Recent Postings from Galaxies

ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: Source Catalog and Number Counts

We present results from a deep 2'x3' (comoving scale of 3.7 Mpc x 5.5 Mpc at z=3) survey at 1.1 mm taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the SSA22 field. We observe the core region of a z = 3.09 protocluster, achieving a typical rms sensitivity of 60 micro-Jy/beam at a spatial resolution of 0".7. We detect 18 robust ALMA sources at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) > 5. Comparison between the ALMA map and a 1.1 mm map taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) indicates that three submillimeter sources discovered by the AzTEC/ASTE survey are resolved into eight individual submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) by ALMA. At least ten of our 18 ALMA SMGs have spectroscopic redshifts of z = 3.09, placing them in the protocluster. This shows that a number of dusty starburst galaxies are forming simultaneously in the core of the protocluster. The nine brightest ALMA SMGs with SNR > 10 have a median intrinsic angular size of 0".32+0".13-0".06 (2.4+1.0-0.4 physical kpc at z = 3.09), which is consistent with previous size measurements of SMGs in other fields. As expected the source counts show a possible excess compared to the counts in the general fields at S_1.1mm >= 1.0 mJy due to the protocluster. Our contiguous mm mapping highlights the importance of large-scale structures on the formation of dusty starburst galaxies.

Spherically-symmetric, cold collapse: the exact solutions and a comparison with self-similar solutions

We present the exact solutions for the collapse of a spherically-symmetric, cold (i.e., pressureless) cloud under its own self-gravity, valid for arbitrary initial density profiles and not restricted to the realm of self-similarity. These solutions exhibit a number of remarkable features, including the self-consistent formation of and subsequent accretion onto a central point mass. A number of specific examples are provided, and we show that Penston's solution of pressureless, self-similar collapse is recovered for polytropic density profiles; importantly, however, we demonstrate that the time over which this solution holds is fleetingly narrow, implying that much of the collapse proceeds non-self-similarly. We show that our solutions can naturally incorporate turbulent pressure support, and we investigate the evolution of overdensities -- potentially generated by such turbulence -- as the collapse proceeds. Finally, we analyze the evolution of the angular velocity and magnetic fields in the limit that their dynamical influence is small, and we recover exact solutions for these quantities. Our results may provide important constraints on numerical models that attempt to elucidate the details of protostellar collapse when the initial conditions are far less idealized.

Large-Scale Galaxy Bias

This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a pedagogical proof of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which includes the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to observed clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

Large-Scale Galaxy Bias [Cross-Listing]

This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a pedagogical proof of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which includes the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to observed clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

Large-Scale Galaxy Bias [Cross-Listing]

This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a pedagogical proof of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which includes the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to observed clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

A candidate planetary-mass object with a photoevaporating disk in Orion

In this work, we report the discovery of a candidate planetary-mass object with a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk, Proplyd 133-353, which is near the massive star $\theta^{1}$ Ori C at the center of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The object was known to have extended emission pointing away from $\theta^{1}$ Ori C, indicating ongoing external photoevaporation. Our near-infrared spectroscopic data suggests that the central source of Proplyd 133-353 is substellar ($\sim$M9.5), might have a mass probably less than 13 Jupiter mass and an age younger than 0.5 Myr. Proplyd 133-353 shows a similar ratio of X-ray luminosity to stellar luminosity to other young stars in the ONC with a similar stellar luminosity, and has a similar proper motion to the mean one of confirmed ONC members. We propose that Proplyd 133-353 was formed in a very low-mass dusty cloud near $\theta^{1}$ Ori C as a second-generation of star formation, which can explain both its young age and the presence of its disk.

Finding the UV-Visible Path Forward: Proceedings of the Community Workshop to Plan the Future of UV/Visible Space Astrophysics

We present the science cases and technological discussions that came from the workshop entitled "Finding the UV-Visible Path Forward" held at NASA GSFC June 25-26, 2015. The material presented outlines the compelling science that can be enabled by a next generation space-based observatory dedicated for UV-visible science, the technologies that are available to include in that observatory design, and the range of possible alternative launch approaches that could also enable some of the science. The recommendations to the Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group from the workshop attendees on possible future development directions are outlined.

The ultraluminous X-ray source HoII X-1: kinematic evidence of its escape from the cluster

We analyse the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the vicinity of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) HoII X-1 in the Holmberg II galaxy using observational data obtained with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer in the H$\alpha$, [SII] and [OIII] emission lines at the Russian 6-m telescope. Decomposition of the line profiles allows us to identify the broad component of emission lines caused by the ULX action. We found evidence of an expanding superbubble around the young star cluster located in the studied region. We conclude that the blue-shifted 'arc' around the ULX observed in the line-of-sight velocity field may correspond to a bow shock caused by the ULX movement from that nearby young star cluster. If this interpretation is correct, it will be the first kinematic evidence of ULX's escape from their parent star clusters.

The gas disk: Evolution and chemistry

Protoplanetary disks are the birthplaces of planetary systems. The evolution of the star-disk system and the disk chemical composition determines the initial conditions for planet formation. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the main physical and chemical processes in disks is crucial for our understanding of planet formation. We give an overview of the early evolution of disks, discuss the importance of the stellar high-energy radiation for disk evolution and describe the general thermal and chemical structure of disks. Finally we provide an overview of observational tracers of the gas component and disk winds.

Do Stellar Winds Prevent the Formation of Supermassive Stars by Accretion?

Supermassive stars (SMS; ~ 10^5 M_sun) formed from metal-free gas in the early Universe attract attention as progenitors of supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts. To form SMSs by accretion, central protostars must accrete at as high rates as ~ 0.1-1 M_sun/yr. Such protostars have very extended structures with bloated envelopes, like super-giant stars, and are called super-giant protostars (SGPSs). Under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, SGPSs have density inverted layers, where the luminosity becomes locally super-Eddington, near the surface. If the envelope matter is allowed to flow out, however, a stellar wind could be launched and hinder the accretion growth of SGPSs before reaching the supermassive regime. We examine whether radiation-driven winds are launched from SGPSs by constructing steady and spherically symmetric wind solutions. We find that the wind velocity does not reach the escape velocity in any case considered. This is because once the temperature falls below ~ 10^4 K, the opacity plummet drastically owing to the recombination of hydrogen and the acceleration ceases suddenly. This indicates that, in realistic non-steady cases, even if outflows are launched from the surface of SGPSs, they would fall back again. Such a "wind" does not result in net mass loss and does not prevent the growth of SGPSs. In conclusion, SGPSs will grow to SMSs and eventually collapse to massive BHs of ~ 10^5 M_sun, as long as the rapid accretion is maintained.

