Posts Tagged abundance

Recent Postings from abundance

Expanded haloes, abundance matching and too-big-to-fail in the Local Group

Observed kinematical data of 40 Local Group members are used to derive the dark matter halo mass of such galaxies. Haloes are selected from the theoretically expected Local Group mass function and two different density profiles are assumed, the standard NFW model and a mass dependent profile which accounts for the effects of baryons in modifying the dark matter distribution within galaxies. The resulting relations between stellar and halo mass are compared with expectations from abundance matching. Using the NFW profile, the ensemble of Local Group galaxies is generally fit in relatively low mass haloes, leaving dark many massive haloes of Mhalo>10^10Msun: this reflects the "too big to fail" problem in the Local Group and results in a Mstar-Mhalo relation that differs from abundance matching predictions. Moreover, the star formation efficiency of isolated Local Group galaxies increases with decreasing halo mass when adopting a NFW model. By contrast, using the mass dependent density profile, relatively high stellar mass (Mstar>10^6Msun) dwarf galaxies are assigned to more massive haloes, which have a central cored distribution of dark matter: the "too big to fail" problem is alleviated, the resultant Mstar-Mhalo relation follows abundance matching predictions down to the completeness limit of current surveys, and the star formation efficiency of isolated members decreases with decreasing halo mass, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Several low mass (Mstar<10^6Msun) satellite galaxies are best fit to lower mass haloes than expected from the extrapolation of abundance matching relations, which may result from environmental effects, a scenario favored by the fact that no isolated galaxies fall in this region. Finally, the cusp/core space of Local Group galaxies is presented, providing a framework to understand the non-universality of their density profiles.

A Precise Water Abundance Measurement for the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b

The water abundance in a planetary atmosphere provides a key constraint on the planet’s primordial origins because water ice is expected to play an important role in the core accretion model of planet formation. However, the water content of the Solar System giant planets is not well known because water is sequestered in clouds deep in their atmospheres. By contrast, short-period exoplanets have such high temperatures that their atmospheres have water in the gas phase, making it possible to measure the water abundance for these objects. We present a precise determination of the water abundance in the atmosphere of the 2 $M_\mathrm{Jup}$ short-period exoplanet WASP-43b based on thermal emission and transmission spectroscopy measurements obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find the water content is consistent with the value expected in a solar composition gas at planetary temperatures (0.4-3.5x solar at 1 $\sigma$ confidence). The metallicity of WASP-43b’s atmosphere suggested by this result extends the trend observed in the Solar System of lower metal enrichment for higher planet masses.

Helium abundance in giant planets and the local interstellar medium

The sun and giant planets are generally thought to have the same helium abundance as that in the solar nebula from which they were formed 4.6 billion years ago. In contrast, the interstellar medium reflects current galactic conditions. The departure of current abundances from the primordial and protosolar values may help trace the processes that drive the nucleosynthesis evolution of the galaxy and planetary interior formation and evolution. The Galileo probe measured the He abundance in situ the atmosphere of Jupiter, showing that He is only slightly depleted compared to the solar value. For Saturn, contradictory estimates from past Voyager observations make its He abundance very uncertain. Here, we use He 58.4 nm dayglow measured from the outer planets by the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers to derive the He abundance in the atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn. We also use the solar He 58.4 nm line measured by the Solar Heliospheric Observatory to derive the He abundance inside the focusing cone. Finally, we compare He abundances derived here with primordial and protosolar values, stressing the unique opportunity offered by inner heliosphere observations and future Voyager in situ local interstellar medium measurements to derive the He abundance in the very interstellar cloud in which we reside.

Chemical analysis of CH stars - I: atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances

Results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a selected sample of CH stars are presented. Detailed chemical composition studies of these objects, which could reveal abundance patterns that in turn provide information regarding nucleosynthesis and evolutionary status, are scarce in the literature. We conducted detailed chemical composition studies for these objects based on high resolution (R ~ 42000) spectra. The spectra were taken from the ELODIE archive and cover the wavelength range from 3900 to 6800 A, in the wavelength range. We estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature Teff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from Local thermodynamic equilibrium analyses using model atmospheres. Estimated temperatures of these objects cover a wide range from 4550 K to 6030 K, the surface gravity from 1.8 to 3.8 and metallicity from -0.18 to -1.4. We report updates on elemental abundances for several heavy elements and present estimates of abundance ratios of Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy with respect to Fe. For the object HD 188650 we present the first abundance analyses results based on a high resolution spectrum. Enhancements of heavy elements relative to Fe, that are characteristic of CH stars are evident from our analyses for most of the objects. A parametric model based study is performed to understand the relative contributions from the s- and r-processes to the abundances of the heavy elements.

Spectral analysis and abundances of the post-HB star HD 76431

HD76431 is a slow rotating post-HB star that shows an underabundance of helium by 0.5 dex relative to the solar value. These observational facts suggest that atomic diffusion could be active in its atmosphere. We have used the MMT and Bok spectra to estimate the atmospheric parameters of the target star using the model atmospheres and synthetic spectra calculated with TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. The derived values of the effective temperature, surface gravity, helium abundance are consistent with those obtained by Ramspeck et al. (2001b). It appears that NLTE effect are not important for HD76431. We have used Stokes I spectra from ESPaDOnS at CFHT to perform an abundance analysis and a search for observational evidence of vertical stratification of the abundance of certain elements. The results of our abundance analysis are in good agreement with previously published data with respect to average abundances. Our numerical simulations show that carbon and nitrogen reveal signatures of vertical abundance stratification in the atmosphere of HD76431. It appears that the carbon abundance increases toward the deeper atmospheric layers. Nitrogen also shows a similar behaviour, but in deeper atmospheric layers we obtain a significant dispersion for the estimates of its abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of vertical abundance stratification of metals in a post-HB star and up to now it is the hottest star to show such stratification features. We also report the detection of two SiIII and one TiIII emission lines in the spectra of HD76431 that were not detected in previous studies.

Is Germanium (Ge, Z=32) A Neutron-Capture Element?

Historically,Ge has been considered to be a neutron-capture element. In this case, the r-process abundance of Ge is derived by subtracting the s-process abundance from the total abundance in the Solar system. However, the Ge abundance of the metal-poor star HD 108317 is lower than that of the scaled residual r-process abundance in the Solar system, about 1.2 dex. In this paper, based on a comparison of the Ge abundances of metal-poor stars and stellar yields, we find that the Ge abundances are not the result of the primary-like yields in massive stars and come mainly from the r-process. Based on the observed abundances of metal-poor stars, we derived the Ge abundances of the weak r-process and main r-process. The contributed percentage of the neutron-capture process to Ge in the Solar system is about 59 per cent, which means that the contributed percentage of the Ge residual abundance in the Solar system is about 41 per cent. We find that the Ge residual abundance is produced as secondary-like yields in massive stars. This implies that the element Ge in the Solar system is not produced solely by the neutron-capture process.

