# Posts Tagged abundance

## Recent Postings from abundance

### Grid of theoretical NLTE equivalent widths of four Ba II lines and barium abundance in cool stars

We present a grid of computed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) equivalent widths (EW) and NLTE abundance corrections for four Ba II lines: 4554, 5853, 6141, and 6496 A. The grid can be useful in deriving the NLTE barium abundance in stars having parameters in the following ranges: effective temperature from 4000 K to 6500 K, surface gravity log g from 0 to 5, microturbulent velocity 0 km s^-1 to 3 km s^-1, metallicity [Fe/H] from -2 to +0.5, and [Ba/Fe] from -0.4 to +0.6. The NLTE abundance can be either derived by EW interpolation (using the observed Ba II line EW) or by using the NLTE correction applied to a previously determined LTE abundance. Ba II line equivalent widths and the NLTE corrections were calculated using the updated MULTI code and the Ba II atomic model that was previously applied to determine the NLTE barium abundance in different types of stars. The grid is available on-line through the web, and we find that the grid Ba NLTE corrections are almost as accurate as direct NLTE profile fitting (to within 0.05-0.08 dex). For the weakest Ba II line (5853 A) the LTE abundances almost agree with the NLTE abundances, whereas the other three Ba II lines, 4554, 6141, and 6496 A, need NLTE corrections even at the highest metallicities tested here. The 4554 A line is extremely strong and should not be used for abundance analysis above [Fe/H]= -1. Furthermore, we tested the impact of different model atmospheres and spectrum synthesis codes and found average differences of 0.06 dex and 0.09 dex, respectively, for all four lines. At these metallicities we find an average Delta NLTE of +/-0.1 dex for the three useful Ba lines for subsolar cool dwarfs.

### Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if the metallicity is greatly enhanced, but this property is negated by temperatures above 1000 K. For hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, our generic result has the implication that retrieval studies need to set the subdominance of carbon dioxide as a prior of the calculation and not let its abundance completely roam free as a fitting parameter, because it directly affects the inferred value of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio and may produce unphysical conclusions. We discuss the relevance of these implications for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b and suggest that some of the previous results are chemically impossible. The relative abundance of carbon dioxide to acetylene is potentially a sensitive diagnostic of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio.

### The Abundance of Fluorine in Normal G and K Stars of the Galactic Thin Disk

The abundance of fluorine is determined from the (2-0) R9 2.3358 micron feature of the molecule HF for several dozen normal G and K stars in the Galactic thin disk from spectra obtained with the Phoenix IR spectrometer on the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak. The abundances are analyzed in the context of Galactic chemical evolution to explore the contributions of supernovae and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the abundance of fluorine in the thin disk. The average abundance of fluorine in the thin disk is found to be [F/Fe] = +0.23 +/- 0.03, and the [F/Fe] ratio is flat or declines slowly with metallicity in the range from -0.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, within the limits of our estimated uncertainty. The measured abundance of fluorine and lack of variation with metallicity in Galactic thin disk stars suggest neutrino spallation in Type II supernovae contributes significantly to the Galactic fluorine abundance, although contributions from AGB stars may also be important.

### The Tully$-$Fisher and Mass$-$Size Relations from Halo Abundance Matching

The Tully$-$Fisher relation (TFR) expresses the connection between rotating galaxies and the dark matter haloes they inhabit, and therefore contains a wealth of information about galaxy formation. We construct a general framework to investigate whether models based on halo abundance matching are able to reproduce the observed stellar mass TFR and mass$-$size relation (MSR), and use the data to constrain galaxy formation parameters. Our model tests a range of plausible scenarios, differing in the response of haloes to disc formation, the relative angular momentum of baryons and dark matter, the impact of selection effects, and the abundance matching parameters. We show that agreement with the observed TFR puts an upper limit on the scatter between galaxy and halo properties, requires weak or reversed halo contraction, and favours selection effects that preferentially eliminate fast-rotating galaxies. The MSR constrains the ratio of the disc to halo specific angular momentum to be approximately in the range 0.6$-$1.2. We identify and quantify two problems that models of this nature face: 1) They predict too large an intrinsic scatter for the MSR, and 2) they predict too strong an anticorrelation between the TFR and MSR residuals. We argue that resolving these problems requires introducing a correlation between stellar surface density and enclosed dark matter mass, which could be achieved by correlating abundance matching scatter with halo spin, or by performing a second abundance match between galaxy size and halo mass or concentration. Finally, we explore the expected difference between the TFRs of central and satellite galaxies, and find that in the favoured models this difference should be detectable in a sample of $\sim$700 galaxies.

### The Carina Project. VIII. On the {\alpha}-element abundances

We have performed a new abundance analysis of Carina Red Giant (RG) stars from spectroscopic data collected with UVES (high resolution) and FLAMES/GIRAFFE (high and medium resolution) at ESO/VLT. The former sample includes 44 RGs, while the latter consists of 65 (high) and ~800 (medium resolution) RGs, covering a significant fraction of the galaxy’s RG branch (RGB), and red clump stars. To improve the abundance analysis at the faint magnitude limit, the FLAMES/GIRAFFE data were divided into ten surface gravity and effective temperature bins. The spectra of the stars belonging to the same gravity/temperature bin were stacked. This approach allowed us to increase by at least a factor of five the signal-to-noise ratio in the faint limit (V>20.5mag). We took advantage of the new photometry index cU,B,I introduced by Monelli et al. (2014), as an age and probably a metallicity indicator, to split stars along the RGB. These two stellar populations display distinct [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] distributions: their mean Fe abundances are -2.15$\pm$0.06dex (sig=0.28), and -1.75$\pm$0.03dex (sig=0.21), respectively. The two iron distributions differ at the 75% level. This supports preliminary results by Lemasle et al. (2012) and by Monelli et al. (2014). Moreover, we found that the old and intermediate-age stellar populations have mean [Mg/H] abundances of -1.91$\pm$0.05dex (sig=0.22) and -1.35$\pm$0.03dex (sig=0.22); these differ at the 83% level. Carina’s {\alpha}-element abundances agree, within 1sigma, with similar abundances for field Halo stars and for cluster (Galactic, Magellanic) stars. The same outcome applies to nearby dwarf spheroidals and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, in the iron range covered by Carina stars. Finally, we found evidence of a clear correlation between Na and O abundances, thus suggesting that Carina’s chemical enrichment history is quite different than in the globular clusters.

### Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Brane World Cosmology

Relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in brane world cosmological scenario is investigated in this article. Hubble expansion rate is enhanced in brane world cosmology and it affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles. We analyze how the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter is changed in this model. We show that in such kind of nonstandard cosmological scenario, indirect detection of asymmetric Dark Matter is possible if the cross section is small enough which let the anti–particle abundance kept in the same amount with the particle. We show the indirect detection signal like Fermi–LAT constraints can be used to such model only when the cross section and the 5 dimensional Planck mass scale are in appropriate values.