Effective temperature of ionizing stars of extragalactic HII regions

The effective temperature (Teff) of the radiation field of the ionizing star(s) of a large sample of extragalactic HII regions was estimated using the R= log([OII](3727)/[OIII]5007) index. We used a grid of photoionization models to calibrate the Teff-R relation finding that it has a strong dependence with the ionizing parameter while it shows a weak direct dependence with the metallicity (variations in Z imply variations in U) of both the stellar atmosphere of the ionizing star and the gas phase of the HII region. Since the R index varies slightly with the Teff for values larger than 40 kK, the R index can be used to derive the Teff in 30-40 kK range. A large fraction of the ionization parameter variation is due to differences in the temperature of the ionizing stars and then the use of the (relatively) low Teff dependent S2=[S II](6717+31)/Ha emission-line ratio to derive the ionization parameter is preferable over others in the literature. We propose linear metallicity dependent relationships between S2 and U. Teff and metallicity estimations for a sample of 865 HII regions, whose emission-line intensities were compiled from the literature, do not show any Teff-Z correlation. On the other hand it seems to be hints of the presence of an anti-correlation between Teff-U. We found that the majority of the studied HII regions (87%) present Teff values in the range between 37 and 40 kK, with an average value of 38.5 kK. We also studied the variation of Teff as a function of the galactocentric distance for 14 spiral galaxies. Our results are in agreement with the idea of the existence of positive Teff gradients along the disk of spiral galaxies.

H$_2$O Masers and Protoplanetary Disk Dynamics in IC 1396 N

We report H$_2$O maser line observations of the bright-rimmed globule IC 1396 N using a ground-space interferometer with the 10-m RadioAstron radio telescope as the space-based element. The source was not detected on projected baselines >2.3 Earth diameters, which indicates a lower limit on the maser size of L >0.03 AU and an upper limit on the brightness temperature of 6.25 x 10$^{12}$ K. Positions and flux densities of maser spots were determined by fringe rate mapping. Multiple low-velocity features from -4.5 km/s to +0.7 km/s are seen, and two high-velocity features of V$_{LSR}$=-9.4 km/s and +4.4 km/s are found at projected distances of 157 AU and 70 AU, respectively, from the strongest low-velocity feature at V$_{LSR}$=$\sim$0.3 km/s. Maser components from the central part of the spectrum fall into four velocity groups but into three spatial groups. Three spatial groups of low-velocity features detected in the 2014 observations are arranged in a linear structure about 200 AU in length. Two of these groups were not detected in 1996 and possibly are jets which formed between 1996 and 2014. The putative jet seems to have changed direction in 18 years, which we explain by the precession of the jet under the influence of the gravity of material surrounding the globule. The jet collimation can be provided by a circumstellar protoplanetary disk. There is a straight line orientation in the V$_{LSR}$-Right Ascension diagram between the jet and the maser group at V$_{LSR}$=$\sim$0.3 km/s. However, the central group with the same position but at the velocity V$_{LSR}$$\sim$-3.4 km/s falls on a straight line between two high-velocity components detected in 2014. Comparison of the low-velocity positions from 2014 and 1996, based on the same diagram, shows that the majority of the masers maintain their positions near the central velocity V$_{LSR}$=$\sim$0.3 km/s during the 18 year period.

Galactic Chemical Evolution

We analyze the evolution of oxygen abundance radial gradients resulting from our chemical evolution models calculated with different prescriptions for the star formation rate (SFR) and for the gas infall rate, in order to assess their respective roles in shaping gradients. We also compare with cosmological simulations and confront all with recent observational datasets, in particular with abundances inferred from planetary nebulae. We demonstrate the critical importance in isolating the specific radial range over which a gradient is measured, in order for their temporal evolution to be useful indicators of disk growth with redshift.

Peanut-shaped metallicity distributions in bulges of edge-on galaxies: the case of NGC 4710

Bulges of edge-on galaxies are often boxy/peanut-shaped (B/PS), and unsharp masks reveal the presence of an X shape. Simulations show that these shapes can be produced by dynamical processes driven by a bar which vertically thickens the centre. In the Milky Way, which contains such a B/PS bulge, the X-shaped structure is traced by the metal-rich stars but not by the metal-poor ones. Recently Debattista et al. (2016) interpreted this property as a result of the varying effect of the bar on stellar populations with different starting kinematics. This kinematic fractionation model predicts that cooler populations at the time of bar formation go on to trace the X shape, whereas hotter populations are more uniformly distributed. As this prediction is not specific to the Milky Way, we test it with MUSE observations of the B/PS bulge in the nearby galaxy NGC 4710. We show that the metallicity map is more peanut-shaped than the density distribution itself, in good agreement with the prediction. This result indicates that the X-shaped structure in B/PS bulges is formed of relatively metal-rich stars that have been vertically redistributed by the bar, whereas the metal-poor stars have a more uniform, box-shaped distribution.

Discovery and Follow-up Observations of the Young Type Ia Supernova 2016coj

The Type~Ia supernova (SN~Ia) 2016coj in NGC 4125 (redshift $z=0.004523$) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search 4.9 days after the fitted first-light time (FFLT; 11.1 days before $B$-band maximum). Our first detection (pre-discovery) is merely $0.6\pm0.5$ day after the FFLT, making SN 2016coj one of the earliest known detections of a SN Ia. A spectrum was taken only 3.7 hr after discovery (5.0 days after the FFLT) and classified as a normal SN Ia. We performed high-quality photometry, low- and high-resolution spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry, finding that SN 2016coj is a spectroscopically normal SN Ia, but with a high velocity of \ion{Si}{2} $\lambda$6355 ($\sim 12,600$\,\kms\ around peak brightness). The \ion{Si}{2} $\lambda$6355 velocity evolution can be well fit by a broken-power-law function for up to a month after the FFLT. SN 2016coj has a normal peak luminosity ($M_B \approx -18.9 \pm 0.2$ mag), and it reaches a $B$-band maximum \about16.0~d after the FFLT. We estimate there to be low host-galaxy extinction based on the absence of Na~I~D absorption lines in our low- and high-resolution spectra. The spectropolarimetric data exhibit weak polarization in the continuum, but the \ion{Si}{2} line polarization is quite strong ($\sim 0.9\% \pm 0.1\%$) at peak brightness.

Star Formation Close to Sgr A* and Beyond the Nuclear Cluster

Two modes of star formation are involved to explain the origin of young stars near Sgr A*. One is a disk-based mode, which explains the disk of stars orbiting Sgr A*. The other is the standard cloud-based mode observed in the Galactic disk. We discuss each of these modes of star formation and apply these ideas to the inner few parsecs of Sgr A*. In particular, we focus on the latter mode in more detail. We also discuss how the tidal force exerted by the nuclear cluster makes the Roche density approaching zero and contributes to the collapse of molecular clouds located tens of parsecs away from Sgr A*.

Constraining the dark matter content of NGC 1291 using hydrodynamic gas response simulations

We present a pilot study on the nearby massive barred galaxy NGC 1291, in which we use dynamical modelling to constrain the disc mass-to-light ratio (M/L), thus breaking the degeneracy between the baryonic and dark matter in its central regions. We use the gas, specifically the morphology of the dust lanes on the leading side of the bar, as a tracer of the underlying gravitational potential. We run a large number of hydrodynamic gas response simulations, in potentials obtained directly from near-infrared images of the galaxy, which have three free parameters: the M/L, the bar pattern speed and the height function. We explore the three-dimensional parameter space, by comparing the morphology of the shocks created in the gas response simulations with those of the observed dust lanes, and find the best-fitting models; these suggest that the M/L of NGC 1291 agrees with that predicted by stellar population synthesis models in the near-infrared ($\approx$0.6\,$M_{\odot}/L_{\odot}$), which leads to a borderline maximum disc for this galaxy. Furthermore, we find that the bar rotates fast, with a corotation radius which is $\leq$ 1.4 times the bar length.

