Recent Postings from Cosmology and Extragalactic

Accidental K\"ahler Moduli Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small K\"ahler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil K\"ahler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

Accidental K\"ahler Moduli Inflation

We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small K\"ahler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil K\"ahler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

Accidental K\"ahler Moduli Inflation

We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small K\"ahler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil K\"ahler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

A model for dark matter, naturalness and a complete gauge unification [Cross-Listing]

We consider dark matter in a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) which breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically and leads to a complete unification of the SM and technicolor coupling constants. The unification scale is determined to be $M_{\rm U} \approx 2.2 \times 10^{15}$ GeV and the unified coupling $\alpha_{\rm U} \approx 0.0304$. Moreover, unification strongly suggest that the technicolor sector of the model must become strong at the scale of ${\cal O}$(TeV). The model also contains a tightly constrained sector of mixing neutral fields stabilized by a discrete symmetry. We find the lightest of these states can be DM with a mass in the range $m_{\rm DM} \approx 30-800$ GeV. We find a large set of parameters that satisfy all available constraints from colliders and from dark matter search experiments. However, most of the available parameter space is within the reach of the next generation of DM search experiments. The model is also sensitive to a modest improvement in the measurement of the precision electroweak parameters.

A model for dark matter, naturalness and a complete gauge unification

We consider dark matter in a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) which breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically and leads to a complete unification of the SM and technicolor coupling constants. The unification scale is determined to be $M_{\rm U} \approx 2.2 \times 10^{15}$ GeV and the unified coupling $\alpha_{\rm U} \approx 0.0304$. Moreover, unification strongly suggest that the technicolor sector of the model must become strong at the scale of ${\cal O}$(TeV). The model also contains a tightly constrained sector of mixing neutral fields stabilized by a discrete symmetry. We find the lightest of these states can be DM with a mass in the range $m_{\rm DM} \approx 30-800$ GeV. We find a large set of parameters that satisfy all available constraints from colliders and from dark matter search experiments. However, most of the available parameter space is within the reach of the next generation of DM search experiments. The model is also sensitive to a modest improvement in the measurement of the precision electroweak parameters.

Cosmological simulations with disformally coupled symmetron fields

We use N-body simulations to study the matter distribution in disformal gravity. The disformal model studied here is a conformally coupled symmetron field with an additional exponential disformal term. We conduct cosmological simulations with the aim to find the impact of the new disformal terms in the matter power spectrum, halo mass function and radial profile of the scalar field. This is done by calculating the disformal geodesic equation and the equation of motion for the scalar field, then implementing them into the N-body code ISIS, which is a modified gravity version of the code RAMSES. The presence of a conformal symmetron field increases both the power spectrum and mass function compared to standard gravity on small scales. Our main result is that the newly added disformal terms tend to counteract this effects and can make the evolution slightly closer to standard gravity. We finally show that the disformal terms give rise to oscillations of the scalar field in the centre of the dark matter haloes.

Cosmological simulations with disformally coupled symmetron fields [Cross-Listing]

We use N-body simulations to study the matter distribution in disformal gravity. The disformal model studied here is a conformally coupled symmetron field with an additional exponential disformal term. We conduct cosmological simulations with the aim to find the impact of the new disformal terms in the matter power spectrum, halo mass function and radial profile of the scalar field. This is done by calculating the disformal geodesic equation and the equation of motion for the scalar field, then implementing them into the N-body code ISIS, which is a modified gravity version of the code RAMSES. The presence of a conformal symmetron field increases both the power spectrum and mass function compared to standard gravity on small scales. Our main result is that the newly added disformal terms tend to counteract this effects and can make the evolution slightly closer to standard gravity. We finally show that the disformal terms give rise to oscillations of the scalar field in the centre of the dark matter haloes.

Cosmological simulations with disformally coupled symmetron fields [Cross-Listing]

We use N-body simulations to study the matter distribution in disformal gravity. The disformal model studied here is a conformally coupled symmetron field with an additional exponential disformal term. We conduct cosmological simulations with the aim to find the impact of the new disformal terms in the matter power spectrum, halo mass function and radial profile of the scalar field. This is done by calculating the disformal geodesic equation and the equation of motion for the scalar field, then implementing them into the N-body code ISIS, which is a modified gravity version of the code RAMSES. The presence of a conformal symmetron field increases both the power spectrum and mass function compared to standard gravity on small scales. Our main result is that the newly added disformal terms tend to counteract this effects and can make the evolution slightly closer to standard gravity. We finally show that the disformal terms give rise to oscillations of the scalar field in the centre of the dark matter haloes.

Cosmological simulations with disformally coupled symmetron fields [Cross-Listing]

We use N-body simulations to study the matter distribution in disformal gravity. The disformal model studied here is a conformally coupled symmetron field with an additional exponential disformal term. We conduct cosmological simulations with the aim to find the impact of the new disformal terms in the matter power spectrum, halo mass function and radial profile of the scalar field. This is done by calculating the disformal geodesic equation and the equation of motion for the scalar field, then implementing them into the N-body code ISIS, which is a modified gravity version of the code RAMSES. The presence of a conformal symmetron field increases both the power spectrum and mass function compared to standard gravity on small scales. Our main result is that the newly added disformal terms tend to counteract this effects and can make the evolution slightly closer to standard gravity. We finally show that the disformal terms give rise to oscillations of the scalar field in the centre of the dark matter haloes.