### Oxygen isotopic ratios in intermediate-mass red giants

Context. The abundances of the three main isotopes of oxygen are altered in the course of the CNO-cycle. When the first dredge-up mixes the burning products to the surface, the nucleosynthesis processes can be probed by measuring oxygen isotopic ratios. Aims. By measuring 16O/17O and 16O/18O in red giants of known mass we compare the isotope ratios with predictions from stellar and galactic evolution modelling. Methods. Oxygen isotopic ratios were derived from the K-band spectra of six red giants. The sample red giants are open cluster members with known masses of between 1.8 and 4.5 Msun . The abundance determination employs synthetic spectra calculated with the COMARCS code. The effect of uncertainties in the nuclear reaction rates, the mixing length, and of a change in the initial abundance of the oxygen isotopes was determined by a set of nucleosynthesis and mixing models using the FUNS code. Results. The observed 16O/17O ratios are in good agreement with the model results, even if the measured values do not present clear evidence of a variation with the stellar mass. The observed 16O/18O ratios are clearly lower than the predictions from our reference model. Variations in nuclear reaction rates and mixing length parameter both have only a very weak effect on the predicted values. The 12C/13C ratios of the K giants studied implies the absence of extra-mixing in these objects. Conclusions. A comparison with galactic chemical evolution models indicates that the 16O/18O abundance ratio underwent a faster decrease than predicted. To explain the observed ratios, the most likely scenario is a higher initial 18O abundance combined with a lower initial 16 O abundance. Comparing the measured 18 O/17 O ratio with the corresponding value for the ISM points towards an initial enhancement of 17O as well. Limitations imposed by the observations prevent this from being a conclusive result.

### Relic Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Scalar--Tensor Model

The relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in the scalar–tensor model is analysized in this article. We extend the numeric and analytic calculation of the relic density of the asymmetric Dark Matter in the standard cosmological scenario to the nonstandard cosmological scenario. We focus on the scalar–tensor model. Hubble expansion rate is changed in the nonstandard cosmological scenario. This leaves its imprint on the relic density of Dark Matter particles. In this article we investigate to what extent the asymmetric Dark Matter particle’s relic density is changed in the scalar–tensor model. We use the observed present day Dark Matter abundance to find the constraints on the parameter space in this model.

### The normal chemistry of multiple stellar populations in the dense globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80)

We present the abundance analysis of 82 red giant branch stars in the dense, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80), the largest sample of stars analyzed in this way for this cluster. From high resolution UVES spectra of 14 stars and intermediate resolution GIRAFFE spectra for the other stars we derived abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu. On our UVES metallicity scale the mean metal abundance of M 80 is [Fe/H]=-1.791+/-0.006+/-0.076 (+/-statistical +/-systematic error) with rms=0.023 (14 stars). M 80 shows star to star variations in proton-capture elements, and the extension of the Na-O anticorrelation perfectly fit the relations with (i) total cluster mass, (ii) horizontal branch morphology, and (iii) cluster concentration previously found by our group. The chemistry of multiple stellar populations in M 80 does not look extreme. The cluster is also a typical representative of halo globular clusters for what concerns the pattern of alpha-capture and Fe-group elements. However we found that a significant contribution from the s-process is required to account for the distribution of neutron-capture elements. A minority of stars in M 80 seem to exhibit slightly enhanced abundances of s-process species, compatible with those observed in M 22 and NGC 1851, although further confirmation from larger samples is required.

### A Comprehensive Analysis of the Magnetic Standard Star HD 94660: Host of a Massive Compact Companion?

Detailed information about the magnetic geometry, atmospheric abundances and radial velocity variations has been obtained for the magnetic standard star HD 94660 based on high-dispersion spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric observations from the UVES, HARPSpol and ESPaDOnS instruments. We perform a detailed chemical abundance analysis using the spectrum synthesis code zeeman for a total of 17 elements. Using both line-of-sight and surface magnetic field measurements, we derive a simple magnetic field model that consists of dipole, quadrupole and octupole components. The observed magnetic field variations of HD 94660 are complex and suggest an inhomogeneous distribution of chemical elements over the stellar surface. This inhomogeneity is not reflected in the abundance analysis, from which all available spectra are modelled, but only a mean abundance is reported for each element. The derived abundances are mostly non-solar, with striking overabundances of Fe-peak and rare-earth elements. Of note are the clear signatures of vertical chemical stratification throughout the stellar atmosphere, most notably for the Fe-peak elements. We also report on the detection of radial velocity variations with a total range of 35 km/s in the spectra of HD 94660. A preliminary analysis shows the most likely period of these variations to be of order 840 d and, based on the derived orbital parameters of this star, suggests the first detection of a massive compact companion for a main sequence magnetic star. HD 94660 exhibits interestingly complex magnetic field variations and remarkable radial velocity variations. Long term monitoring is necessary to provide further constraints on the nature of these radial velocity variations. Detection of a companion will help establish the role of binarity in the origin of magnetism in stars with radiative envelopes.

### Exploring Anticorrelations and Light Element Variations in Northern Globular Clusters Observed by the APOGEE Survey [Replacement]

We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in Northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We derive abundances of nine elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 globular clusters. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C-N and Mg-Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, which we take as evidence that low metallicity, intermediate mass AGB polluters were more common in the more metal poor clusters. The statistically significant correlation of [Al/Fe] with [Si/Fe] in M15 suggests that $^{28}$Si leakage has occurred in this cluster. We also present C, N and O abundances for stars cooler than 4500 K and examine the behavior of A(C+N+O) in each cluster as a function of temperature and [Al/Fe]. The scatter of A(C+N+O) is close to its estimated uncertainty in all clusters and independent on stellar temperature. A(C+N+O) exhibits small correlations and anticorrelations with [Al/Fe] in M3 and M13, but we cannot be certain about these relations given the size of our abundance uncertainties. Star-to-star variations of $\alpha-$elements (Si, Ca, Ti) abundances are comparable to our estimated errors in all clusters.

### Exploring Anticorrelations and Light Element Variations in Northern Globular Clusters Observed by the APOGEE Survey

We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in Northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We derive abundances of nine elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 globular clusters. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C-N and Mg-Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, which we take as evidence that low metallicity, intermediate mass AGB polluters were more common in the more metal poor clusters. The statistically significant correlation of [Al/Fe] with [Si/Fe] in M15 suggests that $^{28}$Si leakage has occurred in this cluster. We also present C, N and O abundances for stars cooler than 4500 K and examine the behavior of A(C+N+O) in each cluster as a function of temperature and [Al/Fe]. The scatter of A(C+N+O) is close to its estimated uncertainty in all clusters and independent on stellar temperature. A(C+N+O) exhibits small correlations and anticorrelations with [Al/Fe] in M3 and M13, but we cannot be certain about these relations given the size of our abundance uncertainties. Star-to-star variations of $\alpha-$elements (Si, Ca, Ti) abundances are comparable to our estimated errors in all clusters.

