Recent Postings from Solar and Stellar

Ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation in a Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo model: an observation system simulation experiment for reconstructing meridional flow-speed

Accurate knowledge of time-variation in meridional flow-speed and profile is crucial for estimating a solar cycle’s features, which are ultimately responsible for causing space climate variations. However, no consensus has been reached yet about the Sun’s meridional circulation pattern observations and theories. By implementing an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation in a Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo model using Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) framework, we find that the best reconstruction of time-variation in meridional flow-speed can be obtained when ten or more observations are used with an updating time of 15 days and a $\le 10\%$ observational error. Increasing ensemble-size from 16 to 160 improves reconstruction. Comparison of reconstructed flow-speed with "true-state" reveals that EnKF data assimilation is very powerful for reconstructing meridional flow-speeds and suggests that it can be implemented for reconstructing spatio-temporal patterns of meridional circulation.

The gas-ice chemical interplay during cloud evolution

During the evolution of diffuse clouds to molecular clouds, gas-phase molecules freeze out on surfaces of small dust particles to form ices. On dust surfaces, water is the main constituent of the icy mantle in which a complex chemistry is taking place. We aim to study the formation pathways and the composition of the ices throughout the evolution of diffuse clouds. For this purpose, we use time-dependent rate equations to calculate the molecular abundances in both gas phase and on solid surfaces (onto dust grains). We fully consider the gas-dust interplay by including the details of freeze-out, chemical and thermal desorption, as well as the most important photo-processes on grain surfaces. The difference in binding energies of chemical species on bare and icy surfaces is also incorporated into our equations. Using the numerical code FLASH, we perform a hydrodynamical simulation of a gravitationally bound diffuse cloud and follow its contraction. We find that while the dust grains are still bare, water formation is enhanced by grain surface chemistry which is subsequently released into the gas phase, enriching the molecular medium. The CO molecules, on the other hand, tend to freeze out gradually on bare grains. This causes CO to be well mixed and strongly present within the first ice layer. Once one monolayer of water ice has formed, the binding energy of the grain surface changes significantly and an immediate and strong depletion of gas-phase water and CO molecules occur. While hydrogenation converts solid CO into formaldehyde (H$_2$CO) and methanol (CH$_3$OH), water ice becomes the main constituent of the icy grains. Inside molecular clumps formaldehyde is more abundant than water and methanol in the gas phase owing its presence mainly to chemical desorption.

Transit polarimetry of exoplanetary system HD189733

We present and discuss a polarimetric effect caused by a planet transiting the stellar disk thus breaking the symmetry of the light distribution and resulting in linear polarization of the partially eclipsed star. Estimates of this effect for transiting planets have been made only recently. In particular, we demonstrate that the maximum polarization during transits depends strongly on the centre-to-limb variation of the linear polarization of the host star. However, observational and theoretical studies of the limb polarization have largely concentrated on the Sun. Here we solve the radiative transfer problem for polarized light and calculate the centre-to-limb polarization for one of the brightest transiting planet host HD189733 taking into account various opacities. Using that we simulate the transit effect and estimate the variations of the flux and the linear polarization for HD189733 during the event. As the spots on the stellar disk also break the limb polarization symmetry we simulate the flux and polarization variation due to the spots on the stellar disk.

Small carbon chains in circumstellar envelopes

Observations were made for a number of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes using the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope to determine the abundance of small carbon chain molecules. Vibration-rotation lines of the $\nu_{3}$ antisymmetric stretch of C$_{3}$ near 2040 cm$^{-1}$ (4.902 $\mu$m) have been used to determine the column density for four carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes: CRL 865, CRL 1922, CRL 2023 and IRC +10216. We additionally calculate the column density of C$_{5}$ for IRC +10216, and provide an upper limit for 5 more objects. An upper limit estimate for the C$_{7}$ column density is also provided for IRC+10216. A comparison of these column densities suggest a revision to current circumstellar chemical models may be needed.

Center-to-limb polarization in continuum spectra of F, G, K stars

Context. Scattering and absorption processes in stellar atmosphere affect the center-to-limb variations of the intensity (CLVI) and the linear polarization (CLVP) of stellar radiation. Aims. There are several theoretical and observational studies of CLVI using different stellar models. However a study of CLVP is mostly concentrated on the solar atmosphere, while the CLVP in cooler stellar atmospheres was not considered at all. In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the CLV of the intensity and the linear polarization in continuum spectra of different spectral type stars. Methods. We solve the radiative transfer equations for polarized light iteratively assuming no magnetic field and considering a plane- parallel model atmospheres and various opacities. Results. We calculate the CLVI and the CLVP for Phoenix stellar model atmospheres for the range of effective temperatures (4500 K – 6900 K), gravities (log g = 3.0 – 5.0) and wavelengths (4000 – 7000 \AA) which are tabulated and is available at the CDS. In addition, we present several tests of our code and compare our results with measurements and calculations of CLVI and the CLVP for the Sun. The resulting CLVI are fitted with polynomials and their coefficients are presented in the paper. Conclusions. For the stellar model atmospheres with small value of gravity and effective temperature the CLVP is the largest.

Accretion-ejection connection in the young brown dwarf candidate ISO-Cha1 217

As the number of observed brown dwarf outflows is growing it is important to investigate how these outflows compare to the well studied jets from young stellar objects. A key point of comparison is the relationship between outflow and accretion activity and in particular the ratio between the mass outflow and accretion rates ($\dot{M}_{out}$/$\dot{M}_{acc}$). The brown dwarf candidate ISO-ChaI 217 was discovered by our group, as part of a spectro-astrometric study of brown dwarfs, to be driving an asymmetric outflow with the blue-shifted lobe having a position angle of $\sim$ 20$^{\circ}$. The aim here is to further investigate the properties of ISO-ChaI 217, the morphology and kinematics of its outflow, and to better constrain ($\dot{M}_{out}$/$\dot{M}_{acc}$). The outflow is spatially resolved in the $[SII]\lambda \lambda 6716,6731$ lines and is detected out to $\sim$ 1\farcs6 in the blue-shifted lobe and ~ 1" in the red-shifted lobe. The asymmetry between the two lobes is confirmed although the velocity asymmetry is less pronounced with respect to our previous study. Using thirteen different accretion tracers we measure log($\dot{M}_{acc}$) [M$_{sun}$/yr]= -10.6 $\pm$ 0.4. As it was not possible to measure the effect of extinction on the ISO-ChaI 217 outflow $\dot{M}_{out}$ was derived for a range of values of A$_{v}$, up to a value of A$_{v}$ = 2.5 mag estimated for the source extinction. The logarithm of the mass outflow ($\dot{M}_{out}$) was estimated in the range -11.7 to -11.1 for both jets combined. Thus $\dot{M}_{out}$/$\dot{M}_{acc}$ [\Msun/yr] lies below the maximum value predicted by magneto-centrifugal jet launching models. Finally, both model fitting of the Balmer decrements and spectro-astrometric analysis of the H$\alpha$ line show that the bulk of the H I emission comes from the accretion flow.