H$_2$-based star formation laws in galaxy formation models

We update our recently published model for GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly (GAEA), to include a self-consistent treatment of the partition of cold gas in atomic and molecular hydrogen. Our model provides significant improvements with respect to previous ones used for similar studies. In particular, GAEA (i) includes a sophisticated chemical enrichment scheme accounting for non-instantaneous recycling of gas, metals, and energy; (ii) reproduces the measured evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function; (iii) reproduces the observed correlation between galaxy stellar mass and gas metallicity at different redshifts. These are important prerequisites for models considering a metallicity dependent efficiency of molecular gas formation. We also update our model for disk sizes and show that model predictions are in nice agreement with observational estimates for the gas, stellar and star forming disks at different cosmic epochs. We analyse the influence of different star formation laws including empirical relations based on the hydrostatic pressure of the disk, analytic models, and prescriptions derived from detailed hydrodynamical simulations. We find that modifying the star formation law does not affect significantly the global properties of model galaxies, neither their distributions. The only quantity showing significant deviations in different models is the cosmic molecular-to-atomic hydrogen ratio, particularly at high redshift. Unfortunately, however, this quantity also depends strongly on the modelling adopted for additional physical processes. Low mass galaxies at high redshift can provide useful constraints on the physical processes affecting star formation, as self-regulation has not yet washed out differences imprinted at early times.

A revised planetary nebula luminosity function distance to NGC 628 using MUSE

Distance uncertainties plague our understanding of the physical scales relevant to the physics of star formation in extragalactic studies. The planetary nebulae luminosity function (PNLF) is one of very few techniques that can provide distance estimates to within ~10%, however it requires a planetary nebula (PN) sample that is uncontaminated by other ionizing sources. We employ optical IFU spectroscopy using MUSE on the VLT to measure [OIII] line fluxes for sources unresolved on 50 pc scales within the central star-forming galaxy disk of NGC 628. We use diagnostic line ratios to identify 62 PNe, 30 supernova remnants and 87 HII regions within our fields. Using the 36 brightest PNe we determine a new PNLF distance modulus of 29.91^{+0.08}_{-0.13} mag (9.59^{+0.35}_{-0.57} Mpc), in good agreement with literature values but significantly larger than the previously reported PNLF distance. We are able to explain the discrepancy and recover the previous result when we reintroduce SNR contaminants to our sample. This demonstrates the power of full spectral information over narrowband imaging in isolating PNe. Given our limited spatial coverage within the galaxy, we show that this technique can be used to refine distance estimates even when IFU observations cover only a fraction of a galaxy disk.

Grand Design Spiral Arms in A Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues and its radius becomes as large as 200 AUs toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk soon becomes unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phase. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2-27, whose circumstellar disk has grand design spiral arms. We find an excellent agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests that the grand design spiral arms around Elias 2-27 are consistent with material arms formed by gravitational instability. It also implies that the age of Elias 2-27 can be younger than the previous estimate.

Numerical study of the chaotic N=4 problem in a background potential

We perform a large suite of $N=4$ numerical scattering experiments between two identical binaries consisting of identical point particles in a (continuous) background potential. For investigative purposes, albeit without loss of generality, we assume that the potential corresponds to a uniform (natal or star-forming) gas medium. We explore a range of constant gas densities, from $n=10~ {\rm cm}^{-3}$ to $10^{5}~ {\rm cm}^{-3}$. These densities are relevant for various astrophysical environments, including molecular clouds (i.e., star-forming regions) and denser, fragmented cores within these clouds. Our primary goal is to characterize the effects of the background potential on the subsequent stellar dynamics. We consider the outcome probabilities as well as the properties of any binaries formed during the binary-binary encounters, such as the distributions of binary binding energies and eccentricities. We also present the final velocity distributions of the ejected single stars. The background potential has two important effects on the stellar dynamics: 1) The potential acts to reset the zero-point of the total system energy, which in turn affects the types and properties of the products of the encounter; 2) For higher $n$ and weakly bound systems (i.e., large semimajor axes), the stellar dynamics are significantly affected when stars become trapped in the potential, oscillating around the system centre of mass (CM). This, in turn, increases the number of scattering events between stars (single, binary or triple) near the CM and makes it harder for single stars to escape to infinity. This ultimately leads to the preferential ionization of triples and wide binaries and the survival of compact binaries, with the single stars escaping at very high ejection velocities.

Stellar-mass black holes in young massive and open stellar clusters and their role in gravitational-wave generation

The dynamical processes involving stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in stellar clusters has always drawn attention due to the BHs' potential in a number of astrophysical phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which would potentially coalesce via radiation of gravitational waves (GW). This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over $1.0\times10^4M_\odot-5.0\times10^4M_\odot$, and half-mass radius of 2 pc or 1 pc, that is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between $0.05Z_\odot-Z_\odot$. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant-formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program NBODY7, until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs, especially while heating and expanding the cluster and self-depleting the BHs, is demonstrated. The BBH mergers obtained here show a prominence in triple-mediated mergers while being bound to the clusters, compared to those occurring among the BBHs that are dynamically ejected from the clusters. This is in contrast with earlier N-body computations and also with recent Monte-Carlo method based ones. A broader mass spectrum of BHs and ejection of BBHs generally of wider orbits and in lower numbers, for the cluster masses explored here, might cause this which is yet to be fully understood. Among the BBH coalescences obtained here, there are ones that resemble the detected GW151226, LVT151012, and GW150914 events and also ones which are even more massive. A preliminary estimate suggests few 10s - 100s of BBH coalescences per year, originating due to dynamics in stellar clusters, that can be detected by the LIGO at its design sensitivity.

The rest-frame optical (900nm) galaxy luminosity function at z~4-7: abundance matching points to limited evolution in the Mstar/Mhalo ratio at z>4

We present the first determination of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z~4, 5, 6 and 7 in the rest-frame optical at lambda_rest~900 nm (z' band). The rest-frame optical light traces the content in low-mass evolved stars (~stellar mass - Mstar), minimizing potential biases affecting measurements of Mstar: it is less affected by nebular line emission contamination, it is less sensitive to dust attenuation models, its measurement does not rely on stellar population models, and it can be probed up to z~8 through Spitzer/IRAC. Our analysis leverages the unique full depth Spitzer/IRAC 3.6um-to-8.0um data over the CANDELS/GOODS-N, CANDELS/GOODS-S and COSMOS/UltraVISTA fields. We find that at absolute magnitudes M_z' fainter than >-23 mag, M_z' linearly correlates with M_UV,1600. At brighter M_z', M_UV,1600 presents a turnover, suggesting that the stellar mass-to-light ratio Mstar/L_UV,1600 could be characterised by a very broad range of values at high stellar masses. Median-stacking analysis recovers a Mstar/L_z' roughly independent on M_z' for M_z'>-23 mag, but exponentially increasing at brighter magnitudes. We find that the evolution of the LF marginally prefers a pure evolution in luminosity over a pure evolution in density, with the characteristic luminosity decreasing by a factor ~5x between z~4 and z~7. Direct application of the recovered Mstar/L_z' generates stellar mass functions consistent with average measurements from the literature. Measurements of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at fixed cumulative number density show that it is roughly constant with redshift for Mh>10^12Msun. This is also supported by the fact that the evolution of the LF at 4<z<7 can be accounted for by a rigid displacement in luminosity corresponding to the evolution of the halo mass from abundance matching.