Particle Production after Inflation with Non-minimal Derivative Coupling to Gravity

We study cosmological evolution after inflation in models with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity. The background dynamics is solved and particle production associated with rapidly oscillating Hubble parameter is studied in detail. In addition, production of gravitons through the non-minimal derivative coupling with the inflaton is studied. We also find that the sound speed squared of the scalar perturbation oscillates between positive and negative values when the non-minimal derivative coupling dominates over the minimal kinetic term. This may lead to an instability of this model. We point out that the particle production rates are the same as those in the Einstein gravity with the minimal kinetic term, if we require the sound speed squared is positive definite.

Particle Production after Inflation with Non-minimal Derivative Coupling to Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We study cosmological evolution after inflation in models with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity. The background dynamics is solved and particle production associated with rapidly oscillating Hubble parameter is studied in detail. In addition, production of gravitons through the non-minimal derivative coupling with the inflaton is studied. We also find that the sound speed squared of the scalar perturbation oscillates between positive and negative values when the non-minimal derivative coupling dominates over the minimal kinetic term. This may lead to an instability of this model. We point out that the particle production rates are the same as those in the Einstein gravity with the minimal kinetic term, if we require the sound speed squared is positive definite.

Particle Production after Inflation with Non-minimal Derivative Coupling to Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We study cosmological evolution after inflation in models with non-minimal derivative coupling to gravity. The background dynamics is solved and particle production associated with rapidly oscillating Hubble parameter is studied in detail. In addition, production of gravitons through the non-minimal derivative coupling with the inflaton is studied. We also find that the sound speed squared of the scalar perturbation oscillates between positive and negative values when the non-minimal derivative coupling dominates over the minimal kinetic term. This may lead to an instability of this model. We point out that the particle production rates are the same as those in the Einstein gravity with the minimal kinetic term, if we require the sound speed squared is positive definite.

Primordial Gravitational Waves in a Nonsingular $\Lambda(H)$-Cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the cosmological production of gravitational waves for a nonsingular flat cosmology driven by a decaying vacuum energy density evolving as $\rho_{\text{vac}}(H) = \rho_b + H^{3}/H_I$, where $\rho_b$ is the bare vacuum energy density, $H$ is the Hubble parameter and $H_I$ is the primordial inflationary scale. This model can be interpreted as a particular case of the class recently discussed by Perico et al. (Phys. Rev. D 88, 063531, 2013) which is termed complete in the sense that the cosmic evolution occurs between two extreme de Sitter stages (early and late time de Sitter phases). The gravitational wave equation is derived and its time-dependent part numerically integrated since the primordial de Sitter stage. The transition from the early de Sitter to the radiation phase is smooth (no exit problem) and the generated spectrum of gravitons is compared with the standard calculations where an abrupt transition is assumed. It is found that the stochastic background of gravitons is very similar to the one predicted by the cosmic concordance model plus inflation except in the limit of higher frequencies ($\nu \gtrsim 100$ kHz). This remarkable signature of a decaying vacuum cosmology combined with the proposed high frequency gravitational wave detectors of improved sensitivity may provide in the future a crucial test for inflationary mechanisms.

Primordial Gravitational Waves in a Nonsingular $\Lambda(H)$-Cosmology

We investigate the cosmological production of gravitational waves for a nonsingular flat cosmology driven by a decaying vacuum energy density evolving as $\rho_{\text{vac}}(H) = \rho_b + H^{3}/H_I$, where $\rho_b$ is the bare vacuum energy density, $H$ is the Hubble parameter and $H_I$ is the primordial inflationary scale. This model can be interpreted as a particular case of the class recently discussed by Perico et al. (Phys. Rev. D 88, 063531, 2013) which is termed complete in the sense that the cosmic evolution occurs between two extreme de Sitter stages (early and late time de Sitter phases). The gravitational wave equation is derived and its time-dependent part numerically integrated since the primordial de Sitter stage. The transition from the early de Sitter to the radiation phase is smooth (no exit problem) and the generated spectrum of gravitons is compared with the standard calculations where an abrupt transition is assumed. It is found that the stochastic background of gravitons is very similar to the one predicted by the cosmic concordance model plus inflation except in the limit of higher frequencies ($\nu \gtrsim 100$ kHz). This remarkable signature of a decaying vacuum cosmology combined with the proposed high frequency gravitational wave detectors of improved sensitivity may provide in the future a crucial test for inflationary mechanisms.

Are long gamma-ray bursts standard candles?

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely proposed as an effective probe to trace the Hubble diagram of the Universe in high redshift range. However, the calibration of GRBs is not as easy as that of type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Most calibrating methods at present take use one or some of the empirical luminosity corrections, e.g., Amati relation. One of the underlying assumptions of these calibrating methods is that the empirical correlation is universal over all redshifts. In this paper, we check to what extent this assumption holds. Assuming that SNe Ia exactly trace the Hubble diagram of the Universe, we re-investigate the Amati relation for low redshift ($z<1.4$) and high redshift ($z>1.4$) GRBs, respectively. It is found that the Amati relation of low-$z$ GRBs differs from that of high-$z$ GRBs at more than $3\sigma$ confidence level. This result is insensitive to cosmological models.

Properties of Weak Lensing Clusters Detected on Hyper Suprime-Cam 2.3 Square Degree Field

We present properties of moderately massive clusters of galaxies detected by the newly developed Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope using weak gravitational lensing. Eight peaks exceeding a S/N ratio of 4.5 are identified on the convergence S/N map of a 2.3 square degree field observed during the early commissioning phase of the camera. Multi-color photometric data is used to generate optically selected clusters using the CAMIRA algorithm. The optical cluster positions were correlated with the peak positions from the convergence map. All eight significant peaks have optical counterparts. The velocity dispersion of clusters are evaluated by adopting the Singular Isothemal Sphere (SIS) fit to the tangential shear profiles, yielding virial mass estimates, M500c, of the clusters which range from 2.7×10^13 to 4.4×10^14 solar mass. The number of peaks is considerably larger than the average number expected from LambdaCDM cosmology but this is not extremely unlikely if one takes the large sample variance in the small field into account. We could, however, safely argue that the peak count strongly favours the recent Planck result suggesting high sigma8$value of 0.83. The ratio of stellar mass to the dark matter halo mass shows a clear decline as the halo mass increases. If the gas mass fraction, fg, in halos is universal, as has been suggested in the literature, the observed baryon mass in stars and gas shows a possible deficit compared with the total baryon density estimated from the baryon oscillation peaks in anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background.