Composite Stellar Populations and Element by Element Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge and Elliptical Galaxies

This paper explores the integrated-light characteristics of the Milky Way (MW) bulge and to what extent they match those of elliptical galaxies in the local universe. We model composite stellar populations with realistic abundance distribution functions (ADFs), tracking the trends of individual elements as a function of overall heavy element abundance as actually observed in MW bulge stars. The resultant predictions for absorption feature strengths from the MW bulge mimic elliptical galaxies better than solar neighborhood stars do, but the MW bulge does not match elliptical galaxies, either. Comparing bulge versus elliptical galaxies, Fe, Ti, and Mg trend about the same for both but C, Na, and Ca seem irreconcilably different. Exploring the behavior of abundance compositeness leads to the concepts of "red lean" where a narrower ADF appears more metal rich than a wide one, and "red spread" where the spectral difference between wide and narrow ADFs increases as the ADF peak is moved to more metal-rich values. Tests on the systematics of recovering abundance, abundance pattern, and age from composite stellar populations using single stellar population models were performed. The chemical abundance pattern was recovered adequately, though a few minor systematic effects were uncovered. The prospects of measuring the width of the ADF of an old stellar population were investigated and seem bright using UV to IR photometry.

Heavy metals in a light white dwarf: Abundances of the metal-rich, extremely low-mass GALEX J1717+6757

Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we detail the first abundance analysis enabled by far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of a low-mass (~0.19 Msun) white dwarf (WD), GALEX J1717+6757, which is in a 5.9-hr binary with a fainter, more-massive companion. We see absorption from nine metals, including roughly solar abundances of Ca, Fe, Ti, and P. We detect a significantly sub-solar abundance of C, and put upper limits on N and O that are also markedly sub-solar. Updated diffusion calculations indicate that all metals should settle out of the atmosphere of this 14,900 K, log(g) = 5.67 WD in the absence of radiative forces in less than 20 yr, orders of magnitude faster than the cooling age of hundreds of Myr. We demonstrate that ongoing accretion of rocky material that is often the cause of atmospheric metals in isolated, more massive WDs is unlikely to explain the observed abundances in GALEX J1717+6757. Using new radiative levitation calculations, we determine that radiative forces can counteract diffusion and support many but not all of the elements present in the atmosphere of this WD; radiative levitation cannot, on its own, explain all of the observed abundance patterns, and additional mechanisms such as rotational mixing may be required. Finally, we detect both primary and secondary eclipses using ULTRACAM high-speed photometry, which we use to constrain the low-mass WD radius and rotation rate as well as update the ephemeris from the discovery observations of this WD+WD binary.

Near Infrared Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs. I. CO Molecule as an Abundance Indicator of Carbon

Based on the near infrared spectra of 42 M dwarfs, carbon abundances are determined from the ro-vibrational lines of CO 2-0 band. We apply Teff values based on the angular diameters if available or use the Teff values in a logTeff – M3.4 (the absolute magnitude at 3.4 micron based on the WISE W1 flux and the Hipparcos parallax) relation to estimate Teff values of objects for which angular diameters are unknown. Also, we discuss briefly the HR diagram of low mass stars. On the observed spectrum of M dwarf, the continuum is depressed by the numerous weak lines of H2O and only the depressed continuum or the pseudo- continuum can be seen. On the theoretical spectrum of M dwarfs, we find that the pseudo-continuum can be evaluated accurately thanks to the recent H2O line database. Then quantitative analysis of the spectrum of M dwarf can be done by referring to the pseudo-continua both on the observed and theoretical spectra. Since the basic principle of the spectroscopic analysis should be the same whether the true- or pseudo-continuum is referred to, the difficulty related to the continuum in cool stars can in principle be overcome. Then, the numerous CO lines can be excellent abundance indicators of carbon, since almost all the carbon atoms are in stable CO molecules which remain almost unchanged for the changes of physical condition in the photosphere and, somewhat unexpectedly, carbon abundances in late-type stars can best be determined in M dwarfs rather than in solar type stars. The resulting C/Fe ratios for most M dwarfs are nearly constant at about the solar value based on the classical high carbon abundance rather than on the recently revised lower value. This result implies that the solar carbon abundance is atypical for its metallicity among the stellar objects in the solar neighborhood if the downward revised solar carbon abundance is correct.

Near Infrared Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs. I. CO Molecule as an Abundance Indicator of Carbon [Replacement]

Based on the near infrared spectra of 42 M dwarfs, carbon abundances are determined from the ro-vibrational lines of CO 2-0 band. We use Teff values based on the angular diameters if available or apply a logTeff – M3.4 (the absolute magnitude at 3.4 micron based on the WISE W1 flux and the Hipparcos parallax) relation to estimate Teff values of objects for which angular diameters are unknown. Also, we discuss briefly the HR diagram of low mass stars. On the observed spectrum of M dwarf, the continuum is depressed by the numerous weak lines of H2O and only the depressed continuum or the pseudo- continuum can be seen. On the theoretical spectrum of M dwarfs, we find that the pseudo-continuum can be evaluated accurately thanks to the recent H2O line database. Then quantitative analysis of the spectrum of M dwarf can be done by referring to the pseudo-continua both on the observed and theoretical spectra. Since the basic principle of the spectroscopic analysis should be the same whether the true- or pseudo-continuum is referred to, the difficulty related to the continuum in cool stars can in principle be overcome. Then, the numerous CO lines can be excellent abundance indicators of carbon, since almost all the carbon atoms are in stable CO molecules whose abundance remains almost unchanged for the changes of physical condition in the photosphere and, somewhat unexpectedly, carbon abundances in late-type stars can best be determined in M dwarfs rather than in solar type stars. The resulting C/Fe ratios for most M dwarfs are nearly constant at about the solar value based on the classical high carbon abundance rather than on the recently revised lower value. This result implies that the solar carbon abundance is atypical for its metallicity among the stellar objects in the solar neighborhood if the downward revised solar carbon abundance is correct.

