Recent Postings from Galactic

The double galaxy cluster Abell 2465 - II. Star formation in the cluster

We investigate the star formation rate and its location in the major merger cluster Abell 2465 at $z$ = 0.245. Optical properties of the cluster are described in Paper I. Measurements of the H$\alpha$ and infrared dust emission of galaxies in the cluster were made with an interference filter centred on the redshifted line at a wavelength of 817 nm and utilized data from the WISE satellite 12 $\mu$m band. Imaging in the Johnson $U$ and $B$ bands was obtained, and along with SDSS $u$ and $r$ was used to study the blue fraction, which appears enhanced, as a further signatures of star formation in the cluster. Star formation rates were calculated using standard calibrations. The total star formation rate normalized by the cluster mass, $\Sigma SFR/M_{cl}$ compared to compilations for other clusters indicate that the components of Abell 2465 lie above the mean $z$ and $M_{cl}$ relations, suggestive that interacting galaxy clusters have enhanced star formation. The projected radial distribution of the star forming galaxies does not follow a NFW profile and is relatively flat indicating that fewer star forming galaxies are in the cluster centre. The morphologies of the H$\alpha$ sources within $R_{200}$ for the cluster as a whole indicate that many are disturbed or merging, suggesting that a combination of merging or harassment is working.

Two spectroscopically confirmed galaxy structures at z=0.61 and 0.74 in the CFHTLS Deep~3 field

Adami et al. (2010) have detected several cluster candidates at z>0.5 as part of a systematic search for clusters in the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, based on photometric redshifts. We focus here on two of them, located in the D3 field: D3-6 and D3-43. We have obtained spectroscopy with Gemini/GMOS and measured redshifts for 23 and 14 galaxies in the two structures. These redshifts were combined with those available in the literature. A dynamical and a weak lensing analysis were also performed, together with the study of X-ray Chandra archive data. Cluster D3-6 is found to be a single structure of 8 spectroscopically confirmed members at an average redshift z=0.607, with a velocity dispersion of 423 km/s. It appears to be a relatively low mass cluster. D3-43-S3 has 46 spectroscopically confirmed members at an average redshift z=0.739. It can be decomposed into two main substructures, having a velocity dispersion of about 600 and 350 km/s. An explanation to the fact that D3-43-S3 is detected through weak lensing (only marginally, at the ~3sigma level) but not in X-rays could be that the two substructures are just beginning to merge more or less along the line of sight. We also show that D3-6 and D3-43-S3 have similar global galaxy luminosity functions, stellar mass functions, and star formation rate (SFR) distributions. The only differences are that D3-6 exhibits a lack of faint early type galaxies, a deficit of extremely high stellar mass galaxies compared to D3-43-S3, and an excess of very high SFR galaxies. This study shows the power of techniques based on photometric redshifts to detect low to moderately massive structures, even at z~0.75.

Gamma rays from Galactic pulsars

Gamma rays from young pulsars and milli-second pulsars are expected to contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by the {\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) at high latitudes. We derive the contribution of the pulsars undetected counterpart by using information from radio to gamma rays and we show that they explain only a small fraction of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background.

Terahertz spectroscopy of N$^{18}$O and isotopic invariant fit of several nitric oxide isotopologs

A tunable far-infrared laser sideband spectrometer was used to investigate a nitric oxide sample enriched in 18O between 0.99 and 4.75 THz. Regular, electric dipole transitions were recorded between 0.99 and 2.52 THz, while magnetic dipole transitions between the 2Pi(1/2) and 2Pi(3/2) spin-ladders were recorded between 3.71 and 4.75 THz. These data were combined with lower frequency data of N(18)$O (unlabeled atoms refer to (14)N and (16)O, respectively), with rotational data of NO, (15)NO, N(17)O, and (15)N(18)O, and with heterodyne infrared data of NO to be subjected to one isotopic invariant fit. Rotational, fine and hyperfine structure parameters were determined along with vibrational, rotational, and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown corrections. The resulting spectroscopic parameters permit prediction of rotational spectra suitable for the identification of various nitric oxide isotopologs especially in the interstellar medium by means of rotational spectroscopy.

Structure of the nucleus of 1928+738

Modeling of the trajectories of VLBI components ejected by the nucleus of 1928+738 shows the VLBI jet contains three families of trajectories, i.e. VLBI components are ejected from three different origins. The fit of components C1, C6 and C8 indicates that the nucleus of 1928+738 contains two binary black hole systems. The first binary black hole system is associated with the stationary components Cg and CS and is characterized by a radius $R_{bin,1} \approx 0.220$ mas; both black holes ejected VLBI components quasi regularly between 1990 and 2010. The second binary black hole system is not associated with stationary components and is characterized by a radius $R_{bin,2} \approx 0.140$ mas; it ejected only three VLBI components between 1994 and 1999. The two black hole sytems are separated by $\approx 1.35$ mas. We briefly discuss the consequences of the existence of binary black holes systems in radio quasars to make the link between radio quasars and GAIA.

On the Variation of Fourier Parameters for Galactic and LMC Cepheids at Optical, Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Wavelengths

We present a light curve analysis of fundamental-mode Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids based on the Fourier decomposition technique. We have compiled light curve data for Galactic and LMC Cepheids in optical ({\it VI}), near-infrared ({\it JHK}$_s$) and mid-infrared (3.6 $\&$ 4.5-$\mu$m) bands from the literature and determined the variation of their Fourier parameters as a function of period and wavelength. We observed a decrease in Fourier amplitude parameters and an increase in Fourier phase parameters with increasing wavelengths at a given period. We also found a decrease in the skewness and acuteness parameters as a function of wavelength at a fixed period. We applied a binning method to analyze the progression of the mean Fourier parameters with period and wavelength. We found that for periods longer than about 20 days, the values of the Fourier amplitude parameters increase sharply for shorter wavelengths as compared to wavelengths longer than the $J$-band. We observed the variation of the Hertzsprung progression with wavelength. The central period of the Hertzsprung progression was found to increase with wavelength in the case of the Fourier amplitude parameters and decrease with increasing wavelength in the case of phase parameters. We also observed a small variation of the central period of the progression between the Galaxy and LMC, presumably related to metallicity effects. These results will provide useful constraints for stellar pulsation codes that incorporate stellar atmosphere models to produce Cepheid light curves in various bands.

Evolution of the Milky Way with radial motions of stars and gas II. The evolution of abundance profiles from H to Ni

We study the role of radial motions of stars and gas on the evolution of abundance profiles in the Milky Way disk. We investigate, in a parametrized way, the impact of radial flows of gas and radial migration of stars induced mainly by the Galactic bar and its iteraction with the spiral arms. We use a model with several new or up-dated ingredients (atomic and molecular gas phases, star formation depending on molecular gas, recent sets of metallicity-dependent stellar yields from H to Ni, observationally inferred SNIa rates), which reproduces well most global and local observables of the Milky Way. We obtain abundance profiles flattening both in the inner disk (because of radial flows) and in the outer disk (because of the adopted star formation law). The gas abundance profiles flatten with time, but the corresponding stellar profiles appear to be steeper for younger stars, because of radial migration. We find a correlation between the stellar abundance profiles and O/Fe, which is a proxy for stellar age. Our final abundance profiles are in overall agreement with observations, but slightly steeper (by 0.01-0.02 dex/kpc) for elements above S. We find an interesting "odd-even effect" in the behaviour of the abundance profiles (steeper slopes for odd elements) for all sets of stellar yields; however, this behaviour does not appear in observations, suggesting that the effect is, perhaps, overestimated in current stellar nucleosynthesis calculations.

