Recent Postings from Cosmology and Extragalactic

Biased Tracers and Time Evolution

We study the effect of time evolution on galaxy bias. We argue that at any order in perturbations, the galaxy density contrast can be expressed in terms of a finite set of locally measurable operators made of spatial and temporal derivatives of the Newtonian potential. This is checked in an explicit third order calculation. There is a systematic way to derive a basis for these operators. This basis spans a larger space than the expansion in gravitational and velocity potentials usually employed, although new operators only appear at fourth order. The basis is argued to be closed under renormalization. Most of the arguments also apply to the structure of the counter-terms in the effective theory of large-scale structure.

Biased Tracers and Time Evolution [Cross-Listing]

We study the effect of time evolution on galaxy bias. We argue that at any order in perturbations, the galaxy density contrast can be expressed in terms of a finite set of locally measurable operators made of spatial and temporal derivatives of the Newtonian potential. This is checked in an explicit third order calculation. There is a systematic way to derive a basis for these operators. This basis spans a larger space than the expansion in gravitational and velocity potentials usually employed, although new operators only appear at fourth order. The basis is argued to be closed under renormalization. Most of the arguments also apply to the structure of the counter-terms in the effective theory of large-scale structure.

Homogeneity and isotropy in the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalogue

Using the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalogue we perform a number of statistical tests aimed at detecting possible departures from statistical homogeneity and isotropy in the large-scale structure of the Universe. Making use of the angular homogeneity index, an observable proposed in a previous publication, as well as studying the scaling of the angular clustering and number counts with magnitude limit, we place constraints on the fractal nature of the galaxy distribution. We find that the statistical properties of our sample are in excellent agreement with the standard cosmological model, and that it reaches the homogeneous regime significantly faster than fractal models with dimensions D<2.75. As part of our search for systematic effects, we also study the presence of hemispherical asymmetries in our data, finding no significant deviation beyond those allowed by the concordance model.

Gravity waves generated by sounds from Big Bang phase transitions [Cross-Listing]

Inhomogeneities associated with the cosmological QCD and electroweak phase transitions produce hydrodynamical perturbations, longitudinal sounds and rotations. It has been demonstrated numerically by Hindmarsh et al. that the sounds produce gravity waves (GW), and that this process does continue well after the phase transition is over. We further introduce a long period of the so-called inverse acoustic cascade, between the UV momentum scale at which the sound is originally produced and the IR scale at which GW is generated. It can be described by the Boltzmann equation, possessing stationary power and self-similar time-dependent solutions. If the sound dispersion law allows one-to-two sound decays, the exponent of the power solution is large and a strong amplification of the sound amplitude (limited only by the total energy) takes place. Alternative scenario dominated by sound scattering leads to smaller indices and much smaller IR sound amplitude. We also point out that two on shell phonons can produce a gravity wave and evaluate its rate using the so-called sound loop diagram.

Gravity waves generated by sounds from Big Bang phase transitions

Inhomogeneities associated with the cosmological QCD and electroweak phase transitions produce hydrodynamical perturbations, longitudinal sounds and rotations. It has been demonstrated numerically by Hindmarsh et al. that the sounds produce gravity waves (GW), and that this process does continue well after the phase transition is over. We further introduce a long period of the so-called inverse acoustic cascade, between the UV momentum scale at which the sound is originally produced and the IR scale at which GW is generated. It can be described by the Boltzmann equation, possessing stationary power and self-similar time-dependent solutions. If the sound dispersion law allows one-to-two sound decays, the exponent of the power solution is large and a strong amplification of the sound amplitude (limited only by the total energy) takes place. Alternative scenario dominated by sound scattering leads to smaller indices and much smaller IR sound amplitude. We also point out that two on shell phonons can produce a gravity wave and evaluate its rate using the so-called sound loop diagram.