Minimization of Biases in Galaxy Peculiar Velocity Catalogs

Galaxy distances and derived radial peculiar velocity catalogs constitute valuable datasets to study the dynamics of the Local Universe. However, such catalogs suffer from biases whose effects increase with the distance. Malmquist biases and lognormal error distribution affect the catalogs. Velocity fields of the Local Universe reconstructed with these catalogs present a spurious overall infall onto the Local Volume if they are not corrected for biases. Such an infall is observed in the reconstructed velocity field obtained when applying the BayesianWiener-Filter technique to the raw second radial peculiar velocity catalog of the Cosmicflows project. In this paper, an iterative method to reduce spurious non-Gaussianities in the radial peculiar velocity distribution, to retroactively derive overall better distance estimates resulting in a minimization of the effects of biases, is presented. This method is tested with mock catalogs. To control the cosmic variance, mocks are built out of different cosmological constrained simulations which resemble the Local Universe. To realistically reproduce the effects of biases, the mocks are constructed to be look-alikes of the second data release of the Cosmicflows project, with respect to the size, distribution of data and distribution of errors. Using a suite of mock catalogs, the outcome of the correction is verified to be affected neither by the added error realization, nor by the datapoint selection, nor by the constrained simulation. Results are similar for the different tested mocks. After correction, the general infall is satisfactorily suppressed. The method allows us to obtained catalogs which together with the Wiener-Filter technique give reconstructions approximating non biased velocity fields at 100-150 km/s (2-3 Mpc/h in terms of linear displacement), the linear theory threshold.

Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation [Cross-Listing]

We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation.

Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation [Cross-Listing]

We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation.

Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation [Cross-Listing]

We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation.

Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation

We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation.

Possible Evidence for Planck-Scale Resonant Particle Production during Inflation from the CMB Power Spectrum

The power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background from both the Planck and WMAP data exhibits a slight dip in for multipoles in the range of l=10-30. We show that such a dip could be the result of resonant creation of a massive particle that couples to the inflaton field. For our best-fit models, epochs of resonant particle creation reenters the horizon at wave numbers of k* ~ 0.00011 (h/Mpc). The amplitude and location of these features correspond to the creation of a number of degenerate fermion species of mass ~ 15 times the planck mass during inflation with a coupling constant between the inflaton field and the created fermion species of near unity. Although the evidence is marginal, if this interpretation is correct, this could be one of the first observational hints of new physics at the Planck scale.

A non-perturbative study of the evolution of cosmic magnetised sources [Cross-Listing]

We undertake a hydrodynamical study of a magnetised cosmic fluid between the end of the leptonic era and the beginning of the radiation-dominated epoch. We assume this fluid to be the source of a Bianchi I model and to be a mixture of tightly coupled primordial radiation, neutrinos, baryons, electrons and positrons, together with a gas of already decoupled dark matter WIMPS and an already existing magnetic field. The interaction of this field with the tightly coupled gas mixture is described by suitable equations of state that are appropriate for the particle species of the mixture. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies based on an FLRW framework reveals that the effects of the anisotropy of the magnetic field on the evolution of the main thermodynamical variables are negligible, thus validating these studies, though subtle differences are found in the evolution of the magnetic field itself. For larger field intensities we find quantitative and qualitative differences from the FLRW based analysis. Our approach and our results may provide interesting guidelines in potential situations in which non-perturbative methods are required to study the interaction between magnetic fields and the cosmic fluid.

A non-perturbative study of the evolution of cosmic magnetised sources [Cross-Listing]

We undertake a hydrodynamical study of a magnetised cosmic fluid between the end of the leptonic era and the beginning of the radiation-dominated epoch. We assume this fluid to be the source of a Bianchi I model and to be a mixture of tightly coupled primordial radiation, neutrinos, baryons, electrons and positrons, together with a gas of already decoupled dark matter WIMPS and an already existing magnetic field. The interaction of this field with the tightly coupled gas mixture is described by suitable equations of state that are appropriate for the particle species of the mixture. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies based on an FLRW framework reveals that the effects of the anisotropy of the magnetic field on the evolution of the main thermodynamical variables are negligible, thus validating these studies, though subtle differences are found in the evolution of the magnetic field itself. For larger field intensities we find quantitative and qualitative differences from the FLRW based analysis. Our approach and our results may provide interesting guidelines in potential situations in which non-perturbative methods are required to study the interaction between magnetic fields and the cosmic fluid.

A non-perturbative study of the evolution of cosmic magnetised sources

We undertake a hydrodynamical study of a magnetised cosmic fluid between the end of the leptonic era and the beginning of the radiation-dominated epoch. We assume this fluid to be the source of a Bianchi I model and to be a mixture of tightly coupled primordial radiation, neutrinos, baryons, electrons and positrons, together with a gas of already decoupled dark matter WIMPS and an already existing magnetic field. The interaction of this field with the tightly coupled gas mixture is described by suitable equations of state that are appropriate for the particle species of the mixture. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies based on an FLRW framework reveals that the effects of the anisotropy of the magnetic field on the evolution of the main thermodynamical variables are negligible, thus validating these studies, though subtle differences are found in the evolution of the magnetic field itself. For larger field intensities we find quantitative and qualitative differences from the FLRW based analysis. Our approach and our results may provide interesting guidelines in potential situations in which non-perturbative methods are required to study the interaction between magnetic fields and the cosmic fluid.