Formation of Hydrocarbons from Hydrogenated Graphene in Circumstellar Clouds [Cross-Listing]

We describe a mechanism that explains the formation of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbyls from hydrogenated graphene/graphite; hard C-C bonds are weakened and broken by the synergistic effect of chemisorbed hydrogen and high temperature vibrations. Total energies, optimized structures, and transition states are obtained from Density Functional Theory simulations. These values have been used to determine the Boltzman probability for a thermal fluctuation to overcome the kinetic barriers, yielding the time scale for an event to occur. This mechanism can be used to rationalize the possible routes for the creation of small hydrocarbons and hydrocarbyls from etched graphene/graphite in stellar regions.

Asteroseismology of red giant stars: the potential of dipole modes

Since the detection of non-radial solar-like oscillation modes in red giants with the CoRoT satellite, the interest in the asteroseismic properties of red giants and the link with their global properties and internal structure is increasing. Moreover, more and more precise data are being collected with the space-based telescopes CoRoT and {\it Kepler}. Particularly relevant has been the detection of mixed modes in a large number of G-K red giants. In this contribution we discuss the potential of these dipole mixed modes to provide information on core extra-mixing and transport of angular momentum.

Study of Gamow-Teller transitions in isotopes of titanium within the quasi particle random phase approximation [Cross-Listing]

The Gamow-Teller (GT) transition is inarguably one of the most important nuclear weak transitions of the spin-isosopin $\sigma\tau$ type. It has many applications in nuclear and astrophysics. These include, but are not limited to, r-process $\beta$-decays, stellar electron captures, neutrino cooling rates, neutrino absorption and inelastic scattering on nuclei. The quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) is an efficient way to generate GT strength distribution. In order to better understand both theoretical systematics and uncertainties, we compare the GT strength distributions, centroid and width calculations for $^{40-60}$Ti isotopes, using the pn-QRPA, Pyatov method (PM) and the Schematic model (SM). The pn-QRPA and SM are further sub-divided into three categories in order to highlight the role of particle-particle (pp) force and deformation of the nucleus in the GT strength calculations. In PM, we study only the influence of the pp force in the calculation. We also compare with experimental results and other calculations where available. We found that the inclusion of pp force and deformation significantly improves the performance of SM and pn-QRPA models. Incorporation of pp force leads to pinning down the centroid value in the PM. The calculated GT strength functions using the pn-QRPA (C) and SM (C) models are in reasonable agreement with measured data.

Electron capture strength on odd-A nucleus $\mathbf{^{59}}$Co in explosive astrophysical environment [Cross-Listing]

The Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions within massive stars play sumptuous role in the dynamics of core collapse supernovae. GT strength distributions and electron capture rates have been calculated for odd-A nucleus $^{59}$Co within the proton-neutron quasiparticles random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) formalism. The pn-QRPA results are compared with other model calculations and (n, p) reaction experiment carried out at TRIUMF charge-exchange facility. The pn-QRPA calculated a total $B(GT_{+})$ strength of 3.3 for $^{59}$Co to be compared with the shell model value of 2.5 and the 1.9 $\pm$ 0.1 in the (n, p) charge-exchange reaction. Aufderheide et. al. \cite{Aufderheide93} extracted total strength equaling 2.4 $\pm$ 0.3. The placement of GT centroid at 5.6 MeV by the pn-QRPA model is in reasonable agreement with the shell model centroid at 5.1 MeV whereas the measured GT centroid was placed at 4.4 $\pm$ 0.3 MeV in the (n, p) experiment. Fuller, Fowler and Newman (FFN) \cite{FFN80, FFN82, FFN82b}, placed the GT centroid at too low excitation energy of 2.0 MeV in the daughter nucleus $^{59}$Fe, and this misplacement led to the enhancement of FFN rates. The suppressed pn-QRPA and shell model electron capture rates are in good agreement with each other. The rates are suggestive of higher value of $Y_{e}$ (electron-to-baryon ratio) and may contribute to a more massive homologously collapsing core resulting in a more energetic shock. It might be interesting for the simulators to check the effect of these suppressed rates on the fine-tuning of the time rate of $Y_{e}$, the concomitant heavy element nucleosynthesis, and, on the energetics of the subsequent shock wave.

Molecules with a peptide link in protostellar shocks: a comprehensive study of L1157

Interstellar molecules with a peptide link -NH-C(=O)-, like formamide (NH$_2$CHO), acetamide (NH$_2$COCH$_3$) and isocyanic acid (HNCO) are particularly interesting for their potential role in pre-biotic chemistry. We have studied their emission in the protostellar shock regions L1157-B1 and L1157-B2, with the IRAM 30m telescope, as part of the ASAI Large Program. Analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with B1 and B2. Molecular abundance of $\approx~(0.4-1.1)\times 10^{-8}$ and $(3.3-8.8)\times 10^{-8}$ are derived for formamide and isocyanic acid, respectively, from a simple rotational diagram analysis. Conversely, NH$_2$COCH$_3$ was not detected down to a relative abundance of a few $\leq 10^{-10}$. B1 and B2 appear to be among the richest Galactic sources of HNCO and NH$_2$CHO molecules. A tight linear correlation between their abundances is observed, suggesting that the two species are chemically related. Comparison with astrochemical models favours molecule formation on ice grain mantles, with NH$_2$CHO generated from hydrogenation of HNCO.

Physical conditions derived from OII recombination lines in planetary nebulae and their implications

Based on high quality observations of multiplet V1 of OII and the NLTE atomic computations for OII we study the density and temperature of a sample of PNe. We find that, in general, the densities derived from recombination lines of OII are similar than the densities derived from forbidden lines. This implies that the signature for oxygen rich clumps of high density and low temperature is absent in most of the objects of our sample. Electron pressures derived from the hotter zones are similar or slightly larger than those derived from the colder zones, suggesting the presence of shock waves. The average temperatures and t2 values derived from H, He and O lines are similar and consistent with chemical homogeneity. These results suggest that the abundances of these objects are the ones derived from recombination lines.