On the complexity and the information content of cosmic structures

The emergence of cosmic structure is commonly considered one of the most complex phenomena in Nature. However, this complexity has never been defined nor measured in a quantitative and objective way. In this work we propose a method to measure the information content of cosmic structure and to quantify the complexity that emerges from it, based on Information Theory. The emergence of complex evolutionary patterns is studied with a statistical symbolic analysis of the datastream produced by state-of-the-art cosmological simulations of forming galaxy clusters. This powerful approach allows us to measure how many bits of information are necessary to predict the evolution of energy fields in a statistical way, and it offers a simple way to quantify when, where and how the cosmic gas behaves in complex ways. The most complex behaviors are found in the peripheral regions of galaxy clusters, where supersonic flows drive shocks and large energy fluctuations over a few tens of million years. Describing the evolution of magnetic energy requires at least a twice as large amount of bits than for the other energy fields. When radiative cooling and feedback from galaxy formation are considered, the cosmic gas is overall found to double its degree of complexity. In the future, Cosmic Information Theory can significantly increase our understanding of the emergence of cosmic structure as it represents an innovative framework to design and analyze complex simulations of the Universe in a simple, yet powerful way.

Massive Star Formation in the LMC. I. N159 and N160 Complexes

We present images and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in three star-forming H II regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud: N159A, N159 Papillon, and N160. We use photometry from SOFIA/FORCAST at 25.3--37.1 um to constrain model fits to the SEDs and determine luminosities, ages, and dust content of the embedded YSOs and their local environments. By placing these sources on mid-infrared color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we analyze their dust properties and consider their evolutionary status. Since each object in the FORCAST images has an obvious bright near-infrared counterpart in Spitzer Space Telescope images, we do not find any evidence for new, very cool, previously-undiscovered Class 0 YSOs. Additionally, based on its mid-infrared colors and model parameters, N159A is younger than N160 and the Papillon. The nature of the first extragalactic protostars in N159, P1 and P2, is also discussed.

A survey of dual active galactic nuclei in simulations of galaxy mergers: frequency and properties

We investigate the simultaneous triggering of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in merging galaxies, using a large suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We compute dual-AGN observability time-scales using bolometric, X-ray, and Eddington-ratio thresholds, confirming that dual activity from supermassive black holes (BHs) is generally higher at late pericentric passages, before a merger remnant has formed, especially at high luminosities. For typical minor and major mergers, dual activity lasts ~20-70 and ~100-160 Myr, respectively. We also explore the effects of X-ray obscuration from gas, finding that the dual-AGN time decreases at most by a factor of ~2, and of contamination from star formation. Using projected separations and velocity differences rather than three-dimensional quantities can decrease the dual-AGN time-scales by up to ~4, and we apply filters which mimic current observational-resolution limitations. In agreement with observations, we find that, for a sample of major mergers hosting at least one AGN, ~20 per cent of them should harbour dual AGN. We quantify the effects of merger mass ratio (0.1 to 1), geometry (coplanar, prograde, retrograde, and inclined), disc gas fraction, and BH properties, finding that the mass ratio is the most important factor, with the difference between minor and major mergers varying between factors of a few to orders of magnitude, depending on the luminosity and filter used. We also find that a deep imaging survey does not need very high angular resolution, whereas a shallow survey requires it.

The ALHAMBRA survey : $B-$band luminosity function of quiescent and star-forming galaxies at $0.2 \leq z < 1$ by PDF analysis

Our goal is to study the evolution of the $B-$band luminosity function (LF) since $z=1$ using ALHAMBRA data. We used the photometric redshift and the $I-$band selection magnitude probability distribution functions (PDFs) of those ALHAMBRA galaxies with $I\leq24$ mag to compute the posterior LF. We statistically studied quiescent and star-forming galaxies using the template information encoded in the PDFs. The LF covariance matrix in redshift-magnitude-galaxy type space was computed, including the cosmic variance. That was estimated from the intrinsic dispersion of the LF measurements in the 48 ALHAMBRA sub-fields. The uncertainty due to the photometric redshift prior is also included in our analysis. We modelled the LF with a redshift-dependent Schechter function affected by the same selection effects than the data. The measured ALHAMBRA LF at $0.2\leq z<1$ and the evolving Schechter parameters both for quiescent and star-forming galaxies agree with previous results in the literature. The estimated redshift evolution of $M_B^* \propto Qz$ is $Q_{\rm SF}=-1.03\pm0.08$ and $Q_{\rm Q}=-0.80\pm0.08$, and of $\log \phi^* \propto Pz$ is $P_{\rm SF}=-0.01\pm0.03$ and $P_{\rm Q}=-0.41\pm0.05$. The measured faint-end slopes are $\alpha_{\rm SF}=-1.29\pm0.02$ and $\alpha_{\rm Q}=-0.53\pm0.04$. We find a significant population of faint quiescent galaxies, modelled by a second Schechter function with slope $\beta=-1.31\pm0.11$. We find a factor $2.55\pm0.14$ decrease in the luminosity density $j_B$ of star-forming galaxies, and a factor $1.25\pm0.16$ increase in the $j_B$ of quiescent ones since $z=1$, confirming the continuous build-up of the quiescent population with cosmic time. The contribution of the faint quiescent population to $j_B$ increases from 3% at $z=1$ to 6% at $z=0$. The developed methodology will be applied to future multi-filter surveys such as J-PAS.

Quantum tunneling during interstellar surface-catalyzed formation of water: the reaction H + H$_2$O$_2$ $\rightarrow$ H$_2$O + OH [Cross-Listing]

The final step of the water formation network on interstellar grain surfaces starting from the H + O$_2$ route is the reaction between H and H$_2$O$_2$. This reaction is known to have a high activation energy and therefore at low temperatures it can only proceed via tunneling. To date, however, no rate constants are available at temperatures below 200 K. In this work, we use instanton theory to compute rate constants for the title reaction with and without isotopic substitutions down to temperatures of 50 K. The calculations are based on density functional theory, with additional benchmarks for the activation energy using unrestricted single-reference and multireference coupled-cluster single-point energies. Gas-phase bimolecular rate constants are calculated and compared with available experimental data not only for H + H$_2$O$_2$ $\rightarrow$ H$_2$O + OH, but also for H + H$_2$O$_2$ $\rightarrow$ H$_2$ + HO$_2$. We find a branching ratio where the title reaction is favored by at least two orders of magnitude at 114 K. In the interstellar medium this reaction predominantly occurs on water surfaces, which increases the probability that the two reactants meet. To mimic this one, two, or three spectator H2O molecules are added to the system. Eley-Rideal bimolecular and Langmuir-Hinshelwood unimolecular rate constants are presented here. The kinetic isotope effects for the various cases are compared to experimental data as well as to expressions commonly used in astrochemical models. Both the rectangular barrier and the Eckart approximations lead to errors of about an order of magnitude. Finally, fits of the rate constants are provided as input for astrochemical models.