A non-perturbative study of the evolution of cosmic magnetised sources [Cross-Listing]

We undertake a hydrodynamical study of a magnetised cosmic fluid between the end of the leptonic era and the beginning of the radiation-dominated epoch. We assume this fluid to be the source of a Bianchi I model and to be a mixture of tightly coupled primordial radiation, neutrinos, baryons, electrons and positrons, together with a gas of already decoupled dark matter WIMPS and an already existing magnetic field. The interaction of this field with the tightly coupled gas mixture is described by suitable equations of state that are appropriate for the particle species of the mixture. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies based on an FLRW framework reveals that the effects of the anisotropy of the magnetic field on the evolution of the main thermodynamical variables are negligible, thus validating these studies, though subtle differences are found in the evolution of the magnetic field itself. For larger field intensities we find quantitative and qualitative differences from the FLRW based analysis. Our approach and our results may provide interesting guidelines in potential situations in which non-perturbative methods are required to study the interaction between magnetic fields and the cosmic fluid.

Searching for Modified Gravity: Scale and Redshift Dependent Constraints from Galaxy Peculiar Velocities

We present measurements of both scale- and time-dependent deviations from the standard gravitational field equations. These late-time modifications are introduced separately for relativistic and non-relativistic particles, by way of the parameters $G_{\rm matter}(k,z)$ and $G_{\rm light}(k,z)$ using two bins in both scale and time, with transition wavenumber $0.01$ Mpc$^{-1}$ and redshift 1. We emphasize the use of two dynamical probes to constrain this set of parameters, galaxy power spectrum multipoles and the direct peculiar velocity power spectrum, which probe fluctuations on different scales. The multipole measurements are derived from the WiggleZ and BOSS Data Release 11 CMASS galaxy redshift surveys and the velocity power spectrum is measured from the velocity sub-sample of the 6-degree Field Galaxy Survey. We combine with additional cosmological probes including baryon acoustic oscillations, Type Ia SNe, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), lensing of the CMB, and the temperature–galaxy cross-correlation. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood analysis, we find the inferred best-fit parameter values of $G_{\rm matter}(k,z)$ and $G_{\rm light}(k,z)$ to be consistent with the standard model at the $95\%$ confidence level. Furthermore, accounting for the Alcock-Paczynski effect, we perform joint fits for the expansion history and growth index gamma; we measure $\gamma = 0.665 \pm 0.0669$ ($68\%$ C.L) for a fixed expansion history, and $\gamma = 0.73^{+0.08}_{-0.10}$ ($68\%$ C.L) when the expansion history is allowed to deviate from $\Lambda$CDM. With a fixed expansion history the inferred value is consistent with GR at the $95\%$ C.L; alternatively, a $2\sigma$ tension is observed when the expansion history is not fixed, this tension is worsened by the combination of growth and SNe data.

Bouncing cosmology with future singularity from modified gravity [Cross-Listing]

We investigate which Jordan frame $F(R)$ gravity can describe a Type IV singular bouncing cosmological evolution, with special emphasis given near the point at which the Type IV singularity occurs. The cosmological bounce is chosen in such a way so that the bouncing point coincides exactly with Type IV singularity point. The stability of the resulting $F(R)$ gravity is examined and in addition, we study the Einstein frame scalar-tensor theory counterpart of the resulting Jordan frame $F(R)$ gravity. Also, by assuming that the Jordan frame metric is chosen in such a way so that, when conformally transformed in the Einstein frame, it yields a quasi de Sitter or de Sitter Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we study the observational indexes which turn out to be consistent with Planck 2015 data in the case of the Einstein frame scalar theory. Finally, we study the behavior of the effective equation of state corresponding to the Type IV singular bounce and after we compare the resulting picture with other bouncing cosmologies, we critically discuss the implications of our analysis.

Bouncing cosmology with future singularity from modified gravity [Cross-Listing]

We investigate which Jordan frame $F(R)$ gravity can describe a Type IV singular bouncing cosmological evolution, with special emphasis given near the point at which the Type IV singularity occurs. The cosmological bounce is chosen in such a way so that the bouncing point coincides exactly with Type IV singularity point. The stability of the resulting $F(R)$ gravity is examined and in addition, we study the Einstein frame scalar-tensor theory counterpart of the resulting Jordan frame $F(R)$ gravity. Also, by assuming that the Jordan frame metric is chosen in such a way so that, when conformally transformed in the Einstein frame, it yields a quasi de Sitter or de Sitter Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we study the observational indexes which turn out to be consistent with Planck 2015 data in the case of the Einstein frame scalar theory. Finally, we study the behavior of the effective equation of state corresponding to the Type IV singular bounce and after we compare the resulting picture with other bouncing cosmologies, we critically discuss the implications of our analysis.

Bouncing cosmology with future singularity from modified gravity [Cross-Listing]

We investigate which Jordan frame $F(R)$ gravity can describe a Type IV singular bouncing cosmological evolution, with special emphasis given near the point at which the Type IV singularity occurs. The cosmological bounce is chosen in such a way so that the bouncing point coincides exactly with Type IV singularity point. The stability of the resulting $F(R)$ gravity is examined and in addition, we study the Einstein frame scalar-tensor theory counterpart of the resulting Jordan frame $F(R)$ gravity. Also, by assuming that the Jordan frame metric is chosen in such a way so that, when conformally transformed in the Einstein frame, it yields a quasi de Sitter or de Sitter Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we study the observational indexes which turn out to be consistent with Planck 2015 data in the case of the Einstein frame scalar theory. Finally, we study the behavior of the effective equation of state corresponding to the Type IV singular bounce and after we compare the resulting picture with other bouncing cosmologies, we critically discuss the implications of our analysis.