Reconstructing the cosmic evolution of the chemical elements

The chemical elements are created in nuclear fusion processes in the hot and dense cores of stars. The energy generated through nucleosynthesis allows stars to shine for billions of years. When these stars explode as massive supernovae, the newly made elements are expelled, chemically enriching the surrounding regions. Subsequent generations of stars are formed from gas that is slightly more element enriched than that from which previous stars formed. This chemical evolution can be traced back to its beginning soon after the Big Bang by studying the oldest and most metal-poor stars still observable in the Milky Way today. Through chemical analysis, they provide the only available tool for gaining information about the nature of the short-lived first stars and their supernova explosions more than thirteen billion years ago. These events set in motion the transformation of the pristine universe into a rich cosmos of chemically diverse planets, stars, and galaxies.

$\rm^{13}CO$ Filaments in the Taurus Molecular Cloud

We have carried out a search for filamentary structures in the Taurus molecular cloud using $\rm^{13}CO$ line emission data from the FCRAO survey of $\rm \sim100 \, deg^2$. We have used the topological analysis tool, DisPerSe, and post-processed its results to include a more strict definition of filaments that requires an aspect ratio of at least 3:1 and cross section intensity profiles peaked on the spine of the filament. In the velocity-integrated intensity map only 10 of the hundreds of filamentary structures identified by DisPerSe comply with our criteria. Unlike Herschel analyses, which find a characteristic width for filaments of $\rm \sim0.1 \, pc$, we find a much broader distribution of profile widths in our structures, with a peak at 0.4 pc. Furthermore, even if the identified filaments are cylindrical objects, their complicated velocity structure and velocity dispersions imply that they are probably gravitationally unbound. Analysis of velocity channel maps reveals the existence of hundreds of `velocity-coherent’ filaments. The distribution of their widths is peaked at lower values (0.2 pc) while the fluctuation of their peak intensities is indicative of stochastic origin. These filaments are suppressed in the integrated intensity map due to the blending of diffuse emission from different velocities. Conversely, integration over velocities can cause filamentary structures to appear. Such apparent filaments can also be traced, using the same methodology, in simple simulated maps consisting of randomly placed cores. They have profile shapes similar to observed filaments and contain most of the simulated cores.

Convectively driven shear and decreased heat flux [Cross-Listing]

We report on direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\’enard convection, focusing on its ability to drive large-scale horizontal flow that is vertically sheared. For the Prandtl numbers ($Pr$) between 1 and 10 simulated here, this large-scale shear can be induced by raising the Rayleigh number ($Ra$) sufficiently, and we explore the resulting convection for $Ra$ up to $10^{10}$. When present in our simulations, the sheared mean flow accounts for a large fraction of the total kinetic energy, and this fraction tends towards unity as $Ra\to\infty$. The shear helps disperse convective structures, and it reduces vertical heat flux; in parameter regimes where one state with large-scale shear and one without are both stable, the Nusselt number of the state with shear is smaller and grows more slowly with $Ra$. When the large-scale shear is present with $Pr\lesssim2$, the convection undergoes strong global oscillations on long timescales, and heat transport occurs in bursts. Nusselt numbers, time-averaged over these bursts, vary non-monotonically with $Ra$ for $Pr=1$. When the shear is present with $Pr\gtrsim3$, the flow does not burst, and convective heat transport is sustained at all times. Nusselt numbers then grow roughly as powers of $Ra$, but the growth rates are slower than any previously reported for Rayleigh-B\’enard convection without large-scale shear. We find the Nusselt numbers grow proportionally to $Ra^{0.077}$ when $Pr=3$ and to $Ra^{0.19}$ when $Pr=10$. Analogies with tokamak plasmas are described.

The extinction law inside the 30 Doradus nebula

We have studied the interstellar extinction in a field of ~3′ x 3′ at the core of the 30 Doradus nebula, including the central R136 cluster, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Observations at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, obtained with the WFC3 camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope, show that the stars belonging to the red giant clump are spread across the colour-magnitude diagrams because of the considerable and uneven levels of extinction in this region. Since these stars share very similar physical properties and are all at the same distance, they allow us to derive the absolute extinction in a straightforward and reliable way. Thus we have measured the extinction towards about 180 objects and the extinction law in the range 0.3 – 1.6 micron. At optical wavelengths, the extinction curve is almost parallel to that of the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium. Taking the latter as a template, the value of Rv = 4.5 +/- 0.2 that we measure indicates that in the optical there is an extra grey component due to a larger fraction of large grains. At wavelengths longer than ~1 micron, the contribution of this additional component tapers off as lambda^-1.5, like in the Milky Way, suggesting that the nature of the grains is otherwise similar to those in our Galaxy. These results are consistent with the addition of "fresh" large grains by supernova explosions, as recently revealed by Herschel and ALMA observations of SN 1987A.

Some Aspects of Supernova Neutrino Optics

This paper examines specific aspects of neutrino-neutrino scattering and propagation outside a supernova within the framework of refractive optics, including an analysis of possible corrections to lowest-order coherent wave propagation.. These basic ingredients are then examined in a single-variable model that retains the non-linear nature of the the neutrino refractive medium, provides some specific analytic results, and allows one to separate issues of numerical instability from physical sensitivity.

An asymmetric jet launching model for the protoplanetary nebula CRL 618

We propose an asymmetrical jet ejection mechanism in order to model the mirror symmetry observed in the lobe distribution of some protoplanetary nebulae (pPNe), such as the pPN CRL 618. 3D hydrodynamical simulations of a precessing jet launched from an orbiting source were carried out including an alternation in the ejections of the two outflow lobes, depending on which side of the precessing accretion disk is hit by the accretion column from a Roche lobe-filling binary companion. Both synthetic optical emission maps and position-velocity (PV) diagrams were obtained from the numerical results with the purpose of carrying out a direct comparison with observations. Depending on the observer’s point of view, multipolar morphologies are obtained which exhibit a mirror symmetry at large distances from the central source. The obtained lobe sizes and their spatial distribution are in good agreement with the observed morphology of the pPN CRL 618. We also obtain that the kinematic ages of the fingers are similar to those obtained in the observations.