Gravity waves generated by sounds from Big Bang phase transitions [Cross-Listing]

Inhomogeneities associated with the cosmological QCD and electroweak phase transitions produce hydrodynamical perturbations, longitudinal sounds and rotations. It has been demonstrated numerically by Hindmarsh et al. that the sounds produce gravity waves (GW), and that this process does continue well after the phase transition is over. We further introduce a long period of the so-called inverse acoustic cascade, between the UV momentum scale at which the sound is originally produced and the IR scale at which GW is generated. It can be described by the Boltzmann equation, possessing stationary power and self-similar time-dependent solutions. If the sound dispersion law allows one-to-two sound decays, the exponent of the power solution is large and a strong amplification of the sound amplitude (limited only by the total energy) takes place. Alternative scenario dominated by sound scattering leads to smaller indices and much smaller IR sound amplitude. We also point out that two on shell phonons can produce a gravity wave and evaluate its rate using the so-called sound loop diagram.

Statistics of Caustics in Large-Scale Structure Formation

The cosmic web is a complex spatial pattern of walls, filaments, cluster nodes and underdense void regions. It emerged through gravitational amplification from the Gaussian primordial density field. Here we infer analytical expressions for the spatial statistics of caustics in the evolving large-scale mass distribution. In our analysis, following the quasi-linear Zeldovich formalism and confined to the 1D and 2D situation, we compute number density and correlation properties of caustics in cosmic density fields that evolve from Gaussian primordial conditions. The analysis can be straightforwardly extended to the 3D situation. We moreover, are currently extending the approach to the non-linear regime of structure formation by including higher order Lagrangian approximations and Lagrangian effective field theory.

Helical Phase Inflation and Monodromy in Supergravity Theory

We study helical phase inflation in supergravity theory in details. The inflation is driven by the phase component of a complex field along helical trajectory. The helicoid structure originates from the monodromy of superpotential with an singularity at origin. We show that such monodromy can be formed by integrating out heavy fields in supersymmetric field theory. The supergravity corrections to the potential provide strong field stabilizations for the scalars except inflaton, therefore the helical phase inflation accomplishes the "monodromy inflation" within supersymmetric field theory. The phase monodromy can be easily generalized for natural inflation, in which the super-Planckian phase decay constant is realized with consistent field stabilization. The phase-axion alignment is fulfilled indirectly in the process of integrating out the heavy fields. Besides, we show that the helical phase inflation can be naturally realized in no-scale supergravity with $SU(2,1)/SU(2)\times U(1)$ symmetry since the no-scale K\"ahler potential provides symmetry factors of phase monodromy directly. We also demonstrate that the helical phase inflation can reduce to the shift symmetry realization of supergravity inflation. The super-Planckian field excursion is accomplished by the phase component, which admits no dangerous polynomial higher order corrections. The helical phase inflation process is free from the UV-sensitivity problem, and it suggests that inflation can be effectively studied in supersymmetric field theory close to the unification scale in Grand Unified Theory and a UV-completed frame is not prerequisite.

Helical Phase Inflation and Monodromy in Supergravity Theory [Cross-Listing]

We study helical phase inflation in supergravity theory in details. The inflation is driven by the phase component of a complex field along helical trajectory. The helicoid structure originates from the monodromy of superpotential with an singularity at origin. We show that such monodromy can be formed by integrating out heavy fields in supersymmetric field theory. The supergravity corrections to the potential provide strong field stabilizations for the scalars except inflaton, therefore the helical phase inflation accomplishes the "monodromy inflation" within supersymmetric field theory. The phase monodromy can be easily generalized for natural inflation, in which the super-Planckian phase decay constant is realized with consistent field stabilization. The phase-axion alignment is fulfilled indirectly in the process of integrating out the heavy fields. Besides, we show that the helical phase inflation can be naturally realized in no-scale supergravity with $SU(2,1)/SU(2)\times U(1)$ symmetry since the no-scale K\"ahler potential provides symmetry factors of phase monodromy directly. We also demonstrate that the helical phase inflation can reduce to the shift symmetry realization of supergravity inflation. The super-Planckian field excursion is accomplished by the phase component, which admits no dangerous polynomial higher order corrections. The helical phase inflation process is free from the UV-sensitivity problem, and it suggests that inflation can be effectively studied in supersymmetric field theory close to the unification scale in Grand Unified Theory and a UV-completed frame is not prerequisite.