Bouncing cosmology with future singularity from modified gravity

We investigate which Jordan frame $F(R)$ gravity can describe a Type IV singular bouncing cosmological evolution, with special emphasis given near the point at which the Type IV singularity occurs. The cosmological bounce is chosen in such a way so that the bouncing point coincides exactly with Type IV singularity point. The stability of the resulting $F(R)$ gravity is examined and in addition, we study the Einstein frame scalar-tensor theory counterpart of the resulting Jordan frame $F(R)$ gravity. Also, by assuming that the Jordan frame metric is chosen in such a way so that, when conformally transformed in the Einstein frame, it yields a quasi de Sitter or de Sitter Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we study the observational indexes which turn out to be consistent with Planck 2015 data in the case of the Einstein frame scalar theory. Finally, we study the behavior of the effective equation of state corresponding to the Type IV singular bounce and after we compare the resulting picture with other bouncing cosmologies, we critically discuss the implications of our analysis.

Generation of scale invariant magnetic fields in bouncing universes [Cross-Listing]

We consider the generation of primordial magnetic fields in a class of bouncing models when the electromagnetic action is coupled non-minimally to a scalar field that, say, drives the background evolution. For scale factors that have the power law form at very early times and non-minimal couplings which are simple powers of the scale factor, one can easily show that scale invariant spectra for the magnetic fields can arise {\it before the bounce} for certain values of the indices involved. It will be interesting to examine if these power spectra retain their shape {\it after the bounce}. However, analytical solutions for the Fourier modes of the electromagnetic vector potential across the bounce are difficult to obtain. In this work, with the help of a new time variable that we introduce, which we refer to as the ${\rm e}$-${\cal N}$-fold, we investigate these scenarios numerically. Imposing the initial conditions on the modes in the contracting phase, we numerically evolve the modes across the bounce and evaluate the spectra of the electric and magnetic fields at suitably late times. As one could have intuitively expected, though the complete spectra depend on the details of the bounce, we find that, under the original conditions, scale invariant spectra of the magnetic fields do arise for wavenumbers much smaller than the scale associated with the bounce. We also show that magnetic fields which correspond to observed strengths today can be generated for specific values of the parameters. But, we find that, at the bounce, the backreaction due to the electromagnetic modes that have been generated can be significantly large calling into question the viability of the model. We briefly discuss the implications of our results.

Generation of scale invariant magnetic fields in bouncing universes

We consider the generation of primordial magnetic fields in a class of bouncing models when the electromagnetic action is coupled non-minimally to a scalar field that, say, drives the background evolution. For scale factors that have the power law form at very early times and non-minimal couplings which are simple powers of the scale factor, one can easily show that scale invariant spectra for the magnetic fields can arise {\it before the bounce} for certain values of the indices involved. It will be interesting to examine if these power spectra retain their shape {\it after the bounce}. However, analytical solutions for the Fourier modes of the electromagnetic vector potential across the bounce are difficult to obtain. In this work, with the help of a new time variable that we introduce, which we refer to as the ${\rm e}$-${\cal N}$-fold, we investigate these scenarios numerically. Imposing the initial conditions on the modes in the contracting phase, we numerically evolve the modes across the bounce and evaluate the spectra of the electric and magnetic fields at suitably late times. As one could have intuitively expected, though the complete spectra depend on the details of the bounce, we find that, under the original conditions, scale invariant spectra of the magnetic fields do arise for wavenumbers much smaller than the scale associated with the bounce. We also show that magnetic fields which correspond to observed strengths today can be generated for specific values of the parameters. But, we find that, at the bounce, the backreaction due to the electromagnetic modes that have been generated can be significantly large calling into question the viability of the model. We briefly discuss the implications of our results.

Generation of scale invariant magnetic fields in bouncing universes [Cross-Listing]

We consider the generation of primordial magnetic fields in a class of bouncing models when the electromagnetic action is coupled non-minimally to a scalar field that, say, drives the background evolution. For scale factors that have the power law form at very early times and non-minimal couplings which are simple powers of the scale factor, one can easily show that scale invariant spectra for the magnetic fields can arise {\it before the bounce} for certain values of the indices involved. It will be interesting to examine if these power spectra retain their shape {\it after the bounce}. However, analytical solutions for the Fourier modes of the electromagnetic vector potential across the bounce are difficult to obtain. In this work, with the help of a new time variable that we introduce, which we refer to as the ${\rm e}$-${\cal N}$-fold, we investigate these scenarios numerically. Imposing the initial conditions on the modes in the contracting phase, we numerically evolve the modes across the bounce and evaluate the spectra of the electric and magnetic fields at suitably late times. As one could have intuitively expected, though the complete spectra depend on the details of the bounce, we find that, under the original conditions, scale invariant spectra of the magnetic fields do arise for wavenumbers much smaller than the scale associated with the bounce. We also show that magnetic fields which correspond to observed strengths today can be generated for specific values of the parameters. But, we find that, at the bounce, the backreaction due to the electromagnetic modes that have been generated can be significantly large calling into question the viability of the model. We briefly discuss the implications of our results.

