Recent Postings from Galaxies

If it does not kill them, it makes them stronger: collisional evolution of star clusters with tidal shocks

The radii of young (< 100 Myr) star clusters correlate only weakly with their masses. This shallow relation has been used to argue that impulsive tidal perturbations, or `shocks', by passing giant molecular clouds (GMCs) preferentially disrupt low-mass clusters. We show that this mass-radius relation is in fact the result of the combined effect of two-body relaxation and repeated tidal shocks. Clusters evolve towards a typical radius of a few parsecs, as observed, independent of the initial radius and this radius is set by a competition between expansion by relaxation and shrinking due to shocks. The equilibrium cluster density is higher for stronger tidal shocks, such that disruption rates in gas-rich galaxies in the early Universe are only a factor of a few higher than in the solar neighbourhood. We conclude that interactions with GMCs are not a viable explanation for the near universality of the globular cluster mass function, as was suggested by Elmegreen and Kruijssen.

J1216+0709 : A radio galaxy with three episodes of AGN jet activity

We report the discovery of a `Triple-Double Radio Galaxy (TDRG)' J1216+0709 detected in deep low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. J1216+0709 is only the third radio galaxy, after B0925+420 and Speca, with three pairs of lobes resulting from three different episodes of AGN jet activity. The 610 MHz GMRT image clearly displays an inner pair of lobes, a nearly co-axial middle pair of lobes and a pair of outer lobes that is bent w.r.t. the axis of inner pair of lobes. The total end-to-end projected sizes of the inner, middle, and outer lobes are 40$^{{\prime}{\prime}}$ ($\sim$ 95 kpc), 1$^{\prime}$.65 ($\sim$ 235 kpc) and 5$^{\prime}$.7 ($\sim$ 814 kpc), respectively. Unlike the outer pair of lobes both the inner and middle pairs of lobes exhibit asymmetries in arm-lengths and flux densities, but in opposite sense, i.e., the eastern sides are farther and also brighter that the western sides, thus suggesting the possibility of jet being intrinsically asymmetric rather than due to relativistic beaming effect. The host galaxy is a bright elliptical (m$_{\rm r}$ $\sim$ 16.56) with M$_{\rm SMBH}$ $\sim$ 3.9 $\times$ 10$^{9}$ M$\odot$ and star-formation rate of $\sim$ 4.66$_{\rm -1.61}^{\rm +4.65}$ M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. The host galaxy resides is a small group of three galaxies (m$_{\rm r}$ $\leq$ 17.77) and is possibly going through the interaction with faint, dwarf galaxies in the neighbourhood, which may have triggered the recent episodes of AGN activity.

Chemical tagging in the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey: new identifications of halo stars with globular cluster origins

We present new identifications of five red giant stars in the Galactic halo with chemical abundance patterns that indicate they originally formed in globular clusters. Using data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Survey available through Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (DR12), we first identify likely halo giants, and then search those for the well-known chemical tags associated with globular clusters, specifically enrichment in nitrogen and aluminum. We find that 2% of the halo giants in our sample have this chemical signature, in agreement with previous results. Following the interpretation in our previous work on this topic, this would imply that at least 13% of halo stars originally formed in globular clusters. Recent developments in the theoretical understanding of globular cluster formation raise questions about that interpretation, and we concede the possibility that these migrants represent a small fraction of the halo field. There are roughly as many stars with the chemical tags of globular clusters in the halo field as there are in globular clusters, whether or not they are accompanied by a much larger chemically untaggable population of former globular cluster stars.

Detection of Lyman-Alpha Emission From a Triple Imaged z=6.85 Galaxy Behind MACS J2129.4-0741

We report the detection of Ly$\alpha$ emission at $\sim9538$\AA{} in the Keck/DEIMOS and \HST WFC3 G102 grism data from a triply-imaged galaxy at $z=6.846\pm0.001$ behind galaxy cluster MACS J2129.4$-$0741. Combining the emission line wavelength with broadband photometry, line ratio upper limits, and lens modeling, we rule out the scenario that this emission line is \oii at $z=1.57$. After accounting for magnification, we calculate the weighted average of the intrinsic Ly$\alpha$ luminosity to be $\sim1.3\times10^{42}~\mathrm{erg}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and Ly$\alpha$ equivalent width to be $74\pm15$\AA{}. Its intrinsic UV absolute magnitude at 1600\AA{} is $-18.6\pm0.2$ mag and stellar mass $(1.5\pm0.3)\times10^{7}~M_{\odot}$, making it one of the faintest (intrinsic $L_{UV}\sim0.14~L_{UV}^*$) galaxies with Ly$\alpha$ detection at $z\sim7$ to date. Its stellar mass is in the typical range for the galaxies thought to dominate the reionization photon budget at $z\gtrsim7$; the inferred Ly$\alpha$ escape fraction is high ($\gtrsim 10$\%), which could be common for sub-$L^*$ $z\gtrsim7$ galaxies with Ly$\alpha$ emission. This galaxy offers a glimpse of the galaxy population that is thought to drive reionization, and it shows that gravitational lensing is an important avenue to probe the sub-$L^*$ galaxy population.

A Robust Measurement of the Mass Outflow Rate of the Galactic Outflow from NGC 6090

To evaluate the impact of stellar feedback, it is critical to estimate the mass outflow rates of galaxies. Past estimates have been plagued by uncertain assumptions about the outflow geometry, metallicity, and ionization fraction. Here we use Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of the nearby starburst NGC 6090 to demonstrate that many of these quantities can be constrained by the data. We use the Si~{\sc IV} absorption lines to calculate the scaling of velocity (v), covering fraction (C$_f$), and density with distance from the starburst (r), assuming the Sobolev optical depth and a velocity law of the form: $v \propto(1 -R_i/r )^\beta$ (were R$_i$ is the inner outflow radius). We find that the velocity ($\beta$=0.43) is consistent with an outflow driven by an r$^{-2}$ force, while the scaling of the covering fraction ($C_f \propto r^{-0.82}$) suggests that cool clouds in the outflow are in pressure equilibrium with an adiabatically expanding medium. We use the column densities of four weak metal lines and CLOUDY photoionization models to determine the outflow metallicity, the ionization correction, and the initial density of the outflow. Combining these values with the profile fitting, we find R$_i$ = 63 pc, with all of the mass within 300~pc of the starburst. Finally, we find that the maximum mass outflow rate is 2.3~M$_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ and the mass loading factor (outflow divided by star formation rate) is 0.09, a factor of 10 lower than value calculated using common assumptions for the geometry, metallicity and ionization structure of the outflow.

Breaking the disc-halo degeneracy in NGC 1291 using hydrodynamic simulations

We present a pilot study on the nearby massive galaxy NGC 1291, in which we aim to constrain the dark matter in the inner regions, by obtaining a dynamical determination of the disc mass-to-light ratio (M/L). To this aim, we model the bar-induced dust lanes in the galaxy, using hydrodynamic gas response simulations. The models have three free parameters, the M/L of the disc, the bar pattern speed and the disc height function. We explore the parameter space to find the best fit models, i.e. those in which the morphology of the shocks in the gas simulations matches the observed dust lanes. The best-fit models suggest that the M/L of NGC 1291 agrees with that predicted by stellar population synthesis models in the near-infrared ($\approx$0.6\,$M_{\odot}/L_{\odot}$), which leads to a borderline maximum disc for this galaxy. The bar rotates fast, with corotation radius $\leq$ 1.4 times the bar length. Additionally, we find that the height function has a significant effect on the results, and can bias them towards lower or higher M/L.