Helical Phase Inflation and Monodromy in Supergravity Theory [Cross-Listing]

We study helical phase inflation in supergravity theory in details. The inflation is driven by the phase component of a complex field along helical trajectory. The helicoid structure originates from the monodromy of superpotential with an singularity at origin. We show that such monodromy can be formed by integrating out heavy fields in supersymmetric field theory. The supergravity corrections to the potential provide strong field stabilizations for the scalars except inflaton, therefore the helical phase inflation accomplishes the "monodromy inflation" within supersymmetric field theory. The phase monodromy can be easily generalized for natural inflation, in which the super-Planckian phase decay constant is realized with consistent field stabilization. The phase-axion alignment is fulfilled indirectly in the process of integrating out the heavy fields. Besides, we show that the helical phase inflation can be naturally realized in no-scale supergravity with $SU(2,1)/SU(2)\times U(1)$ symmetry since the no-scale K\"ahler potential provides symmetry factors of phase monodromy directly. We also demonstrate that the helical phase inflation can reduce to the shift symmetry realization of supergravity inflation. The super-Planckian field excursion is accomplished by the phase component, which admits no dangerous polynomial higher order corrections. The helical phase inflation process is free from the UV-sensitivity problem, and it suggests that inflation can be effectively studied in supersymmetric field theory close to the unification scale in Grand Unified Theory and a UV-completed frame is not prerequisite.

Analytic Prediction of Baryonic Effects from the EFT of Large Scale Structures

The large scale structures of the universe will likely be the next leading source of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to understand their behavior. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures provides a consistent way to perturbatively predict the clustering of dark matter at large distances. The fact that baryons move distances comparable to dark matter allows us to infer that baryons at large distances can be described in a similar formalism: the backreaction of short-distance non-linearities and of star-formation physics at long distances can be encapsulated in an effective stress tensor, characterized by a few parameters. The functional form of baryonic effects can therefore be predicted. In the power spectrum the leading contribution goes as $\propto k^2 P(k)$, with $P(k)$ being the linear power spectrum and with the numerical prefactor depending on the details of the star-formation physics. We also perform the resummation of the contribution of the long-wavelength displacements, allowing us to consistently predict the effect of the relative motion of baryons and dark matter. We compare our predictions with simulations that contain several implementations of baryonic physics, finding percent agreement up to relatively high wavenumbers such as $k\simeq 0.3\,h\, Mpc^{-1}$ or $k\simeq 0.6\, h\, Mpc^{-1}$, depending on the order of the calculation. Our results open a novel way to understand baryonic effects analytically, as well as to interface with simulations.

Analytic Prediction of Baryonic Effects from the EFT of Large Scale Structures [Cross-Listing]

The large scale structures of the universe will likely be the next leading source of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to understand their behavior. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures provides a consistent way to perturbatively predict the clustering of dark matter at large distances. The fact that baryons move distances comparable to dark matter allows us to infer that baryons at large distances can be described in a similar formalism: the backreaction of short-distance non-linearities and of star-formation physics at long distances can be encapsulated in an effective stress tensor, characterized by a few parameters. The functional form of baryonic effects can therefore be predicted. In the power spectrum the leading contribution goes as $\propto k^2 P(k)$, with $P(k)$ being the linear power spectrum and with the numerical prefactor depending on the details of the star-formation physics. We also perform the resummation of the contribution of the long-wavelength displacements, allowing us to consistently predict the effect of the relative motion of baryons and dark matter. We compare our predictions with simulations that contain several implementations of baryonic physics, finding percent agreement up to relatively high wavenumbers such as $k\simeq 0.3\,h\, Mpc^{-1}$ or $k\simeq 0.6\, h\, Mpc^{-1}$, depending on the order of the calculation. Our results open a novel way to understand baryonic effects analytically, as well as to interface with simulations.