Generation of scale invariant magnetic fields in bouncing universes [Cross-Listing]

We consider the generation of primordial magnetic fields in a class of bouncing models when the electromagnetic action is coupled non-minimally to a scalar field that, say, drives the background evolution. For scale factors that have the power law form at very early times and non-minimal couplings which are simple powers of the scale factor, one can easily show that scale invariant spectra for the magnetic fields can arise {\it before the bounce} for certain values of the indices involved. It will be interesting to examine if these power spectra retain their shape {\it after the bounce}. However, analytical solutions for the Fourier modes of the electromagnetic vector potential across the bounce are difficult to obtain. In this work, with the help of a new time variable that we introduce, which we refer to as the ${\rm e}$-${\cal N}$-fold, we investigate these scenarios numerically. Imposing the initial conditions on the modes in the contracting phase, we numerically evolve the modes across the bounce and evaluate the spectra of the electric and magnetic fields at suitably late times. As one could have intuitively expected, though the complete spectra depend on the details of the bounce, we find that, under the original conditions, scale invariant spectra of the magnetic fields do arise for wavenumbers much smaller than the scale associated with the bounce. We also show that magnetic fields which correspond to observed strengths today can be generated for specific values of the parameters. But, we find that, at the bounce, the backreaction due to the electromagnetic modes that have been generated can be significantly large calling into question the viability of the model. We briefly discuss the implications of our results.

Searching for light echoes due to CSM in SN Ia spectra

We present an analytical model for light echoes (LEs) coming from circumstellar material (CSM) around Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). Using this model we find two spectral signatures at 4100 {\AA} and 6200 {\AA} that are useful to identify LEs during the Lira law phase (between 35 and 80 days after maximum light) coming from nearby CSM at distances of 0.01-0.25 pc. We analyze a sample of 89 SNe Ia divided in two groups according to their B-V decline rate during the Lira law phase, and search for LEs from CSM interaction in the group of SNe with steeper slopes by comparing their spectra with our LE model. We find that a model with LEs + pure extinction from interstellar material (ISM) fits better the observed spectra than a pure ISM extinction model that is constant in time, but we find that a decreasing extinction alone explains better the observations without the need of LEs, possibly implying dust sublimation due to the radiation from the SN.

Target dependence of the annual modulation in direct dark matter searches [Cross-Listing]

Due to Earth’s revolution around the Sun, the expected scattering rate in direct dark matter searches is annually modulated. This modulation is expected to differ between experiments when given as a function of recoil energy $E_\text{R}$, e.g. due to the gravitational focusing effect of the Sun; a better variable to compare results among experiments employing different targets is the minimum speed $v_\text{min}$ a dark matter particle must have to impart a recoil energy $E_\text{R}$ to a target nucleus. It is widely believed that the modulation expressed as a function of $v_\text{min}$ is common to all experiments, irrespective of the dark matter distribution. We point out that the annual modulation as a function of $v_\text{min}$, and in particular the times at which the rate is maximum and minimum, could be very different depending on the detector material. This would be an indication of a scattering cross section with non-factorizable velocity and target material dependence. Observing an annual modulation with at least two different target elements would be necessary to identify this type of cross section.

Target dependence of the annual modulation in direct dark matter searches

Due to Earth’s revolution around the Sun, the expected scattering rate in direct dark matter searches is annually modulated. This modulation is expected to differ between experiments when given as a function of recoil energy $E_\text{R}$, e.g. due to the gravitational focusing effect of the Sun; a better variable to compare results among experiments employing different targets is the minimum speed $v_\text{min}$ a dark matter particle must have to impart a recoil energy $E_\text{R}$ to a target nucleus. It is widely believed that the modulation expressed as a function of $v_\text{min}$ is common to all experiments, irrespective of the dark matter distribution. We point out that the annual modulation as a function of $v_\text{min}$, and in particular the times at which the rate is maximum and minimum, could be very different depending on the detector material. This would be an indication of a scattering cross section with non-factorizable velocity and target material dependence. Observing an annual modulation with at least two different target elements would be necessary to identify this type of cross section.

The Magnetic Field and Polarization Properties of Radio Galaxies in Different Accretion States

We use the integrated polarized radio emission at 1.4 GHz ($\Pi_{\rm 1.4\,GHz}$) from a large sample of AGN (796 sources at redshifts $z<0.7$) to study the large-scale magnetic field properties of radio galaxies in relation to the host galaxy accretion state. We find a fundamental difference in $\Pi_{\rm 1.4\,GHz}$ between radiative-mode AGN (i.e. high-excitation radio galaxies, HERGs, and radio-loud QSOs) and jet-mode AGN (i.e. low-excitation radio galaxies, LERGs). While LERGs can achieve a wide range of $\Pi_{\rm 1.4\,GHz}$ (up to $\sim$$30\%$), the HERGs and radio-loud QSOs are limited to $\Pi_{\rm 1.4\,GHz} \lesssim 15\%$. A difference in $\Pi_{\rm 1.4\,GHz}$ is also seen when the sample is divided at 0.5% of the total Eddington-scaled accretion rate, where the weakly accreting sources can attain higher values of $\Pi_{\rm 1.4\,GHz}$. We do not find any clear evidence that this is driven by intrinsic magnetic field differences of the different radio morphological classes. Instead, we attribute the differences in $\Pi_{\rm 1.4\,GHz}$ to the local environments of the radio sources, in terms of both the ambient gas density and the magnetoionic properties of this gas. Thus, not only are different large-scale gaseous environments potentially responsible for the different accretion states of HERGs and LERGs, we argue that the large-scale magnetised environments may also be important for the formation of powerful AGN jets. Upcoming high angular resolution and broadband radio polarization surveys will provide the high precision Faraday rotation measure and depolarization data required to robustly test this claim.