### Exploring Anticorrelations and Light Element Variations in Northern Globular Clusters Observed by the APOGEE Survey [Replacement]

We investigate the light-element behavior of red giant stars in Northern globular clusters (GCs) observed by the SDSS-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We derive abundances of nine elements (Fe, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Ti) for 428 red giant stars in 10 globular clusters. The intrinsic abundance range relative to measurement errors is examined, and the well-known C-N and Mg-Al anticorrelations are explored using an extreme-deconvolution code for the first time in a consistent way. We find that Mg and Al drive the population membership in most clusters, except in M107 and M71, the two most metal-rich clusters in our study, where the grouping is most sensitive to N. We also find a diversity in the abundance distributions, with some clusters exhibiting clear abundance bimodalities (for example M3 and M53) while others show extended distributions. The spread of Al abundances increases significantly as cluster average metallicity decreases as previously found by other works, which we take as evidence that low metallicity, intermediate mass AGB polluters were more common in the more metal poor clusters. The statistically significant correlation of [Al/Fe] with [Si/Fe] in M15 suggests that $^{28}$Si leakage has occurred in this cluster. We also present C, N and O abundances for stars cooler than 4500 K and examine the behavior of A(C+N+O) in each cluster as a function of temperature and [Al/Fe]. The scatter of A(C+N+O) is close to its estimated uncertainty in all clusters and independent on stellar temperature. A(C+N+O) exhibits small correlations and anticorrelations with [Al/Fe] in M3 and M13, but we cannot be certain about these relations given the size of our abundance uncertainties. Star-to-star variations of $\alpha-$elements (Si, Ca, Ti) abundances are comparable to our estimated errors in all clusters.

### Spectroscopic Abundances in the Open Cluster, NGC 6819

High-dispersion spectra of 333 stars in the open cluster NGC 6819, obtained using the HYDRA spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope, have been analyzed to determine the abundances of iron and other metals from lines in the 400 A region surrounding the Li 6708 A line. Our spectra, with signal-to-noise per pixel (SNR) ranging from 60 to 300, span the luminosity range from the tip of the red giant branch to a point two magnitudes below the top of the cluster turnoff. We derive radial and rotational velocities for all stars, as well as [Fe/H] based on 17 iron lines, [Ca/H], [Si/H], and [Ni/H] in the 247 most probable, single members of the cluster. Input temperature estimates for model atmosphere analysis are provided by (B-V) colors merged from several sources, with individual reddening corrections applied to each star relative to a cluster mean of E(B-V) = 0.16. Extensive use is made of ROBOSPECT, an automatic equivalent width measurement program; its effectiveness on large spectroscopic samples is discussed. From the sample of likely single members, [Fe/H] = -0.03 +/- 0.06, where the error describes the median absolute deviation about the sample median value, leading to an internal precision for the cluster below 0.01 dex. The final uncertainty in the cluster abundance is therefore dominated by external systematics due to the temperature scale, surface gravity, and microturbulent velocity, leading to [Fe/H] = -0.02 +/- 0.02 for a sub-sample restricted to main sequence and turnoff stars. This result is consistent with our recent intermediate-band photometric determination of a slightly subsolar abundance for this cluster. [Ca/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ni/Fe] are determined to be solar within the uncertainties. NGC 6819 has an abundance distribution typical of solar metallicity thin disk stars in the solar neighborhood.

### Potassium: a new actor on the globular cluster chemical evolution stage. The case of NGC 2808

We derive [K/Fe] abundance ratios for 119 stars in the globular cluster NGC 2808, all of them having O, Na, Mg and Al abundances homogeneously measured in previous works. We detect an intrinsic star-to-star spread in the Potassium abundance. Moreover [K/Fe] abundance ratios display statistically significant correlations with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe], and anti-correlations with [O/Fe] and [Mg/Fe]. All the four Mg deficient stars ([Mg/Fe]<0.0) discovered so far in NGC 2808 are enriched in K by ~0.3 dex with respect to those with normal [Mg/Fe]. NGC 2808 is the second globular cluster, after NGC 2419, where a clear Mg-K anti-correlation is detected, albeit of weaker amplitude. The simultaneous correlation/anti-correlation of [K/Fe] with all the light elements usually involved in the chemical anomalies observed in globular cluster stars, strongly support the idea that these abundance patterns are due to the same self-enrichment mechanism that produces Na-O and Mg-Al anti-correlations. This finding suggests that detectable spreads in K abundances may be typical in the massive globular clusters where the self-enrichment processes are observed to produce their most extreme manifestations.

### Can surface oxygen abundances of red giants be explained by the canonical mixing theory?

Extensive oxygen abundance determinations were carried out for 239 late-G/early-K giant stars of 1.5-5 M_sun by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to O I 7771-5 and [O I] 6300/6363 lines based on the high-dispersion spectra in the red region newly obtained at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. Our main purpose was to clarify whether any significantly large (<~0.4-0.5 dex) O-deficit really exists in these evolved stars, which was once suspected by Takeda et al. (2008, PASJ, 60, 781) from the analysis of the [O I] 5577 line, since it (if real) is inexlainable by the current theory and may require the necessity of special non-canonical deep mixing in the envelope. We found, however, that the previous [O/H]_5577 results (differential abundances relative to the sun) were systematically underestimated compared to the more reliable [O/H]_7773 (from O I 7771-5 triplet lines) or [O/H]_6300 (from [O I] 6300 line) obtained in this study. Comparing the updated [O/Fe] ratios with the theoretically predicted surface abundance changes caused by mixing of nuclear-processed products dredged-up from the interior, we concluded that the oxygen deficiency in these red giants is insignificantly marginal (only by <~0.1 dex), which does not contradict the expectation from the recent theoretical simulation. This consequence of reasonable consistency between theory and observation also applies to the extent of peculiarity in [C/Fe] and [Na/Fe], which were also examined by reanalyzing the previous equivalent-width data of C I 5052/5380 and Na I 6160 lines.

### The HIFI spectral survey of AFGL 2591 (CHESS). III. Chemical structure of the protostellar envelope

We aim to understand the rich chemical composition of AFGL 2591, a prototypical isolated high-mass star-forming region. Based on HIFI and JCMT data, the molecular abundances of species found in the protostellar envelope of AFGL 2591 were derived with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RATRAN, assuming either constant values or 1D stepwise radial profiles as abundance distributions. The reconstructed 1D abundances were compared with the results of time-dependent gas-grain chemical modeling, considering ages of 10,000 to 50,000 years, cosmic-ray ionization rates of 0.5 to 50 times 10^-16 s^-1, uniformly-sized 0.1-1 micron dust grains, a dust/gas ratio of 1%, and several sets of initial molecular abundances with C/O <1 and >1. Constant abundance models give good fits to the data for CO, CN, CS, HCO+, H2CO, N2H+, C2H, NO, OCS, OH, H2CS, O, C, C+, and CH. Models with an abundance jump at 100 K give good fits to the data for NH3, SO, SO2, H2S, H2O, HCl, and CH3OH. For HCN and HNC, the best models have an abundance jump at 230 K. The time-dependent chemical model can accurately explain abundance profiles of 15 out of these 24 species. The jump-like radial profiles for key species like HCO+, NH3, and H2O are consistent with the outcome of the time-dependent chemical modeling. The best-fit model has a chemical age of 10-50 kyr, a solar C/O ratio of 0.44, and a cosmic-ray ionization rate of 5 x 10^-17 s^-1; grain properties and external UV intensity do not affect the calculated chemical structure much. We thus demonstrate that simple constant or jump-like abundance profiles agree with time-dependent chemical modeling for most key C-, O-, N-, and S-bearing molecules. The main exceptions are species with very few observed transitions (C, O, C+, and CH), with a poorly established chemical network (HCl, H2S) or whose chemistry is strongly affected by surface processes (CH3OH).