The Evolution of Galaxies at Constant Number Density: A Less Biased View of Star Formation, Quenching, and Structural Formation

Due to significant galaxy contamination and impurity in stellar mass selected samples (up to 95% from z=0-3), we examine the star formation history, quenching time-scales, and structural evolution of galaxies using a constant number density selection with data from the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey field. Using this methodology we investigate the evolution of galaxies at a variety of number densities from $z=0-3$. We find that samples chosen at number densities ranging from $3\times10^{-4}$ to 10$^{-5}$ galaxies Mpc$^{-3}$ (corresponding to $z\sim0.5$ stellar masses of M$_{*}= 10^{10.95-11.6}$ M$_{0}$) have a star forming blue fraction of $\sim50$\% at $z\sim2.5$, which evolves to a nearly $100$\% quenched red and dead population by $z\sim 1$. We also see evidence for number density downsizing, such that the galaxies selected at the lowest densities (highest masses) become a homogeneous red population before those at higher number densities. Examining the evolution of the colours for these systems furthermore shows that the formation redshift of galaxies selected at these number densities is $z_{\rm form}>3$. The structural evolution through size and Sersic index fits reveal that while there remains evolution in terms of galaxies becoming larger and more concentrated in stellar mass at lower redshifts, the magnitude of the change is significantly smaller than for a mass selected sample. We also find that changes in size and structure continues at $z < 1$, and is coupled strongly to passivity evolution. We conclude that galaxy structure is driving the quenching of galaxies, such that galaxies become concentrated before they become passive.

Dynamical estimate of post main sequence stellar masses in 47 Tucanae

We use the effects of mass segregation on the radial distribution of different stellar populations in the core of 47 Tucanae to find estimates for the masses of stars at different post main sequence evolutionary stages. We take samples of main sequence (MS) stars from the core of 47 Tucanae, at different magnitudes (i.e. different masses), and use the effects of this dynamical process to develop a relation between the radial distance (RD) at which the cumulative distribution reaches the 20th and 50th percentile, and stellar mass. From these relations we estimate the masses of different post MS populations. We find that mass remains constant for stars going through the evolutionary stages between the upper MS up to the horizontal branch (HB). By comparing RDs of the HB stars with stars of lower masses, we can exclude a mass loss greater than 0.09M during the red giant branch (RGB) stage at nearly the 3{\sigma} level. The slightly higher mass estimates for the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) are consistent with the AGB having evolved from somewhat more massive stars. The AGB also exhibits evidence of contamination by more massive stars, possibly blue stragglers (BSS), going through the RGB phase. We do not include the BSS in this paper due to the complexity of these objects, instead, the complete analysis of this population is left for a companion paper. The process to estimate the masses described in this paper are exclusive to the core of 47 Tuc.

Observational challenges in Ly-alpha intensity mapping

Intensity mapping (IM) is sensitive to the cumulative line emission of galaxies. As such it represents a promising technique for statistical studies of galaxies fainter than the limiting magnitude of traditional galaxy surveys. The strong hydrogen Ly-alpha line is the primary target for such an experiment, as its intensity is linked to star formation activity and the physical state of the interstellar (ISM) and intergalactic (IGM) medium. However, to extract the meaningful information one has to solve the confusion problems caused by interloping lines from foreground galaxies. We discuss here the challenges for a Ly-alpha IM experiment targeting z > 4 sources. We find that the Ly-alpha power spectrum can be in principle easily (marginally) obtained with a 40 cm space telescope in a few days of observing time up to z < 8 (z = 10) assuming that the interloping lines (e.g. H-alpha, [O II], [O III] lines) can be efficiently removed. We show that interlopers can be removed by using an ancillary photometric galaxy survey with limiting AB mag 26 in the NIR bands (Y, J, H, or K). This would enable detection of the Ly-alpha signal from 5 < z < 9 faint sources. However, if a [C II] IM experiment is feasible, by cross-correlating the Ly-alpha with the [C II] signal the required depth of the galaxy survey can be decreased to AB mag 24. This would bring the detection at reach of future facilities working in close synergy.

The chemical evolution of the Bootes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

We present chemical abundance measurements of two metal-poor red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Bootes I, based on Magellan/MIKE high-resolution spectra. For Boo I-980, with [Fe/H]=-3.1, we present the first elemental abundance measurements while Boo I-127, with [Fe/H]=-2.0, shows abundances in good agreement with previous measurements. Light and iron-peak element abundance ratios in the two Bootes I stars, as well as those of most other Boootes I members, collected from the literature, closely resemble those of regular metal-poor halo stars. Neutron-capture element abundances Sr and Ba are systematically lower than the main halo trend, and also show a significant abundance spread. Overall, this is similar to what has been found for other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We apply corrections to the carbon abundances (commensurate with stellar evolutionary status) of the entire sample and find 21% of stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, compared to 13% without using the carbon correction. We reassess the metallicity distribution functions (MDF) for the CEMP stars and non-CEMP stars, and confirm earlier claims that CEMP stars might belong to a different, earlier population. Applying a set of abundance criteria to test to what extent Bootes I could be a surviving first galaxy suggests that it is one of the earliest assembled systems that perhaps received gas from accretion from other clouds in the system, or from swallowing a first galaxy or building block type object. This resulted in the two stellar populations observable today.

Multi-epoch Spectroscopy of Dwarf Galaxies with AGN Signatures: Identifying Sources with Persistent Broad H-alpha Emission

We use time-domain optical spectroscopy to distinguish between broad emission lines powered by accreting black holes (BHs) or stellar processes (i.e., supernovae) for 16 galaxies identified as AGN candidates by Reines et al. (2013). 14 of these have star-formation--dominated narrow-line emission ratios, one is a narrow-line AGN, and the last is a star-forming--AGN composite. We find that broad H$\alpha$ emission has faded for 11/16 targets, based on spectra taken with the Magellan Echellette Spectrograph (MagE), the Dual Imaging Spectrograph, and the Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph with baselines ranging from 5 to 14 years. The 11 faded systems all have narrow-line ratios consistent with recent star formation, suggesting the broad emission for those targets was produced by a transient stellar process. The two objects with narrow-line AGN signatures (RGG 9 and RGG 119) have persistent broad H$\alpha$ emission consistent with previous SDSS observations. The final three star-forming objects are classified as ambiguous with regards to the presence of broad emission in the follow-up spectrum. Additionally, we use our MagE observations to measure stellar velocity dispersions for 15 AGN candidates, four of which overlap with our broad H$\alpha$ follow-up sample. Stellar masses range from $\sim5\times10^{8}$ to $3\times10^{9} M_{\odot}$, and we measure $\sigma_{\ast}$ ranging from $28-71$ km/s. These $\sigma_{\ast}$ correspond to some of the lowest-mass galaxies with optical signatures of AGN activity. We show that RGG 119, the one object which has both a measured $\sigma_{\ast}$ and persistent broad H$\alpha$ emission, falls near the extrapolation of the $\rm M_{BH}-\sigma_{\star}$ relation to the low-mass end.

A ram-pressure threshold for star formation

In turbulent fragmentation, star formation occurs in condensations created by converging flows. The condensations must be sufficiently massive, dense and cool to be gravitationally unstable, so that they start to contract; {\it and} they must then radiate away thermal energy fast enough for self-gravity to remain dominant, so that they continue to contract. For the metallicities and temperatures in local star forming clouds, this second requirement is only met robustly when the gas couples thermally to the dust, because this delivers the capacity to radiate across the full bandwidth of the continuum, rather than just in a few discrete spectral lines. This translates into a threshold for vigorous star formation, which can be written as a minimum ram-pressure Pcrit ~ 4 10^-11 dyne. Pcrit is independent of temperature, and corresponds to flows with molecular hydrogen number-density nH2 and velocity v satisfying nH2 v^2 > 800 cm^-3 (km/s)^2. This in turn corresponds to a minimum molecular hydrogen column-density for vigorous star formation, NH2crit ~ 4 10^21 cm^-2 (SIGMAcrit ~ 100 MSun pc^-2), and a minimum visual extinction AVcrit ~ 9. The characteristic diameter and line-density for a star-forming filament when this threshold is just exceeded -- a sweet spot for local star formation regions -- are 2Rfil ~ 0.1 pc and mufil ~ 13 MSun pc^-2. The characteristic diameter and mass for a prestellar core condensing out of such a filament are 2Rcore ~ 0.1 pc, and Mcore ~ MSun. We also show that fragmentation of a shock-compressed layer is likely to commence while the convergent flows creating the layer are still ongoing, and we stress that, under this circumstance, the phenomenology and characteristic scales for fragmentation of the layer are fundamentally different from those derived traditionally for pre-existing layers.