Clues on the Galactic evolution of sulphur from star clusters

(Abridged) The abundances of alpha-elements are a powerful diagnostic of the star formation history and chemical evolution of a galaxy. Sulphur, being moderately volatile, can be reliably measured in the interstellar medium (ISM) of damped Ly-alpha galaxies and extragalactic HII regions. Measurements in stars of different metallicity in our Galaxy can then be readily compared to the abundances in external galaxies. Such a comparison is not possible for Si or Ca that suffer depletion onto dust in the ISM. Furthermore, studying sulphur is interesting because it probes nucleosynthetic conditions that are very different from those of O or Mg. The measurements in star clusters are a reliable tracers of the Galactic evolution of sulphur. We find <A(S)>NLTE=6.11+/-0.04 for M 4, <A(S)>NLTE=7.17+/-0.02 for NGC 2477, and <A(S)>NLTE=7.13+/-0.06 for NGC 5822. For the only star studied in Trumpler 5 we find A(S)NLTE=6.43+/-0.03 and A(S)LTE=6.94+/-0.05. Our measurements show that, by and large, the S abundances in Galactic clusters trace reliably those in field stars. The only possible exception is Trumpler 5, for which the NLTE sulphur abundance implies an [S/Fe] ratio lower by roughly 0.4 dex than observed in field stars of comparable metallicity, even though its LTE sulphur abundance is in line with abundances of field stars. Moreover the LTE sulphur abundance is consistent only with the abundance of another alpha-element, Mg, in the same star, while the low NLTE value is consistent with Si and Ca. The S abundances in our sample of stars in clusters imply that the clusters are chemically homogeneous for S within 0.05 dex.

Fingerprints of Anomalous Primordial Universe on the Abundance of Large Scale Structures

We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures and, using the quasars data, we find the upper bound $n_A<0.6$ for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale $M_c$ in which for $M<M_c (M> M_c)$ the enhancement in variance induced from anomalous feature decreases (increases) the abundance of dark matter structures in Universe.

Fingerprints of Anomalous Primordial Universe on the Abundance of Large Scale Structures [Cross-Listing]

We study the predictions of anomalous inflationary models on the abundance of structures in large scale structure observations. The anomalous features encoded in primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum are (a): localized feature in momentum space, (b): hemispherical asymmetry and (c): statistical anisotropies. We present a model-independent expression relating the number density of structures to the changes in the matter density variance. Models with localized feature can alleviate the tension between observations and numerical simulations of cold dark matter structures on galactic scales as a possible solution to the missing satellite problem. In models with hemispherical asymmetry we show that the abundance of structures becomes asymmetric depending on the direction of observation to sky. In addition, we study the effects of scale-dependent dipole amplitude on the abundance of structures and, using the quasars data, we find the upper bound $n_A<0.6$ for the spectral index of the dipole asymmetry. In all cases there is a critical mass scale $M_c$ in which for $M<M_c (M> M_c)$ the enhancement in variance induced from anomalous feature decreases (increases) the abundance of dark matter structures in Universe.

Spectroscopic Study on the Beryllium Abundances of Red Giant Stars

An extensive spectroscopic study was carried out for the beryllium abundances of 200 red giants (mostly of late G and early K type), which were determined from the near-UV Be II 3131.066 line based on high-dispersion spectra obtained by Subaru/HDS, with an aim of investigating the nature of surface Be contents in these evolved giants; e.g., dependence upon stellar parameters, degree of peculiarity along with its origin and build-up timing. We found that Be is considerably deficient (to widely different degree from star to star) in the photosphere of these evolved giants by ~1-3 dex (or more) compared to the initial abundance. While the resulting Be abundances (A(Be)) appear to weakly depend upon T_eff, log g, [Fe/H], M, age, and v_sin i, this may be attributed to the metallicity dependence of A(Be) coupled with the mutual correlation between these stellar parameters, since such tendencies almost disappear in the metallicity-scaled Be abundance ([Be/Fe]). By comparing the Be abundances (as well as their correlations with Li and C) to the recent theoretical predictions based on sophisticated stellar evolution calculations, we concluded that such a considerable extent/diversity of Be deficit is difficult to explain only by the standard theory of first dredge-up in the envelope of red giants, and that some extra mixing process (such as rotational or thermohaline mixing) must be responsible, which presumably starts to operate already in the main-sequence phase. This view is supported by the fact that appreciable Be depletion is seen in less evolved intermediate-mass B-A type stars near to the main sequence.

Abundance sensitive points of line profiles in the stellar spectra

Many abundance studies are based on spectrum synthesis and $\chi$-squared differences between the synthesized and an observed spectrum. Much of the spectra so compared depend only weakly on the elemental abundances. Logarithmic plots of line depths rather than relative flux make this more apparent. We present simulations that illustrate a simple method for finding regions of the spectrum most sensitive to abundance, and also some caveats for using such information. As expected, we find that weak features are the most sensitive. Equivalent widths of weak lines are ideal features, because of their sensitivity to abundances, and insensitivity to factors that broaden the line profiles. The wings of strong lines can also be useful, but it is essential that the broadening mechanisms be accurately known. The very weakest features, though sensitive to abundance, should be avoided or used with great caution because of uncertainty of continuum placement as well as numerical uncertainties associated with the subtraction of similar numbers.

A Search for Strongly Mg-enhanced Stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Strongly Mg-enhanced stars with [Mg/Fe] $>$ 1.0 show peculiar abundance patterns and hence are of great interest for our understanding of stellar formation and chemical evolution of the Galaxy. A systematical search for strongly Mg-enhanced stars based on the low-resolution $(R\simeq2000)$ spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is carried out by finding the best matched synthetic spectrum to the observed one in the region of Mg I b lines around $\lambda$5170\AA$~$via a profile matching method. The advantage of our method is that fitting parameters are refined by reproducing the [Mg/Fe] ratios of 47 stars from very precise high-resolution spectroscopic (HRS) analysis by Nissen and Schuster (2010); and these parameters are crucial to the precision and validity of the derived Mg abundances. As a further check of our method, Mg abundances are estimated with our method for member stars in four Galactic globular clusters (M92, M13, M3, M71) which cover the same metallicity range as our sample, and the results are in good agreement with those of HRS analysis in the literature. The validation of our method is also proved by the agreement of [Mg/Fe] between our values and those of HRS analysis by Aoki et al.(2013). Finally, 33 candidates of strongly Mg-enhanced stars with [Mg/Fe]$>$1.0 are selected from 14850 F and G stars. Follow-up observations will be carried out on these candidates with high-resolution spectroscopy by large telescopes in the near future, so as to check our selection procedure and to perform a precise and detailed abundance analysis and to explore the origins of these stars.