### A volume-limited sample of X-ray galaxy groups and clusters: III. Central abundance drops

We present the results of a search and study of central abundance drops in a volume-limited sample (z<=0.071) of 101 X-ray galaxy groups and clusters. These are best observed in nearby, and so best resolved, groups and clusters, making our sample ideal for their detection. Out of the 65 groups and clusters in our sample for which we have abundance profiles, 8 of them have certain central abundance drops, with possible central abundance drops in another 6. All sources with central abundance drops have X-ray cavities, and all bar one exception have a central cooling time <=1 Gyr. These central abundance drops can be generated if the iron injected by stellar mass loss processes in the core of these sources is in grains, which then become incorporated in the central dusty filaments. These, in turn, are dragged outwards by the bubbling feedback process in these sources. We find that data quality significantly affects the detection of central abundance drops, inasmuch as a higher number of counts in the central 20 kpc of a source makes it easier to detect a central abundance drop, as long as these counts are more than ~13000. On the other hand, the magnitude of the central abundance drop does not depend on the number of these counts, though the statistical significance of the measured drop does. Finally, in line with the scenario briefly outlined above, we find that, for most sources, the location of X-ray cavities acts as an upper limit to the location of the peak in the radial metallicity distribution.

### The Detailed Chemical Properties of M31 Star Clusters I. Fe, Alpha and Light Elements

We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the alpha elements Ca I, Si I, Ti I, Ti II, and light elements Mg I, Na I, and Al I for 31 globular clusters in M31, which were obtained from high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR$>60$) echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The globular clusters are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5 kpc $<$ R$_{\rm M31}$ $<$ 117 kpc. We find a range of [Fe/H] within 20 kpc of the center of M31, and a constant [Fe/H]$\sim-1.6$ for the outer halo clusters. We find evidence for at least one massive globular cluster in M31 with an age between 1 and 5 Gyr. The alpha-element ratios are generally similar to Milky Way globular cluster and field star ratios. We also find chemical evidence for a late-time accretion origin for at least one cluster, which has a different abundance pattern than other clusters at similar metallicity. We find evidence for star-to-star abundance variations in Mg, Na, and Al in the globular clusters in our sample, and find correlations of Ca, Mg, Na, and possibly Al abundance ratios with cluster luminosity and velocity dispersion, which can potentially be used to constrain globular cluster self-enrichment scenarios. Data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I Telescope.

### The Detailed Chemical Properties of M31 Star Clusters I. Fe, Alpha and Light Elements [Replacement]

We present ages, [Fe/H] and abundances of the alpha elements Ca I, Si I, Ti I, Ti II, and light elements Mg I, Na I, and Al I for 31 globular clusters in M31, which were obtained from high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR$>60$) echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. This sample provides a never before seen picture of the chemical history of M31. The globular clusters are dispersed throughout the inner and outer halo, from 2.5 kpc $<$ R$_{\rm M31}$ $<$ 117 kpc. We find a range of [Fe/H] within 20 kpc of the center of M31, and a constant [Fe/H]$\sim-1.6$ for the outer halo clusters. We find evidence for at least one massive globular cluster in M31 with an age between 1 and 5 Gyr. The alpha-element ratios are generally similar to Milky Way globular cluster and field star ratios. We also find chemical evidence for a late-time accretion origin for at least one cluster, which has a different abundance pattern than other clusters at similar metallicity. We find evidence for star-to-star abundance variations in Mg, Na, and Al in the globular clusters in our sample, and find correlations of Ca, Mg, Na, and possibly Al abundance ratios with cluster luminosity and velocity dispersion, which can potentially be used to constrain globular cluster self-enrichment scenarios. Data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I Telescope.

### Expanded haloes, abundance matching and too-big-to-fail in the Local Group [Replacement]

Observed kinematical data of 40 Local Group (LG) members are used to derive the dark matter halo mass of such galaxies. Haloes are selected from the theoretically expected LG mass function and two different density profiles are assumed, a standard universal cuspy model and a mass dependent profile which accounts for the effects of baryons in modifying the dark matter distribution within galaxies. The resulting relations between stellar and halo mass are compared with expectations from abundance matching. Using a universal cuspy profile, the ensemble of LG galaxies is fit in relatively low mass haloes, leaving "dark" many massive haloes of \mhalo$\gtrsim$10$^{10}$\msun: this reflects the "too big to fail" problem and results in a \mstar-\mhalo\ relation that differs from abundance matching predictions. Moreover, the star formation efficiency of isolated LG galaxies increases with decreasing halo mass when adopting a cuspy model. By contrast, using the mass dependent density profile, dwarf galaxies with \mstar$\gtrsim$10$^{6}$\msun are assigned to more massive haloes, which have a central cored distribution of dark matter: the "too big to fail" problem is alleviated, the resultant \mstar-\mhalo\ relation follows abundance matching predictions down to the completeness limit of current surveys, and the star formation efficiency of isolated members decreases with decreasing halo mass, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Finally, the cusp/core space of LG galaxies is presented, providing a framework to understand the non-universality of their density profiles.

### Expanded haloes, abundance matching and too-big-to-fail in the Local Group

Observed kinematical data of 40 Local Group members are used to derive the dark matter halo mass of such galaxies. Haloes are selected from the theoretically expected Local Group mass function and two different density profiles are assumed, the standard NFW model and a mass dependent profile which accounts for the effects of baryons in modifying the dark matter distribution within galaxies. The resulting relations between stellar and halo mass are compared with expectations from abundance matching. Using the NFW profile, the ensemble of Local Group galaxies is generally fit in relatively low mass haloes, leaving dark many massive haloes of Mhalo>10^10Msun: this reflects the "too big to fail" problem in the Local Group and results in a Mstar-Mhalo relation that differs from abundance matching predictions. Moreover, the star formation efficiency of isolated Local Group galaxies increases with decreasing halo mass when adopting a NFW model. By contrast, using the mass dependent density profile, relatively high stellar mass (Mstar>10^6Msun) dwarf galaxies are assigned to more massive haloes, which have a central cored distribution of dark matter: the "too big to fail" problem is alleviated, the resultant Mstar-Mhalo relation follows abundance matching predictions down to the completeness limit of current surveys, and the star formation efficiency of isolated members decreases with decreasing halo mass, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Several low mass (Mstar<10^6Msun) satellite galaxies are best fit to lower mass haloes than expected from the extrapolation of abundance matching relations, which may result from environmental effects, a scenario favored by the fact that no isolated galaxies fall in this region. Finally, the cusp/core space of Local Group galaxies is presented, providing a framework to understand the non-universality of their density profiles.