Cluster-lensing: A Python Package for Galaxy Clusters & Miscentering

We describe a new open source package for calculating properties of galaxy clusters, including NFW halo profiles with and without the effects of cluster miscentering. This pure-Python package, cluster-lensing, provides well-documented and easy-to-use classes and functions for calculating cluster scaling relations, including mass-richness and mass-concentration relations from the literature, as well as the surface mass density $\Sigma(R)$ and differential surface mass density $\Delta\Sigma(R)$ profiles, probed by weak lensing magnification and shear. Galaxy cluster miscentering is especially a concern for stacked weak lensing shear studies of galaxy clusters, where offsets between the assumed and the true underlying matter distribution can lead to a significant bias in the mass estimates if not accounted for. This software has been developed and released in a public GitHub repository, and is licensed under the permissive MIT license. The cluster-lensing package is archived on Zenodo (Ford 2016). Full documentation, source code, and installation instructions are available at http://jesford.github.io/cluster-lensing/.

Forecasts for the WFIRST High Latitude Survey using the BlueTides Simulation

We use the BlueTides simulation to predict the properties of the high-$z$ galaxy and active galactic nuclei (AGN) populations for the planned 2200deg$^2$ Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope's (WFIRST)-AFTA High Latitude Survey (HLS). BlueTides is a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, which incorporates a variety of baryon physics in a $(400h^{-1} \mathrm{Mpc})^3$ volume evolved to $z=8$ with 0.7 trillion particles. The galaxy luminosity functions in the simulation show good agreement with all the current observational constraints (up to $z=11$) and predicts an enhanced number of UV bright galaxies. At the proposed depth of the HLS ($m < 26.75$), BlueTides predicts $10^6$ galaxies at $z=8$ with a few up to $z\sim 15$ due to the enhanced bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. At $z=8$, galaxies in the mock HLS have specific star formation rates of $\sim 10 {\rm Gyr}^{-1}$ and ages of $\sim 80 {\rm Myr}$ (both evolving linearly with redshift) and a non-evolving mass-metallicity relation. BlueTides also predicts $\sim 10^4$ AGN in WFIRST HLS from $z=8$ out to $z\sim 14$. These AGN host black holes of $M\sim 10^6-10^8 M_\odot$ accreting close to their Eddington luminosity. Galaxies and AGN have host halo masses of $M_{halo}\sim 10^{11-12} M_\odot$ and a linear bias $b\approx 13-20$. Given the expected galaxy space densities, their high bias and large volume probed we speculate that it may be feasible for WFIRST HLS detect the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation peak in the galaxy power spectrum out to $z=8-9$.

Forecasts for the WFIRST High Latitude Survey using the BlueTides Simulation [Replacement]

We use the BlueTides simulation to predict the properties of the high-$z$ galaxy and active galactic nuclei (AGN) populations for the planned 2200deg$^2$ Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope's (WFIRST)-AFTA High Latitude Survey (HLS). BlueTides is a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, which incorporates a variety of baryon physics in a $(400h^{-1} \mathrm{Mpc})^3$ volume evolved to $z=8$ with 0.7 trillion particles. The galaxy luminosity functions in the simulation show good agreement with all the current observational constraints (up to $z=11$) and predicts an enhanced number of UV bright galaxies. At the proposed depth of the HLS ($m < 26.75$), BlueTides predicts $10^6$ galaxies at $z=8$ with a few up to $z\sim 15$ due to the enhanced bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. At $z=8$, galaxies in the mock HLS have specific star formation rates of $\sim 10 {\rm Gyr}^{-1}$ and ages of $\sim 80 {\rm Myr}$ (both evolving linearly with redshift) and a non-evolving mass-metallicity relation. BlueTides also predicts $\sim 10^4$ AGN in WFIRST HLS from $z=8$ out to $z\sim 14$. These AGN host black holes of $M\sim 10^6-10^8 M_\odot$ accreting close to their Eddington luminosity. Galaxies and AGN have host halo masses of $M_{halo}\sim 10^{11-12} M_\odot$ and a linear bias $b\approx 13-20$. Given the expected galaxy space densities, their high bias and large volume probed we speculate that it may be feasible for WFIRST HLS detect the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation peak in the galaxy power spectrum out to $z=8-9$.

Effect of local and large-scale environments on nuclear activity and star formation

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of the main drivers for transition from star-forming disk to passive spheroidal galaxies. However, the role of large-scale environment versus one-on-one interactions in triggering different types of AGN is still uncertain. We present a statistical study of the prevalence of the nuclear activity in isolated galaxies and physically bound isolated pairs. For the purpose of this study we considered optically and radio selected nuclear activity types. We aim to assess the effect of one-on-one interaction on the fraction of AGN and the role of their large-scale environment. To study the effect of one-on-one interaction on the fraction of AGN in isolated galaxy pairs, we compare with a sample of isolated galaxies homogeneously selected under the same isolation criterion. We examine the effect of the large-scale environment by comparing with control samples of single galaxies and galaxy pairs. In general we found no difference in the prevalence of optical AGN for the considered samples. For massive galaxies, the fraction of optical AGN in isolated galaxies is slightly higher than that in control samples. Also the fraction of passives in high mass isolated galaxies is smaller than in any other sample. Generally, there is no dependence on optical nuclear activity with local environment. On the other hand, we found evidence that radio AGN are strongly affected by the local environment. Optical AGN phenomenon is related to cold gas accretion, while radio AGN is related to hot gas accretion. In this context, there is more cold gas, fueling the central optical AGN, in isolated systems. Our results are in agreement with a scenario where cold gas accretion by secular evolution is the main driver of optical AGN, while hot gas accretion and one-on-one interactions are the main drivers of radio AGN activity.

Modelling the variable broad-band optical/UV/X-ray spectrum of PG1211+143: Implications for the ionized outflow

We present the results from a detailed analysis of the 2007 Swift monitoring campaign of the quasar PG1211+143. We constructed broad-band, optical/UV/X-ray spectral energy distributions over three X-ray flux intervals. We fitted them with a model which accounts for the disc and the X-ray coronal emission and the warm absorber (well established in this source). The three flux spectra are well fitted by the model we considered. The disc inner temperature remains constant at ~2 eV, while X-rays are variable both in spectral slope and normalization. The absorber covers almost 90% of the central source. It is outflowing with a velocity less than 2.3*10^4 km/s (3sigma upper limit), and has a column density of ~10^23.2. Its ionization parameter varies by a factor of 1.6, and it is in photo-ionizing equilibrium with the ionizing flux. It is located at a distance of less than 0.35 pc from the central source and its relative thickness, DR/R is less than 0.1. The absorber' s ionization parameter variations can explain the larger than average amplitude of the X-ray variations. The absence of optical/UV variations (consistent with the high black hole mass estimate) argues against the presence of inward propagating disc fluctuations and strong X-ray illumination of the disc (in agreement with the low ratio of X-ray over the bolometric luminosity of ~20-35). We estimate an upper limit for the mass outflow of ~5 solar masses per year (~2.3 times the Eddington mass accretion rate). If the outflow rate is indeed that high, then it must be a short-lived episode in the quasar's life time. Finally, we estimate an upper limit for the kinetic power of the outflow of ~1.4*10^43 ergs/s. This outflow cannot deploy significant mechanical energy to the surrounding ISM of the quasar's host galaxy, but is sufficient to heat the ISM to 10^7 K and to produce a fast decline to the star formation rate of the galaxy.

Characterizing the local population of star-forming and passive galaxies with analytical models of chemical evolution

Analytical models of chemical evolution, including inflow and outflow of gas, are important tools to study how the metal content in galaxies evolves as a function of time. In this work, we present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the gas mass, total mass and metallicity of a galactic system, when a decaying exponential infall rate of gas and galactic winds are assumed. We apply our model to characterize a sample of local star-forming and passive galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with the aim of reproducing their observed mass-metallicity relation; in this way, we can derive how the two populations of star-forming and passive galaxies differ in their particular distribution of ages, formation time scales, infall masses and mass loading factors. We find that the local passive galaxies are on average older and assembled on shorter typical time-scales than the local star-forming ones; on the other hand, the larger mass star-forming galaxies show generally older ages and longer typical formation time-scales compared with the smaller mass star-forming galaxies. Finally, we conclude that the local star-forming galaxies experience stronger galactic winds than the passive galaxy population. We explore the effect of assuming different initial mass functions in our model, showing that to reproduce the observed mass-metallicity relation stronger winds are requested if the initial mass function is top-heavy. Finally, our analytical models predict the assumed sample of local galaxies to lie on a tight surface in the 3D space defined by stellar metallicity, star formation rate and stellar mass, thus mimicking the well-known "fundamental relation".