Observations of water with Herschel/HIFI toward the high-mass protostar AFGL 2591

Water is a sensitive tracer of physical conditions in star-forming regions because of its large abundance variations between hot and cold regions. We use spectrally resolved observations of rotational lines of H$_2$O and its isotopologs with Herschel/HIFI to constrain the physical conditions of the water emitting region toward the high-mass protostar AFGL2591. We use analytical estimates and rotation diagrams to estimate T$_{ex}$ and column densities of H$_2$O of the envelope, the outflow, and a foreground cloud. Furthermore, we use the non-LTE radiative transfer code to estimate the temperature and volume density of the H$_2$O emitting gas. Assuming LTE, we estimate an T$_{ex}$ of 42 K and a column density of 2$\times$10$^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$ for the envelope and 45 K and 4$\times$10$^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ for the outflow, in beams of 4" and 30", respectively. Non-LTE models indicate a kinetic temperature of 60-230 K and a volume density of 7$\times$10$^6$-10$^8$ cm$^{-3}$ for the envelope, and a kinetic temperature of 70-90 K and a gas density of 10$^7$-10$^8$ cm$^{-3}$ for the outflow. The o/p ratio of the foreground absorption is 1.9$\pm$0.4, suggesting a low temperature. In contrast, the o/p ratio seen in absorption by the outflow is 3.5$\pm$1.0, as expected for warm gas. The water abundance in the envelope is 10$^{-9}$, similar to the low values found for other high- and low-mass protostars, suggesting that this abundance is constant during the embedded phase of high-mass star formation. The water abundance in the outflow is 10$^{-10}$, which is 10$\times$ lower than in the envelope and in the outflows of high- and low-mass protostars. Since beam size effects can only increase this estimate by a factor of 2, we suggest that the water in the outflow is affected by dissociating UV radiation due to the low extinction in the outflow lobe.

Early Growth in a Perturbed Universe: Exploring Dark Matter Halo Populations in 2LPT and ZA Simulations

We study the structure and evolution of dark matter halos from z = 300 to z = 6 for two cosmological N-body simulation initialization techniques. While the second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) and the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) both produce accurate present day halo mass functions, earlier collapse of dense regions in 2LPT can result in larger mass halos at high redshift. We explore the differences in dark matter halo mass and concentration due to initialization method through three 2LPT and three ZA initialized cosmological simulations. We find that 2LPT induces more rapid halo growth, resulting in more massive halos compared to ZA. This effect is most pronounced for high mass halos and at high redshift. Halo concentration is, on average, largely similar between 2LPT and ZA, but retains differences when viewed as a function of halo mass. For both mass and concentration, the difference between typical individual halos can be very large, highlighting the shortcomings of ZA-initialized simulations for high-z halo population studies.

The Reionisation of Carbon

Observations suggest that CII was more abundant than CIV in the intergalactic medium towards the end of the hydrogen reionisation epoch. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the enrichment history of intergalactic gas and the growth of the ionising background (UVB) at early times. We study how carbon absorption evolves from z=10-5 using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation that includes a self-consistent multifrequency UVB as well as a well-constrained model for galactic outflows to disperse metals. Our predicted UVB is within 2-4 times that of Haardt & Madau (2012), which is fair agreement given the uncertainties. Nonetheless, we use a calibration in post-processing to account for Lyman-alpha forest measurements while preserving the predicted spectral slope and inhomogeneity. The UVB fluctuates spatially in such a way that it always exceeds the volume average in regions where metals are found. This implies both that a spatially-uniform UVB is a poor approximation and that metal absorption is not sensitive to the epoch when HII regions overlap globally even at column densites of 10^{12} cm^{-2}. We find, consistent with observations, that the CII mass fraction drops to low redshift while CIV rises owing the combined effects of a growing UVB and continued addition of carbon in low-density regions. This is mimicked in absorption statistics, which broadly agree with observations at z=6-3 while predicting that the absorber column density distributions rise steeply to the lowest observable columns. Our model reproduces the large observed scatter in the number of low-ionisation absorbers per sightline, implying that the scatter does not indicate a partially-neutral Universe at z=6.

TiNy Titans: The Role of Dwarf-Dwarf Interactions in the Evolution of Low Mass Galaxies

We introduce TiNy Titans (TNT), the first systematic study of star formation and the subsequent processing of the interstellar medium in interacting dwarf galaxies. Here we present the first results from a multiwavelength observational program based on a sample of 104 dwarf galaxy pairs selected from a range of environments within the SDSS and caught in various stages of interaction. The TNT dwarf pairs span mass ratios of M1/M2 <10, projected separations <50 kpc, and pair member masses of 7< log(M_*/Msun) <9.7. The dwarf-dwarf merger sequence, as defined by TNT, demonstrates conclusively and for the first time that the star formation enhancement observed for massive galaxy pairs also extends to dwarfs. Star formation is enhanced in paired dwarfs in otherwise isolated environments by a factor of 2.3 (+/- 0.7) at pair separations < 50 kpc relative to unpaired analogs. Starbursts, with Ha EQW >100 A, occur in 20% of TNT dwarf pairs, regardless of environment, compared to only 6-8% of matched unpaired dwarfs. Starbursts can be triggered throughout the merger (out to large pair separations) and not just approaching coalescence. Despite their enhanced star formation, most TNT dwarf pairs have similar gas fractions relative to unpaired dwarfs. Thus, there may be significant reservoirs of diffuse, non-starforming gas surrounding the dwarf pairs or the gas consumption timescales may be long in the starburst phase. The only TNT dwarf pairs with low gas fractions (fgas <0.4) and the only dwarfs with Ha EQW <2 A are found near massive galaxy hosts. Thus, dwarf-dwarf interactions are significant drivers of dwarf galaxy evolution, but ultimately environment is responsible for the quenching of star formation. This work is a precursor to an ongoing high resolution HI and optical imaging program to constrain the spatial distribution of star formation and gas throughout the dwarf-dwarf merger sequence.

Miyamoto-Nagai discs embedded in the Binney logarithmic potential: analytical solution of the two-integrals Jeans equations

We present the analytical solution of the two-integrals Jeans equations for Miyamoto-Nagai discs embedded in Binney logarithmic dark matter haloes. The equations can be solved (both with standard methods and with the Residue Theorem) for arbitrary choices of the parameters, thus providing a very flexible two-component galaxy model, ranging from flattened discs to spherical systems. A particularly interesting case is obtained when the dark matter halo reduces to the Singular Isothermal Sphere. Azimuthal motions are separated in the ordered and velocity dispersion components by using the Satoh decomposition. The obtained formulae can be used in numerical simulations of galactic gas flows, for testing codes of stellar dynamics, and to study the dependence of the stellar velocity dispersion and of the asymmetric drift in the equatorial plane as a function of disc and halo flattenings. Here, we estimate the inflow radial velocities of the interstellar medium, expected by the mixing of the stellar mass losses of the lagging stars in the disc with a pre-existing gas in circular orbit.

Compaction and Quenching of High-z Galaxies: Blue and Red Nuggets in Cosmological Simulations

We use cosmological simulations to study a characteristic evolution pattern of high redshift galaxies. Early, stream-fed, highly perturbed, gas-rich discs undergo phases of dissipative contraction into compact, star-forming systems (blue nuggets) at z~4-2. The peak of gas compaction marks the onset of central gas depletion and inside-out quenching into compact ellipticals (red nuggets) by z~2. These are sometimes surrounded by gas rings or grow extended dry stellar envelopes. The compaction occurs at a roughly constant specific star-formation rate (SFR), and the quenching occurs at a constant stellar surface density within the inner kpc (Sigma_1). Massive galaxies quench earlier, faster, and at a higher Sigma_1 than lower-mass galaxies, which compactify and attempt to quench more than once. This evolution pattern is consistent with the way galaxies populate the SFR-radius-mass space, and with gradients and scatter across the main sequence. The compaction is triggered by an intense inflow episode, involving mergers, counter-rotating streams or recycled gas, and is commonly associated with violent disc instability. The contraction is dissipative, with the inflow rate >SFR, and the maximum Sigma_1 anti-correlated with the initial spin parameter, as predicted by Dekel & Burkert (2014). The central quenching is triggered by the high SFR and stellar/supernova feedback (possibly also AGN feedback) due to the high central gas density, while the central inflow weakens as the disc vanishes. Suppression of fresh gas supply by a hot halo allows the long-term maintenance of quenching once above a threshold halo mass, inducing the quenching downsizing.