Abundance of Field Galaxies

We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centered on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance 10Mpc. The sample of 750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB= -10, and virial masses Mvir= 1e9Msun. We find that the standard LCDM model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V>60kms and corresponding virial masses Mvir> 3e10Msun, but it badly fails by over-predicting 5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V= 30-50kms. The Warm Dark Matter models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of the WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V = V**alpha, alpha =-1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard LCDM model that predicts the slope alpha =-3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellites problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the LCDM model to survive, in the 10Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 dark galaxies with virial mass Mvir= 1e10Msun, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable HI gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

Effects of moderate abundance changes on the atmospheric structure and colours of Mira variables (Research Note)

Aims. We study the effects of moderate deviations from solar abundances upon the atmospheric structure and colours of typical Mira variables. Methods. We present two model series of dynamical opacity-sampling models of Mira variables which have (1) 1 solar metallicity 3 and (2) "mild" S-type C/O abundance ratio ([C/O]=0.9) with typical Zr enhancement (solar +1.0). These series are compared to a previously studied solar-abundance series which has similar fundamental parameters (mass, luminosity, period, radius) that are close to those of o Cet. Results. Both series show noticeable effects of abundance upon stratifications and infrared colours but cycle-to-cycle differences mask these effects at most pulsation phases, with the exception of a narrow-water-filter colour near minimum phase.

Bent by baryons: the low mass galaxy-halo relation

The relation between galaxies and dark matter halos is of vital importance for evaluating theoretical predictions of structure formation and galaxy formation physics. We show that the widely used method of abundance matching based on dark matter only simulations fails at the low mass end because two of its underlying assumptions are broken: only a small fraction of low mass (below 10^9.5 solar masses) halos host a visible galaxy, and halos grow at a lower rate due to the effect of baryons. In this regime, reliance on dark matter only simulations for abundance matching is neither accurate nor self-consistent. We find that the reported discrepancy between observational estimates of the halo masses of dwarf galaxies and the values predicted by abundance matching does not point to a failure of LCDM, but simply to a failure to account for baryonic effects. Our results also imply that the Local Group contains only a few hundred observable galaxies in contrast with the thousands of faint dwarfs that abundance matching would suggest. We show how relations derived from abundance matching can be corrected, so that they can be used self-consistently to calibrate models of galaxy formation.

General limit on the relation between abundances of D and $^7$Li in big bang nucleosynthesis with nucleon injections

The injections of energetic hadrons could have occurred in the early universe by decays of hypothetical long-lived exotic particles. The injections induce the showers of nonthermal hadrons via nuclear scattering. Neutrons generated at these events can react with $^7$Be nuclei and reduce $^7$Be abundance solving a problem of the primordial $^7$Li abundance. We suggest that thermal neutron injection is a way to derive a model independent conservative limit on the relation between abundances of D and $^7$Li in a hadronic energy injection model. We emphasize that an uncertainty in cross sections of inelastic $n+p$ scattering affects the total number of induced neutrons, which determines final abundances of D and $^7$Li. In addition, the annihilations of antinucleons with $^4$He result in higher D abundance and trigger nonthermal $^6$Li production. It is concluded that a reduction of $^7$Li abundance from a value in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model down to an observational two $\sigma$ upper limit is necessarily accompanied by an undesirable increase of D abundance up to at least an observational 12 $\sigma$ upper limit from observations of quasi-stellar object absorption line systems. The effects of antinucleons and secondary particles produced in the hadronic showers always lead to a severer constraint. The BBN models involving any injections of extra neutrons are thus unlikely to reproduce a small $^7$Li abundance consistent with observations.

General limit on the relation between abundances of D and $^7$Li in big bang nucleosynthesis with nucleon injections [Cross-Listing]

The injections of energetic hadrons could have occurred in the early universe by decays of hypothetical long-lived exotic particles. The injections induce the showers of nonthermal hadrons via nuclear scattering. Neutrons generated at these events can react with $^7$Be nuclei and reduce $^7$Be abundance solving a problem of the primordial $^7$Li abundance. We suggest that thermal neutron injection is a way to derive a model independent conservative limit on the relation between abundances of D and $^7$Li in a hadronic energy injection model. We emphasize that an uncertainty in cross sections of inelastic $n+p$ scattering affects the total number of induced neutrons, which determines final abundances of D and $^7$Li. In addition, the annihilations of antinucleons with $^4$He result in higher D abundance and trigger nonthermal $^6$Li production. It is concluded that a reduction of $^7$Li abundance from a value in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model down to an observational two $\sigma$ upper limit is necessarily accompanied by an undesirable increase of D abundance up to at least an observational 12 $\sigma$ upper limit from observations of quasi-stellar object absorption line systems. The effects of antinucleons and secondary particles produced in the hadronic showers always lead to a severer constraint. The BBN models involving any injections of extra neutrons are thus unlikely to reproduce a small $^7$Li abundance consistent with observations.

The lithium abundances for a large sample of red giants

The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-LTE correction considered. Among these, there are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at vsini $<$ 10 km s$^{-1}$. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (vsini $<$ 4 km s$^{-1}$). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1$\%$ in literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate-mass (1.5-5 M$_{\odot}$) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

The Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES) IX. Constraining pure r-process Ba/Eu abundance ratio from observations of r-II stars

The oldest stars born before the onset of the main s-process are expected to reveal a pure r-process Ba/Eu abundance ratio. We revised barium and europium abundances of selected very metal-poor (VMP) and strongly r-process enhanced (r-II) stars to evaluate an empirical r-process Ba/Eu ratio. Our calculations were based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for Ba II and Eu II in the classical 1D MARCS model atmospheres. Homogeneous stellar abundances were determined from the Ba II subordinate and resonance lines by applying a common Ba isotope mixture. We used high-quality VLT/UVES spectra and observational material from the literature. For most investigated stars, NLTE leads to a lower Ba, but a higher Eu abundance. The resulting elemental ratio of the NLTE abundances amounts, on average, log(Ba/Eu) = 0.78+-0.06. This is a new constraint to pure r-process production of Ba and Eu. The obtained Ba/Eu abundance ratio of the r-II stars supports the corresponding Solar System r-process ratio as predicted by recent Galactic chemical evolution calculations of Bisterzo, Travaglio, Gallino, Wiescher, and Kappeler. We present the NLTE abundance corrections for lines of Ba II and Eu II in the grid of VMP model atmospheres.

High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is(are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph. The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. We have derived abundances of light elements Li, C, and N, alpha-elements, odd-Z elements, iron-peak elements, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak, the second peak, the third peak, and the actinides regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and normal very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements, and general behaviors for the 3D corrections were presented.