The Rotation of the halo of NGC 6822 from the radial velocities of carbon stars

Using spectra taken with the AAOmega spectrograph, we measure the radial velocities of over 100 stars, many of which are intermediate age carbon stars, in the direction of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Kinematic analysis suggests that the carbon stars in the sample are associated with NGC 6822, and estimates of its radial velocity and galactic rotation are made from a star-by-star analysis of its carbon star population. We calculate a heliocentric radial velocity for NGC 6822 of $-51\pm3$ \kms\ and show that the population rotates with a mean rotation speed of $11.2\pm2.1$ \kms\ at a mean distance of 1.1 kpc from the galactic centre, about a rotation axis with a position angle of $26^\circ\pm13^\circ$, as projected on the sky. This is close to the rotation axis of the HI gas disk and suggests that NGC 6822 is not a polar ring galaxy, but is dynamically closer to a late type galaxy. However, the rotation axis is not aligned with the minor axis of the AGB isodensity profiles and this remains a mystery.

Linearly Polarized Millimeter and Submillimeter Continuum Emission of Sgr A* Constrained by ALMA

Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at $\sim$100 (3.0 mm), $\sim$230 (1.3 mm), $\sim$345 (0.87 mm), $\sim$500 (0.6 mm), and $\sim$700 GHz (0.43 mm). We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at the above frequency bands, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from ALMA single pointing and mosaic observations. We performed sinusoidal fittings to the observed (XX-YY)/I intensity ratios, to derive the polarization position angles and polarization percentages. We successfully detect polarized continuum emission from all observed frequency bands. We observed lower Stokes I intensity at $\sim$700 GHz than that at $\sim$500 GHz, which suggests that emission at $\gtrsim$500 GHz is from optically thin part of a synchrotron emission spectrum. Both the Stokes I intensity and the polarization position angle at our highest observing frequency of $\sim$700 GHz, may be varying with time. However, we do not yet detect variation in the polarization percentage at $>$500 GHz. The polarization percentage at $\sim$700 GHz is likely lower than that at $\sim$500 GHz. By comparing the $\sim$500 GHz and $\sim$700 GHz observations with the observations at lower frequency bands, we suggest that the intrinsic polarization position angle of Sgr A* is varying with time. This paper also reports the measurable polarization properties from the observed calibration quasars. The future simultaneous multi-frequency polarization observations are required for clarifying the time and frequency variation of polarization position angle and polarization percentage.

The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets [Replacement]

We present deep Near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift ($0.3<z<1.0$) radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) with powerful relativistic jets ($L_{1.4GHz} >10^{27}$ WHz$^{-1}$), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities $L_{1.4GHz} \sim 10^{23.7} - 10^{28.3}$~WHz$^{-1}$, allowing us to divide our sample into high-luminosity blazars (HLBs) and low-luminosity blazars (LLBs). The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the $\mu_{e}$-$R_{eff}$ relation for ellipticals and bulges. The two populations of blazars show different behaviours in the \mnuc - \mbulge plane, where a statistically significant correlation is observed for HLBs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the accretion mode of the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy, that could be interpreted in terms of AGN feedback. Our findings are consistent with semi--analytical models where low--luminosity AGN emit the bulk of their energy in the form of radio jets, producing a strong feedback mechanism, and high--luminosity AGN are affected by galaxy mergers and interactions, which provide a common supply of cold gas to feed both nuclear activity and star formation episodes.

The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets

We present deep Near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift ($0.3<z<1.0$) radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) with powerful relativistic jets ($L_{1.4GHz} >10^{27}$ WHz$^{-1}$), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities $L_{1.4GHz} \sim 10^{23.7} - 10^{28.3}$~WHz$^{-1}$, allowing us to divide our sample into high-luminosity blazars (HLBs) and low-luminosity blazars (LLBs). The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the $\mu_{e}$-$R_{eff}$ relation for ellipticals and bulges. The two populations of blazars show different behaviours in the \mnuc - \mbulge plane, where a statistically significant correlation is observed for HLBs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the accretion mode of the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy, that could be interpreted in terms of AGN feedback. Our findings are consistent with semi--analytical models where low--luminosity AGN emit the bulk of their energy in the form of radio jets, producing a strong feedback mechanism, and high--luminosity AGN are affected by galaxy mergers and interactions, which provide a common supply of cold gas to feed both nuclear activity and star formation episodes.

Exploring the reality of density substructures in the Palomar 5 stellar stream

We present an analysis of the presence of substructures in the stellar stream of the Palomar 5 globular cluster, as derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. Using a matched filter technique, we recover the positions and sizes of overdensities reported in previous studies. To explore the reality of these structures, we also create an artificial model of the stream, in which we construct a realistic background on top of which we add a perfectly smooth stream structure, taking into account the effects of photometric completeness and interstellar extinction. We find that the smooth artificial stream then shows similarly-pronounced substructures as the real structure. Interestingly, our best-fit N-body simulation does display real projected density variations linked to stellar epicyclic motions, but these become less significant when taking into account the SDSS star-count constraints. The substructures found when applying our matched filter technique to the N-body particles converted into observable stars are thus mostly unrelated to these epicyclic motions. This analysis suggests that the majority of the previously-detected substructures along the tidal tail of Palomar 5 are artefacts of observational inhomogeneities.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Star formation history of passive galaxies

We trace the evolution and the star formation history of passive galaxies, using a subset of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We extracted from the VIPERS survey a sample of passive galaxies in the redshift range 0.4<z<1.0 and stellar mass range 10<$log(M_{star}/M_{\odot})$<12. The sample was selected using an evolving cut in the rest-frame U-V color distribution and additional quality-ensuring cuts. We use the stacked spectra to measure the 4000$\AA$ break (D4000) and the $H\delta$ Lick index ($H\delta_{A}$) with high precision. We compare the results with a grid of synthetic spectra to constrain the star formation epochs of these galaxies. We characterize the formation redshift-stellar mass relation for intermediate-redshift passive galaxies. We find that at $z\sim1$ stellar populations in low-mass passive galaxies are younger than in high-mass passive galaxies, similarly to what is observed at the present epoch. Over the full analyzed redshift and stellar mass range, the $D4000$ index increases with redshift, while $H\delta_{A}$ gets lower. This implies that the stellar populations are getting older with increasing stellar mass. Comparison to the spectra of passive galaxies in the SDSS survey shows that the shape of the relations of $D4000$, and $H\delta_{A}$ with stellar mass has not changed significantly with redshift. Assuming a single burst formation, this implies that high-mass passive galaxies formed their stars at $z_{form}\sim2$, while low-mass galaxies formed their main stellar population more recently, at $z_{form}\sim1$. The consistency of these results, obtained using two independent estimator of the formation redshift ($D4000$ and $H\delta_{A}$), further strengthens a scenario in which star formation proceeds from higher- to lower-mass systems as time passes, i.e. what has become known as the 'downsizing' picture.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The coevolution of galaxy morphology and colour to z~1

We explore the evolution of the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological properties and colours over the redshift range $0.5<z<1$, combining high-quality imaging data from the CFHT Legacy Survey with the large number of redshifts and extended photometry from the VIPERS survey. Galaxy structural parameters are measured by fitting S\'ersic profiles to $i$-band images and then combined with absolute magnitudes, colours and redshifts, to trace the evolution in a multi-parameter space. We analyse, using a new method, the combination of colours and structural parameters of early- and late-type galaxies in luminosity--redshift space. We found that both the rest-frame colour distributions in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane and the S\'ersic index distributions are well fitted by a sum of two Gaussians, with a remarkable consistency of red-spheroidal and blue-disky galaxy populations, over the explored redshift ($0.5<z<1$) and luminosity ($-1.5<B-B_*<1.0$) ranges. The combination of the UBV rest-frame colour and S\'ersic index $n$ as a function of redshift and luminosity allows us to present the structure of early- and late-type galaxies and their evolution. We found that early type galaxies display only a slow change of their concentrations since $z\sim1$; it is already established by $z\sim1$ and depends much more strongly on their luminosities. In contrast, late-type galaxies get clearly more concentrated with cosmic time since $z\sim1$, with only little evolution in colour, which remains dependent mainly on their luminosity. This flipped luminosity (mass) and redshift dependence likely reflects different evolutionary tracks of early- and late-type galaxies before and after $z\sim1$. The combination of rest-frame colours and S\'ersic index $n$ as a function of redshift and luminosity leads to a precise statistical description of the structure of galaxies and their evolution.

Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by M\'enard et al. (2013) when applied to VIPERS and CFHTLS real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clus- tering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state of the art spectroscopic measurements with iAB < 22.5 from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) as reference population to infer the redshift distribution of galaxies from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) T0007 release. VIPERS provides a nearly representative sample to the flux limit iAB < 22.5 at redshift > 0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based red- shift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean color-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the one of reference and we give an estimate of the color-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large redshift surveys which suffer from the need of a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) using high resolution $I$-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with $L_{\rm IR} > 10^{11.5} L_\odot $; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach $L_{\rm IR} > 10^{12.0} L_\odot $ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean molecular gas fraction (MGF $= M_{\rm H_2} / (M_* + M_{\rm H_2})$) for non-interacting and early-stage major merger LIRGs is 18$\pm 2$%, which increases to 33$\pm 3$%, for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs, consistent with the hypothesis that, during the early-mid stages of major mergers, most of the initial large reservoir of atomic gas (HI) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H$_2$).

Far Infrared Variability of Sagittarius A*: 25.5 Hours of Monitoring with $Herschel$

Variable emission from Sgr~A*, the luminous counterpart to the super-massive black hole at the center of our Galaxy, arises from the innermost portions of the accretion flow. Better characterization of the variability is important for constraining models of the low-luminosity accretion mode powering Sgr~A*, and could further our ability to use variable emission as a probe of the strong gravitational potential in the vicinity of the $4\times10^{6}\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$ black hole. We use the \textit{Herschel} Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) to monitor Sgr~A* at wavelengths that are difficult or impossible to observe from the ground. We find highly significant variations at 0.25, 0.35, and 0.5 mm, with temporal structure that is highly correlated across these wavelengths. While the variations correspond to $<$1% changes in the total intensity in the \textit{Herschel} beam containing Sgr~A*, comparison to independent, simultaneous observations at 0.85 mm strongly supports the reality of the variations. The lowest point in the light curves, $\sim$0.5 Jy below the time-averaged flux density, places a lower bound on the emission of Sgr~A* at 0.25 mm, the first such constraint on the THz portion of the SED. The variability on few hour timescales in the SPIRE light curves is similar to that seen in historical 1.3 mm data, where the longest time series is available, but the distribution of variations in the sub-mm do not show a tail of large-amplitude variations seen at 1.3 mm. Simultaneous X-ray photometry from XMM-Newton shows no significant variation within our observing period, which may explain the lack of very large variations if X-ray and submillimeter flares are correlated.

Binary Black Holes, Gas Sloshing, and Cold Fronts in the X-ray Halo Hosting 4C+37.11

We analyzed deep $Chandra$ ACIS-I exposures of the cluster-scale X-ray halo surrounding the radio source 4C+37.11. This remarkable system hosts the closest resolved pair of super-massive black hole and an exceptionally luminous elliptical galaxy, the likely product of a series of past mergers. We characterize the halo with $r_{500} = 0.95$ Mpc, $M_{500} = (2.5 \pm 0.2) \times 10^{14} \ M_{\rm{\odot}}$, $ kT = 4.6\pm 0.2$ keV, and a gas mass of $M_{\rm g,500} = (2.2 \pm 0.1) \times 10^{13} M_\odot$. The gas mass fraction within $r_{500}$ is $f_{\rm g} = 0.09 \pm 0.01$. The entropy profile shows large non-gravitational heating in the central regions. We see several surface brightness jumps, associated with substantial temperature and density changes, but approximate pressure equilibrium, implying that these are sloshing structures driven by a recent merger. A residual intensity image shows core spiral structure closely matching that seen for the Perseus cluster, although at $z=0.055$ the spiral pattern is less distinct. We infer the most recent merger occurred $1-2$ Gyr ago and that the event that brought the two observed super-massive black holes to the system core is even older. Under that interpretation, this black hole binary pair has, unusually, remained at pc-scale separation for more than 2 Gyr.

Searching for molecular outflows in Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies

We present constraints on the molecular outflows in a sample of five Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies using Herschel observations of the OH doublet at 119 {\mu}m. We have detected the OH doublet in three cases: one purely in emission and two purely in absorption. The observed emission profile has a significant blueshifted wing suggesting the possibility of tracing an outflow. Out of the two absorption profiles, one seems to be consistent with the systemic velocity while the other clearly indicates the presence of a molecular outflow whose maximum velocity is about ~1500 km/s. Our analysis shows that this system is in general agreement with previous results on Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies and QSOs, whose outflow velocities do not seem to correlate with stellar masses or starburst luminosities (star formation rates). Instead the galaxy outflow likely arises from an embedded AGN.

Far-UV Emission Properties of FR1 Radio Galaxies

The power mechanism and accretion geometry for low-power FR1 radio galaxies is poorly understood in comparison to Seyfert galaxies and QSOs. In this paper, we use the diagnostic power of the Lya recombination line observed using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard HST to investigate the accretion flows in three well-known, nearby FR1s: M87, NGC4696, and HydraA. The Lya emission line's luminosity, velocity structure, variability and the limited knowledge of its spatial extent provided by COS are used to assess conditions within a few parsecs of the SMBH in these radio-mode AGN. We observe strong Lya emission in all three objects with similar total luminosity to that seen in BL Lacertae objects. M87 shows a complicated emission line profile in Lya which varies spatially across the COS aperture as well as temporally over several epochs of observation. Over the same observing epochs the UV continuum was seen to not vary, making it unlikely that the observed UV continuum is the ionizing source for Lya. In both NGC4696 and M87, the Lya luminosities ~10^{40} erg/s are closely consistent with the observed strength of the ionizing continuum in Case B recombination theory and with the assumption of unity covering factor, in apparent contradiction with the M87 variability data. It is possible that the Lya emitting clouds are ionized largely by beamed radiation associated with the jets. HydraA and the several BLLac Objects studied in this and previous papers have Lya luminosities larger than M87 but their extrapolated, non-thermal continua are so luminous that they over-predict the observed strength of Lya, a clear indicator of relativistic beaming in our direction. Given their substantial space density the unbeamed Lyman continuum radiation of FR1s can make a substantial minority contribution (~10%) to the local ionizing background if all FR1s are similar to M87.

At the survey limits: discovery of the Aquarius 2 dwarf galaxy in the VST ATLAS and the SDSS data

We announce the discovery of the Aquarius~2 dwarf galaxy, a new distant satellite of the Milky Way, detected on the fringes of the VST ATLAS and the SDSS surveys. The object was originally identified as an overdensity of Red Giant Branch stars, but chosen for subsequent follow-up based on the presence of a strong Blue Horizontal Branch, which was also used to measure its distance of $\sim 110$ kpc. Using deeper imaging from the IMACS camera on the 6.5m Baade and spectroscopy with DEIMOS on Keck, we measured the satellite's half-light radius $5.1\pm 0.8$ arcmin, or $\sim 160$ pc at this distance, and its stellar velocity dispersion of $5.4^{+3.4}_{-0.9}$ km s$^{-1}$. With $\mu=30.4$ mag arcsec$^{-2}$ and $M_V=-4.2$, the new satellite lies close to two important detection limits: one in surface brightness; and one in luminosity at a given distance, thereby making Aquarius~2 one of the hardest dwarfs to find.