Formation of dense structures induced by filament collisions. Correlation of density, kinematics and magnetic field in the Pipe nebula

Context. The Pipe nebula is a molecular cloud that lacks star formation feedback and has a relatively simple morphology and velocity structure. This makes it an ideal target to test cloud evolution through collisions. Aims. We aim at drawing a comprehensive picture of this relatively simple cloud to better understand the formation and evolution of molecular clouds on large scales. Methods. We use archival data to compare the optical polarization properties, the visual extinction, and the 13CO velocities and linewidths of the entire cloud in order to identify trends among the observables. Results. The Pipe nebula can be roughly divided in two filaments with different orientations and gas velocity ranges: E-W at 2-4 km s-1 and N-S at 6-7 km s-1. The two filaments overlap at the bowl, where the gas shows a velocity gradient spanning from 2 to 7 km s-1. Compared to the rest of the Pipe nebula, the bowl gas appears to be denser and exhibits larger linewidths. In addition, the polarization data at the bowl shows lower angular dispersion and higher polarization degree. Cores in the bowl tend to cluster in space and tend to follow the 13CO velocity gradient. In the stem, cores tend to cluster in regions with properties similar to those of the bowl. Conclusions. The velocity pattern points to a collision between the filaments in the bowl region. The magnetic field seems to be compressed and strengthened in the shocked region. The proportional increase of density and magnetic field strength by a factor similar to the Alfv\’enic Mach number suggests a continuous shock at low Alfv\’enic Mach number under flux-freezing. Shocked regions seem to enhance the formation and clustering of dense cores.

The velocity distribution in the solar neighbourhood from the LAMOST pilot survey

We use about 15,000 F/G nearby dwarf stars selected from the LAMOST pilot survey to map the U-V velocity distribution in the solar neighbourhood. An extreme deconvolution algorithm is applied to reconstruct an empirical multi-Gaussian model. In addition to the well known substructures, e.g., Sirius, Coma Berenices, Hyades-Pleiades over-densities, several new substructures are unveiled. A ripple-like structure from (U, V) = (-120, -5) to (103, -32)km/s is clearly seen in the U-V distribution. This structure seems associated with resonance induced by the Galactic bar, since it is extended in U while having a small dispersion in V at the same time. A ridge structure between (U, V) = (-60, 40) and (-15, 15) km/s is also found. Although similar substructures have been seen in the Hipparcos data, their origin is still unclear. Another compact over-density is seen at (U, V) = (-102, -24). With this large data sample, we find that the substructure located at V~70 km/s and the Arcturus group are essentially parallel in V, which may indicate that they originate from an unrelaxed disk component perturbed by the rotating bar.

A 24 Micron Point Source Catalog of the Galactic Plane from Spitzer/MIPSGAL

In this contribution, we describe the applied methods to construct a 24 micron based point source catalog derived from the image data of the MIPSGAL 24 micron Galactic Plane Survey and the corresponding data products. The high quality catalog product contains 933,818 sources, with a total of 1,353,228 in the full archive catalog. The source tables include positional and photometric informa- tion derived from the 24 micron images, source quality and confusion flags and coun- terpart photometry from matched 2MASS, GLIMPSE, and WISE point sources. Completeness decay data cubes are constructed at 1 arcminute angular resolution that describe the varying background levels over the MIPSGAL field and the ability to extract sources of a given magnitude from this background. The completeness decay cubes are included in the set of data products. We present the results of our efforts to verify the astrometric and photometric calibration of the catalog, and present several analyses of minor anomalies in these measurements to justify adopted mitigation strategies.

Resolved H I observations of local analogs to z ~ 1 luminous compact blue galaxies: evidence for rotation-supported disks

While bright, blue, compact galaxies are common at $\rm z \sim 1$, they are relatively rare in the local universe, and their evolutionary paths are uncertain. We have obtained resolved H I observations of nine $\rm z \sim 0$ luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Very Large Array in order to measure their kinematic and dynamical properties and better constrain their evolutionary possibilities. We find that the LCBGs in our sample are rotating galaxies that tend to have nearby companions, relatively high central velocity dispersions, and can have disturbed velocity fields. We compare our measurements to those previously made with single dishes and find that single dish measurements tend to overestimate LCBGs’ rotation velocities and H I masses. We also compare the ratio of LCBGs’ rotation velocities to their velocity dispersions to those of other types of galaxies and find that LCBGs are strongly rotationally supported at large radii, similar to other types of disk galaxies, though within their half-light radii their H I $\rm V_{rot} \sigma^{-1}$ values are comparable to stellar $\rm V_{rot} \sigma^{-1}$ values of dwarf elliptical galaxies. We find that LCBGs’ disks on average are stable with respect to instabilities, though conditions may be conducive to local instabilities at the largest radii, which could lead to the formation of star-forming gas clumps in the disk, resulting eventually in a small central bulge or bar.

High-lying OH absorption, [C II] deficits, and extreme $L_{\mathrm{FIR}}/M_{\mathrm{H2}}$ ratios in galaxies

Herschel/PACS observations of 29 local (Ultra-)Luminous Infrared Galaxies, including both starburst and AGN-dominated sources as diagnosed in the mid-infrared/optical, show that the equivalent width of the absorbing OH 65 um Pi_{3/2} J=9/2-7/2 line (W_{eq}(OH65)) with lower level energy E_{low}~300 K, is anticorrelated with the [C ii]158 um line to far-infrared luminosity ratio, and correlated with the far-infrared luminosity per unit gas mass and with the 60-to-100 um far-infrared color. While all sources are in the active L_{IR}/M_{H2}>50 Lsun/Msun mode as derived from previous CO line studies, the OH65 absorption shows a bimodal distribution with a discontinuity at L_{FIR}/M_{H2}~100 Lsun/Msun. In the most buried sources, OH65 probes material partially responsible for the silicate 9.7 um absorption. Combined with observations of the OH 71 um Pi_{1/2} J=7/2-5/2 doublet (E_{low}~415 K), radiative transfer models characterized by the equivalent dust temperature, Tdust, and the continuum optical depth at 100 um, tau_{100}, indicate that strong [C ii]158 um deficits are associated with far-IR thick (tau_{100}>~0.7, N_{H}>~10^{24} cm^{-2}), warm (Tdust>~60 K) structures where the OH 65 um absorption is produced, most likely in circumnuclear disks/tori/cocoons. With their high L_{FIR}/M_{H2} ratios and columns, the presence of these structures is expected to give rise to strong [C ii] deficits. W_{eq}(OH65) probes the fraction of infrared luminosity arising from these compact/warm environments, which is >~30-50% in sources with high W_{eq}({OH65}). Sources with high W_{eq}({OH65}) have surface densities of both L_{IR} and M_{H2} higher than inferred from the half-light (CO or UV/optical) radius, tracing coherent structures that represent the most buried/active stage of (circum)nuclear starburst-AGN co-evolution.