Explaining the Ba, Y, Sr, and Eu abundance scatter in metal-poor halo stars: constraints to the r-process

Context. Thanks to the heroic observational campaigns carried out in recent years we now have large samples of metal-poor stars for which measurements of detailed abundances exist. [...] These data hold important clues on the nature of the contribution of the first stellar generations to the enrichment of our Galaxy. Aims. We aim to explain the scatter in Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu abundance ratio diagrams unveiled by the metal-poor halo stars. Methods. We computed inhomogeneous chemical evolution models for the Galactic halo assuming different scenarios for the r-process site: the electron-capture supernovae (EC) and the magnetorotationally driven (MRD) supernovae scenario. We also considered models with and without the contribution of fast-rotating massive stars (spinstars) to an early enrichment by the s-process. A detailed comparison with the now large sample of stars with measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, Eu, and Fe is provided (both in terms of scatter plots and number distributions for several abundance ratios). Results. The scatter observed in these abundance ratios of the very metal-poor stars (with [Fe/H] < -2.5) can be explained by combining the s-process production in spinstars, and the r-process contribution coming from massive stars. For the r-process we have developed models for both the EC and the MRD scenario that match the observations. Conclusions. With the present observational and theoretical constraints we cannot distinguish between the EC and the MRD scenario in the Galactic halo. Independently of the r-process scenarios adopted, the production of elements by an s-process in spinstars is needed to reproduce the spread in abundances of the light neutron capture elements (Sr and Y) over heavy neutron capture elements (Ba and Eu). We provide a way to test our suggestions by means of the distribution of the Ba isotopic ratios in a [Ba/Fe] or [Sr/Ba] vs. [Fe/H] diagram.

Measuring Jupiter's water abundance by Juno: the link between interior and formation models

The JUNO mission to Jupiter is planned to measure the water abundance in Jupiter’s atmosphere below the cloud layer. This measurement is important because it can be used to reveal valuable information on Jupiter’s origin and its composition. In this paper we discuss the importance of this measurement, the challenges in its interpretation, and address how it can be connected to interior and formation models of Jupiter.

Measuring Jupiter's water abundance by Juno: the link between interior and formation models [Replacement]

The JUNO mission to Jupiter is planned to measure the water abundance in Jupiter’s atmosphere below the cloud layer. This measurement is important because it can be used to reveal valuable information on Jupiter’s origin and its composition. In this paper we discuss the importance of this measurement, the challenges in its interpretation, and address how it can be connected to interior and formation models of Jupiter.

The Trace of the CNO Cycle in the Ring Nebula NGC6888

We present new results on the chemical composition of the Galactic ring nebula NGC6888 surrounding the WN6(h) star WR136. The data are based on deep spectroscopical observations taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph at the 8.2m Subaru Telescope. The spectra cover the optical range from 3700 to 7400 A. The effect of the CNO cycle is well identified in the abundances of He, N, and O, while elements not involved in the synthesis such as Ar, S, and Fe present values consistent with the solar vicinity and the ambient gas. The major achievement of this work is the first detection of the faint CII 4267 recombination line in a Wolf-Rayet nebula. This allows to estimate the C abundance in NGC6888 and therefore investigate for the first time the trace of the CNO cycle in a ring nebula around a Wolf-Rayet star. Although the detection of the CII line has a low signal-to-noise ratio, the C abundance seems to be higher than the predictions of recent stellar evolution models of massive stars. The Ne abundance also show a puzzling pattern with an abundance of about 0.5 dex lower than the solar vicinity, which may be related to the action of the NeNa cycle. Attending to the constraints imposed by the dynamical timescale and the He/H and N/O ratios of the nebula, the comparison with stellar evolution models indicates that the initial mass of the stellar progenitor of NGC6888 is between 25 Msun and 40 Msun.

Molecular ions in the protostellar shock L1157-B1

We perform a complete census of molecular ions with an abundance larger than 1e-10 in the protostellar shock L1157-B1 by means of an unbiased high-sensitivity survey obtained with the IRAM-30m and Herschel/HIFI. By means of an LVG radiative transfer code the gas physical conditions and fractional abundances of molecular ions are derived. The latter are compared with estimates of steady-state abundances in the cloud and their evolution in the shock calculated with the chemical model Astrochem. We detect emission from HCO+, H13CO+, N2H+, HCS+, and, for the first time in a shock, from HOCO+, and SO+. The bulk of the emission peaks at blueshifted velocity, ~ 0.5-3 km/s with respect to systemic, has a width of ~ 4-8 km/s, and is associated with the outflow cavities (T_kin ~ 20-70 K, n(H2) ~ 1e5 cm-3). Observed HCO+ and N2H+ abundances are in agreement with steady-state abundances in the cloud and with their evolution in the compressed and heated gas in the shock for cosmic rays ionization rate Z = 3e-16 s-1. HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ observed abundances, instead, are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than predicted in the cloud; on the other hand they are strongly enhanced on timescales shorter than the shock age (~2000 years) if CO2, S or H2S, and OCS are sputtered off the dust grains in the shock. The performed analysis indicates that HCO+ and N2H+ are a fossil record of pre-shock gas in the outflow cavity, while HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ are effective shock tracers and can be used to infer the amount of CO2 and sulphur-bearing species released from dust mantles in the shock. The observed HCS+ (and CS) abundance indicates that OCS should be one of the main sulphur carrier on grain mantles. However, the OCS abundance required to fit the observations is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than observed. Further studies are required to fully understand the chemistry of sulphur-bearing species.

Mass loss in main-sequence B stars

We calculate radiatively driven wind models of main-sequence B stars and provide the wind mass-loss rates and terminal velocities. The main-sequence mass-loss rate strongly depends on the stellar effective temperature. For the hottest B stars the mass-loss rate amounts to $10^{-9}\,\text{M}_\odot\,\text{year}^{-1}$, while for the cooler ones the mass-loss rate is by more than three orders of magnitude lower. Main sequence B stars with solar abundance and effective temperatures lower than about $15\,000\,\text{K}$ (later than the spectral type B5) do not have any homogeneous line-driven wind. We predict the wind mass-loss rates for the solar chemical composition and for modified abundance of heavier elements to study the winds of chemically peculiar stars. The mass-loss rate may both increase or decrease with increasing abundance depending on the importance of the induced emergent flux redistribution. Stars with overabundant silicon may have homogeneous winds even below the solar abundance wind limit at $15\,000\,\text{K}$. The winds of main-sequence B stars lie below the static limit, i.e., a static atmosphere solution is also possible. This points to an important problem of initiation of these winds. We discuss the implications of our models for the rotational braking, filling the magnetosphere of Bp stars and for chemically peculiar stars.