### A Precise Water Abundance Measurement for the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b

The water abundance in a planetary atmosphere provides a key constraint on the planet’s primordial origins because water ice is expected to play an important role in the core accretion model of planet formation. However, the water content of the Solar System giant planets is not well known because water is sequestered in clouds deep in their atmospheres. By contrast, short-period exoplanets have such high temperatures that their atmospheres have water in the gas phase, making it possible to measure the water abundance for these objects. We present a precise determination of the water abundance in the atmosphere of the 2 $M_\mathrm{Jup}$ short-period exoplanet WASP-43b based on thermal emission and transmission spectroscopy measurements obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find the water content is consistent with the value expected in a solar composition gas at planetary temperatures (0.4-3.5x solar at 1 $\sigma$ confidence). The metallicity of WASP-43b’s atmosphere suggested by this result extends the trend observed in the Solar System of lower metal enrichment for higher planet masses.

### Helium abundance in giant planets and the local interstellar medium

The sun and giant planets are generally thought to have the same helium abundance as that in the solar nebula from which they were formed 4.6 billion years ago. In contrast, the interstellar medium reflects current galactic conditions. The departure of current abundances from the primordial and protosolar values may help trace the processes that drive the nucleosynthesis evolution of the galaxy and planetary interior formation and evolution. The Galileo probe measured the He abundance in situ the atmosphere of Jupiter, showing that He is only slightly depleted compared to the solar value. For Saturn, contradictory estimates from past Voyager observations make its He abundance very uncertain. Here, we use He 58.4 nm dayglow measured from the outer planets by the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers to derive the He abundance in the atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn. We also use the solar He 58.4 nm line measured by the Solar Heliospheric Observatory to derive the He abundance inside the focusing cone. Finally, we compare He abundances derived here with primordial and protosolar values, stressing the unique opportunity offered by inner heliosphere observations and future Voyager in situ local interstellar medium measurements to derive the He abundance in the very interstellar cloud in which we reside.

### Chemical analysis of CH stars - I: atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances

Results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a selected sample of CH stars are presented. Detailed chemical composition studies of these objects, which could reveal abundance patterns that in turn provide information regarding nucleosynthesis and evolutionary status, are scarce in the literature. We conducted detailed chemical composition studies for these objects based on high resolution (R ~ 42000) spectra. The spectra were taken from the ELODIE archive and cover the wavelength range from 3900 to 6800 A, in the wavelength range. We estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature Teff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from Local thermodynamic equilibrium analyses using model atmospheres. Estimated temperatures of these objects cover a wide range from 4550 K to 6030 K, the surface gravity from 1.8 to 3.8 and metallicity from -0.18 to -1.4. We report updates on elemental abundances for several heavy elements and present estimates of abundance ratios of Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy with respect to Fe. For the object HD 188650 we present the first abundance analyses results based on a high resolution spectrum. Enhancements of heavy elements relative to Fe, that are characteristic of CH stars are evident from our analyses for most of the objects. A parametric model based study is performed to understand the relative contributions from the s- and r-processes to the abundances of the heavy elements.

### Spectral analysis and abundances of the post-HB star HD 76431

HD76431 is a slow rotating post-HB star that shows an underabundance of helium by 0.5 dex relative to the solar value. These observational facts suggest that atomic diffusion could be active in its atmosphere. We have used the MMT and Bok spectra to estimate the atmospheric parameters of the target star using the model atmospheres and synthetic spectra calculated with TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. The derived values of the effective temperature, surface gravity, helium abundance are consistent with those obtained by Ramspeck et al. (2001b). It appears that NLTE effect are not important for HD76431. We have used Stokes I spectra from ESPaDOnS at CFHT to perform an abundance analysis and a search for observational evidence of vertical stratification of the abundance of certain elements. The results of our abundance analysis are in good agreement with previously published data with respect to average abundances. Our numerical simulations show that carbon and nitrogen reveal signatures of vertical abundance stratification in the atmosphere of HD76431. It appears that the carbon abundance increases toward the deeper atmospheric layers. Nitrogen also shows a similar behaviour, but in deeper atmospheric layers we obtain a significant dispersion for the estimates of its abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of vertical abundance stratification of metals in a post-HB star and up to now it is the hottest star to show such stratification features. We also report the detection of two SiIII and one TiIII emission lines in the spectra of HD76431 that were not detected in previous studies.

### Is Germanium (Ge, Z=32) A Neutron-Capture Element?

Historically,Ge has been considered to be a neutron-capture element. In this case, the r-process abundance of Ge is derived by subtracting the s-process abundance from the total abundance in the Solar system. However, the Ge abundance of the metal-poor star HD 108317 is lower than that of the scaled residual r-process abundance in the Solar system, about 1.2 dex. In this paper, based on a comparison of the Ge abundances of metal-poor stars and stellar yields, we find that the Ge abundances are not the result of the primary-like yields in massive stars and come mainly from the r-process. Based on the observed abundances of metal-poor stars, we derived the Ge abundances of the weak r-process and main r-process. The contributed percentage of the neutron-capture process to Ge in the Solar system is about 59 per cent, which means that the contributed percentage of the Ge residual abundance in the Solar system is about 41 per cent. We find that the Ge residual abundance is produced as secondary-like yields in massive stars. This implies that the element Ge in the Solar system is not produced solely by the neutron-capture process.

### Composite Stellar Populations and Element by Element Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge and Elliptical Galaxies

This paper explores the integrated-light characteristics of the Milky Way (MW) bulge and to what extent they match those of elliptical galaxies in the local universe. We model composite stellar populations with realistic abundance distribution functions (ADFs), tracking the trends of individual elements as a function of overall heavy element abundance as actually observed in MW bulge stars. The resultant predictions for absorption feature strengths from the MW bulge mimic elliptical galaxies better than solar neighborhood stars do, but the MW bulge does not match elliptical galaxies, either. Comparing bulge versus elliptical galaxies, Fe, Ti, and Mg trend about the same for both but C, Na, and Ca seem irreconcilably different. Exploring the behavior of abundance compositeness leads to the concepts of "red lean" where a narrower ADF appears more metal rich than a wide one, and "red spread" where the spectral difference between wide and narrow ADFs increases as the ADF peak is moved to more metal-rich values. Tests on the systematics of recovering abundance, abundance pattern, and age from composite stellar populations using single stellar population models were performed. The chemical abundance pattern was recovered adequately, though a few minor systematic effects were uncovered. The prospects of measuring the width of the ADF of an old stellar population were investigated and seem bright using UV to IR photometry.