The Swift UVOT Stars Survey: I. Methods and Test Clusters

We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stel- lar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) aboard the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, NUV sensitivity, and 2.3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the NUV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems spe- cific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color-magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M 67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M 79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, pro- ducing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M 79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

Indications of Water Clouds in the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

We present a deep near-infrared image of the newly discovered brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (W0855) using the FourStar imager at Las Campanas Observatory. Our detection of J3=24.8+0.33 -0.53 (J_MKO=25.0+0.33-0.53) at 2.6sigma — or equivalently an upper limit of J3 > 23.8 (J_MKO > 24.0) at 5sigma makes W0855 the reddest brown dwarf ever categorized (J_MKO – W2 = 10.984+0.33 – 0.53 at 2.6sigma — or equivalently an upper limit of J_MKO – W2 > 9.984 at 5sigma) and refines its position on color magnitude diagrams. Comparing the new photometry with chemical equilibrium model atmosphere predictions, we demonstrate that W0855 is 4.5sigma from models using a cloudless atmosphere and well reproduced by partly cloudy models (50%) containing sulfide and water ice clouds. Non-equilibrium chemistry or non-solar metallicity may change predictions, however using currently available model approaches, this is the first candidate outside our own solar system to have direct evidence for water clouds.

Time-distance helioseismology: A new averaging scheme for measuring flow vorticity

Time-distance helioseismology provides information about vector flows in the near-surface layers of the Sun by measuring wave travel times between points on the solar surface. Specific spatial averages of travel times have been proposed for distinguishing between flows in the east-west and north-south directions and measuring the horizontal divergence of the flows. No specific measurement technique has, however, been developed to measure flow vorticity. Here we propose a new measurement technique tailored to measuring the vertical component of vorticity. Fluid vorticity is a fundamental property of solar convection zone dynamics and of rotating turbulent convection in particular. The method consists of measuring the travel time of waves along a closed contour on the solar surface in order to approximate the circulation of the flow along this contour. Vertical vorticity is related to the difference between clockwise and counter-clockwise travel times. We applied the method to characterize the vortical motions of solar convection using helioseismic data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/HMI) and from the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO/MDI). Away from the equator, a clear correlation between vertical vorticity and horizontal divergence is detected. Horizontal outflows are associated with negative vorticity in the northern hemisphere and positive vorticity in the southern hemisphere. The signal is much stronger for HMI than for MDI observations. We characterize the spatial power spectrum of the signal by comparison with a noise model. Vertical vorticity at horizontal wavenumbers below 250/R_Sun can be probed with this helioseismic technique.

Maser and Infrared Studies of Oxygen-Rich Late/Post-AGB Stars and Water Fountains: Development of a New Identification Method

We explored an efficient method to identify evolved stars with oxygen-rich envelopes in the late AGB or post-AGB phase of stellar evolution, which include a rare class of objects – the "water fountains". Our method considers the OH and H2O maser spectra, the near infrared Q-parameters (these are colour indices accounting for the effect of extinction), and far-infrared AKARI colours. Here we first present the results of a new survey on OH and H2O masers. There were 108 colour-selected objects: 53 of them were observed in the three OH maser lines (1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz), with 24 detections (16 new for 1612 MHz); and 106 of them were observed in the H2O maser line (22 GHz) with 24 detections (12 new). We identify a new potential water fountain source, IRAS19356+0754, with large velocity coverages of both OH and H2O maser emission. In addition, several objects with high velocity OH maser emission are reported for the first time. The Q-parameters as well as the infrared [09]-[18] and [18]-[65] AKARI colours of the surveyed objects are then calculated. We suggest that these infrared properties are effective in isolating aspherical from spherical objects, but the morphology may not necessarily be related to the evolutionary status. Nonetheless, by considering altogether the maser and infrared properties, the efficiency of identifying oxygen-rich late/post-AGB stars could be improved.

The detection of upwardly propagating waves channelling energy from the chromosphere to the low corona

There have been ubiquitous observations of wave-like motions in the solar atmosphere for decades. Recent improvements to space- and ground-based observatories have allowed the focus to shift to smaller magnetic structures on the solar surface. In this paper, high-resolution ground-based data taken using the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope is combined with co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite to analyze running penumbral waves (RPWs). RPWs have always been thought to be radial wave propagation that occurs within sunspots. Recent research has suggested that they are in fact upwardly propagating field-aligned waves (UPWs). Here, RPWs within a solar pore are observed for the first time and are interpreted as UPWs due to the lack of a penumbra that is required to support RPWs. These UPWs are also observed co-spatially and co-temporally within several SDO/AIA elemental lines that sample the transition region and low corona. The observed UPWs are traveling at a horizontal velocity of around 17 +- 0.5 km s-1 and a minimum vertical velocity of 42 +- 21 km s-1. The estimated energy of the waves is around 150 W m-2, which is on the lower bound required to heat the quiet-Sun corona. This is a new, yet unconsidered source of wave energy within the solar chromosphere and low corona.

Morphological and Kinematic Evolution of Three Interacting Coronal Mass Ejections of 2011 February 13-15

During 2011 February 13 to 15, three Earth-directed CMEs launched in successively were recorded as limb CMEs by coronagraphs (COR) of STEREO. These CMEs provided an opportunity to study their geometrical and kinematic evolution from multiple vantage points. In this paper, we examine the differences in geometrical evolution of slow and fast speed CMEs during their propagation in the heliosphere. We also study their interaction and collision using STEREO/SECCHI COR and Heliospheric Imager (HI) observations. We have found evidence of interaction and collision between the CMEs of February 15 and 14 in COR2 and HI1 FOV, respectively, while the CME of February 14 caught the CME of February 13 in HI2 FOV. By estimating the true mass of these CMEs and using their pre and post-collision dynamics, the momentum and energy exchange between them during collision phase are studied. We classify the nature of observed collision between CME of February 14 and 15 as inelastic, reaching close to elastic regime. Relating imaging observations with the in situ measurements, we find that the CMEs move adjacent to each other after their collision in the heliosphere and are recognized as distinct structures in in situ observations by WIND spacecraft at L1. Our results highlight the significance of HI observations in studying CME-CME collision for the purpose of improved space weather forecasting.

Spectral Slope Variation at Proton Scales from Fast to Slow Solar Wind

We investigated the behavior of the spectral slope of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales for selected high resolution time intervals from WIND and MESSENGER spacecraft at $1$ AU and $0.56$ AU, respectively. The analysis was performed within the profile of high speed streams, moving from fast to slow wind regions. The spectral slope showed a large variability between $-3.75$ and $-1.75$ and a robust tendency for this parameter to be steeper within the trailing edge where the speed is higher and to be flatter within the subsequent slower wind, following a gradual transition between these two states. The value of the spectral index seems to depend firmly on the power associated to the fluctuations within the inertial range, higher the power steeper the slope. Our result support previous analyses suggesting that there must be some response of the dissipation mechanism to the level of the energy transfer rate along the inertial range.