An Update on Monitoring Stellar Orbits in the Galactic Center

Using 25 years of data from uninterrupted monitoring of stellar orbits in the Galactic Center, we present an update of the main results from this unique data set: A measurement of mass of and distance to SgrA*. Our progress is not only due to the eight year increase in time base, but also due to the improved definition of the coordinate system. The star S2 continues to yield the best constraints on the mass of and distance to SgrA*; the statistical errors of 0.13 x 10^6 M_sun and 0.12 kpc have halved compared to the previous study. The S2 orbit fit is robust and does not need any prior information. Using coordinate system priors, also the star S1 yields tight constraints on mass and distance. For a combined orbit fit, we use 17 stars, which yields our current best estimates for mass and distance: M = 4.28 +/- 0.10|stat. +/. 0.21|sys. x 10^6 M_sun and R_0 = 8.32 +/- 0.07|stat. +/- 0.14|sys. kpc. These numbers are in agreement with the recent determination of R_0 from the statistical cluster parallax. The positions of the mass, of the near-infrared flares from SgrA* and of the radio source SgrA* agree to within 1mas. In total, we have determined orbits for 40 stars so far, a sample which consists of 32 stars with randomly oriented orbits and a thermal eccentricity distribution, plus eight stars for which we can explicitly show that they are members of the clockwise disk of young stars, and which have lower eccentricity orbits.

Separation of Stellar Populations by an Evolving Bar: Implications for the Bulge of the Milky Way

We present a novel interpretation of the previously puzzling different behaviours of stellar populations of the Milky Way's bulge. We first show, by means of pure N-body simulations, that initially co-spatial stellar populations with different in-plane random motions separate when a bar forms. The radially cooler populations form a strong bar, and are vertically thin and peanut-shaped, while the hotter populations form a weaker bar and become a vertically thicker box. We demonstrate that it is the radial, not the vertical, velocity dispersion that drives this evolution. Assuming that early stellar discs heat rapidly as they form, then both the in-plane and vertical random motions correlate with stellar age and chemistry, leading to different density distributions for metal-rich and metal-poor stars. We then use a high resolution simulation, in which all stars form out of gas, to demonstrate that this is what happens. When we apply these results to the Milky Way we show that a very broad range of observed trends for ages, densities, kinematics, and chemistries, that have been presented as evidence for contradictory paths to the formation of the bulge, are in fact consistent with a bulge which formed from a continuum of disc stellar populations which were kinematically separated by the bar. For the first time we are able to account for the bulge's main trends via a model in which the bulge formed completely in situ. Since the model is generic, we also predict the general appearance of stellar population maps of external edge-on galaxies.

Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: discovery of the 12CO(1-0) emission line in the ring galaxy, VIIZw466

We report an early science discovery of the CO(1-0) emission line in the collisional ring galaxy, VII Zw466, using the Redshift Search Receiver instrument on the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano.The apparent molecular-to-atomic gas ratio either places the ISM of VII Zw466 in the HI-dominated regime or implies a large quantity of CO-dark molecular gas, given its high star formation rate. The molecular gas densities and star formation rate densities of VII Zw466 are consistent with the standard Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law even though we find this galaxy to be H2-deficient. The choice of CO-to-H2 conversion factors cannot explain the apparent H2 deficiency in its entirety. Hence, we find that the collisional ring galaxy, VII Zw466, is either largely deficient in both H2 and HI or contains a large mass of CO-dark gas. A low molecular gas fraction could be due to the enhancement of feedback processes from previous episodes of star formation as a result of the star-forming ISM being confined to the ring. We conclude that collisional ring galaxy formation is an extreme form of galaxy interaction that triggers a strong galactic-wide burst of star formation that may provide immediate negative feedback towards subsequent episodes of star formation---resulting in a short-lived star formation history or, at least, the appearance of a molecular gas deficit.

Spectral Evolution in High Redshift Quasars from the Final BOSS Sample

We report on the diversity in quasar spectra from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. After filtering the spectra to mitigate selection effects and Malmquist bias associated with a nearly flux-limited sample, we create high signal-to-noise ratio composite spectra from 58,656 quasars (2.1 \le z \le 3.5), binned by luminosity, spectral index, and redshift. With these composite spectra, we confirm the traditional Baldwin effect (BE, i.e., the anticorrelation of C IV equivalent width (EW) and luminosity) that follows the relation W_\lambda \propto L^{\beta_w} with slope \beta_w = -0.35 \pm 0.004, -0.35 \pm 0.005, and -0.41 \pm 0.005 for z = 2.25, 2.46, and 2.84, respectively. In addition to the redshift evolution in the slope of the BE, we find redshift evolution in average quasar spectral features at fixed luminosity. The spectroscopic signature of the redshift evolution is correlated at 98% with the signature of varying luminosity, indicating that they arise from the same physical mechanism. At a fixed luminosity, the average C IV FWHM decreases with increasing redshift and is anti-correlated with C IV EW. The spectroscopic signature associated with C IV FWHM suggests that the trends in luminosity and redshift are likely caused by a superposition of effects that are related to black hole mass and Eddington ratio. The redshift evolution is the consequence of a changing balance between these two quantities as quasars evolve toward a population with lower typical accretion rates at a given black hole mass.

Multiple stellar populations and their evolution in globular clusters: A nucleosynthesis perspective

This paper presents a review of the characteristics of the multiple stellar populations observed in globular clusters, and of their possible origin. The current theoretical issues and the many open questions are discussed.

A multi-wavelength observation and investigation of six infrared dark clouds [Replacement]

Context. Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are ubiquitous in the Milky Way, yet they play a crucial role in breeding newly-formed stars. Aims. With the aim of further understanding the dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of IRDCs, we carried out multi-wavelength observations on a small sample. Methods. We performed new observations with the IRAM 30 m and CSO 10.4 m telescopes, with tracers ${\rm HCO^+}$, HCN, ${\rm N_2H^+}$, ${\rm C^{18}O}$, DCO$^+$, SiO, and DCN toward six IRDCs G031.97+00.07, G033.69-00.01, G034.43+00.24, G035.39-00.33, G038.95-00.47, and G053.11+00.05. Results. We investigated 44 cores including 37 cores reported in previous work and seven newly-identified cores. Toward the dense cores, we detected 6 DCO$^+$, and 5 DCN lines. Using pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distribution (SED) fits of the $\textit{Herschel}$ 70 to 500 $\mu$m, we obtained dust temperature and column density distributions of the IRDCs. We found that ${\rm N_2H^+}$ emission has a strong correlation with the dust temperature and column density distributions, while ${\rm C^{18}O}$ showed the weakest correlation. It is suggested that ${\rm N_2H^+}$ is indeed a good tracer in very dense conditions, but ${\rm C^{18}O}$ is an unreliable one, as it has a relatively low critical density and is vulnerable to freezing-out onto the surface of cold dust grains. The dynamics within IRDCs are active, with infall, outflow, and collapse; the spectra are abundant especially in deuterium species. Conclusions. We observe many blueshifted and redshifted profiles, respectively, with ${\rm HCO^+}$ and ${\rm C^{18}O}$ toward the same core. This case can be well explained by model "envelope expansion with core collapse (EECC)".