The putative old, nearby cluster Lod\'{e}n 1 does not exist

Astronomers have access to precious few nearby, middle-aged benchmark star clusters. Within 500 pc, there are only NGC 752 and Ruprecht 147 (R147), at 1.5 and 3 Gyr respectively. The Database for Galactic Open Clusters (WEBDA) also lists Lod\'{e}n 1 as a 2 Gyr cluster at a distance of 360 pc. If this is true, Lod\'{e}n 1 could become a useful benchmark cluster. This work details our investigation of Lod\'{e}n 1. We assembled archival astrometry (PPMXL) and photometry (2MASS, Tycho-2, APASS), and acquired medium resolution spectra for radial velocity measurements with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) at the Southern African Large Telescope. We observed no sign of a cluster main-sequence turnoff or red giant branch amongst all stars in the field brighter than $J < 11$. Considering the 29 stars identified by L.O. Lod\'{e}n and listed on SIMBAD as the members of Lod\'{e}n 1, we found no compelling evidence of kinematic clustering in proper motion or radial velocity. Most of these candidates are A stars and red giants, and their observed properties are consistent with distant field stars in the direction of Lod\'{e}n 1 in the Galactic plane. We conclude that the old nearby cluster Lod\'{e}n 1 is neither old, nor nearby, nor a cluster.

Comparing rotation curve observations to hydrodynamic {\Lambda}CDM simulations of galaxies

The formation of the disk and feedback from supernova winds impacts the distribution of dark matter in galaxies. Recently, Di Cintio et al. (2014b) characterized the halo response from baryonic processes in hydrodynamical simulations via a dependence on the ratio of stellar-to-halo mass ($M_{\star}/M_{{\rm halo}}$). The (stellar) mass dependent halo profile links together the local and global properties of the halo (e.g. inner slope and $M_{{\rm halo}}$) which allows for measurements of $M_{{\rm halo}}$ without virial tracers. We compile a large sample of rotation curves from the literature to test this halo profile. We find that this halo profile can explain rotation curve observations over a wide range of $M_{\star}$. However, the global results from our sample are inconsistent with a $\Lambda$ cold dark matter universe. We do not find the expected correlation between the halo concentration and $M_{{\rm halo}}$ and there is significantly larger scatter than expected. Furthermore, a large portion of galaxies below $M_{\star} \sim 10^{9}\,M_{\odot}$ are found to be hosted by smaller halos than expectations from the abundance matching technique. We find our results are robust to statistical priors and systematic effects such as inclination angle, asymmetric drift correction, data source, and uncertainties in stellar mass-to-light ratios. This suggests either a mischaracterization of the halo response due to baryonic processes or additional non-standard dark matter physics.

Unveiling the nature of bright z ~ 7 galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope

We present new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging of 25 extremely luminous (-23.2 < M_ UV < -21.2) Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 7. The sample was initially selected from 1.65 deg^2 of ground-based imaging in the UltraVISTA/COSMOS and UDS/SXDS fields, and includes the extreme Lyman-alpha emitters, `Himiko' and `CR7'. A deconfusion analysis of the deep Spitzer photometry available suggests that these galaxies exhibit strong rest-frame optical nebular emission lines (EW_0(H_beta + [OIII]) > 600A). We find that irregular, multiple-component morphologies suggestive of clumpy or merging systems are common (f_multi > 0.4) in bright z ~ 7 galaxies, and ubiquitous at the very bright end (M_UV < -22.5). The galaxies have half-light radii in the range r_1/2 ~ 0.5-3 kpc. The size measurements provide the first robust determination of the size-luminosity relation at z ~ 7 extending to M_UV ~ -23, which we find to be steep with r_1/2 ~ L^1/2. Excluding clumpy, multi-component galaxies however, we find a shallower relation that implies an increased star-formation rate surface density in bright LBGs. Using the new, independent, HST/WFC3 data we confirm that the rest-frame UV luminosity function at z ~ 7 favours a power-law decline at the bright-end, compared to an exponential Schechter function drop-off. Finally, these results have important implications for the Euclid mission, which we predict will detect > 1000 similarly bright galaxies at z ~ 7. Our new HST imaging suggests that the vast majority of these galaxies will be spatially resolved by Euclid, mitigating concerns over dwarf star contamination.

Minute-Timescale >100 MeV gamma-ray variability during the giant outburst of quasar 3C 279 observed by Fermi-LAT in 2015 June

On 2015 June 16, Fermi-LAT observed a giant outburst from the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 with a peak $>100$ MeV flux of $\sim3.6\times10^{-5}\;{\rm photons}\;{\rm cm}^{-2}\;{\rm s}^{-1}$ averaged over orbital period intervals. It is the historically highest $\gamma$-ray flux observed from the source including past EGRET observations, with the $\gamma$-ray isotropic luminosity reaching $\sim10^{49}\;{\rm erg}\;{\rm s}^{-1}$. During the outburst, the Fermi spacecraft, which has an orbital period of 95.4 min, was operated in a special pointing mode to optimize the exposure for 3C 279. For the first time, significant flux variability at sub-orbital timescales was found in blazar observations by Fermi-LAT. The source flux variability was resolved down to 2-min binned timescales, with flux doubling times less than 5 min. The observed minute-scale variability suggests a very compact emission region at hundreds of Schwarzschild radii from the central engine in conical jet models. A minimum bulk jet Lorentz factor ($\Gamma$) of 35 is necessary to avoid both internal $\gamma$-ray absorption and super-Eddington jet power. In the standard external-radiation-Comptonization scenario, $\Gamma$ should be at least 50 to avoid overproducing the synchrotron-self-Compton component. However, this predicts extremely low magnetization ($\sim5\times10^{-4}$). Equipartition requires $\Gamma$ as high as 120, unless the emitting region is a small fraction of the dissipation region. Alternatively, we consider $\gamma$ rays originating as synchrotron radiation of $\gamma_{\rm e}\sim1.6\times10^6$ electrons, in magnetic field $B\sim1.3$ kG, accelerated by strong electric fields $E\sim B$ in the process of magnetoluminescence. At such short distance scales, one cannot immediately exclude production of $\gamma$ rays in hadronic processes.

NIHAO IX: The role of gas inflows and outflows in driving the contraction and expansion of cold dark matter haloes

We use ~100 cosmological galaxy formation zoom-in simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code {\sc gasoline} to study the effect of baryonic processes on the mass profiles of cold dark matter haloes. The haloes in our study range from dwarf (M_{200}~10^{10}Msun) to Milky Way (M_{200}~10^{12}Msun) masses. Our simulations exhibit a wide range of halo responses, primarily varying with mass, from expansion to contraction, with up to factor ~10 changes in the enclosed dark matter mass at one percent of the virial radius. Confirming previous studies, the halo response is correlated with the integrated efficiency of star formation: e_SF=(M_{star}/M_{200})/(\Omega_b/\Omega_m). In addition we report a new correlation with the compactness of the stellar system: e_R=r_{1/2}/R_{200}. We provide an analytic formula depending on e_SF and e_R for the response of cold dark matter haloes to baryonic processes. An observationally testable prediction is that, at fixed mass, larger galaxies experience more halo expansion, while the smaller galaxies more halo contraction. This diversity of dark halo response is captured by a toy model consisting of cycles of adiabatic inflow (causing contraction) and impulsive gas outflow (causing expansion). For net outflow, or equal inflow and outflow fractions, f, the overall effect is expansion, with more expansion with larger f. For net inflow, contraction occurs for small f (i.e., large radii), while expansion occurs for large f (i.e., small radii), recovering the phenomenology seen in our simulations. These regularities in the galaxy formation process provide a step towards a fully predictive model for the structure of cold dark matter haloes.