Broadband distortion modeling in Lyman-$\alpha$ forest BAO fitting

In recent years, the Lyman-$\alpha$ absorption observed in the spectra of high-redshift quasars has been used as a tracer of large-scale structure by means of the three-dimensional Lyman-$\alpha$ forest auto-correlation function at redshift $z\simeq 2.3$, but the need to fit the quasar continuum in every absorption spectrum introduces a broadband distortion that is difficult to correct and causes a systematic error for measuring any broadband properties. We describe a $k$-space model for this broadband distortion based on a multiplicative correction to the power spectrum of the transmitted flux fraction that suppresses power on scales corresponding to the typical length of a Lyman-$\alpha$ forest spectrum. Implementing the distortion model in fits for the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak position in the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest auto-correlation, we find that the fitting method recovers the input values of the linear bias parameter $b_{F}$ and the redshift-space distortion parameter $\beta_{F}$ for mock data sets with a systematic error of less than 0.5\%. Applied to the auto-correlation measured for BOSS Data Release 11, our method improves on the previous treatment of broadband distortions in BAO fitting by providing a better fit to the data using fewer parameters and reducing the statistical errors on $\beta_{F}$ and the combination $b_{F}(1+\beta_{F})$ by more than a factor of seven. The measured values at redshift $z=2.3$ are $\beta_{F}=1.39^{+0.11\ +0.24\ +0.38}_{-0.10\ -0.19\ -0.28}$ and $b_{F}(1+\beta_{F})=-0.374^{+0.007\ +0.013\ +0.020}_{-0.007\ -0.014\ -0.022}$ (1$\sigma$, 2$\sigma$ and 3$\sigma$ statistical errors). Our fitting software and the input files needed to reproduce our main results are publicly available.

Renormalization out of equilibrium in a superrenormalizable theory [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the renormalization of the initial value problem in Nonequilibrium Quantum Field Theory within a simple, yet instructive, example and show how to obtain a renormalized time evolution for the two-point functions of a scalar field and its conjugate momentum at all times. The scheme we propose is applicable to systems that are initially far from equilibrium and compatible with non-secular approximation schemes which capture thermalization. It is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations for non-Gaussian initial states, complemented by usual vacuum counterterms. We explicitly demonstrate how various cutoff-dependent effects peculiar to nonequilibrium systems, including time-dependent divergences or initial-time singularities, are avoided by taking an initial non-Gaussian three-point vacuum correlation into account.

Renormalization out of equilibrium in a superrenormalizable theory

We discuss the renormalization of the initial value problem in Nonequilibrium Quantum Field Theory within a simple, yet instructive, example and show how to obtain a renormalized time evolution for the two-point functions of a scalar field and its conjugate momentum at all times. The scheme we propose is applicable to systems that are initially far from equilibrium and compatible with non-secular approximation schemes which capture thermalization. It is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations for non-Gaussian initial states, complemented by usual vacuum counterterms. We explicitly demonstrate how various cutoff-dependent effects peculiar to nonequilibrium systems, including time-dependent divergences or initial-time singularities, are avoided by taking an initial non-Gaussian three-point vacuum correlation into account.

Renormalization out of equilibrium in a superrenormalizable theory [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the renormalization of the initial value problem in Nonequilibrium Quantum Field Theory within a simple, yet instructive, example and show how to obtain a renormalized time evolution for the two-point functions of a scalar field and its conjugate momentum at all times. The scheme we propose is applicable to systems that are initially far from equilibrium and compatible with non-secular approximation schemes which capture thermalization. It is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations for non-Gaussian initial states, complemented by usual vacuum counterterms. We explicitly demonstrate how various cutoff-dependent effects peculiar to nonequilibrium systems, including time-dependent divergences or initial-time singularities, are avoided by taking an initial non-Gaussian three-point vacuum correlation into account.

Renormalization out of equilibrium in a superrenormalizable theory [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the renormalization of the initial value problem in Nonequilibrium Quantum Field Theory within a simple, yet instructive, example and show how to obtain a renormalized time evolution for the two-point functions of a scalar field and its conjugate momentum at all times. The scheme we propose is applicable to systems that are initially far from equilibrium and compatible with non-secular approximation schemes which capture thermalization. It is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations for non-Gaussian initial states, complemented by usual vacuum counterterms. We explicitly demonstrate how various cutoff-dependent effects peculiar to nonequilibrium systems, including time-dependent divergences or initial-time singularities, are avoided by taking an initial non-Gaussian three-point vacuum correlation into account.

The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~4"), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~30"), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever before. Using the the WSRT, we detect HI in absorption against the center of the radio source. The absorption profile is relatively broad (FWHM of 288 km/s), similar to what is found in other clusters. Understanding the duty cycle of the radio emission as well as the triggering mechanism for starting (or restarting) the radio-loud activity can provide important constraints to quantify the impact of AGN feedback on galaxy evolution. The study of these mechanisms at low frequencies using morphological and spectral information promises to bring new important insights in this field.

Dusty starbursts and the formation of elliptical galaxies: A SCUBA-2 survey of a z=1.46 cluster

We report the results of a deep SCUBA-2 850- and 450-$\mu$m survey for dust-obscured ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) in the field of the z=1.46 cluster XCS J2215.9-1738. We detect a striking overdensity of sub-millimeter sources coincident with the core of this cluster: $\sim 3-4 \times$ higher than expected in a blank field. We use the likely radio and mid-infrared counterparts to show that the bulk of these sub-millimeter sources have spectroscopic or photometric redshifts which place them in the cluster and that their multi-wavelength properties are consistent with this association. The average far-infrared luminosities of these galaxies are $(1.0\pm0.1) \times 10^{12} L_{\odot}$, placing them on the U/LIRG boundary. Using the total star formation occurring in the obscured U/LIRG population within the cluster we show that the resulting mass-normalized star-formation rate for this system supports previous claims of a rapid increase in star-formation activity in cluster cores out to $z\sim1.5$, which must be associated with the on-going formation of the early-type galaxies which reside in massive clusters today.