A multi-wavelength observation and investigation towards six infrared dark clouds

Context. Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are ubiquitous in the Milky Way, yet they play a crucial role in breeding newly-formed stars. Aims. In order to further understand the dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of IRDCs, we carried out multi-wavelength observations towards a small sample. Methods. We performed new observations with the IRAM 30 m and CSO 10.4 m telescopes, with tracers ${\rm HCO^+}$, HCN, ${\rm N_2H^+}$, ${\rm C^{18}O}$, DCO$^+$, SiO, and DCN towards six IRDCs G031.97+00.07, G033.69-00.01, G034.43+00.24, G035.39-00.33, G038.95-00.47, and G053.11+00.05. Results. We investigated 44 cores including 37 cores reported in previous work and 7 newly-identified cores. Towards the dense cores, we detected 6 DCO$^+$, and 5 DCN lines. Using pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distribution (SED) fits of the \textit{Herschel} 70 to 500 $\mu$m, we obtain dust temperature and column density distributions of the IRDCs. We find that ${\rm N_2H^+}$ emission has a strong correlation with the dust temperature and column density distributions, while the worst is ${\rm C^{18}O}$. It is suggested that ${\rm N_2H^+}$ is indeed a good tracer in very dense condition, however an unreliable one is ${\rm C^{18}O}$, which has a relatively low critical density and is vulnerable to freeze out onto the surface of cold dust grains. The dynamics within IRDCs is active with infall, outflow, and collapse, the spectra are abundant especially in deuterium species. Conclusions. We observe many blueshifted and redshifted profiles, respectively, with ${\rm HCO^+}$ and ${\rm C^{18}O}$ towards the same core. This case can be well explained by model "envelope expansion with core collapse (EECC)".

Correlation analysis of radio properties and accretion-disk luminosity for low luminosity AGNs

The correlation between the jet power and accretion disk luminosity is investigated and analyzed with our model for 7 samples of low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). The main results are: (1) the power-law correlation index ($P_{jet} \propto L_{disk}^{\mu}$) typically ranges $\mu=0.4-0.7$ for the LLAGN samples, and there is a hint of steep index for the LLAGN sample which hosted by a high fraction of elliptical galaxies, and there are no significant correlation between the $\mu$ and the LLAGN types (Seyfert, LINER); (2) for $\mu \approx$1, as noted in Liu et al., the accretion disk dominates the jet power and the black hole (BH) spin is not important, for the LLAGN samples studied in this paper we find that the $\mu$ is significantly less than unity, implying that BH spin may play a significant role in the jet power of LLAGNs; (3) the BH spin-jet power is negatively correlated with the BH mass in our model, which means a high spin-jet efficiency in the `low' BH-mass LLAGNs; (4) an anti-correlation between radio loudness and disk luminosity is found, which is apparently due to the flatter power-law index in the jet-disk correlation of the LLAGNs, and the radio loudness can be higher in the LLAGNs than in luminous AGNs/quasars when the BH spin-jet power is comparable to or dominate over the accretion-jet power in the LLAGNs. The high radio-core dominance of the LLAGNs is also discussed.

Dynamics of wide binary stars: A case study for testing Newtonian dynamics in the low acceleration regime

Extremely wide binary stars represent ideal systems to probe Newtonian dynamics in the low acceleration regimes (<10e-10 m/s/s) typical of the external regions of galaxies. Here we present a study of 60 alleged wide binary stars with projected separation ranging from 0.004 to 1 pc, probing gravitational accelerations well below the limit were dark matter or modified dynamics theories set in. Radial velocities with accuracy ~100 m/s were obtained for each star, in order to constrain their orbital velocity, that, together with proper motion data, can distinguish bound from unbound systems. It was found that about half of the observed pairs do have velocity in the expected range for bound systems, out to the largest separations probed here. In particular, we identified five pairs with projected separation >0.15 pc that are useful for the proposed test. While it would be premature to draw any conclusion about the validity of Newtonian dynamics at these low accelerations, our main result is that very wide binary stars seem to exist in the harsh environment of the solar neighborhood. This could provide a tool to test Newtonian dynamics versus modified dynamics theories in the low acceleration conditions typical of galaxies. In the near future the GAIA satellite will provide data to increase significantly the number of wide pairs that, with the appropriate follow up spectroscopic observations, will allow the implementation of this experiment with unprecedented accuracy.

Probing the Radio Loud/Quiet AGN dichotomy with quasar clustering

We investigate the clustering properties of 45441 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) and 3493 radio-loud quasars (RLQs) drawn from a joint use of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at 20 cm (FIRST) surveys in the range $0.3<z<2.3$. This large spectroscopic quasar sample allow us to investigate the clustering signal dependence on radio-loudness and black hole (BH) virial mass. We find that RLQs are clustered more strongly than RQQs in all the redshift bins considered. We find a real-space correlation length of $r_{0}=6.59_{-0.24}^{+0.33}\,h^{-1}\,\textrm{Mpc}$ and $r_{0}=10.95_{-1.58}^{+1.22}\,h^{-1}\,\textrm{Mpc}$ {\normalsize{}for} RQQs and RLQs, respectively, for the full redshift range. This implies that RLQs are found in more massive host haloes than RQQs in our samples, with mean host halo masses of $\sim4.9\times10^{13}\,h^{-1}\,M_{\odot}$ and $\sim1.9\times10^{12}\,h^{-1}\,M_{\odot}$, respectively. Comparison with clustering studies of different radio source samples indicates that this mass scale of $\gtrsim1\times10^{13}\,h^{-1}\,M_{\odot}$ is characteristic for the bright radio-population, which corresponds to the typical mass of galaxy groups and galaxy clusters. The similarity we find in correlation lengths and host halo masses for RLQs, radio galaxies and flat-spectrum radio quasars agrees with orientation-driven unification models. Additionally, the clustering signal shows a dependence on black hole (BH) mass, with the quasars powered by the most massive BHs clustering more strongly than quasars having less massive BHs. We suggest that the current virial BH mass estimates may be a valid BH proxies for studying quasar clustering. We compare our results to a previous theoretical model that assumes that quasar activity

Abundances of disk and bulge giants from hi-res optical spectra: II. O, Mg, Ca, and Ti in the bulge sample