Analytic Prediction of Baryonic Effects from the EFT of Large Scale Structures [Cross-Listing]

The large scale structures of the universe will likely be the next leading source of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to understand their behavior. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures provides a consistent way to perturbatively predict the clustering of dark matter at large distances. The fact that baryons move distances comparable to dark matter allows us to infer that baryons at large distances can be described in a similar formalism: the backreaction of short-distance non-linearities and of star-formation physics at long distances can be encapsulated in an effective stress tensor, characterized by a few parameters. The functional form of baryonic effects can therefore be predicted. In the power spectrum the leading contribution goes as $\propto k^2 P(k)$, with $P(k)$ being the linear power spectrum and with the numerical prefactor depending on the details of the star-formation physics. We also perform the resummation of the contribution of the long-wavelength displacements, allowing us to consistently predict the effect of the relative motion of baryons and dark matter. We compare our predictions with simulations that contain several implementations of baryonic physics, finding percent agreement up to relatively high wavenumbers such as $k\simeq 0.3\,h\, Mpc^{-1}$ or $k\simeq 0.6\, h\, Mpc^{-1}$, depending on the order of the calculation. Our results open a novel way to understand baryonic effects analytically, as well as to interface with simulations.

Analytic Prediction of Baryonic Effects from the EFT of Large Scale Structures [Cross-Listing]

The large scale structures of the universe will likely be the next leading source of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to understand their behavior. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures provides a consistent way to perturbatively predict the clustering of dark matter at large distances. The fact that baryons move distances comparable to dark matter allows us to infer that baryons at large distances can be described in a similar formalism: the backreaction of short-distance non-linearities and of star-formation physics at long distances can be encapsulated in an effective stress tensor, characterized by a few parameters. The functional form of baryonic effects can therefore be predicted. In the power spectrum the leading contribution goes as $\propto k^2 P(k)$, with $P(k)$ being the linear power spectrum and with the numerical prefactor depending on the details of the star-formation physics. We also perform the resummation of the contribution of the long-wavelength displacements, allowing us to consistently predict the effect of the relative motion of baryons and dark matter. We compare our predictions with simulations that contain several implementations of baryonic physics, finding percent agreement up to relatively high wavenumbers such as $k\simeq 0.3\,h\, Mpc^{-1}$ or $k\simeq 0.6\, h\, Mpc^{-1}$, depending on the order of the calculation. Our results open a novel way to understand baryonic effects analytically, as well as to interface with simulations.

Two spectroscopically confirmed galaxy structures at z=0.61 and 0.74 in the CFHTLS Deep~3 field

Adami et al. (2010) have detected several cluster candidates at z>0.5 as part of a systematic search for clusters in the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, based on photometric redshifts. We focus here on two of them, located in the D3 field: D3-6 and D3-43. We have obtained spectroscopy with Gemini/GMOS and measured redshifts for 23 and 14 galaxies in the two structures. These redshifts were combined with those available in the literature. A dynamical and a weak lensing analysis were also performed, together with the study of X-ray Chandra archive data. Cluster D3-6 is found to be a single structure of 8 spectroscopically confirmed members at an average redshift z=0.607, with a velocity dispersion of 423 km/s. It appears to be a relatively low mass cluster. D3-43-S3 has 46 spectroscopically confirmed members at an average redshift z=0.739. It can be decomposed into two main substructures, having a velocity dispersion of about 600 and 350 km/s. An explanation to the fact that D3-43-S3 is detected through weak lensing (only marginally, at the ~3sigma level) but not in X-rays could be that the two substructures are just beginning to merge more or less along the line of sight. We also show that D3-6 and D3-43-S3 have similar global galaxy luminosity functions, stellar mass functions, and star formation rate (SFR) distributions. The only differences are that D3-6 exhibits a lack of faint early type galaxies, a deficit of extremely high stellar mass galaxies compared to D3-43-S3, and an excess of very high SFR galaxies. This study shows the power of techniques based on photometric redshifts to detect low to moderately massive structures, even at z~0.75.