Differences in the structural properties and star-formation rates of field and cluster galaxies at z~1

We investigate the dependance of galaxy sizes and star-formation rates (SFRs) on environment using a mass-limited sample of quiescent and star-forming galaxies with M>10^9.5 at z=0.92 selected from the NMBS survey. Using the GEEC2 spectroscopic cluster catalog and the accurate photometric redshifts from NMBS, we select quiescent and star-forming cluster (sigma=490 km/s) galaxies within two virial radius, Rvir, intervals of 0.5<Rvir<2 and Rvir<0.5. Galaxies residing outside of 2 Rvir of both the cluster centres and additional candidate over-densities are defined as our field sample. Galaxy structural parameters are measured from the COSMOS legacy HST/ACS F814W image. The sizes and Sersic indices of quiescent field and cluster galaxies have the same distribution regardless of Rvir. However, cluster star-forming galaxies within 0.5 Rvir have lower mass-normalised average sizes, by 16${\pm}7\%$, and a higher fraction of Sersic indices with n>1, than field star-forming galaxies. The average SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies show a trend of decreasing SFR with clustocentric radius. The mass-normalised average SFR of cluster star-forming galaxies is a factor of 2-2.5 (7-9 sigma) lower than that of star-forming galaxies in the field. While we find no significant dependence on environment for quiescent galaxies, the properties of star-forming galaxies are affected, which could be the result of environment acting on their gas content.

On the kernel and particle consistency in smoothed particle hydrodynamics [Cross-Listing]

The problem of consistency of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has demanded considerable attention in the past few years due to the ever increasing number of applications of the method in many areas of science and engineering. A loss of consistency leads to an inevitable loss of approximation accuracy. In this paper, we revisit the issue of SPH kernel and particle consistency and demonstrate that SPH has a limiting second-order convergence rate. Numerical experiments with suitably chosen test functions validate this conclusion. In particular, we find that when using the root mean square error as a model evaluation statistics, well-known corrective SPH schemes, which were thought to converge to second, or even higher order, are actually first-order accurate, or at best close to second order. We also find that observing the joint limit when $N\to\infty$, $h\to 0$, and $n\to\infty$, as was recently proposed by Zhu et al., where $N$ is the total number of particles, $h$ is the smoothing length, and $n$ is the number of neighbor particles, standard SPH restores full $C^{0}$ particle consistency for both the estimates of the function and its derivatives and becomes insensitive to particle disorder.

The Red and Featureless Outer Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

We present results from deep, wide-field surface photometry of three nearby (D=4--7 Mpc) spiral galaxies: M94 (NGC 4736), M64 (NGC 4826), and M106 (NGC 4258). Our imaging reaches limiting surface brightnesses of $\mu_{B} \sim$ 28 -- 30 mag arcsec$^{-2}$ and probes colors down to $\mu_{B} \sim$ 27.5 mag arcsec$^{-2}$. We compare our broadband optical data to available ultraviolet and high column-density HI data to better constrain the star forming history and stellar populations of the outermost parts of each galaxy's disk. Each galaxy has a well-defined radius beyond which little star formation occurs and the disk light appears both azimuthally smooth and red in color, suggestive of old, well-mixed stellar populations. Given the lack of ongoing star formation or blue stellar populations in these galaxies' outer disks, the most likely mechanisms for their formation are dynamical processes such as disk heating or radial migration, rather than inside-out growth of the disks. This is also implied by the similarity in outer disk properties despite each galaxy showing distinct levels of environmental influence, from a purely isolated galaxy (M94) to one experiencing weak tidal perturbations from its satellite galaxies (M106) to a galaxy recovering from a recent merger (M64), suggesting that a variety of evolutionary histories can yield similar outer disk structure. While this suggests a common secular mechanism for outer disk formation, the large extent of these smooth, red stellar populations---which reach several disk scalelengths beyond the galaxies' spiral structure---may challenge models of radial migration given the lack of any non-axisymmetric forcing at such large radii.

CHISL: The Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

NASA is currently carrying out science and technical studies to identify its next astronomy flagship mission, slated to begin development in the 2020s. It has become clear that a Large Ultraviolet/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission (primary diameter 12 m, 1000 Ang - 2 micron spectroscopic bandpass) can carry out the largest number of NASA's exoplanet and astrophysics science goals over the coming decades. There are technical challenges for several aspects of the LUVOIR Surveyor concept, including component level technology readiness maturation and science instrument concepts for a broadly capable ultraviolet spectrograph. We present the scientific motivation for, and a preliminary design of, a multiplexed ultraviolet spectrograph to support both the exoplanet and astrophysics goals of the LUVOIR Surveyor mission concept, the Combined High-resolution and Imaging Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor (CHISL). CHISL includes a high-resolution (R 120,000; 1000 - 1700 Ang) point-source spectroscopy channel and a medium resolution (R > 14,000 from 1000 - 2000 Ang in a single observation and R 24,000 - 35,000 in multiple grating settings) imaging spectroscopy channel. We present the CHISL concept, a small sample of representative science cases, and the primary technological hurdles. We are actively engaged in laboratory and flight characterization efforts for CHISL-enabling technologies as components on sounding rocket payloads under development at the University of Colorado. We describe two payloads that are designed to be pathfinder instruments for the high-resolution (CHESS) and imaging spectroscopy (SISTINE) arms of CHISL. We are carrying out this instrument design, characterization, and flight-testing today to support the new start of a LUVOIR Surveyor mission in the next decade.

Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies [Replacement]

Following our first detection reported in Izotov et al. (2016), we present the detection of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of four other compact star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These galaxies, at redshifts of z~0.3, are characterized by high emission-line flux ratios [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 > 5. The escape fractions of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in these galaxies are in the range of ~6%-13%, the highest values found so far in low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Narrow double-peaked Lyalpha emission lines are detected in the spectra of all four galaxies, compatible with predictions for Lyman continuum leakers. We find escape fractions of Lyalpha, fesc(Lyalpha) ~20%-40%, among the highest known for Lyalpha emitters (LAEs). Surface brightness profiles produced from the COS acquisition images reveal bright star-forming regions in the center and exponential discs in the outskirts with disc scale lengths alpha in the range ~0.6-1.4 kpc. Our galaxies are characterized by low metallicity, ~1/8-1/5 solar, low stellar mass ~(0.2 - 4)e9 Msun, high star formation rates SFR~14-36 Msun/yr, and high SFR densities Sigma~2-35 Msun/yr/kpc^2. These properties are comparable to those of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Finally, our observations, combined with our first detection reported in Izotov et al. (2016), reveal that a selection for compact star-forming galaxies showing high [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios appears to pick up very efficiently sources with escaping Lyman continuum radiation: all five of our selected galaxies are LyC leakers.

Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies

Following our first detection reported in Izotov et al. (2016), we present the detection of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of four other compact star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These galaxies, at redshifts of z~0.3, are characterized by high emission-line flux ratios [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 > 5. The escape fractions of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in these galaxies are in the range of ~6%-13%, the highest values found so far in low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Narrow double-peaked Lyalpha emission lines are detected in the spectra of all four galaxies, compatible with predictions for Lyman continuum leakers. We find escape fractions of Lyalpha, fesc(Lyalpha) ~60%-90%, among the highest known for Lyalpha emitters (LAEs). Surface brightness profiles produced from the COS acquisition images reveal bright star-forming regions in the center and exponential discs in the outskirts with disc scale lengths alpha in the range ~0.6-1.4 kpc. Our galaxies are characterized by low metallicity, ~1/8-1/5 solar, low stellar mass ~(0.2 - 4)e9 Msun, high star formation rates SFR~14-36 Msun/yr, and high SFR densities Sigma~2-35 Msun/yr/kpc^2. These properties are comparable to those of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Finally, our observations, combined with our first detection reported in Izotov et al. (2016), reveal that a selection for compact star-forming galaxies showing high [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios appears to pick up very efficiently sources with escaping Lyman continuum radiation: all five of our selected galaxies are LyC leakers.