Resonant Clumping and Substructure in Galactic Discs

We describe a method to extract resonant orbits from N-body simulations exploiting the fact that they close in a frame rotating with a constant pattern speed. Our method is applied to the N-body simulation of the Milky Way by Shen et al. (2010). This simulation hosts a massive bar, which drives strong resonances and persistent angular momentum exchange. Resonant orbits are found throughout the disc, both close to the bar itself and out to the very edges of the disc. Using Fourier spectrograms, we demonstrate that the bar is driving kinematic substructure even in the very outer parts of the disc. We identify two major orbit families in the outskirts of the disc that make significant contributions to the kinematic landscape, namely the m:l = 3:-2 and 1:-1 families resonating with the pattern speed of the bar. A mechanism is described that produces bimodal distributions of Galactocentric radial velocities at selected azimuths in the outer disc. It occurs as a result of the temporal coherence of particles on the 3:-2 resonant orbits, which causes them to arrive simultaneously at pericentre or apocentre. This resonant clumping, due to the in-phase motion of the particles through their epicycle, leads to both inward and outward moving groups which belong to the same orbital family and consequently produce bimodal radial velocity distributions. This is a possible explanation of the bimodal velocity distributions observed towards the Galactic anti-Centre by Liu et al. (2012). Another consequence is that transient overdensities appear and dissipate (in a symmetric fashion) on timescales equal to the their epicyclic period resulting in a periodic pulsing of the disc’s surface density.

Made-to-Measure Dark Matter Haloes, Elliptical Galaxies and Dwarf Galaxies in Action Coordinates

We provide a family of action-based distribution functions (DFs) for the double-power law family of densities often used to model galaxies. The DF itself is a double-power law in combinations of the actions, and reduces to the known limits in the case of a pure power-law at small and large radii. Our method enables the velocity anisotropy of the model to be tuned, and so the anisotropy in the inner and outer parts can be specified for the application in hand. We provide self-consistent DFs for the Hernquist and Jaffe models – both with everywhere isotropic velocity dispersions, and with kinematics that gradually becomes more radially anisotropic on moving outwards. We also carry out this exercise for a cored dark-matter model. These are tailored to represent dark haloes and elliptical galaxies respectively with kinematic properties inferred from simulations or observational data. Finally, we relax a cored luminous component within a dark matter halo to provide a self-consistent model of a dwarf spheroidal embedded in dark matter. The DFs provide us with non-rotating spherical stellar systems, but one of the virtues of working with actions is the relative ease with which such models can be converted into axisymmetry and triaxiality.

The North Polar Spur and Aquila Rift

Soft X-ray intensity at 0.89 keV along the North Polar Spur is shown to follow the extinction law due to the interstellar gas in the Aquila Rift by analyzing the ROSAT archival data, which proves that the NPS is located behind the rift. The Aquila-Serpens molecular clouds, where the X-ray optical depth exceeds unity, are shown to have a mean LSR velocity of v=7.33 +/- 1.94 km/s, corresponding to a kinematic distance of r=0.642 +/- 0.174 kpc. Assuming a shell structure, a lower limit of the distance to NPS is derived to be 1.01 +/- 0.25 kpc, with the shell center being located farther than 1.1 kpc. Based on the distance estimation, we argue that the NPS is a galactic halo object.

Simulations of gas sloshing in galaxy cluster Abell 2052

The intracluster plasma of Abell 2052 exhibits in X-rays a spiral structure extending more than 250 kpc, which is comprised of cool gas. This feature is understood to be the result of gas sloshing caused by the off-axis collision with a smaller subcluster. We aim to recover the dynamical history of Abell 2052 and to reproduce the broad morphology of the spiral feature. To this end, we perform hydrodynamical $N$-body simulations of cluster collisions. We obtain two regimes that adequately reproduce the desired features. The first scenario is a close encounter and a recent event (0.8 Gyr since pericentric passage), while the second scenario has a larger impact parameter and is older (almost 2.6 Gyr since pericentric passage). In the second case, the simulation predicts that the perturbing subcluster should be located approximately 2 Mpc from the centre of the major cluster. At that position, we are able to identify an observed optical counterpart at the same redshift: a galaxy group with $M_{500} = (1.16 \pm 0.43) \times 10^{13} M_{\odot}$.

Synchrotron radiation from molecular clouds

Observations of the properties of dense molecular clouds are critical in understanding the process of star-formation. One of the most important, but least understood, is the role of the magnetic fields. We discuss the possibility of using high-resolution, high-sensitivity radio observations to measure the in-situ synchrotron radiation from these molecular clouds. If the cosmic-ray particles penetrate clouds as expected, then we can measure the B-field strength directly using radio data. So far, this signature has never been detected from the collapsing clouds themselves and would be a unique probe of the magnetic field. Dense cores are typically ~0.05 pc in size, corresponding to ~arcsec at ~kpc distances, and flux density estimates are ~mJy at 1 GHz. They should be detectable, for example with the Square Kilometre Array.

Seyfert 2 galaxies with unusually wide nebular lines

We report on a set of AGN that match the Seyfert 2 galaxy classification criteria, but display unusually wide "narrow" lines, with the 4959 {\AA} and 5007 {\AA} nebular lines overlapping with each other. This spectral line broadening is in most cases evidence of a complex profile with multiple components. It indicates an unusual narrow line region with diverse gas clouds and a range of velocity systems. We list 14 such objects with these characteristics identified in a set of Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra. We measure the strengths of all lines visible in the spectrum, and attempt to fit multiple Gaussian profiles to the nebular lines. We quantify the line parameters of all multiple velocity systems discovered. We compare the spectral characteristics of our sample with those of other, ‘conventional’ type 2 Seyferts and attempt to determine whether other systematic spectral differences exist. We consider whether the investigated sample constitutes a clear sub-class of the Seyfert 2 population. In conclusion we offer possible explanations for the unusual line profiles.

Rings of star formation: Imprints of a close galaxy encounter

In this talk, I report results from galaxy merger simulations, which suggest the existence of a ring of star formation produced by close galaxy encounters. This is a generic feature of all galaxy interactions, provided that the disc spins are sufficiently aligned. This signature can be used to identify close galaxy pairs that have actually suffered a close interaction.

Cosmological variation of the MOND constant: secular effects on galactic systems [Cross-Listing]

The proximity of the MOND acceleration constant with cosmological accelerations — for example, a0~ cH0/2pi — points to its possibly decreasing with cosmic time. I begin to consider the secular changes induced in galactic systems by such presumed variations, assumed adiabatic. It is important to understand these effects, in isolation from other evolutionary influences, in order to identify or constrain a0 variations by detection of induced effects, or lack thereof. I find that as long as the system is fully in the deep-MOND regime — as applies to many galactic systems — the adiabatic response of the system obeys simple scaling laws. For example, in a system that would be stationary for fixed a0, the system expands homologously as a0^{-1/4}, while internal velocities decrease uniformly as a0^{1/4}. If a0 is proportional to cH at all relevant times, this change amounts to a factor of ~ 2.5 since redshift 10. For a system stationary in a rotating frame, the angular frequency decreases as a0^{1/2}. The accelerations increase relative to a0 as a0^{-1/4}, pushing the system towards the Newtonian regime. All this follows from the appearance of a0 in MOND and the scale invariance of the deep-MOND limit — two basic tenets of MOND. More complicated evolution ensues when parts of the system become Newtonian, or are so from inception. For example, these parts may become unstable, not being protected by MOND’s stabilizing effects. The existence of such regions also modifies the MONDian regime, since they affect the potential everywhere, and since constituents might migrate between the Newtonian and MONDian regimes. Studying these last effects would require detailed numerical calculations.