Discovery of secular variations in the atmospheric abundances of magnetic Ap stars

The stars of the middle main sequence have relatively quiescent outer layers, and unusual chemical abundance patterns may develop in their atmospheres. The presence of chemical peculiarities reveal the action of such subsurface phenomena as gravitational settling and radiatively driven levitation of trace elements, and their competition with mixing processes such as turbulent diffusion. We want to establish whether abundance peculiarities change as stars evolve on the main sequence, and provide observational constraints to diffusion theory. We have performed spectral analysis of 15 magnetic Bp stars that are members of open clusters (and thus have well-known ages), with masses between about 3 and 4 M_sun. For each star, we measured the abundances of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr and Nd. We have discovered the systematic time evolution of trace elements through the main-sequence lifetime of magnetic chemically peculiar stars as their atmospheres cool and evolve toward lower gravity. During the main sequence lifetime, we observe clear and systematic variations in the atmospheric abundances of He, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr and Nd. For all these elements, except He, the atmospheric abundances decrease with age. The abundances of Fe-peak elements converge toward solar values, while the rare-earth elements converge toward values at least 100 times more abundant than in the Sun. Helium is always underabundant compared to the Sun, evolving from about 1% up to 10% of the solar He abundance. We have attempted to interpret the observed abundance variations in the context of radiatively driven diffusion theory, which appears to provide a framework to understand some, but not all, of the observed anomalous abundance levels and variations.

MyGIsFOS: an automated code for parameter determination and detailed abundance analysis in cool stars

The current and planned high-resolution, high-multiplexity stellar spectroscopic surveys, as well as the swelling amount of under-utilized data present in public archives have led to an increasing number of efforts to automate the crucial but slow process to retrieve stellar parameters and chemical abundances from spectra. We present MyGIsFOS, a code designed to derive atmospheric parameters and detailed stellar abundances from medium – high resolution spectra of cool (FGK) stars. We describe the general structure and workings of the code, present analyses of a number of well studied stars representative of the parameter space MyGIsFOS is designed to cover, and examples of the exploitation of MyGIsFOS very fast analysis to assess uncertainties through Montecarlo tests. MyGIsFOS aims to reproduce a “traditional” manual analysis by fitting spectral features for different elements against a precomputed grid of synthetic spectra. Fe I and Fe II lines can be employed to determine temperature, gravity, microturbulence, and metallicity by iteratively minimizing the dependence of Fe I abundance from line lower energy and equivalent width, and imposing Fe I – Fe II ionization equilibrium. Once parameters are retrieved, detailed chemical abundances are measured from lines of other elements. MyGIsFOS replicates closely the results obtained in similar analyses on a set of well known stars. It is also quite fast, performing a full parameter determination and detailed abundance analysis in about two minutes per star on a mainstream desktop computer. Currently, its preferred field of application are high-resolution and/or large spectral coverage data (e.g UVES, X-Shooter, HARPS, Sophie).

Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

The observed dark matter (DM) abundance can be created from a thermal bath after the interaction rate which keeps the DM particles in thermal equilibrium falls below the expansion rate of the Universe. DM can also be excited directly from the inflaton or moduli decay, along with the excitation of the Standard Model degrees of freedom. Here we discuss the evolution of the DM abundance from the very onset of its creation from the inflaton decay. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance can be set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial condition. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism, also independent of the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM becomes non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial condition. Also depending on its mass and interaction rate, the DM could remain relativistic, thus acting like a dark radiation, or could behave as a warm or cold relic. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance, and compare with complementary constraints derived from indirect search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical constraints from the unitarity of the scattering matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we also show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter [Replacement]

We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM) abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to DM, reheating temperature, and the DM mass and interaction rate with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially) with the primordial bath or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism, also independent of the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and non-thermal regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter [Replacement]

We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM) abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to DM, reheating temperature, and the DM mass and interaction rate with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially) with the primordial bath or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism, also independent of the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and non-thermal regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

Revisited fluorine abundances in the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656)

Fluorine is a fairly good tracer of formation histories of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters as already revealed by several studies. Large variations in fluorine abundance in red giant stars of the globular cluster M22 have been recently reported by two different groups. Futhermore, one of these studies claims that the abundance of fluorine is anti-correlated with sodium abundances in this cluster, leading to strong conclusions on the chemical history of M22. To validate this important finding, we re-examine the F abundance determinations of some of the previously studied stars. We have thus reanalysed some high-resolution VLT/CRIRES spectra of RGB stars found in M22 in order to re-estimate their fluorine abundance from the spectral synthesis of the HF line at 2.336microns. Unlike what has been previously estimated, we show that only upper limits or doubtful fluorine abundances with large uncertainties in M22 RGB stars can be derived. This is probably caused by an incorrect identification of continuum fluctuations as the HF signature combined with a wrong correction of the stellar radial velocity. Such continuum fluctuations could be the consequences of telluric residuals that are still present in the analysed spectra. Therefore, no definitive conclusions on the chemical pollution caused by the M22 first stellar generation can presently be drawn from the fluorine content of this cluster.

The CHESS survey of the L1157-B1 bow-shock: high and low excitation water vapor

Molecular outflows powered by young protostars strongly affect the kinematics and chemistry of the natal molecular cloud through strong shocks resulting in substantial modifications of the abundance of several species. As part of the "Chemical Herschel Surveys of Star forming regions" guaranteed time key program, we aim at investigating the physical and chemical conditions of H20 in the brightest shock region B1 of the L1157 molecular outflow. We observed several ortho- and para-H2O transitions using HIFI and PACS instruments on board Herschel, providing a detailed picture of the kinematics and spatial distribution of the gas. We performed a LVG analysis to derive the physical conditions of H2O shocked material, and ultimately obtain its abundance. We detected 13 H2O lines probing a wide range of excitation conditions. PACS maps reveal that H2O traces weak and extended emission associated with the outflow identified also with HIFI in the o-H2O line at 556.9 GHz, and a compact (~10") bright, higher-excitation region. The LVG analysis of H2O lines in the bow-shock show the presence of two gas components with different excitation conditions: a warm (Tkin~200-300 K) and dense (n(H2)~(1-3)x10^6 cm-3) component with an assumed extent of 10" and a compact (~2"-5") and hot, tenuous (Tkin~900-1400 K, n(H2)~10^3-10^4 cm-3) gas component, which is needed to account for the line fluxes of high Eu transitions. The fractional abundance of the warm and hot H2O gas components is estimated to be (0.7-2)x10^{-6} and (1-3)x10^{-4}, respectively. Finally, we identified an additional component in absorption in the HIFI spectra of H2O lines connecting with the ground state level, probably arising from the photodesorption of icy mantles of a water-enriched layer at the edges of the cloud.