Determining elemental abundances of bulge stars can, via chemical evolution modeling, help to understand the formation and evolution of the bulge. Recently there have been claims both for and against the bulge having a different [$\alpha$/Fe] vs. [Fe/H]-trend as compared to the local thick disk possibly meaning a faster, or at least different, formation time scale of the bulge as compared to the local thick disk. We aim to determine the abundances of oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium in a sample of 46 bulge K-giants, 35 of which have been analyzed for oxygen and magnesium in previous works, and compare them to homogeneously determined elemental abundances of a local disk sample of 291 K-giants. We use spectral synthesis to determine both the stellar parameters as well as the elemental abundances of the bulge stars analyzed here. The method is exactly the same as was used for analyzing the comparison sample of 291 local K-giants in Paper I of this series. Compared to the previous analysis of the 35 stars in our sample, we find lower [Mg/Fe] for [Fe/H]>-0.5, and therefore contradict the conclusion about a declining [O/Mg] for increasing [Fe/H]. We instead see a constant [O/Mg] over all the observed [Fe/H] in the bulge. Furthermore, we find no evidence for a different behavior of the alpha-iron trends in the bulge as compared to the local thick disk from our two samples.

Thermodynamics and Charging of Interstellar Iron Nanoparticles

Interstellar iron in the form of metallic iron nanoparticles may constitute a component of the interstellar dust. We compute the stability of iron nanoparticles to sublimation in the interstellar radiation field, finding that iron clusters can persist down to a radius of $\simeq 4.5\,$\AA, and perhaps smaller. We employ laboratory data on small iron clusters to compute the photoelectric yields as a function of grain size and the resulting grain charge distribution in various interstellar environments, finding that iron nanoparticles can acquire negative charges particularly in regions with high gas temperatures and ionization fractions. If $\gtrsim 10\%$ of the interstellar iron is in the form of ultrasmall iron clusters, the photoelectric heating rate from dust may be increased by up to tens of percent relative to dust models with only carbonaceous and silicate grains.

Lensing is Low: Cosmology, Galaxy Formation, or New Physics?

We present high signal-to-noise galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements of the BOSS CMASS sample using 250 square degrees of weak lensing data from CFHTLenS and CS82. We compare this signal with predictions from mock catalogs trained to match observables including the stellar mass function and the projected and two dimensional clustering of CMASS. We show that the clustering of CMASS, together with standard models of the galaxy-halo connection, robustly predicts a lensing signal that is 20-40% larger than observed. Detailed tests show that our results are robust to a variety of systematic effects. Lowering the value of $S_{\rm 8}=\sigma_{\rm 8} \sqrt{\Omega_{\rm m}/0.3}$ compared to Planck2015 reconciles the lensing with clustering. However, given the scale of our measurement ($r<10$ $h^{-1}$ Mpc), other effects may also be at play and need to be taken into consideration. We explore the impact of baryon physics, assembly bias, massive neutrinos, and modifications to general relativity on $\Delta\Sigma$ and show that several of these effects may be non-negligible given the precision of our measurement. Disentangling cosmological effects from the details of the galaxy-halo connection, the effects of baryons, and massive neutrinos, is the next challenge facing joint lensing and clustering analyses. This is especially true in the context of large galaxy samples from Baryon Acoustic Oscillation surveys with precise measurements but complex selection functions.

The Unusually High Halo Concentration of the Fossil Group NGC 6482: Evidence for Weak Adiabatic Contraction

We revisit the massive isolated elliptical galaxy / fossil group NGC 6482 for which previous X-ray studies of a modest Chandra observation obtained a very uncertain, but also possibly very high, halo concentration. We present new measurements of the hot gas surface brightness, temperature, and iron abundance using the modest Chandra observation and a previously unpublished Suzaku observation, the latter of which allows measurements of the gas properties to be extended out to ~r_2500. By constructing hydrostatic equilibrium models of the gas with separate components for the gas, BCG stellar mass, and the dark matter (DM), we measure c_200 = 32.2 +/- 7.1 and M_200 = (4.5 +/- 0.6 x 10^12 M_sun using an NFW DM profile. For a halo of this mass, c_200 exceeds the mean value (7.1) expected for relaxed LCDM halos by $3.5 \sigma$ in terms of the observational error, and by $6 \sigma$ considering the intrinsic scatter in the LCDM c-M relation, which situates NGC 6482 as the most extreme outlier known for a fossil system. We explored several variants of adiabatic contraction (AC) models and, while the AC models provide fits of the same quality as the un-contracted models, they do have the following advantages: (1) smaller c_200 that is less of an outlier in the LCDM c-M relation, and (2) baryon fractions that agree better with the mean cosmic value. While the standard AC prescriptions yield a BCG stellar mass that is uncomfortably small compared to results from stellar population synthesis (SPS) models, a weaker AC variant that artificially shuts off cooling and star formation at z=2 yields the same stellar mass as the un-contracted models. For these reasons, we believe our X-ray analysis prefers this weaker AC variant applied to either an NFW or Einasto DM halo. Finally, the BCG stellar mass strongly favors SPS models with a Chabrier or Kroupa IMF over a Salpeter IMF. (Abridged)

The Proper Motion of Pyxis: the first use of Adaptive Optics in tandem with HST on a faint halo object

We present a proper motion measurement for the halo globular cluster Pyxis, using HST/ACS data as the first epoch, and GeMS/GSAOI Adaptive Optics data as the second, separated by a baseline of about 5 years. This is both the first measurement of the proper motion of Pyxis and the first calibration and use of Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics data to measure an absolute proper motion for a faint, distant halo object. Consequently, we present our analysis of the Adaptive Optics data in detail. We obtain a proper motion of mu_alpha cos(delta)=0.89+/-0.30 mas/yr and mu_delta=0.62+/-0.29 mas/yr. From the proper motion and the line-of-sight velocity we find the orbit of Pyxis is rather eccentric with its apocenter at 100 to 400 kpc and its pericenter at about 27 kpc. We also investigate two literature-proposed associations for Pyxis with the recently discovered ATLAS stream and the Magellanic system. Combining our measurements with dynamical modeling and cosmological numerical simulations we find it unlikely Pyxis is associated with either system. We examine other Milky Way satellites for possible association using the orbit, eccentricity, metallicity, and age as constraints and find no likely matches in satellites down to the mass of Leo II. We propose that Pyxis probably originated in an unknown galaxy, which today is fully disrupted. Assuming that Pyxis is bound and not on a first approach, we derive a 68% lower limit on the mass of the Milky Way of 0.76*10^12 M_sun.

Modeling the Anomalous Microwave Emission with Spinning Nanoparticles: No PAHs Required

In light of recent observational results indicating an apparent lack of correlation between the Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) and mid-infrared emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we assess whether rotational emission from spinning silicate and/or iron nanoparticles could account for the observed AME without violating observational constraints on interstellar abundances, ultraviolet extinction, and infrared emission. By modifying the SpDust code to compute the rotational emission from these grains, we find that nanosilicate grains could account for the entirety of the observed AME, whereas iron grains could be responsible for only a fraction, even for extreme assumptions on the amount of interstellar iron concentrated in ultrasmall iron nanoparticles. Given the added complexity of contributions from multiple grain populations to the total spinning dust emission, as well as existing uncertainties due to the poorly-constrained grain size, charge, and dipole moment distributions, we discuss generic, carrier-independent predictions of spinning dust theory and observational tests that could help identify the AME carrier(s).

