey

We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in Northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We derive abundances of nine elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 globular clusters. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C-N and Mg-Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, which we take as evidence that low metallicity, intermediate mass AGB polluters were more common in the more metal poor clusters. The statistically significant correlation of [Al/Fe] with [Si/Fe] in M15 suggests that $^{28}$Si leakage has occurred in this cluster. We also present C, N and O abundances for stars cooler than 4500 K and examine the behavior of A(C+N+O) in each cluster as a function of temperature and [Al/Fe]. The scatter of A(C+N+O) is close to its estimated uncertainty in all clusters and independent on stellar temperature. A(C+N+O) exhibits small correlations and anticorrelations with [Al/Fe] in M3 and M13, but we cannot be certain about these relations given the size of our abundance uncertainties. Star-to-star variations of $\alpha-$elements (Si, Ca, Ti) abundances are comparable to our estimated errors in all clusters.

 

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