Cosmological variation of the MOND constant: secular effects on galactic systems [Cross-Listing]

The proximity of the MOND acceleration constant with cosmological accelerations — for example, a0~ cH0/2pi — points to its possibly decreasing with cosmic time. I begin to consider the secular changes induced in galactic systems by such presumed variations, assumed adiabatic. It is important to understand these effects, in isolation from other evolutionary influences, in order to identify or constrain a0 variations by detection of induced effects, or lack thereof. I find that as long as the system is fully in the deep-MOND regime — as applies to many galactic systems — the adiabatic response of the system obeys simple scaling laws. For example, in a system that would be stationary for fixed a0, the system expands homologously as a0^{-1/4}, while internal velocities decrease uniformly as a0^{1/4}. If a0 is proportional to cH at all relevant times, this change amounts to a factor of ~ 2.5 since redshift 10. For a system stationary in a rotating frame, the angular frequency decreases as a0^{1/2}. The accelerations increase relative to a0 as a0^{-1/4}, pushing the system towards the Newtonian regime. All this follows from the appearance of a0 in MOND and the scale invariance of the deep-MOND limit — two basic tenets of MOND. More complicated evolution ensues when parts of the system become Newtonian, or are so from inception. For example, these parts may become unstable, not being protected by MOND’s stabilizing effects. The existence of such regions also modifies the MONDian regime, since they affect the potential everywhere, and since constituents might migrate between the Newtonian and MONDian regimes. Studying these last effects would require detailed numerical calculations.

Cosmological variation of the MOND constant: secular effects on galactic systems

The proximity of the MOND acceleration constant with cosmological accelerations — for example, a0~ cH0/2pi — points to its possibly decreasing with cosmic time. I begin to consider the secular changes induced in galactic systems by such presumed variations, assumed adiabatic. It is important to understand these effects, in isolation from other evolutionary influences, in order to identify or constrain a0 variations by detection of induced effects, or lack thereof. I find that as long as the system is fully in the deep-MOND regime — as applies to many galactic systems — the adiabatic response of the system obeys simple scaling laws. For example, in a system that would be stationary for fixed a0, the system expands homologously as a0^{-1/4}, while internal velocities decrease uniformly as a0^{1/4}. If a0 is proportional to cH at all relevant times, this change amounts to a factor of ~ 2.5 since redshift 10. For a system stationary in a rotating frame, the angular frequency decreases as a0^{1/2}. The accelerations increase relative to a0 as a0^{-1/4}, pushing the system towards the Newtonian regime. All this follows from the appearance of a0 in MOND and the scale invariance of the deep-MOND limit — two basic tenets of MOND. More complicated evolution ensues when parts of the system become Newtonian, or are so from inception. For example, these parts may become unstable, not being protected by MOND’s stabilizing effects. The existence of such regions also modifies the MONDian regime, since they affect the potential everywhere, and since constituents might migrate between the Newtonian and MONDian regimes. Studying these last effects would require detailed numerical calculations.

Cosmological variation of the MOND constant: secular effects on galactic systems [Cross-Listing]

The proximity of the MOND acceleration constant with cosmological accelerations — for example, a0~ cH0/2pi — points to its possibly decreasing with cosmic time. I begin to consider the secular changes induced in galactic systems by such presumed variations, assumed adiabatic. It is important to understand these effects, in isolation from other evolutionary influences, in order to identify or constrain a0 variations by detection of induced effects, or lack thereof. I find that as long as the system is fully in the deep-MOND regime — as applies to many galactic systems — the adiabatic response of the system obeys simple scaling laws. For example, in a system that would be stationary for fixed a0, the system expands homologously as a0^{-1/4}, while internal velocities decrease uniformly as a0^{1/4}. If a0 is proportional to cH at all relevant times, this change amounts to a factor of ~ 2.5 since redshift 10. For a system stationary in a rotating frame, the angular frequency decreases as a0^{1/2}. The accelerations increase relative to a0 as a0^{-1/4}, pushing the system towards the Newtonian regime. All this follows from the appearance of a0 in MOND and the scale invariance of the deep-MOND limit — two basic tenets of MOND. More complicated evolution ensues when parts of the system become Newtonian, or are so from inception. For example, these parts may become unstable, not being protected by MOND’s stabilizing effects. The existence of such regions also modifies the MONDian regime, since they affect the potential everywhere, and since constituents might migrate between the Newtonian and MONDian regimes. Studying these last effects would require detailed numerical calculations.

Probing the Local Bubble with Diffuse Interstellar Bands. III. The Northern hemisphere data and catalog

We present a new high signal-to-noise (S/N) observations of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of $\lambda$5780 and $\lambda$5797 \AA\ DIBs up to distance of $\sim$ 200 pc. All observations have been carried out by using Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS) on 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N ratio of $\sim$ 2000. All $\lambda$5780 and $\lambda$5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and the observed values of interstellar parameter; $\lambda$5780, $\lambda$5797, Na I D lines including the uncertainties are tabulated.

The Spectral Variability of the GHz-Peaked Spectrum Radio Source PKS 1718-649 and a Comparison of Absorption Models

Using the new wideband capabilities of the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we obtain spectra for PKS 1718-649, a well-known gigahertz-peaked spectrum radio source. The observations, between approximately 1 and 10 GHz over three epochs spanning approximately 21 months, reveal variability both above the spectral peak at ~3 GHz and below the peak. The combination of the low and high frequency variability cannot be easily explained using a single absorption mechanism, such as free-free absorption or synchrotron self-absorption. We find that the PKS 1718-649 spectrum and its variability are best explained by variations in the free-free optical depth on our line-of-sight to the radio source at low frequencies (below the spectral peak) and the adiabatic expansion of the radio source itself at high frequencies (above the spectral peak). The optical depth variations are found to be plausible when X-ray continuum absorption variability seen in samples of Active Galactic Nuclei is considered. We find that the cause of the peaked spectrum in PKS 1718-649 is most likely due to free-free absorption. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the spectrum at each epoch of observation is best fit by a free-free absorption model characterised by a power-law distribution of free-free absorbing clouds. This agreement is extended to frequencies below the 1 GHz lower limit of the ATCA by considering new observations with Parkes at 725 MHz and 199 MHz observations with the newly operational Murchison Widefield Array. These lower frequency observations argue against families of absorption models (both free-free and synchrotron self-absorption) that are based on simple homogenous structures.

On The Relation Between the AGN Jet and Accretion Disk Emissions

Active galactic nuclei jets are detected via their radio and/or gamma-ray emissions while the accretion disks are detected by their optical and UV radiation. Observations of the radio and optical luminosities show a strong correlation between the two luminosities. However, part of this correlation is due to the redshift or distances of the sources that enter in calculating the luminosities from the observed fluxes and part of it could be due to the differences in the cosmological evolution of luminosities. Thus, the determination of the intrinsic correlations between the luminosities is not straightforward. It is affected by the observational selection effects and other factors that truncate the data, sometimes in a complex manner (e.g. Antonucci (2011) and Pavildou et al. (2010)). In this paper we describe methods that allow us to determine the evolution of the radio and optical luminosities, and determine the true intrinsic correlation between the two luminosities. We find a much weaker correlation than observed and sub-linear relations between the luminosities. This has a significant implication for jet and accretion disk physics.

Scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies: comparing theoretical and observational measurements, and the impact of selection effects

We use the high-resolution simulation MassiveBlackII to examine scaling relations between black hole mass (MBH) and host galaxy properties (sigma, M*, and LV), finding good agreement with observational data, especially at the high-mass end. The simulations have less intrinsic scatter than observations, and the MBH-LV correlation has the largest scatter, suggesting it may the the least fundamental of the three relations. We find Gaussian scatter about all three relations, except among the highest mass galaxies, which host more massive black holes. Below z~2 the slopes for the full population remain roughly z-independent, and only steepen by 50% by z~4. The normalization of the sigma, LV relations evolve by 0.3, 0.43 dex, while the MBH correlation does not evolve to at least z~2. Testing for selection biases, we find samples selected by MBH or M* have steeper slopes than randomly selected samples. If unaccounted for, such a selection function would find faster evolution than inferred from a randomly selected sample, as objects at the highend of the relation tend to evolve more rapidly. We find a potential bias among high-LBH subsamples (tending to reside in higher mass galaxies), but these bright-AGN exhibit no intrinsic bias relative to fainter ones in equivalent-mass hosts, nor is there a significant difference between active- and inactive-samples. Finally we characterize the evolution of individual black holes along the scaling planes. Below the local relation, black holes grow faster than their host (72% of black holes 0.3 dex below the mean relation have a MBH-M* trajectory steeper than the local relation), while those above have shallower trajectories (only 14% are steeper than local). Black holes tend to grow faster than their hosts until surpassing the local relation, at which point their growth is suppressed while their hosts continue to grow, returning them to the mean relation.

Deciphering the 3D structure of the old Galactic bulge from the OGLE RR Lyrae stars

We have analyzed a sample of 27,258 fundamental-mode RR Lyrae variable stars (type RRab) detected recently toward the Galactic bulge by the OGLE survey. The data support our earlier claim that these metal-poor stars trace closely the barred structure formed of intermediate-age red clump giants. The distance to the Galactic center (GC) inferred from the bulge RR Lyrae stars is R_0=8.27+/-0.01(stat)+/-0.40(sys) kpc. We show that their spatial distribution has the shape of a triaxial ellipsoid with the major axis located in the Galactic plane and inclined at an angle i=20+/-3 deg to the Sun-GC line of sight. The obtained scale-length ratio of the major axis to the minor axis in the Galactic plane, and to the axis vertical to the plane is 1:0.49(2):0.39(2). We do not see the evidence for the bulge RR Lyrae stars forming an X-shaped structure. Based on the light curve parameters, we derive metallicities of the RRab variables and show that there is a very mild but statistically significant radial metallicity gradient. About 60% of the bulge RRab stars form two very close sequences on the period-amplitude (or Bailey) diagram, which we interpret as two major old bulge populations: A and B. Their metallicities likely differ. Population A is about four times less abundant than the slightly more metal-poor population B. Most of the remaining stars seem to represent other, even more metal-poor populations of the bulge. The presence of multiple old populations indicates that the Milky Way bulge was initially formed through mergers.

A New Model for Dark Matter Halos Hosting Quasars

A new model for quasar-hosting dark matter halos, meeting two physical conditions, is put forth. First, significant interactions are taken into consideration to trigger quasar activities. Second, satellites in very massive halos at low redshift are removed from consideration, due to their deficiency of cold gas. We analyze the {\em Millennium Simulation} to find halos that meet these two conditions and simultaneously match two-point auto-correlation functions of quasars and cross-correlation functions between quasars and galaxies at $z=0.5-3.2$. %The found halos have some distinct properties worth noting. The masses of found quasar hosts decrease with decreasing redshift, with the mass thresholds being $[(2-5)\times 10^{12}, (2-5)\times 10^{11}, (1-3)\times 10^{11}]\msun$ for median luminosities of $\sim[10^{46}, 10^{46}, 10^{45}]$erg/s at $z=(3.2, 1.4, 0.53)$, respectively, an order of magnitude lower than those inferred based on halo occupation distribution modeling. In this model quasar hosts are primarily massive central halos at $z\ge 2-3$ but increasingly dominated by lower mass satellite halos experiencing major interactions towards lower redshift. But below $z=1$ satellite halos in groups more massive than $\sim 2\times 10^{13}\msun$ do not host quasars. Whether for central or satellite halos, imposing the condition of significant interactions substantially boosts the clustering strength compared to the total population with the same mass cut. The inferred lifetimes of quasars at $z=0.5-3.2$ of $3-30$Myr are in agreement with observations. Quasars at $z\sim 2$ would be hosted by halos of mass $\sim 5\times 10^{11}\msun$ in this model, compared to $\sim 3\times 10^{12}\msun$ previously thought, which would help reconcile with the observed, otherwise puzzling high covering fractions for Lyman limit systems around quasars.

Cross-Correlation of Near and Far-Infrared Background Anisotropies as Traced by Spitzer and Herschel [Replacement]

We present the cross-correlation between the far-infrared background fluctuations as measured with the Herschel Space Observatory at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m and the near-infrared background fluctuations with Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 {\mu}m. The cross-correlation between far and near-IR background anisotropies are detected such that the correlation coefficient at a few to ten arcminute angular scales decreases from 0.3 to 0.1 when the far-IR wavelength increases from 250 {\mu}m to 500 {\mu}m. We model the cross-correlation using a halo model with three components: (a) far-IR bright or dusty star-forming galaxies below the masking depth in Herschel maps, (b) near-IR faint galaxies below the masking depth at 3.6 {\mu}m, and (c) intra-halo light, or diffuse stars in dark matter halos, that likely dominates fluctuations at 3.6 {\mu}m. The model is able to reasonably reproduce the auto correlations at each of the far-IR wavelengths and at 3.6 {\mu}m and their corresponding cross-correlations. While the far and near-IR auto-correlations are dominated by faint dusty, star-forming galaxies and intra-halo light, respectively, we find that roughly half of the cross-correlation between near and far-IR backgrounds is due to the same galaxies that remain unmasked at 3.6 {\mu}m. The remaining signal in the cross-correlation is due to intra-halo light present in the same dark matter halos as those hosting the same faint and unmasked galaxies. In this model, the decrease in the cross-correlation signal from 250 {\mu}m to 500 {\mu}m comes from the fact that the galaxies that are primarily contributing to 500 {\mu}m fluctuations peak at a higher redshift than those at 250 {\mu}m.

Cross-Correlation of Near and Far-Infrared Background Anisotropies as Traced by Spitzer and Herschel

We present the cross-correlation between the far-infrared background fluctuations as measured with the Herschel Space Observatory at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m and the near-infrared background fluctuations with Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 {\mu}m. The cross-correlation between far and near-IR background anisotropies are detected such that the correlation coefficient at a few to ten arcminute angular scales decreases from 0.3 to 0.1 when the far-IR wavelength increases from 250 {\mu}m to 500 {\mu}m. We model the cross-correlation using a halo model with three components: (a) far-IR bright or dusty star-forming galaxies below the masking depth in Herschel maps, (b) near-IR faint galaxies below the masking depth at 3.6 {\mu}m, and (c) intra-halo light, or diffuse stars in dark matter halos, that likely dominates fluctuations at 3.6 {\mu}m. The model is able to reasonably reproduce the auto correlations at each of the far-IR wavelengths and at 3.6 {\mu}m and their corresponding cross-correlations. While the far and near-IR auto-correlations are dominated by faint dusty, star-forming galaxies and intra-halo light, respectively, we find that roughly half of the cross-correlation between near and far-IR backgrounds is due to the same galaxies that remain unmasked at 3.6 {\mu}m. The remaining signal in the cross-correlation is due to intra-halo light present in the same dark matter halos as those hosting the same faint and unmasked galaxies. In this model, the decrease in the cross-correlation signal from 250 {\mu}m to 500 {\mu}m comes from the fact that the galaxies that are primarily contributing to 500 {\mu}m fluctuations peak at a higher redshift than those at 250 {\mu}m.

Galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared green valley: a case of the A2199 supercluster

We study the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of the galaxies in the A2199 supercluster at z = 0.03 to understand the star formation activity of galaxy groups and clusters in the supercluster environment. Using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, we find no dependence of mass-normalized integrated SFRs of galaxy groups/clusters on their virial masses. We classify the supercluster galaxies into three classes in the MIR color-luminosity diagram: MIR blue cloud (massive, quiescent and mostly early-type), MIR star-forming sequence (mostly late-type), and MIR green valley galaxies. These MIR green valley galaxies are distinguishable from the optical green valley galaxies, in the sense that they belong to the optical red sequence. We find that the fraction of each MIR class does not depend on virial mass of each group/cluster. We compare the cumulative distributions of surface galaxy number density and cluster/group-centric distance for the three MIR classes. MIR green valley galaxies show the distribution between MIR blue cloud and MIR SF sequence galaxies. However, if we fix galaxy morphology, early- and late-type MIR green valley galaxies show different distributions. Our results suggest a possible evolutionary scenario of these galaxies: 1) Late-type MIR SF sequence galaxies -> 2) Late-type MIR green valley galaxies -> 3) Early-type MIR green valley galaxies -> 4) Early-type MIR blue cloud galaxies. In this sequence, star formation of galaxies is quenched before the galaxies enter the MIR green valley, and then morphological transformation occurs in the MIR green valley.

Galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared green valley: a case of the A2199 supercluster [Replacement]

We study the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of the galaxies in the A2199 supercluster at z = 0.03 to understand the star formation activity of galaxy groups and clusters in the supercluster environment. Using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, we find no dependence of mass-normalized integrated SFRs of galaxy groups/clusters on their virial masses. We classify the supercluster galaxies into three classes in the MIR color-luminosity diagram: MIR blue cloud (massive, quiescent and mostly early-type), MIR star-forming sequence (mostly late-type), and MIR green valley galaxies. These MIR green valley galaxies are distinguishable from the optical green valley galaxies, in the sense that they belong to the optical red sequence. We find that the fraction of each MIR class does not depend on virial mass of each group/cluster. We compare the cumulative distributions of surface galaxy number density and cluster/group-centric distance for the three MIR classes. MIR green valley galaxies show the distribution between MIR blue cloud and MIR SF sequence galaxies. However, if we fix galaxy morphology, early- and late-type MIR green valley galaxies show different distributions. Our results suggest a possible evolutionary scenario of these galaxies: 1) Late-type MIR SF sequence galaxies -> 2) Late-type MIR green valley galaxies -> 3) Early-type MIR green valley galaxies -> 4) Early-type MIR blue cloud galaxies. In this sequence, star formation of galaxies is quenched before the galaxies enter the MIR green valley, and then morphological transformation occurs in the MIR green valley.

Catalog of narrow C IV absorption lines in BOSS (II): for quasars with zem > 2.4

As the second work in a series of papers aiming to detect absorption systems in the quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we continue the analysis of Paper I by expanding the quasar sample to those quasars with zem>2.4. This yields a sample of 21,963 appropriate quasars to search for narrow C IV absorptions with Wr>=0.2A for both lines. There are 9708 quasars with at least one appropriate absorption system imprinted on their spectra. From these spectra, we detect 13,919 narrow Civabsorption systems whose absorption redshifts cover a range of zabs=1.8784 – 4.3704. In this paper and Paper 1, we have selected 37,241 appropriate quasars with median SNR>= 4 and 1.54<= zem <=5.16 to visually analyze narrow C IV absorption doublets one by one. A total of 15,999 quasars are found to have at least one appropriate absorption system imprinted on their spectra. From these 15,999 quasar spectra, we have detected 23,336 appropriate C IV absorption systems with Wr>=0.2A whose absorption redshifts cover a range of zabs=1.4544 – 4.3704. The largest values of Wr are 3.19 A for the \lambda1548 absorption line and 2.93 A for the lambda1551 absorption line, respectively. We find that only a few absorbers show large values of Wr. About 1.1% absorbers of the total absorbers have Wr>=2.0 A.

Cosmic-ray-induced dissociation and reactions in warm interstellar ices [Replacement]

Context. Cosmic ray particles that hit interstellar grains in dark molecular cores may induce whole-grain heating. The high temperature of a CR-heated grain allows energy barriers for bulk diffusion and reactions to be overcome. Additionally, ice molecules are destroyed by direct cosmic-ray induced dissociation. Aims. We provide a justified estimate of the significance of cosmic-ray induced surface-mantle diffusion, chemical reactions in ice, and dissociation of ice species in a star-forming interstellar cloud core. Methods. We considered a gas clump in a collapsing low-mass prestellar core and during the initial stages of protostellar envelope heating with a three-phase chemical kinetics model. The model includes a proper treatment of the stochastic aspect of whole-grain heating and new experimental data for dissociation. Results. We found that the cosmic-ray-induced effects are mostly limited to an increase in abundance for carbon-chain species. The effect on major species abundances is a few percentage points at most. The HNC to HCN ice abundance ratio in ice is increased. Conclusions. Among the processes considered in the model, dissociation is probably the most significant, while diffusion and reactions on warm grains are less important. All three processes facilitate the synthesis of complex molecules, including organic species.

Cosmic-ray-induced dissociation and reactions in warm interstellar ices

Context. Cosmic ray particles that hit interstellar grains in dark molecular cores may induce whole-grain heating. The high temperature of a CR-heated grain allows energy barriers for bulk diffusion and reactions to be overcome. Additionally, ice molecules are destroyed by direct cosmic-ray induced dissociation. Aims. We provide a justified estimate of the significance of cosmic-ray induced surface-mantle diffusion, chemical reactions in ice, and dissociation of ice species in a star-forming interstellar cloud core. Methods. We considered a gas clump in a collapsing low-mass prestellar core and during the initial stages of protostellar envelope heating with a three-phase chemical kinetics model. The model includes a proper treatment of the stochastic aspect of whole-grain heating and new experimental data for dissociation. Results. We found that the cosmic-ray-induced effects are mostly limited to an increase in abundance for carbon-chain species. The effect on major species abundances is a few percentage points at most. The HNC to HCN ice abundance ratio in ice is increased. Conclusions. Among the processes considered in the model, dissociation is probably the most significant, while diffusion and reactions on warm grains are less important. All three processes facilitate the synthesis of complex molecules, including organic species.

Ground-based Pa$\alpha$ Narrow-band Imaging of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies I: Star Formation Rates and Surface Densities

Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust, produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in the optical wavelength. We have carried out Pa$\alpha$ narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star-forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in $IRAS$ RBGS catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera (ANIR) on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Pa$\alpha$ fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer Decrement Method (typically $A_V$ $\sim$ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of $IRAS$ data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for Pa$\alpha$ flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and the surface density of infrared luminosities ($\Sigma_{L(\mathrm{IR})}$) and $SFR$ ($\Sigma_{SFR}$) of star-forming region for individual galaxies, and find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the $L(\mathrm{IR})$-$\Sigma_{L(\mathrm{IR})}$ and $SFR$-$\Sigma_{SFR}$ plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at $L(\mathrm{IR})=8\times10^{10}$ $L_{\odot}$. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from those of normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most of U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences of their merging stage.

Two-size approximation: a simple way of treating the evolution of grain size distribution in galaxies

Full calculations of the evolution of grain size distribution in galaxies are in general computationally heavy. In this paper, we propose a simple model of dust enrichment in a galaxy with a simplified treatment of grain size distribution by imposing a `two-size approximation’; that is, all the grain population is represented by small (grain radius a < 0.03 micron) and large (a > 0.03 micron) grains. We include in the model dust supply from stellar ejecta, destruction in supernova shocks, dust growth by accretion, grain growth by coagulation and grain disruption by shattering, considering how these processes work on the small and large grains. We show that this simple framework reproduces the main features found in full calculations of grain size distributions as follows. The dust enrichment starts with the supply of large grains from stars. At a metallicity level referred to as the critical metallicity of accretion, the abundance of the small grains formed by shattering becomes large enough to rapidly increase the grain abundance by accretion. Associated with this epoch, the mass ratio of the small grains to the large grains reaches the maximum. After that, this ratio converges to the value determined by the balance between shattering and coagulation, and the dust-to-metal ratio is determined by the balance between accretion and shock destruction. With a Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the simplicity of our model has an advantage in predicting statistical properties. We also show some applications for predicting observational dust properties such as extinction curves.