Nuclear inputs of key iron isotopes for core-collapse modeling and simulation [Cross-Listing]

From the modeling and simulation results of presupernova evolution of massive stars, it was found that isotopes of iron, $^{54,55,56}$Fe, play a significant role inside the stellar cores, primarily decreasing the electron-to-baryon ratio ($Y_{e}$) mainly via electron capture processes thereby reducing the pressure support. The neutrinos produced, as a result of these capture processes, are transparent to the stellar matter and assist in cooling the core thereby reducing the entropy. The structure of the presupernova star is altered both by the changes in $Y_{e}$ and the entropy of the core material. Here we present the microscopic calculation of Gamow-Teller strength distributions for isotopes of iron. The calculation is also compared with other theoretical models and experimental data. Presented also are stellar electron capture rates and associated neutrino cooling rates, due to isotopes of iron, in a form suitable for simulation and modeling codes. It is hoped that the nuclear inputs presented here should assist core-collapse simulators in the process of fine-tuning of the $Y_{e}$ parameter during various phases of presupernova evolution of massive stars. A reliable and accurate time evolution of this parameter is a possible key to generate a successful explosion in modeling of core-collapse supernovae.

The estimation of neutrino flux produced by $\mathbf{pep}$ reactions in the Sun [Cross-Listing]

The experimental result of the solar neutrino flux at one AU produced by the $p+p+e \rightarrow d+\nu_e$ reaction (\textit{pep}) was announced for the first time in 2012 by the Borexino collaboration. This neutrino flux was significantly greater than the flux predicted by Bahcall and May, who used two body approaches for calculation of this reaction. We have used the three-body model for the proton-proton-electron system in the continuous spectrum of energy to determine the rate of the \textit{pep} reaction and have estimated the neutrino flux. Our result of the neutrino flux is 25-40\% more than the Bachall \textit{et al.} value and depends on the shape of nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) potential. Moreover, the calculated flux lies within the confidence interval of the experimental data in the case of pure attractive potentials as well as potential having repulsion at small distances between nucleons.

The Nuclear Structure and Associated Electron Capture Rates on Odd-Z Nucleus $^{51}$V in Stellar Matter [Cross-Listing]

The Gamow-Teller strength distribution function, B(GT), for the odd Z parent $^{51}$V, $N-Z$ =5, up to 30 MeV of excitation energy in the daughter $^{51}$Ti is calculated in the domain of proton-neutron Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (pn-QRPA) theory. The pn-QRPA results are compared against other theoretical calculations, (n, p) and high resolution (d, $^{2}$He) reaction experiments. For the case of (d, $^{2}$He) reaction the calibration was performed for $0\leq E_{j} \leq 5.0$ MeV, where the authors stressed that within this excitation energy range the $\Delta L = 0$ transition strength can be extracted with high accuracy for $^{51}$V. Within this energy range the current pn-QRPA total B(GT) strength 0.75 is in good agreement with the (d, $^{2}$He) experiment’s total strength of 0.9 $\pm$ 0.1. The pn-QRPA calculated Gamow-Teller centroid at 4.20 MeV in daughter $^{51}$Ti is also in good agreement with high resolution (d, $^{2}$He) experiment which placed the Gamow-Teller centroid at 4.1 $\pm$ 0.4 MeV in daughter $^{51}$Ti. The low energy detailed Gamow-Teller structure and Gamow-Teller centroid play a sumptuous role in associated weak decay rates and consequently affect the stellar dynamics. The stellar weak rates are sensitive to the location and structure of these low-lying states in daughter $^{51}$Ti. The calculated electron capture rates on $^{51}$V in stellar matter are also in good agreement with the large scale shell model rates.

Characterization of Molecular Outflows in The Substellar Domain

We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J=2-1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M_J, which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36 degrees. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9×10^-6 M_Sun to 2.9×10^-5 M_Sun and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7×10^-9 M_Sun yr^-1 to 4.1×10^-8 M_Sun yr^-1. These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M_J in rho Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M_J in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

Seven-Period Asteroseismic Fit of the Kepler DBV

We present a new, better-constrained asteroseismic analysis of the helium-atmosphere (DB) white dwarf discovered in the field of view of the original Kepler mission. Observations obtained over the course of two years yield at least seven independent modes, two more than were found in the discovery paper for the object. With several triplets and doublets, we are able to fix the $\ell$ and $\rm{m}$ identification of several modes before performing the fitting, greatly reducing the number of assumptions we must make about mode identification. We find a very thin helium layer for this relatively hot DB, which adds evidence to the hypothesis that helium diffuses outward during DB cooling. At least a few of the modes appear to be stable on evolutionary timescales and could allow us to obtain a measurement of the rate of cooling with monitoring of the star over the course of the next few years with ground-based follow-up.

Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis verifies classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

We provide the most stringent constraint to date on possible deviations from the usually-assumed Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) velocity distribution for nuclei in the Big-Bang plasma. The impact of non-extensive Tsallis statistics on thermonuclear reaction rates involved in standard models of Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) has been investigated. We find that the non-extensive parameter $q$ may deviate by, at most, $|\delta q|$=6$\times$10$^{-4}$ from unity for BBN predictions to be consistent with observed primordial abundances; $q$=1 represents the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. This constraint arises primarily from the {\em super}sensitivity of endothermic rates on the value of $q$, which is found for the first time. As such, the implications of non-extensive statistics in other astrophysical environments should be explored. This may offer new insight into the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements.

Traces of large-scale dynamo action in the kinematic stage

Using direct numerical simulations (DNS) we verify that in the kinematic regime, a turbulent helical dynamo grows in such a way that the magnetic energy spectrum remains to high precision shape-invariant, i.e., at each wavenumber $k$ the spectrum grows with the same growth rate. Signatures of large-scale dynamo action can be identified through the excess of magnetic energy at small $k$, of one of the two oppositely polarized constituents. Also a suitably defined planar average of the magnetic field can be chosen such that its rms value isolates the strength of the mean field. However, these different means of analysis suggest that the strength of the large-scale field diminishes with increasing magnetic Reynolds number ${\rm Re}_{\rm M}$ like ${\rm Re}_{\rm M}^{-1/2}$ for intermediate values and like ${\rm Re}_{\rm M}^{-3/4}$ for larger ones. Both an analysis from the Kazantsev model including helicity and the DNS show that this arises due to the magnetic energy spectrum still peaking at resistive scales, even when helicity is present. As expected, the amplitude of the large-scale field increases with increasing fractional helicity, enabling us to determine the onset of large scale dynamo action and distinguishing it from that of the small-scale dynamo. Our DNS show that, contrary to earlier results for smaller scale separation (only 1.5 instead of now 4), the small-scale dynamo can still be excited at magnetic Prandtl numbers of 0.1 and only moderate values of the magnetic Reynolds numbers ($\sim 160$).