Radiative Levitation of Silicon in the Atmospheres of Two Hyades DA White Dwarfs

The presence of silicon at the surface of the two Hyades DA white dwarfs WD 0421+162 and WD 0431+126 requires mechanisms that counteract the effects of the downward diffusion. Radiative levitation calculations indicate that the silicon abundance observed in WD 0431+126 corresponds to the abundance supported by radiative levitation. Detailed time-dependent diffusion calculations that take into account radiative levitation and accretion indicate that accretion with rates of dM/dt(Si) < 1.00E4 g/s could also be present without disrupting the abundance supported by radiative levitation. In the case of WD 0421+162, accretion with a rate of dM/dt(Si) = 1.25E5 g/s must be invoked, because its observed silicon abundance is larger than the abundance supported by radiative levitation. This accretion rate is lower than the accretion rate given by the accretion-diffusion model, because the radiative levitation slows down the downward diffusion of silicon. The silicon abundances observed in the two Hyades white dwarfs cannot be interpreted solely in terms of accretion. The interpretation of the silicon abundances must take into account the interplay between radiative levitation and accretion.

The Morphology and Dynamics of Jet-Driven Supernova Remnants: the Case of W49B

The circumstellar medium (CSM) of a massive star is modified by its winds before a supernova (SN) explosion occurs, and thus the evolution of the resulting supernova remnant (SNR) is influenced by both the geometry of the explosion as well as the complex structure of the CSM. Motivated by recent work suggesting the SNR W49B was a jet-driven SN expanding in a complex CSM, we explore how the dynamics and the metal distributions in a jet-driven explosion are modified by the interaction with the surrounding environment. In particular, we perform hydrodynamical calculations to study the dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis of a jet-driven SN triggered by the collapse of a 25 solar masses Wolf-Rayet star and its subsequent interaction with the CSM up to several hundred years following the explosion. We find that although the CSM has small-scale effects on the structure of the SNR, the overall morphology and abundance patterns are reflective of the initial asymmetry of the SN explosion. Thus, we predict that jet-driven SNRs, such as W49B, should be identifiable based on morphology and abundance patterns at ages up to several hundred years, even if they expand into a complex CSM environment.

The polluted atmosphere of the white dwarf NLTT 25792 and the diversity of circumstellar environments

We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted, hydrogen-rich white dwarf NLTT 25792. The spectra show strong lines of calcium (Ca H&K, near-infrared calcium triplet, and Ca I 4226 and numerous lines of iron along with magnesium and aluminum lines from which we draw the abundance pattern. Moreover, the photospheric Ca H&K lines are possibly blended with a circumstellar component shifted by -20 km/s relative to the photosphere. A comparison with a sample of four white dwarfs with similar parameters show considerable variations in their abundance patterns, particularly in the calcium to magnesium abundance ratio that varies by a factor of five within this sample. The observed variations, even after accounting for diffusion effects, imply similar variations in the putative accretion source. Also, we find that silicon and sodium are significantly underabundant in the atmosphere of NLTT 25792, a fact that may offer some clues on the nature of the accretion source.

Abundance Profiling of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and Supernova Properties in the Early Universe

The first metal enrichment in the universe was made by a supernova (SN) explosion of a population (Pop) III star and chemical evolution of the universe is recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. Increasing number of the EMP stars are now being discovered. This allows us to statistically constrain properties of SNe of Pop III stars (Pop III SNe). We investigate the properties of Pop III SNe by comparing their nucleosynthetic yields with the abundance patterns of the EMP stars. We focus on the most metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] $\lsim-3.5$ and present Pop III SN models that reproduce well their individual abundance patterns. From these models we derive relations between abundance ratios and properties of Pop III SNe: [(C+N)/Fe] vs. an ejected Fe mass, and [(C+N)/Mg] vs. a remnant mass. Using fitting formulae, distribution of the abundance ratios of EMP stars is converted to those of the properties of Pop III SNe, which can be compared with SNe in the present day. Large samples of EMP stars obtained by ongoing and planning EMP star surveys and subsequent high-dispersion spectroscopic observations will give a clue to confining properties of Pop III SNe in the early universe.

A Systematic Retrieval Analysis of Secondary Eclipse Spectra III: Diagnosing Chemical Disequilibrium in Planetary Atmospheres

Chemical disequilibrium has recently become a relevant topic in the study of the atmospheres of of transiting extrasolar planets, brown dwarfs, and directly imaged exoplanets. We present a new way of assessing whether or not a Jovian-like atmosphere is in chemical disequilibrium from observations of detectable or inferred gases such as H$_2$O, CH$_4$, CO, and H$_2$. Our hypothesis, based on previous kinetic modeling studies, is that cooler atmospheres will show stronger signs of disequilibrium than hotter atmospheres. We verify this with chemistry-transport models and show that planets with temperatures less than $\sim$1200 K are likely to show the strongest signs of disequilibrium due to the vertical quenching of CO, and that our new approach is able to capture this process. We also find that in certain instances a planetary composition may appear in equilibrium when it actually is not due to the degeneracy in the shape of the vertical mixing ratio profiles. We determine the state of disequilibrium in eight exoplanets using the results from secondary eclipse temperature and abundance retrievals. We find that all of the planets in our sample are consistent with thermochemical equilibrium to within 3-sigma. Future observations are needed to further constrain the abundances in order to definitively identify disequilibrium in exoplanet atmospheres.

The RAVE harvest: from the relation between abundances and kinematic of the Milky Way stars to tools for the abundance analysis of the spectra

RAVE is a spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way which collected more than 500,000 stellar spectra of nearby stars in the Galaxy. The RAVE consortium analysed these spectra to obtain radial velocities, stellar parameters and chemical abundances. These data, together with spatial and kinematic information like positions, proper motions, and distance estimations, make the RAVE database a rich source for galactic archaeology. I present recent investigations on the chemo-kinematic relations and chemical gradients in the Milky Way disk by using RAVE data and compare our results with the Besancon models. I also present the code SPACE, an evolution of the RAVE chemical pipeline, which integrates the measurements of stellar parameters and chemical abundances in one single process.

Constraints on Majorana Dark Matter from a Fourth Lepton Family [Cross-Listing]

We study the possibility of dark matter in the form of heavy neutrinos from a fourth lepton family with helicity suppressed couplings such that dark matter is produced thermally via annihilations in the early Universe. We present all possible constraints for this scenario coming from LHC and collider physics, underground direct detectors, neutrino telescopes, and indirect astrophysical searches. Although we embed the WIMP candidate within a model of composite dynamics, the majority of our results are model independent and applicable to all models where heavy neutrinos with suppressed couplings account for the dark matter abundance.

Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Cool Metal-rich Exoplanet Hosts: A Case Study of the C/O Ratio of 55 Cancri

The super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e, the smallest member of a five-planet system, has recently been observed to transit its host star. The radius estimates from transit observations, coupled with spectroscopic determinations of mass, provide constraints on its interior composition. The composition of exoplanetary interiors and atmospheres are particularly sensitive to elemental C/O ratio, which to first order can be estimated from the host stars. Results from a recent spectroscopic study analyzing the 6300A [O I] line and two C I lines suggest that 55 Cnc has a carbon-rich composition (C/O=1.12+/-0.09). However oxygen abundances derived using the 6300A [O I] line are highly sensitive to a Ni I blend, particularly in metal-rich stars such as 55 Cnc ([Fe/H]=0.34+/-0.18). Here, we further investigate 55 Cnc’s composition by deriving the carbon and oxygen abundances from these and additional C and O absorption features. We find that the measured C/O ratio depends on the oxygen lines used. The C/O ratio that we derive based on the 6300A [O I] line alone is consistent with the previous value. Yet, our investigation of additional abundance indicators results in a mean C/O ratio of 0.78+/-0.08. The lower C/O ratio of 55 Cnc determined here may place this system at the sensitive boundary between protoplanetary disk compositions giving rise to planets with high (>0.8) versus low (<0.8) C/O ratios. This study illustrates the caution that must applied when determining planet host star C/O ratios, particularly in cool, metal-rich stars.

Mixed axion/neutralino dark matter in the SUSY DFSZ axion model [Cross-Listing]

We examine mixed axion/neutralino cold dark matter production in the SUSY DFSZ axion model where an axion superfield couples to Higgs superfields. We calculate a wide array of axino and saxion decay modes along with their decay temperatures, and thermal and non-thermal production rates. For a SUSY benchmark model with a standard underabundance (SUA) of Higgsino-like dark matter (DM), we find for the PQ scale f_a< 10^{12} GeV that the DM abundance is mainly comprised of axions as the saxion/axino decay occurs before the standard neutralino freeze-out and thus its abundance remains suppressed. For 10^{12}<~ f_a<~ 10^{14} GeV, the saxion/axino decays occur after neutralino freeze-out so that the neutralino abundance is enhanced by the production via decay and subsequent re-annihilation. For f_a>~ 10^{14} GeV, both neutralino dark matter and dark radiation are typically overproduced. For judicious parameter choices, these can be suppressed and the combined neutralino/axion abundance brought into accord with measured values. A SUSY benchmark model with a standard overabundance (SOA) of bino DM is also examined and typically remains excluded due at least to too great a neutralino DM abundance for f_a<~ 10^{15} GeV. For f_a>~ 10^{15} GeV and lower saxion masses, large entropy production from saxion decay can dilute all relics and the SOA model can be allowed by all constraints.

Baryogenesis, dark matter and inflation in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model [Replacement]

Explaining baryon asymmetry, dark matter and inflation are important elements of a successful theory that extends beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper we explore these issues within the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), by studying the conditions for a strongly first order electroweak phase transition, the abundance of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), and inflation driven by a gauge invariant flat direction of MSSM made up of right handed squarks. We present the regions of parameter space which can yield successful predictions for cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the observed relic density for the neutralino LSP, and successful baryogenesis constrained by collider measurements, such as the recent Higgs mass bound, branching ratios of rare, flavour violating decays, and the invisible Z decay width. We also explore where dark matter interactions with xenon nuclei would fall within current bounds of XENON100 and the projected limits for the XENON1T and LUX experiments.

Cross-Section Measurements of the 86Kr(g,n) Reaction to Probe the s-Process Branching at 85Kr

We have carried out photodisintegration cross-section measurements on 86Kr using monoenergetic photon beams ranging from the neutron separation energy, S_n = 9.86 MeV, to 13 MeV. We combine our experimental 86Kr(g,n)85Kr cross section with results from our recent 86Kr(g,g’) measurement below the neutron separation energy to obtain the complete nuclear dipole response of 86Kr. The new experimental information is used to predict the neutron capture cross section of 85Kr, an important branching point nucleus on the abundance flow path during s-process nucleosynthesis. Our new and more precise 85Kr(n,g)86Kr cross section allows to produce more precise predictions of the 86Kr abundance from s-process models. In particular, we find that the models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars of mass < 1.5 Msun, where the 13C neutron source burns convectively rather than radiatively, represent a possible solution for the highest 86Kr/82Kr ratios observed in meteoritic stardust SiC grains.

Early Disc Accretion as the Origin of Abundance Anomalies in Globular Clusters

Globular clusters (GCs), once thought to be well approximated as simple stellar populations (i.e. all stars having the same age and chemical abundance), are now known to host a variety of anomalies, such as multiple discrete (or spreads in) populations in colour-magnitude diagrams and abundance variations in light elements (e.g., Na, O, Al). Multiple models have been put forward to explain the observed anomalies, although all have serious shortcomings (e.g., requiring a non-standard initial mass function of stars and GCs to have been initially 10-100 times more massive than observed today). These models also do not agree with observations of massive stellar clusters forming today, which do not display significant age spreads nor have gas/dust within the cluster. Here we present a model for the formation of GCs, where low mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars accrete enriched material released from interacting massive binary and rapidly rotating stars onto their circumstellar discs, and ultimately onto the young stars. As was shown in previous studies, the accreted material matches the unusual abundances and patterns observed in GCs. The proposed model does not require multiple generations of star-formation, conforms to known properties of massive clusters forming today, and solves the "mass budget problem" without requiring GCs to have been significantly more massive at birth. Potential caveats to the model as well as model predictions are discussed.

Dynamical models and Galaxy surveys

Equilibrium dynamical models are essential tools for extracting science from surveys of our Galaxy. We show how models can be tested with data from a survey before the survey’s selection function has been determined. We illustrate the application of this method by presenting some results for the RAVE survey. We extend our published analytic distribution functions to include chemistry and fit the chosen functional form to a combination of the Geneva–Copenhagen survey (GCS) and a sample of G-dwarfs observed at z~1.75 kpc by the SEGUE survey. By including solid dynamics we are able to predict the contribution that the thick disc/halo stars surveyed by SEGUE should make to the GCS survey. We show that the measured [Fe/H] distribution from the GCS includes many fewer stars at [Fe/H]<-0.6 than are predicted. The problem is more likely to lie in discordant abundance scales than with incorrect dynamics.

 

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