Machine-Learned Identification of RR Lyrae Stars from Sparse, Multi-band Data: the PS1 Sample

RR Lyrae stars may be the best practical tracers of Galactic halo (sub-)structure and kinematics. The PanSTARRS1 (PS1) $3\pi$ survey offers multi-band, multi-epoch, precise photometry across much of the sky, but a robust identification of RR Lyrae stars in this data set poses a challenge, given PS1's sparse, asynchronous multi-band light curves ($\lesssim 12$ epochs in each of five bands, taken over a 4.5-year period). We present a novel template fitting technique that uses well-defined and physically motivated multi-band light curves of RR Lyrae stars, and demonstrate that we get accurate period estimates, precise to 2 sec in $>80\%$ of cases. We augment these light curve fits with other {\em features} from photometric time-series and provide them to progressively more detailed machine-learned classification models. From these models we are able to select the widest ($3/4$ of the sky) and deepest (reaching 120 kpc) sample of RR Lyrae stars to date. The PS1 sample of $\sim 35,000$ RRab stars is pure (90%), and complete (80% at 80 kpc) at high galactic latitudes. It also provides distances precise to 3%, measured with newly derived period-luminosity relations for optical/near-infrared PS1 bands. With the addition of proper motions from {\em Gaia} and radial velocity measurements from multi-object spectroscopic surveys, we expect the PS1 sample of RR Lyrae stars to become the premier source for studying the structure, kinematics, and the gravitational potential of the Galactic halo. The techniques presented in this study should translate well to other sparse, multi-band data sets, such as those produced by the Dark Energy Survey and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Galactic plane sub-survey.

Mass-Metallicity Relation for Local Analogs of High-Redshift galaxies: Implications for the Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relations

We revisit the evolution of the mass-metallicity relation of low- and high-redshift galaxies by using a sample of local analogs of high-redshift galaxies. These analogs share the same location of the UV-selected star-forming galaxies at $z\sim2$ on the [OIII]/H$\beta$ versus [NII]/H$\alpha$ nebular emission-line diagnostic (or BPT) diagram. Their physical properties closely resemble those in $z\sim2$ UV-selected star-forming galaxies being characterized in particular by high ionization parameters ($\log q\approx7.9$) and high electron densities ($n_e\approx100~\rm{cm}^{-3}$). With the full set of well-detected rest-frame optical diagnostic lines, we measure the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the SDSS galaxies and these local analogs using the empirical relations and the photoionization models. We find that the metallicity difference between the SDSS galaxies and our local analogs in the $8.5<log(M_*/M_{\odot})<9.0$ stellar mass bin varies from -0.09 to 0.39 dex, depending on strong-line metallicity measurement methods. Due to this discrepancy the evolution of mass-metallicity should be used to compare with the cosmological simulations with caution. We use the [SII]/H$\alpha$ and [OI]/H$\alpha$ BPT diagram to reduce the potential AGN and shock contamination in our local analogs. We find that the AGN/shock influences are negligible on the metallicity estimation.

The impact of ionizing radiation on the formation of a supermassive star in the early Universe

A massive primordial halo near an intensely star forming galaxy may collapse into a supermassive star (SMS) and leave a massive black hole seed of about $10^5~M_{sun}$. To investigate the impact of ionizing radiation on the formation of an SMS from a nearby galaxy, we perform three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations by selecting a pair of massive dark matter halos forming at $z >10$. We find that rich structures such as clumps and filaments around the source galaxy shield the cloud from ionizing radiation. In fact, in some cases cloud collapse is accelerated under ionizing radiation. This fact suggests that the ionization of the cloud's surroundings helps its collapse. Only strong radiation at the early stage of structure formation can halt the cloud collapse, but this is much stronger than observationally allowed value. We also explored the effect of ionizing radiation on a sample of 68 halos by employing an analytical model and found that increase in the mean density of the gas between the SMS forming cloud and the source galaxy protects the gas cloud from ionizing radiation as they approach each other. Thus, we conclude that ionizing radiation does not prevent the formation of an SMS in most of the cases.

Planetary Nebula Candidates Uncovered with the HASH Research Platform

A detailed examination of new high quality radio catalogues (e.g. Cornish) in combination with available mid-infrared (MIR) satellite imagery (e.g. Glimpse) has allowed us to find 70 new planetary nebula (PN) candidates based on existing knowledge of their typical colors and fluxes. To further examine the nature of these sources, multiple diagnostic tools have been applied to these candidates based on published data and on available imagery in the HASH (Hong Kong/ AAO/ Strasbourg H{\alpha} planetary nebula) research platform. Some candidates have previously-missed optical counterparts allowing for spectroscopic follow-up. Indeed, the single object spectroscopically observed so far has turned out to be a bona fide PN.

ProFit: Bayesian Profile Fitting of Galaxy Images

We present ProFit, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. ProFit consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (ProFit) and Python (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/ libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit respectively). R ProFit is also available pre-built from CRAN, however this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two- dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sersic, Core-Sersic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Serrsic profile for the most common values of the Serrsic index n (0.5 < n < 8). The high-level fitting code ProFit is tested on a sample of galaxies with both SDSS and deeper KiDS imaging. We find good agreement in the fit parameters, with larger scatter in best-fit parameters from fitting images from different sources (SDSS vs KiDS) than from using different codes (ProFit vs GALFIT). A large suite of Monte Carlo-simulated images are used to assess prospects for automated bulge-disc decomposition with ProFit on SDSS, KiDS and future LSST imaging. We find that the biggest increases in fit quality come from moving from SDSS- to KiDS-quality data, with less significant gains moving from KiDS to LSST.

Investigating overdensities around z>6 galaxies through ALMA observations of [CII]

We present a search for companion [CII] emitters to known luminous sources at $6<$ z $<6.5$ in deep ALMA observations. Our data is deep enough to detect sources down to L$_{\rm [CII]} \sim 10^8$ at z $\sim6$. We identify five robust line detections from a blind search of five deep fields centered on ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and QSOs, suggesting these objects may be highly biased tracers of mass in the early Universe. We find these companion lines to have comparable properties to other known galaxies at the same epoch. All companions lie less than 650 km s$^{-1}$ and between 20-70 kpc (projected) from their central source, providing a constraint on their average halo masses of 1.4$\times$10$^{12}$ M$_\odot$. To place these discoveries in context, we employ a mock galaxy catalog to estimate the luminosity function for [CII] during reionization and compare to our observations. The simulations support this result by showing a similar level of elevated counts found around such luminous sources. Finally we explore the effects of these biased tracers on the measurement of the [CII] power spectrum for upcoming intensity mapping experiments.

 

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