Stellar $\beta^{\pm}$ decay rates of iron isotopes and its implications in astrophysics [Cross-Listing]

$\beta$-decay and positron decay are believed to play a consequential role during the late phases of stellar evolution of a massive star culminating in a supernova explosion. Recently the microscopic calculation of weak-interaction mediated rates on key isotopes of iron was introduced using the proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory with improved model parameters. Here I discuss in detail the improved calculation of $\beta^{\pm}$ decay rates for iron isotopes ($^{54,55,56}$Fe) in stellar environment. The pn-QRPA theory allows a microscopic "state-by-state" calculation of stellar rates as explained later in text. Excited state Gamow-Teller distributions are much different from ground state and a microscopic calculation of decay rates from these excited states greatly increases the reliability of the total decay rate calculation specially during the late stages of stellar evolution. The reported decay rates are also compared with earlier calculations. The positron decay rates are in reasonable agreement with the large-scale shell model calculation. The main finding of this work includes that the stellar $\beta$-decay rates of $^{54,55,56}$Fe are around 3 — 5 orders of magnitude smaller than previously assumed and hence irrelevant for the determination of the evolution of $Y_{e}$ during the presupernova phase of massive stars. The current work discourages the inclusion of $^{55,56}$Fe in the list of key stellar $\beta$-decay nuclei as suggested by former simulation results.

Investigating Brown Dwarf Variability at 3.4 & 4.6{\mu}m with AllWISE Multi-Epoch Photometry

Multi-epoch photometry from AllWISE provides the opportunity to investigate variability at 3.4 and 4.6{\mu}m for most known brown dwarfs. WISE observed the same patch of sky repeatedly and within a day’s time, roughly 12 observations were obtained on a given patch of sky; then, another 12 were obtained roughly six months later when that patch of sky was again in view. For most of the sky, AllWISE contains two separate epochs of about a dozen observations each, although ~30% of the sky has three such epochs available in AllWISE. With the AllWISE multi-epoch photometry of ~1500 known M, L, T, and Y dwarfs, I computed the Stetson J Index and quantified variability as a function of spectral type. I found that the average single-exposure photometric uncertainty in AllWISE (~0.2 magnitudes) is too large to robustly identify flux variability smaller than ~20%. However, multi-epoch photometry from AllWISE remains a useful resource in cases where flux variability is known to be present with large amplitudes, or for bright nearby objects with lower photometric uncertainties.

Investigating Brown Dwarf Variability at 3.4 & 4.6 Microns with AllWISE Multi-Epoch Photometry [Replacement]

Multi-epoch photometry from AllWISE provides the opportunity to investigate variability at 3.4 and 4.6 microns for most known brown dwarfs. WISE observed the same patch of sky repeatedly and within a day’s time, roughly 12 observations were obtained on a given patch of sky; then, another 12 were obtained roughly six months later when that patch of sky was again in view. For most of the sky, AllWISE contains two separate epochs of about a dozen observations each, although ~30% of the sky has three such epochs available in AllWISE. With the AllWISE multi-epoch photometry of ~1500 known M, L, T, and Y dwarfs, I computed the Stetson J Index and quantified variability as a function of spectral type. I found that the average single-exposure photometric uncertainty in AllWISE (~0.2 magnitudes) is too large to robustly identify flux variability smaller than ~20%. However, multi-epoch photometry from AllWISE remains a useful resource in cases where flux variability is known to be present with large amplitudes, or for bright nearby objects with lower photometric uncertainties.

Modeling the EUV spectra of optically thick boundary layers of dwarf novae in outburst

Here we compute detailed model spectra of recently published optically thick one-dimensional radial baundary layer (BL) models in cataclysmic variables and compare them with observed soft X-ray/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of dwarf novae in outburst. Every considered BL model is divided into a number of rings, and for each ring, a structure model along the vertical direction is computed using the stellar-atmosphere method. The ring spectra are then combined into a BL spectrum taking Doppler broadening and limb darkening into account. Two sets of model BL spectra are computed, the first of them consists of BL models with fixed white dwarf (WD) mass (1 M_sun) and various relative WD angular velocities (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 break-up velocities), while the other deals with a fixed relative angular velocity (0.8 break-up velocity) and various WD masses (0.8, 1, and 1.2 M_sun). The model spectra show broad absorption features because of blending of numerous absorption lines, and emission-like features at spectral regions with only a few strong absorption lines. The model spectra are very similar to observed soft X-ray/EUV spectra of SS Cyg and U Gem in outburst. The observed SS Cyg spectrum could be fitted by BL model spectra with WD masses 0.8 – 1 M_sun and relative angular velocities 0.6 – 0.8 break up velocities. These BL models also reproduce the observed ratio of BL luminosity and disk luminosity. The difference between the observed and the BL model spectra is similar to a hot optically thin plasma spectrum and could be associated with the spectrum of outflowing plasma with a mass loss rate compatible with the BL mass accretion rate. The suggested method of computing BL spectra seems very promising and can be applied to other BL models for comparison with EUV spectra of dwarf novae in outburst.

Effects of Coronal Mass Ejections on Distant Coronal Streamers

The effects of a large coronal mass ejection (CME) on a solar coronal streamer located roughly 90 degrees from the main direction of the CME propagation observed on January 2, 2012 by the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph are analyzed. Radial coronal streamers undergo some bending when CMEs pass through the corona, even at large angular distances from the streamers. The phenomenon resembles a bending wave traveling along the streamer. Some researchers interpret these phenomena as the effects of traveling shocks generated by rapid CMEs, while others suggest they are waves excited inside the streamers by external impacts. The analysis presented here did not find convincing arguments in favor of either of these interpretations. It is concluded that the streamer behavior results from the effect of the magnetic field of a moving magnetic rope associated with the coronal ejection. The motion of the large-scale magnetic rope away from the Sun changes the surrounding magnetic field lines in the corona, and these changes resemble the half-period of a wave running along the streamer.