The Local Group as a time machine: studying the high-redshift Universe with nearby galaxies

We infer the UV luminosities of Local Group galaxies at early cosmic times ($z \sim 2$ and $z \sim 7$) by combining stellar population synthesis modeling with star formation histories derived from deep color-magnitude diagrams constructed from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Our analysis provides a basis for understanding high-$z$ galaxies – including those that may be unobservable even with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) – in the context of familiar, well-studied objects in the very low-$z$ Universe. We find that, at the epoch of reionization, all Local Group dwarfs were less luminous than the faintest galaxies detectable in deep HST observations of blank fields. We predict that JWST will observe $z \sim 7$ progenitors of galaxies similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud today; however, the HST Frontier Fields initiative may already be observing such galaxies, highlighting the power of gravitational lensing. Consensus reionization models require an extrapolation of the observed blank-field luminosity function at $z \approx 7$ by at least two orders of magnitude in order to maintain reionization. This scenario requires the progenitors of the Fornax and Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxies to be contributors to the ionizing background at $z \sim 7$. Combined with numerical simulations, our results argue for a break in the UV luminosity function from a faint-end slope of $\alpha \sim -2$ at $M_{\rm UV} < -13$ to $\alpha \sim -1.2$ at lower luminosities. Applied to photometric samples at lower redshifts, our analysis suggests that HST observations in lensing fields at $z \sim 2$ are capable of probing galaxies with luminosities comparable to the expected progenitor of Fornax.

The BlueTides Simulation: First Galaxies and Reionization

We introduce the BlueTides simulation and report initial results for the luminosity functions of the first galaxies and AGN, and their contribution to reionization. BlueTides was run on the BlueWaters cluster at NCSA from $z=99$ to $z=8.0$ and includes 2$\times$7040$^3$ particles in a $400$Mpc/h per side box, making it the largest hydrodynamic simulation ever performed at high redshift. BlueTides includes a pressure-entropy formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, gas cooling, star formation (including molecular hydrogen), black hole growth and models for stellar and AGN feedback processes. The star formation rate density in the simulation is a good match to current observational data at $z\sim 8-10$. We find good agreement between observations and the predicted galaxy luminosity function in the currently observable range $-18\le M_{\mathrm UV} \le -22.5$ with some dust extinction required to match the abundance of brighter objects. BlueTides implements a patchy reionization model that produces a fluctuating UV background. BlueTides predicts number counts for galaxies fainter than current observational limits which are consistent with extrapolating the faint end slope of the luminosity function with a power law index $\alpha\sim -1.8$ at $z\sim 8$ and redshift dependence of $\alpha\sim (1+z)^{-0.4}$. The AGN population has a luminosity function well fit by a power law with a slope $\alpha\sim -2.4$ that compares favourably with the deepest CANDELS-Goods fields. We investigate how these luminosity functions affect the progress of reionization, and find that a high Lyman-$\alpha$ escape fraction ($f_\mathrm{esc} \sim 0.5$) is required if galaxies dominate the ionising photon budget during reionization. Smaller galaxy escape fractions imply a large contribution from faint AGN (down to $M_\mathrm{UV}=-12$) which results in a rapid reionization, disfavoured by current observations.

The formation of Milky Way-mass disk galaxies in the first 500 million years of a cold dark matter universe

In current cosmological models, galaxies form from the gravitational collapse of small perturbations in the matter distribution. This process involves both a hierarchy of merging structures and smooth accretion, so that early galaxies are predicted to be morphologically irregular, clumpy, and compact. This is supported by recent observational data on samples of galaxies at redshift $z=8$ and beyond. The volumes accessible to these studies, both computational and observational are however thousands of times smaller than those that will be probed by upcoming telescopes, such as WFIRST. As a result, studies so far have never been able to reach the realm of massive galaxies. Whether among the myriad tiny proto-galaxies there exists a population with similarities to present day galaxies is an open question. Here we show, using BlueTides, the first hydrodynamic simulation large enough to resolve the relevant scales, that the first massive galaxies to form are in fact predicted to have extensive rotationally-supported disks and resemble in some ways Milky-way types seen at much lower redshifts. From a kinematic analysis of a statistical sample of 216 galaxies at redshift $z=8-10$ we have found that disk galaxies make up 70% of the population of galaxies with stellar mass $10^{10} M_\odot$ or greater. Cold Dark Matter cosmology therefore makes specific predictions for the population of large galaxies 500 million years after the Big Bang. We argue that wide-field satellite telescopes will in the near future discover these first massive disk galaxies. The simplicity of their structure and formation history should make possible new tests of cosmology.

The Gravitational Wave Background From Coalescing Compact Binaries: A New Method

Gravitational waves are perturbations in the spacetime that propagate at the speed of light. The study of such phenomenon is interesting because many cosmological processes and astrophysical objects, such as binary systems, are potential sources of gravitational radiation and can have their emissions detected in the near future by the next generation of interferometric detectors. Concerning the astrophysical objects, an interesting case is when there are several sources emitting in such a way that there is a superposition of signals, resulting in a smooth spectrum which spans a wide range of frequencies, the so-called stochastic background. In this paper, we are concerned with the stochastic backgrounds generated by compact binaries (i.e. binary systems formed by neutron stars and black holes) in the coalescing phase. In particular, we obtain such backgrounds by employing a new method developed in our previous studies.

 

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