### Heavy metals in a light white dwarf: Abundances of the metal-rich, extremely low-mass GALEX J1717+6757

Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we detail the first abundance analysis enabled by far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of a low-mass (~0.19 Msun) white dwarf (WD), GALEX J1717+6757, which is in a 5.9-hr binary with a fainter, more-massive companion. We see absorption from nine metals, including roughly solar abundances of Ca, Fe, Ti, and P. We detect a significantly sub-solar abundance of C, and put upper limits on N and O that are also markedly sub-solar. Updated diffusion calculations indicate that all metals should settle out of the atmosphere of this 14,900 K, log(g) = 5.67 WD in the absence of radiative forces in less than 20 yr, orders of magnitude faster than the cooling age of hundreds of Myr. We demonstrate that ongoing accretion of rocky material that is often the cause of atmospheric metals in isolated, more massive WDs is unlikely to explain the observed abundances in GALEX J1717+6757. Using new radiative levitation calculations, we determine that radiative forces can counteract diffusion and support many but not all of the elements present in the atmosphere of this WD; radiative levitation cannot, on its own, explain all of the observed abundance patterns, and additional mechanisms such as rotational mixing may be required. Finally, we detect both primary and secondary eclipses using ULTRACAM high-speed photometry, which we use to constrain the low-mass WD radius and rotation rate as well as update the ephemeris from the discovery observations of this WD+WD binary.

### Near Infrared Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs. I. CO Molecule as an Abundance Indicator of Carbon [Replacement]

Based on the near infrared spectra of 42 M dwarfs, carbon abundances are determined from the ro-vibrational lines of CO 2-0 band. We use Teff values based on the angular diameters if available or apply a logTeff – M3.4 (the absolute magnitude at 3.4 micron based on the WISE W1 flux and the Hipparcos parallax) relation to estimate Teff values of objects for which angular diameters are unknown. Also, we discuss briefly the HR diagram of low mass stars. On the observed spectrum of M dwarf, the continuum is depressed by the numerous weak lines of H2O and only the depressed continuum or the pseudo- continuum can be seen. On the theoretical spectrum of M dwarfs, we find that the pseudo-continuum can be evaluated accurately thanks to the recent H2O line database. Then quantitative analysis of the spectrum of M dwarf can be done by referring to the pseudo-continua both on the observed and theoretical spectra. Since the basic principle of the spectroscopic analysis should be the same whether the true- or pseudo-continuum is referred to, the difficulty related to the continuum in cool stars can in principle be overcome. Then, the numerous CO lines can be excellent abundance indicators of carbon, since almost all the carbon atoms are in stable CO molecules whose abundance remains almost unchanged for the changes of physical condition in the photosphere and, somewhat unexpectedly, carbon abundances in late-type stars can best be determined in M dwarfs rather than in solar type stars. The resulting C/Fe ratios for most M dwarfs are nearly constant at about the solar value based on the classical high carbon abundance rather than on the recently revised lower value. This result implies that the solar carbon abundance is atypical for its metallicity among the stellar objects in the solar neighborhood if the downward revised solar carbon abundance is correct.

### Near Infrared Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs. I. CO Molecule as an Abundance Indicator of Carbon [Replacement]

Based on the near infrared spectra of 42 M dwarfs, carbon abundances are determined from the ro-vibrational lines of CO 2-0 band. We use Teff values based on the angular diameters if available or apply a logTeff – M3.4 (the absolute magnitude at 3.4 micron based on the WISE W1 flux and the Hipparcos parallax) relation to estimate Teff values of objects for which angular diameters are unknown. Also, we discuss briefly the HR diagram of low mass stars. On the observed spectrum of M dwarf, the continuum is depressed by the numerous weak lines of H2O and only the depressed continuum or the pseudo- continuum can be seen. On the theoretical spectrum of M dwarfs, we find that the pseudo-continuum can be evaluated accurately thanks to the recent H2O line database. Then quantitative analysis of the spectrum of M dwarf can be done by referring to the pseudo-continua both on the observed and theoretical spectra. Since the basic principle of the spectroscopic analysis should be the same whether the true- or pseudo-continuum is referred to, the difficulty related to the continuum in cool stars can in principle be overcome. Then, the numerous CO lines can be excellent abundance indicators of carbon, since almost all the carbon atoms are in stable CO molecules whose abundance remains almost unchanged for the changes of physical condition in the photosphere and, somewhat unexpectedly, carbon abundances in late-type stars can best be determined in M dwarfs rather than in solar type stars. The resulting C/Fe ratios for most M dwarfs are nearly constant at about the solar value based on the classical high carbon abundance rather than on the recently revised lower value. This result implies that the solar carbon abundance is atypical for its metallicity among the stellar objects in the solar neighborhood if the downward revised solar carbon abundance is correct.

### Near Infrared Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs. I. CO Molecule as an Abundance Indicator of Carbon

Based on the near infrared spectra of 42 M dwarfs, carbon abundances are determined from the ro-vibrational lines of CO 2-0 band. We apply Teff values based on the angular diameters if available or use the Teff values in a logTeff – M3.4 (the absolute magnitude at 3.4 micron based on the WISE W1 flux and the Hipparcos parallax) relation to estimate Teff values of objects for which angular diameters are unknown. Also, we discuss briefly the HR diagram of low mass stars. On the observed spectrum of M dwarf, the continuum is depressed by the numerous weak lines of H2O and only the depressed continuum or the pseudo- continuum can be seen. On the theoretical spectrum of M dwarfs, we find that the pseudo-continuum can be evaluated accurately thanks to the recent H2O line database. Then quantitative analysis of the spectrum of M dwarf can be done by referring to the pseudo-continua both on the observed and theoretical spectra. Since the basic principle of the spectroscopic analysis should be the same whether the true- or pseudo-continuum is referred to, the difficulty related to the continuum in cool stars can in principle be overcome. Then, the numerous CO lines can be excellent abundance indicators of carbon, since almost all the carbon atoms are in stable CO molecules which remain almost unchanged for the changes of physical condition in the photosphere and, somewhat unexpectedly, carbon abundances in late-type stars can best be determined in M dwarfs rather than in solar type stars. The resulting C/Fe ratios for most M dwarfs are nearly constant at about the solar value based on the classical high carbon abundance rather than on the recently revised lower value. This result implies that the solar carbon abundance is atypical for its metallicity among the stellar objects in the solar neighborhood if the downward revised solar carbon abundance is correct.

### Clues on the Galactic evolution of sulphur from star clusters

(Abridged) The abundances of alpha-elements are a powerful diagnostic of the star formation history and chemical evolution of a galaxy. Sulphur, being moderately volatile, can be reliably measured in the interstellar medium (ISM) of damped Ly-alpha galaxies and extragalactic HII regions. Measurements in stars of different metallicity in our Galaxy can then be readily compared to the abundances in external galaxies. Such a comparison is not possible for Si or Ca that suffer depletion onto dust in the ISM. Furthermore, studying sulphur is interesting because it probes nucleosynthetic conditions that are very different from those of O or Mg. The measurements in star clusters are a reliable tracers of the Galactic evolution of sulphur. We find <A(S)>NLTE=6.11+/-0.04 for M 4, <A(S)>NLTE=7.17+/-0.02 for NGC 2477, and <A(S)>NLTE=7.13+/-0.06 for NGC 5822. For the only star studied in Trumpler 5 we find A(S)NLTE=6.43+/-0.03 and A(S)LTE=6.94+/-0.05. Our measurements show that, by and large, the S abundances in Galactic clusters trace reliably those in field stars. The only possible exception is Trumpler 5, for which the NLTE sulphur abundance implies an [S/Fe] ratio lower by roughly 0.4 dex than observed in field stars of comparable metallicity, even though its LTE sulphur abundance is in line with abundances of field stars. Moreover the LTE sulphur abundance is consistent only with the abundance of another alpha-element, Mg, in the same star, while the low NLTE value is consistent with Si and Ca. The S abundances in our sample of stars in clusters imply that the clusters are chemically homogeneous for S within 0.05 dex.