An empirical model to form and evolve galaxies in dark matter halos

Based on the star formation histories (SFH) of galaxies in halos of different masses, we develop an empirical model to grow galaxies in dark mattet halos. This model has very few ingredients, any of which can be associated to observational data and thus be efficiently assessed. By applying this model to a very high resolution cosmological $N$-body simulation, we predict a number of galaxy properties that are a very good match to relevant observational data. Namely, for both centrals and satellites, the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) up to redshift $z\simeq4$ and the conditional stellar mass functions (CSMF) in the local universe are in good agreement with observations. In addition, the 2-point correlation is well predicted in the different stellar mass ranges explored by our model. Furthermore, after applying stellar population synthesis models to our stellar composition as a function of redshift, we find that the luminosity functions in $^{0.1}u$, $^{0.1}g$, $^{0.1}r$, $^{0.1}i$ and $^{0.1}z$ bands agree quite well with the SDSS observational results down to an absolute magnitude at about -17.0. The SDSS conditional luminosity functions (CLF) itself is predicted well. Finally, the cold gas is derived from the star formation rate (SFR) to predict the HI gas mass within each mock galaxy. We find a remarkably good match to observed HI-to-stellar mass ratios. These features ensure that such galaxy/gas catalogs can be used to generate reliable mock redshift surveys.

Exploratory Chandra observation of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.30

We report exploratory \chandra\ observation of the ultraluminous quasar SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 at redshift 6.30. The quasar is clearly detected by \chandra\ with a possible component of extended emission. The rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity is 9.0$^{+9.1}_{-4.5}$ $\times$ 10$^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$ with inferred photon index of $\Gamma$ = 3.03$^{+0.78}_{-0.70}$. This quasar is X-ray bright, with inferred X-ray-to-optical flux ratio \aox\ $=-1.22^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$, higher than the values found in other quasars of comparable ultraviolet luminosity. The properties inferred from this exploratory observation indicate that this ultraluminous quasar might be growing with super-Eddington accretion and probably viewed with small inclination angle. Deep X-ray observation will help to probe the plausible extended emission and better constraint the spectral features for this ultraluminous quasar.

The Photometric Properties of Galaxies in the Early Universe

We use the large cosmological hydro-dynamic simulation BlueTides to predict the photometric properties of galaxies during the epoch of reionisation ($z=8-15$). These properties include the rest-frame UV to near-IR broadband spectral energy distributions, the Lyman continuum photon production, the UV star formation rate calibration, and intrinsic UV continuum slope. In particular we focus on exploring the effect of various modelling assumptions, including the assumed choice of stellar population synthesis model, initial mass function, and the escape fraction of Lyman continuum photons, upon these quantities. We find that these modelling assumptions can have a dramatic effect on photometric properties leading to consequences for the accurate determination of physical properties from observations. For example, at $z=8$ we predict that nebular emission can account for up-to $50\%$ of the rest-frame $R$-band luminosity, while the choice of stellar population synthesis model can change the Lyman continuum production rate up to a factor of $\times 2$.

Tracking the distribution of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe during the early phases of star and disk evolution

The short-lived $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe radionuclides are synthesized and expelled in the interstellar medium by core-collapse supernova events. The solar system's first solids, calcium-aluminium refractory inclusions (CAIs), contain evidence for the former presence of the $^{26}$ Al nuclide defining the canonical $^{26}$Al/$^{27}$ Al ratio of $\sim5 \times10^{-5}$. A different class of objects temporally related to canonical CAIs are CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs), which record a low initial $^{26}$Al/$^{27}$Al of $10^{-6}$. The contrasting level of $^{26}$Al between these objects is often interpreted as reflecting the admixing of the $^{26}$Al nuclide during the early formative phase of the Sun. We use giant molecular cloud (GMC) scale adaptive mesh-refinement numerical simulations to trace the abundance of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe in star-forming gas during the early stages of accretion of individual low mass protostars. We find that the $^{26}$Al/$^{27}$Al and $^{60}$Fe/$^{56}$Fe ratios of accreting gas within a vicinity of 1000 AU of the stars follow the predicted decay curves of the initial abundances at time of star formation without evidence of spatial or temporal heterogeneities for the first 100 kyr of star formation. Therefore, the observed differences in $^{26}$Al/$^{27}$Al ratios between FUN and canonical CAIs are likely not caused by admixing of supernova material during the early evolution of the proto-Sun. Selective thermal processing of dust grains is a more viable scenario to account for the heterogeneity in $^{26}$Al/$^{27}$Al ratios at the time of solar system formation.

Formation of Overheated Regions and Truncated Disks around Black Holes; Three-dimensional General Relativistic Radiation-magnetohydrodynamics Simulations

Using three-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion flows around stellar mass black holes, we report that the relatively cold disk ($\gtrsim 10^{7}$K) is truncated near the black hole. Hot and less-dense regions, of which the gas temperature is $ \gtrsim 10^9$K and more than ten times higher than the radiation temperature (overheated regions), appear within the truncation radius. The overheated regions also appear above as well as below the disk, and sandwich the cold disk, leading to the effective Compton upscattering. The truncation radius is $\sim 30 r_{\rm g}$ for $\dot{M} \sim L_{\rm Edd}/c^2$, where $r_{\rm g}, \dot M, L_\mathrm{Edd}, c$ are the gravitational radius, mass accretion rate, Eddington luminosity, and light speed. Our results are consistent with observations of very high state, whereby the truncated disk is thought to be embedded in the hot rarefied regions. The truncation radius shifts inward to $\sim 10 r_{\rm g}$ with increasing mass accretion rate $\dot{M} \sim 100 L_{\rm Edd}/c^2$, which is very close to an innermost stable circular orbit. This model corresponds to the slim disk state observed in ultra luminous X-ray sources. Although the overheated regions shrink if the Compton cooling effectively reduces the gas temperature, the sandwich-structure does not disappear at the range of $\dot{M} \lesssim 100L_{\rm Edd}/c^2$. Our simulations also reveal that the gas temperature in the overheated regions depends on black hole spin, which would be due to efficient energy transport from black hole to disks through the Poynting flux, resulting gas heating.

Optimising commensality of radio continuum and spectral line observations in the era of the SKA

The substantial decrease in star formation density from z=1 to the present day is curious given the relatively constant neutral gas density over the same epoch. Future radio astronomy facilities, including the SKA and pathfinder telescopes, will provide pioneering measures of both the gas content of galaxies and star formation activity over cosmological timescales. Here we investigate the commensalities between neutral atomic gas (HI) and radio continuum observations, as well as the complementarity of the data products. We start with the proposed HI and continuum surveys to be undertaken with the SKA precursor telescope MeerKAT, and building on this, explore optimal combinations of survey area coverage and depth of proposed HI and continuum surveys to be undertaken with the SKA1-MID instrument. Intelligent adjustment of these observational parameters results in a tiered strategy that minimises observation time while maximising the value of the dataset, both for HI and continuum science goals. We also find great complementarity between the HI and continuum datasets, with the spectral line HI data providing redshift measurements for gas-rich, star-forming galaxies with stellar masses Mstellar~10^9 Msun to z~0.3, a factor of three lower in stellar mass than would be feasible to reach with large optical spectroscopic campaigns.

Angular Momentum Regulates Atomic Gas Fractions of Galactic Disks

We show that the mass fraction f_atm = 1.35*MHI/M of neutral atomic gas (HI and He) in isolated local disk galaxies of baryonic mass M is well described by a straightforward stability model for flat exponential disks. In the outer disk parts, where gas at the characteristic dispersion of the Warm Neutral Medium is stable in the sense of Toomre (1964), the disk consists of neutral atomic gas; conversely the inner part where this medium would be Toomre-unstable, is dominated by stars and molecules. Within this model, f_atm only depends on a global stability parameter q=j*sigma/(GM), where j is the baryonic specific angular momentum of the disk and sigma the velocity dispersion of the atomic gas. The analytically derived first-order solution f_atm = min{1,2.5q^1.12} provides a good fit to all plausible rotation curves. This model, with no free parameters, agrees remarkably well (+-0.2 dex) with measurements of f_atm in isolated local disk galaxies, even with galaxies that are extremely HI-rich or HI-poor for their mass. The finding that f_atm increases monotonically with q for pure stability reasons offers a powerful intuitive explanation for the mean variation of f_atm with M: in a cold dark matter universe galaxies are expected to follow j~M^(2/3), which implies the average scaling q~M^(-1/3) and hence f_atm~M^(-0.37), in agreement with observations.

 

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