Kepler and the Long Period Variables

High precision Kepler photometry is used to explore the details of AGB light curves. Since AGB variability has a typical time scale on order of a year we discuss at length the removal of long term trends and quarterly changes in Kepler data. Photometry for a small sample of nine SR AGB stars are examined using a 30 minute cadence over a period of 45 months. While undergoing long period variations of many magnitudes, the light curves are shown to be smooth at the millimagnitude level over much shorter time intervals. No flares or other rapid events were detected on the sub-day time scale. The shortest AGB period detected is on the order of 100 days. All the SR variables in our sample are shown to have multiple modes. This is always the first overtone typically combined with the fundamental. A second common characteristic of SR variables is shown to be the simultaneous excitation of multiple closely separated periods for the same overtone mode. Approximately half the sample had a much longer variation in the light curve, likely a long secondary period. The light curves were all well represented by a combination of sinusoids. However, the properties of the sinusoids are time variable with irregular variations present at low level. No non-radial pulsations were detected. It is argued that the long secondary period variation seen in many SR variables is intrinsic to the star and linked to multiple mode pulsation.

Nickel isotopes in stellar matter [Cross-Listing]

Isotopes of nickel play a key role during the silicon burning phase up to the presupernova phase of massive stars. Electron capture rates on these nickel isotopes are also important during the phase of core contraction. I present here the microscopic calculation of ground and excited states Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distributions for key nickel isotopes. The calculation is performed within the frame-work of pn-QRPA model. A judicious choice of model parameters, specially of the Gamow-Teller strength parameters and the deformation parameter, resulted in a much improved calculation of GT strength functions. The excited state GT distributions are much different from the corresponding ground-state distributions resulting in a failure of the Brink’s hypothesis. The electron capture and positron decay rates on nickel isotopes are also calculated within the framework of pn-QRPA model relevant to the presupernova evolution of massive stars. The electron capture rates on odd-A isotopes of nickel are shown to have dominant contributions from parent excited states during as early as silicon burning phases. Comparison is being made with the large scale shell model calculation. During the silicon burning phases of massive stars the electron capture rates on $^{57,59}$Ni are around an order of magnitude bigger than shell model rates and can bear consequences for core-collapse simulators.

Neutrino and anti-neutrino energy loss rates due to iron isotopes suitable for core-collapse simulations [Cross-Listing]

Accurate estimate of neutrino energy loss rates are needed for the study of the late stages of the stellar evolution, in particular for cooling of neutron stars and white dwarfs. The energy spectra of neutrinos and antineutrinos arriving at the Earth can also provide useful information on the primary neutrino fluxes as well as neutrino mixing scenario (it is to be noted that these supernova neutrinos are emitted after the supernova explosion which is a much later stage of stellar evolution than that considered in this paper). Recently an improved microscopic calculation of weak-interaction mediated rates for iron isotopes was introduced using the proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory. Here I present for the first time the fine-grid calculation of the neutrino and anti-neutrino energy loss rates due to $^{54,55,56}$Fe in stellar matter. In the core of massive stars isotopes of iron, $^{54,55,56}$Fe, are considered to be key players in decreasing the electron-to-baryon ratio ($Y_{e}$) mainly via electron capture on these nuclide. Core-collapse simulators may find this calculation suitable for interpolation purposes and for necessary incorporation in the stellar evolution codes. The calculated cooling rates are also compared with previous calculations.

Rotational splitting as a function of mode frequency for six Sun-like stars

Asteroseismology offers the prospect of constraining differential rotation in Sun-like stars. Here we have identified six high signal-to-noise main-sequence Sun-like stars in the Kepler field, which all have visible signs of rotational splitting of their p-mode frequencies. For each star, we extract the rotational frequency splitting and inclination angle from separate mode sets (adjacent modes with l=2, 0, and 1) spanning the p-mode envelope. We use a Markov chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the best fit and errors associated with each parameter. We are able to make independent measurements of rotational splittings of ~8 radial orders for each star. For all six stars, the measured splittings are consistent with uniform rotation, allowing us to exclude large radial differential rotation. This work opens the possibility of constraining internal rotation of Sun-like stars.

Binary evolution using the theory of osculating orbits: conservative Algol evolution

Our aim is to calculate the evolution of Algol binaries within the framework of the osculating orbital theory, which considers the perturbing forces acting on the orbit of each star arising from mass exchange via Roche lobe overflow (RLOF). The scheme is compared to results calculated from a `classical’ prescription. Using our stellar binary evolution code BINSTAR, we calculate the orbital evolution of Algol binaries undergoing case A and case B mass transfer, by applying the osculating scheme. The velocities of the ejected and accreted material are evaluated by solving the restricted three-body equations of motion, within the ballistic approximation. This allows us to determine the change of linear momentum of each star, and the gravitational force applied by the mass transfer stream. Torques applied on the stellar spins by tides and mass transfer are also considered. Using the osculating formalism gives shorter post-mass transfer orbital periods typically by a factor of 4 compared to the classical scheme, owing to the gravitational force applied onto the stars by the mass transfer stream. Additionally, during the rapid phase of mass exchange, the donor star is spun down on a timescale shorter than the tidal synchronization timescale, leading to sub-synchronous rotation. Consequently, between 15 and 20 per cent of the material leaving the inner-Lagrangian point is accreted back onto the donor (so-called `self-accretion’), further enhancing orbital shrinkage. Self-accretion, and the sink of orbital angular momentum which mass transfer provides, may potentially lead to more contact binaries. Even though Algols are mainly considered, the osculating prescription is applicable to all types of interacting binaries, including those with eccentric orbits.

Mesoscopic pinning forces in neutron star crusts

The crust of a neutron star is thought to be comprised of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of free electrons and neutrons. As the neutrons are superfluid their angular momentum is carried by an array of quantized vortices. These vortices can pin to the nuclear lattice and prevent the neutron superfluid from spinning down, allowing it to store angular momentum which can then be released catastrophically, giving rise to a pulsar glitch. A crucial ingredient for this model is the maximum pinning force that the lattice can exert on the vortices, as this allows us to estimate the angular momentum that can be exchanged during a glitch. In this paper we perform, for the first time, a detailed and quantitative calculation of the pinning force \emph{per unit length} acting on a vortex immersed in the crust and resulting from the mesoscopic vortex-lattice interaction. We consider realistic vortex tensions, allow for displacement of the nuclei and average over all possible orientation of the crystal with respect to the vortex. We find that, as expected, the mesoscopic pinning force becomes weaker for longer vortices and is generally much smaller than previous estimates, based on vortices aligned with the crystal. Nevertheless the forces we obtain still have maximum values of order $f_{\rm{pin}}\approx 10^{15}$ dyn/cm, which would still allow for enough angular momentum to be stored in the crust to explain large Vela glitches, if part of the star is decoupled during the event.