### Fingerprints of Anomalous Primordial Universe on the Abundance of Large Scale Structures [Replacement]

We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures and, using the quasars data, we find the upper bound $n_A<0.6$ for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale $M_c$ in which for $M<M_c (M> M_c)$ the enhancement in variance induced from anomalous feature decreases (increases) the abundance of dark matter structures in Universe.

### Fingerprints of Anomalous Primordial Universe on the Abundance of Large Scale Structures [Replacement]

We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures and, using the quasars data, we find the upper bound $n_A<0.6$ for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale $M_c$ in which for $M<M_c (M> M_c)$ the enhancement in variance induced from anomalous feature decreases (increases) the abundance of dark matter structures in Universe.

### Fingerprints of Anomalous Primordial Universe on the Abundance of Large Scale Structures

We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures and, using the quasars data, we find the upper bound $n_A<0.6$ for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale $M_c$ in which for $M<M_c (M> M_c)$ the enhancement in variance induced from anomalous feature decreases (increases) the abundance of dark matter structures in Universe.

### Fingerprints of Anomalous Primordial Universe on the Abundance of Large Scale Structures [Cross-Listing]

We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures and, using the quasars data, we find the upper bound $n_A<0.6$ for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale $M_c$ in which for $M<M_c (M> M_c)$ the enhancement in variance induced from anomalous feature decreases (increases) the abundance of dark matter structures in Universe.

### Spectroscopic Study on the Beryllium Abundances of Red Giant Stars

An extensive spectroscopic study was carried out for the beryllium abundances of 200 red giants (mostly of late G and early K type), which were determined from the near-UV Be II 3131.066 line based on high-dispersion spectra obtained by Subaru/HDS, with an aim of investigating the nature of surface Be contents in these evolved giants; e.g., dependence upon stellar parameters, degree of peculiarity along with its origin and build-up timing. We found that Be is considerably deficient (to widely different degree from star to star) in the photosphere of these evolved giants by ~1-3 dex (or more) compared to the initial abundance. While the resulting Be abundances (A(Be)) appear to weakly depend upon T_eff, log g, [Fe/H], M, age, and v_sin i, this may be attributed to the metallicity dependence of A(Be) coupled with the mutual correlation between these stellar parameters, since such tendencies almost disappear in the metallicity-scaled Be abundance ([Be/Fe]). By comparing the Be abundances (as well as their correlations with Li and C) to the recent theoretical predictions based on sophisticated stellar evolution calculations, we concluded that such a considerable extent/diversity of Be deficit is difficult to explain only by the standard theory of first dredge-up in the envelope of red giants, and that some extra mixing process (such as rotational or thermohaline mixing) must be responsible, which presumably starts to operate already in the main-sequence phase. This view is supported by the fact that appreciable Be depletion is seen in less evolved intermediate-mass B-A type stars near to the main sequence.

### Abundance sensitive points of line profiles in the stellar spectra

Many abundance studies are based on spectrum synthesis and $\chi$-squared differences between the synthesized and an observed spectrum. Much of the spectra so compared depend only weakly on the elemental abundances. Logarithmic plots of line depths rather than relative flux make this more apparent. We present simulations that illustrate a simple method for finding regions of the spectrum most sensitive to abundance, and also some caveats for using such information. As expected, we find that weak features are the most sensitive. Equivalent widths of weak lines are ideal features, because of their sensitivity to abundances, and insensitivity to factors that broaden the line profiles. The wings of strong lines can also be useful, but it is essential that the broadening mechanisms be accurately known. The very weakest features, though sensitive to abundance, should be avoided or used with great caution because of uncertainty of continuum placement as well as numerical uncertainties associated with the subtraction of similar numbers.

### A Search for Strongly Mg-enhanced Stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Strongly Mg-enhanced stars with [Mg/Fe] $>$ 1.0 show peculiar abundance patterns and hence are of great interest for our understanding of stellar formation and chemical evolution of the Galaxy. A systematical search for strongly Mg-enhanced stars based on the low-resolution $(R\simeq2000)$ spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is carried out by finding the best matched synthetic spectrum to the observed one in the region of Mg I b lines around $\lambda$5170\AA$~$via a profile matching method. The advantage of our method is that fitting parameters are refined by reproducing the [Mg/Fe] ratios of 47 stars from very precise high-resolution spectroscopic (HRS) analysis by Nissen and Schuster (2010); and these parameters are crucial to the precision and validity of the derived Mg abundances. As a further check of our method, Mg abundances are estimated with our method for member stars in four Galactic globular clusters (M92, M13, M3, M71) which cover the same metallicity range as our sample, and the results are in good agreement with those of HRS analysis in the literature. The validation of our method is also proved by the agreement of [Mg/Fe] between our values and those of HRS analysis by Aoki et al.(2013). Finally, 33 candidates of strongly Mg-enhanced stars with [Mg/Fe]$>$1.0 are selected from 14850 F and G stars. Follow-up observations will be carried out on these candidates with high-resolution spectroscopy by large telescopes in the near future, so as to check our selection procedure and to perform a precise and detailed abundance analysis and to explore the origins of these stars.

### Abundance of Field Galaxies

We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centered on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance 10Mpc. The sample of 750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB= -10, and virial masses Mvir= 1e9Msun. We find that the standard LCDM model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V>60kms and corresponding virial masses Mvir> 3e10Msun, but it badly fails by over-predicting 5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V= 30-50kms. The Warm Dark Matter models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of the WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V = V**alpha, alpha =-1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard LCDM model that predicts the slope alpha =-3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellites problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the LCDM model to survive, in the 10Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 dark galaxies with virial mass Mvir= 1e10Msun, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable HI gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

### Effects of moderate abundance changes on the atmospheric structure and colours of Mira variables (Research Note)

Aims. We study the effects of moderate deviations from solar abundances upon the atmospheric structure and colours of typical Mira variables. Methods. We present two model series of dynamical opacity-sampling models of Mira variables which have (1) 1 solar metallicity 3 and (2) "mild" S-type C/O abundance ratio ([C/O]=0.9) with typical Zr enhancement (solar +1.0). These series are compared to a previously studied solar-abundance series which has similar fundamental parameters (mass, luminosity, period, radius) that are close to those of o Cet. Results. Both series show noticeable effects of abundance upon stratifications and infrared colours but cycle-to-cycle differences mask these effects at most pulsation phases, with the exception of a narrow-water-filter colour near minimum phase.