Why do galaxies stop forming stars? I. The passive fraction - black hole mass relation for central galaxies

We derive the dependence of the fraction of passive central galaxies on the mass of their supermassive black holes for a sample of over 400,000 SDSS galaxies at z < 0.2. Our large sample contains galaxies in a wide range of environments, with stellar masses 8 < log(M*/Msun) < 12, spanning the entire morphological spectrum from pure disks to spheroids. We derive estimates for the black hole masses from measured central velocity dispersions and bulge masses, using a variety of published empirical relationships. We find a very strong dependence of the passive fraction on black hole mass, which is largely unaffected by the details of the black hole mass estimate. Moreover, the passive fraction relationship with black hole mass remains strong and tight even at fixed values of galaxy stellar mass (M*), dark matter halo mass (Mhalo), and bulge-to-total stellar mass ratio (B/T). Whereas, the passive fraction dependence on M*, Mhalo and B/T is weak at fixed MBH. These observations show that, for central galaxies, MBH is the strongest correlator with the passive fraction, consistent with quenching from AGN feedback.

Serendipitous discovery of a dying Giant Radio Galaxy associated with NGC 1534, using the Murchison Widefield Array

Recent observations with the Murchison Widefield Array at 185~MHz have serendipitously unveiled a heretofore unknown giant and relatively nearby ($z = 0.0178$) radio galaxy associated with NGC\,1534. The diffuse emission presented here is the first indication that NGC\,1534 is one of a rare class of objects (along with NGC\,5128 and NGC\,612) in which a galaxy with a prominent dust lane hosts radio emission on scales of $\sim$700\,kpc. We present details of the radio emission along with a detailed comparison with other radio galaxies with disks. NGC1534 is the lowest surface brightness radio galaxy known with an estimated scaled 1.4-GHz surface brightness of just 0.2\,mJy\,arcmin$^{-2}$. The radio lobes have one of the steepest spectral indices yet observed: $\alpha=-2.1\pm0.1$, and the core to lobe luminosity ratio is $<0.1$\%. We estimate the space density of this low brightness (dying) phase of radio galaxy evolution as $7\times10^{-7}$\,Mpc$^{-3}$ and argue that normal AGN cannot spend more than 6\% of their lifetime in this phase if they all go through the same cycle.

Derivation of chemical abundances in star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift

We have studied a sample of 11 blue, luminous, metal-poor galaxies at redshift 0.744 < z < 0.835 from the DEEP2 redshift survey. They were selected by the presence of the [OIII]4363 auroral line and the [OII]3726,3729 doublet together with the strong emission nebular [OIII] lines in their spectra from a sample of around 6000 galaxies within a narrow redshift range. All the spectra have been taken with DEIMOS, which is a multi-slit, double-beam spectrograph which uses slitmasks to allow the spectra from many objects to be imaged at the same time. The selected objects present high luminosities (20.3 < MB < 18.5), remarkable blue color index, and total oxygen abundances between 7.69 and 8.15 which represent 1/3 to 1/10 of the solar value. The wide spectral coverage (from 6500 to 9100 angstroms) of the DEIMOS spectrograph and its high spectral resolution, R around 5000, bring us an opportunity to study the behaviour of these star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift with high quality spectra. We put in context our results together with others presented in the literature up to date to try to understand the luminosity-metallicity relation this kind of objects define. The star-forming metal-poor galaxies would be of special relevance in showing the diversity among galaxies of similar luminosities and could serve to understand the processes of galaxy evolution.

Constraining Very High Mass Population III Stars through He II Emission in Galaxy BDF-521 at z = 7.01

Numerous theoretical models have long proposed that a strong He II 1640 emission line is the most prominent and unique feature of massive Population III (Pop III) stars in high redshift galaxies. The He II 1640 line strength can constrain the mass and IMF of Pop III stars. We use F132N narrowband filter on the Hubble Space Telescope’s (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) to look for strong He II lambda 1640 emission in the galaxy BDF-521 at z=7.01, one of the most distant spectroscopically-confirmed galaxies to date. Using deep F132N narrowband imaging, together with our broadband imaging with F125W and F160W filters, we do not detect He II emission from this galaxy, but place a 2-sigma upper limit on the flux of 5.3×10^-19 ergs s^-1 cm^-2. This measurement corresponds to a 2-sigma upper limit on the Pop III star formation rate (SFR_PopIII) of ~ 0.2 M_solar yr^-1, assuming a Salpeter IMF with 50< M/M_solar < 1000. From the high signal-to-noise broadband measurements in F125W and F160W, we fit the UV continuum for BDF-521. The spectral flux density is ~ 3.6x 10^-11 lambda^-2.32 ergs s^-1 cm^-2 A^-1, which corresponds to an overall unobscured SFR of ~ 5 M_solar yr^-1. Our upper limit on SFR_PopIII suggests that massive Pop III stars represent < 4% of the total star formation. Further, the HST high resolution imaging suggests that BDF-521 is an extremely compact galaxy, with a half-light radius of 0.6 kpc.

Black hole growth and AGN feedback under clumpy accretion

High-resolution simulations of supermassive black holes in isolated galaxies have suggested the importance of short (~10 Myr) episodes of rapid accretion caused by interactions between the black hole and massive dense clouds within the host. Accretion of such clouds could potentially provide the dominant source for black hole growth in high-z galaxies, but it remains unresolved in cosmological simulations. Using a stochastic subgrid model calibrated by high-resolution isolated galaxy simulations, we investigate the impact that variability in black hole accretion rates has on black hole growth and the evolution of the host galaxy. We find this clumpy accretion to more efficiently fuel high-redshift black hole growth. This increased mass allows for more rapid accretion even in the absence of high-density clumps, compounding the effect and resulting in substantially faster overall black hole growth. This increased growth allows the black hole to efficiently evacuate gas from the central region of the galaxy, driving strong winds up to ~2500 km/s, producing outflows ~10x stronger than the smooth accretion case, suppressing the inflow of gas onto the host galaxy, and suppressing the star formation within the galaxy by as much as a factor of two. This suggests that the proper incorporation of variability is a key factor in the co-evolution between black holes and their hosts.

Modelling galaxy spectra in presence of interstellar dust-III. From nearby galaxies to the distant Universe

Improving upon the standard evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) technique, we present spectrophotometric models of galaxies whose morphology goes from spherical structures to discs, properly accounting for the effect of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). These models enclose three main physical components: the diffuse ISM composed by gas and dust, the complexes of molecular clouds (MCs) where active star formation occurs and the stars of any age and chemical composition. These models are based on robust evolutionary chemical models that provide the total amount of gas and stars present at any age and that are adjusted in order to match the gross properties of galaxies of different morphological type. We have employed the results for the properties of the ISM presented in Piovan, Tantalo & Chiosi (2006a) and the single stellar populations calculated by Cassar\`a et al. (2013) to derive the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies going from pure bulge to discs passing through a number of composite systems with different combinations of the two components. The first part of the paper is devoted to recall the technical details of the method and the basic relations driving the interaction between the physical components of the galaxy. Then, the main parameters are examined and their effects on the spectral energy distribution of three prototype galaxies are highlighted. We conclude analyzing the capability of our galaxy models in reproducing the SEDs of real galaxies in the Local Universe and as a function of redshift.

 

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