Dwarf Nova EZ Lyncis Second Visit to Instability Strip

The analysis of 14 periodograms of EZ Lyn for the data spaced over 565 d in 2012–2014 (2-3.5 yr after 2010 outburst) yielded the existence of the stable signals around 100 c/d and three signals around 310 c/d, 338 c/d and 368 c/d (the corresponding periods are 864 s, 279 s, 256 s and 235 s). We interpret them as independent non-radial pulsations of the white dwarf in EZ Lyn, but a possibility that a linear combination of frequency at 100 c/d and harmonic of orbital period could produce the frequency at 368 c/d also cannot be excluded. The signal at 100 c/d was detected during the first stay in the instability strip as a transient one. The period at 338 c/d, is a known non-radial pulsation EZ Lyn entered the instability strip after the 2010 outburst. We detected the signals around 310 c/d and 368 c/d for the first time. We applied the two-dimensional least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) analysis for the first time to explore the behavior of these signals on the scale of hours for nightly runs of observations having duration of 6-12 hr. The Lasso analysis revealed the simultaneous existence of all three frequencies (310 c/d, 338 c/d and 368 c/d) for majority of nights of observations, but with variable amplitudes and variable drifts of frequencies by 2-6 percents on a time scale of ~5-7 hr. The largest drift we detected corresponded to 17.5 s in period in ~5 hours.

Asteroseismology and spectropolarimetry: opening new windows on the internal dynamics of massive stars

In this article, we show how asteroseismology and spectropolarimetry allow to probe dynamical processes in massive star interiors. First, we give a summary of the state-of-the-art. Second, we recall the MHD mechanisms that take place in massive stars. Next, we show how asteroseimology gives strong constraints on the internal mixing and transport of angular momentum while spectropolarimetry allows to unravel the role played by magnetic fields.

NY Serpentis: SU UMa-Type Nova in the Period Gap with Diversity of Normal Outbursts

We present photometric study of NY Ser, an in-the-gap SU UMa-type nova, in 2002 and 2013. We determined the duration of the superoutburst and the mean superhump period to be 18 d and 0.10458 d, respectively. We detected in 2013 that NY Ser showed two distinct states separated by the superoutburst. A state of rather infrequent normal outbursts lasted at least 44 d before the superoutburst and a state of frequent outbursts started immediately after the superoutburst and lasted at least for 34 d. Unlike a typical SU UMa star with bimodal distribution of the outbursts duration, NY Ser displayed a diversity of normal outbursts. In the state of infrequent outbursts, we detected a wide ~12 d outburst accompanied by 0.098 d orbital modulation but without superhumps ever established in NY Ser. We classified this as the "wide normal outburst". The orbital period dominated both in quiescence and during normal outbursts in this state. In the state of the most frequent normal outbursts, the 0.10465 d positive superhumps dominated and co-existed with the orbital modulation. In 2002 we detected the normal outburst of "intermediate" 5-6 d duration that was also accompanied by orbital modulations.

A Theoretical Study of Acoustic Glitches in Low-Mass Main-Sequence Stars [Replacement]

There are regions in stars, such as ionization zones and the interface between radiative and convective regions, that cause a localized sharp variation in the sound speed. These are known as "acoustic glitches". Acoustic glitches leave their signatures on the oscillation frequencies of stars, and hence these signature can be used as diagnostics of these regions. In particular, the signature of these glitches can be used as diagnostics of the position of the second helium ionization zone and that of the base of the envelope convection zone. With the help of stellar models we study the properties of these acoustic glitches in main-sequence stars. We find that the acoustic glitch due to the helium ionization zone does not correspond to the dip in the adiabatic index \Gamma_1 caused by the ionization of HeII, but to the peak in \Gamma_1 between the HeI and HeII ionization zones. We find that it is easiest to study the acoustic glitch due to the helium ionization zone in stars with masses in the range 0.9–1.2 M_\odot.

Acoustic Glitches in Main-Sequence Stellar models

There are regions in stars, such as ionization zones and the interface between radiative and convective regions, that cause a localized sharp variation in the sound speed. These are known as "acoustic glitches". Acoustic glitches leave their signatures on the oscillation frequencies of stars, and hence these signature can be used as diagnostics of these regions. In particular, the signature of these glitches can be used as diagnostics of the position of the second helium ionization zone and that of the base of the envelope convection zone. With the help of stellar models we study the properties of these acoustic glitches in main-sequence stars. We find that the acoustic glitch due to the helium ionization zone does not correspond to the dip in the adiabatic index \Gamma_1 caused by the ionization of HeII, but to the peak in \Gamma_1 between the HeI and HeII ionization zones. We find that it is easiest to study the acoustic glitch due to the helium ionization zone in stars with masses in the range 0.9–1.2 M_\odot.

Impact of rotation on the geometrical configurations of fossil magnetic fields

The MiMeS project demonstrated that a small fraction of massive stars (around 7%) presents large-scale, stable, generally dipolar magnetic fields at their surface. They are supposed to be fossil remnants of initial phases of stellar evolution. In fact, they result from the relaxation to MHD equilibrium states during the formation of stable radiation zones of initial fields generated by a previous convective phase. In contrast with the case of magnetic fields built by dynamo mechanisms, the geometry of fossil fields at the surface of early-type stars seems to be independent of rotation: dipolar fields are observed both in slowly- and rapidly-rotating stars. In this work, we present new theoretical results, where we generalized previous studies by taking rotation into account. The properties of relaxed fossil fields are compared to those obtained when rotation is ignored. Consequences for magnetic fields in the radiative envelope of rotating early-type stars are discussed.

Constraints on the binary Properties of mid to late T dwarfs from Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 Observations

We used HST/WFC3 observations of a sample of 26 nearby ($\le$20 pc) mid to late T dwarfs to search for cooler companions and measure the multiplicity statistics of brown dwarfs. Tightly-separated companions were searched for using a double-PSF fitting algorithm. We also compared our detection limits based on simulations to other prior T5+ brown dwarf binary programs. No new wide or tight companions were identified, which is consistent with the number of known T5+ binary systems and the resolution limits of WFC3. We use our results to add new constraints to the binary fraction of T-type brown dwarfs. Modeling selection effects and adopting previously derived separation and mass ratio distributions, we find an upper limit total binary fraction of <16% and <25% assuming power law and flat mass ratio distributions respectively, which are consistent with previous results. We also characterize a handful of targets around the L/T transition.

 

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