### Bent by baryons: the low mass galaxy-halo relation

The relation between galaxies and dark matter halos is of vital importance for evaluating theoretical predictions of structure formation and galaxy formation physics. We show that the widely used method of abundance matching based on dark matter only simulations fails at the low mass end because two of its underlying assumptions are broken: only a small fraction of low mass (below 10^9.5 solar masses) halos host a visible galaxy, and halos grow at a lower rate due to the effect of baryons. In this regime, reliance on dark matter only simulations for abundance matching is neither accurate nor self-consistent. We find that the reported discrepancy between observational estimates of the halo masses of dwarf galaxies and the values predicted by abundance matching does not point to a failure of LCDM, but simply to a failure to account for baryonic effects. Our results also imply that the Local Group contains only a few hundred observable galaxies in contrast with the thousands of faint dwarfs that abundance matching would suggest. We show how relations derived from abundance matching can be corrected, so that they can be used self-consistently to calibrate models of galaxy formation.

### General limit on the relation between abundances of D and $^7$Li in big bang nucleosynthesis with nucleon injections

The injections of energetic hadrons could have occurred in the early universe by decays of hypothetical long-lived exotic particles. The injections induce the showers of nonthermal hadrons via nuclear scattering. Neutrons generated at these events can react with $^7$Be nuclei and reduce $^7$Be abundance solving a problem of the primordial $^7$Li abundance. We suggest that thermal neutron injection is a way to derive a model independent conservative limit on the relation between abundances of D and $^7$Li in a hadronic energy injection model. We emphasize that an uncertainty in cross sections of inelastic $n+p$ scattering affects the total number of induced neutrons, which determines final abundances of D and $^7$Li. In addition, the annihilations of antinucleons with $^4$He result in higher D abundance and trigger nonthermal $^6$Li production. It is concluded that a reduction of $^7$Li abundance from a value in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model down to an observational two $\sigma$ upper limit is necessarily accompanied by an undesirable increase of D abundance up to at least an observational 12 $\sigma$ upper limit from observations of quasi-stellar object absorption line systems. The effects of antinucleons and secondary particles produced in the hadronic showers always lead to a severer constraint. The BBN models involving any injections of extra neutrons are thus unlikely to reproduce a small $^7$Li abundance consistent with observations.

### General limit on the relation between abundances of D and $^7$Li in big bang nucleosynthesis with nucleon injections [Cross-Listing]

The injections of energetic hadrons could have occurred in the early universe by decays of hypothetical long-lived exotic particles. The injections induce the showers of nonthermal hadrons via nuclear scattering. Neutrons generated at these events can react with $^7$Be nuclei and reduce $^7$Be abundance solving a problem of the primordial $^7$Li abundance. We suggest that thermal neutron injection is a way to derive a model independent conservative limit on the relation between abundances of D and $^7$Li in a hadronic energy injection model. We emphasize that an uncertainty in cross sections of inelastic $n+p$ scattering affects the total number of induced neutrons, which determines final abundances of D and $^7$Li. In addition, the annihilations of antinucleons with $^4$He result in higher D abundance and trigger nonthermal $^6$Li production. It is concluded that a reduction of $^7$Li abundance from a value in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model down to an observational two $\sigma$ upper limit is necessarily accompanied by an undesirable increase of D abundance up to at least an observational 12 $\sigma$ upper limit from observations of quasi-stellar object absorption line systems. The effects of antinucleons and secondary particles produced in the hadronic showers always lead to a severer constraint. The BBN models involving any injections of extra neutrons are thus unlikely to reproduce a small $^7$Li abundance consistent with observations.

### The lithium abundances for a large sample of red giants

The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-LTE correction considered. Among these, there are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at vsini $<$ 10 km s$^{-1}$. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (vsini $<$ 4 km s$^{-1}$). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1$\%$ in literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate-mass (1.5-5 M$_{\odot}$) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

### The Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES) IX. Constraining pure r-process Ba/Eu abundance ratio from observations of r-II stars

The oldest stars born before the onset of the main s-process are expected to reveal a pure r-process Ba/Eu abundance ratio. We revised barium and europium abundances of selected very metal-poor (VMP) and strongly r-process enhanced (r-II) stars to evaluate an empirical r-process Ba/Eu ratio. Our calculations were based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for Ba II and Eu II in the classical 1D MARCS model atmospheres. Homogeneous stellar abundances were determined from the Ba II subordinate and resonance lines by applying a common Ba isotope mixture. We used high-quality VLT/UVES spectra and observational material from the literature. For most investigated stars, NLTE leads to a lower Ba, but a higher Eu abundance. The resulting elemental ratio of the NLTE abundances amounts, on average, log(Ba/Eu) = 0.78+-0.06. This is a new constraint to pure r-process production of Ba and Eu. The obtained Ba/Eu abundance ratio of the r-II stars supports the corresponding Solar System r-process ratio as predicted by recent Galactic chemical evolution calculations of Bisterzo, Travaglio, Gallino, Wiescher, and Kappeler. We present the NLTE abundance corrections for lines of Ba II and Eu II in the grid of VMP model atmospheres.

### High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is(are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph. The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. We have derived abundances of light elements Li, C, and N, alpha-elements, odd-Z elements, iron-peak elements, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak, the second peak, the third peak, and the actinides regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and normal very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements, and general behaviors for the 3D corrections were presented.

### Explaining the Ba, Y, Sr, and Eu abundance scatter in metal-poor halo stars: constraints to the r-process

Context. Thanks to the heroic observational campaigns carried out in recent years we now have large samples of metal-poor stars for which measurements of detailed abundances exist. [...] These data hold important clues on the nature of the contribution of the first stellar generations to the enrichment of our Galaxy. Aims. We aim to explain the scatter in Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu abundance ratio diagrams unveiled by the metal-poor halo stars. Methods. We computed inhomogeneous chemical evolution models for the Galactic halo assuming different scenarios for the r-process site: the electron-capture supernovae (EC) and the magnetorotationally driven (MRD) supernovae scenario. We also considered models with and without the contribution of fast-rotating massive stars (spinstars) to an early enrichment by the s-process. A detailed comparison with the now large sample of stars with measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, Eu, and Fe is provided (both in terms of scatter plots and number distributions for several abundance ratios). Results. The scatter observed in these abundance ratios of the very metal-poor stars (with [Fe/H] < -2.5) can be explained by combining the s-process production in spinstars, and the r-process contribution coming from massive stars. For the r-process we have developed models for both the EC and the MRD scenario that match the observations. Conclusions. With the present observational and theoretical constraints we cannot distinguish between the EC and the MRD scenario in the Galactic halo. Independently of the r-process scenarios adopted, the production of elements by an s-process in spinstars is needed to reproduce the spread in abundances of the light neutron capture elements (Sr and Y) over heavy neutron capture elements (Ba and Eu). We provide a way to test our suggestions by means of the distribution of the Ba isotopic ratios in a [Ba/Fe] or [Sr/Ba] vs. [Fe/H] diagram.

### Measuring Jupiter's water abundance by Juno: the link between interior and formation models

The JUNO mission to Jupiter is planned to measure the water abundance in Jupiter’s atmosphere below the cloud layer. This measurement is important because it can be used to reveal valuable information on Jupiter’s origin and its composition. In this paper we discuss the importance of this measurement, the challenges in its interpretation, and address how it can be connected to interior and formation models of Jupiter.