Gamma rays from Galactic pulsars

Gamma rays from young pulsars and milli-second pulsars are expected to contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by the {\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) at high latitudes. We derive the contribution of the pulsars undetected counterpart by using information from radio to gamma rays and we show that they explain only a small fraction of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background.

A new test of the FLRW metric using distance sum rule [Cross-Listing]

We present a new test of the validity of the Friedmann-Lema\^{\i}tre-Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric, based on comparing the distance from redshift 0 to $z_1$ and from $z_1$ to $z_2$ to the distance from $0$ to $z_2$. If the universe is described by the FLRW metric, the comparison provides a model-independent measurement of spatial curvature. The test is kinematic and relies on geometrical optics, it is independent of the matter content of the universe and the applicability of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. We apply the test to observations, using the Union2.1 compilation of supernova distances and Sloan Lens ACS Survey galaxy strong lensing data. The FLRW metric is consistent with the data, and the spatial curvature parameter is constrained to be $-1.22<\Omega_{K0}<0.63$, or $-0.08<\Omega_{K0}<0.97$ with a prior from the cosmic microwave background and the local Hubble constant, though modelling of the lenses causes significant systematic uncertainty.

A new test of the FLRW metric using distance sum rule

We present a new test of the validity of the Friedmann-Lema\^{\i}tre-Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric, based on comparing the distance from redshift 0 to $z_1$ and from $z_1$ to $z_2$ to the distance from $0$ to $z_2$. If the universe is described by the FLRW metric, the comparison provides a model-independent measurement of spatial curvature. The test is kinematic and relies on geometrical optics, it is independent of the matter content of the universe and the applicability of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. We apply the test to observations, using the Union2.1 compilation of supernova distances and Sloan Lens ACS Survey galaxy strong lensing data. The FLRW metric is consistent with the data, and the spatial curvature parameter is constrained to be $-1.22<\Omega_{K0}<0.63$, or $-0.08<\Omega_{K0}<0.97$ with a prior from the cosmic microwave background and the local Hubble constant, though modelling of the lenses causes significant systematic uncertainty.

Inflation in de Sitter spacetime and CMB large scales anomaly

The influence of cosmological constant type dark energy in the early universe is investigated. This is accommodated by a new dispersion relation in de Sitter spacetime. We perform a global fitting to explore the cosmological parameters space by using the CosmoMC package with the recently released Planck TT and WMAP Polarization datasets. Using the results from global fitting, we compute a new CMB temperature-temperature spectrum. The obtained TT spectrum has lower power compared with the one based on $\Lambda$CDM model at large scales.

On the viability of the truncated Israel-Stewart theory in cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We apply the causal Israel-Stewart theory of irreversible thermodynamics to model the matter content of the universe as a dissipative fluid possessing bulk and shear viscosity. Along with the full transport equations we consider their widely used truncated version. By implementing a dynamical systems approach to Bianchi type IV and V cosmological models with and without cosmological constant, we determine the future asymptotic states of such universes and show that the truncated Israel-Stewart theory leads to solutions essentially different from the full theory. The solutions of the truncated theory may also manifest unphysical properties. Finally, we find that in the full theory shear viscosity can give a substantial rise to dissipative fluxes, driving the fluid extremely far from equilibrium, where the linear Israel-Stewart theory ceases to be valid.

On the viability of the truncated Israel-Stewart theory in cosmology

We apply the causal Israel-Stewart theory of irreversible thermodynamics to model the matter content of the universe as a dissipative fluid possessing bulk and shear viscosity. Along with the full transport equations we consider their widely used truncated version. By implementing a dynamical systems approach to Bianchi type IV and V cosmological models with and without cosmological constant, we determine the future asymptotic states of such universes and show that the truncated Israel-Stewart theory leads to solutions essentially different from the full theory. The solutions of the truncated theory may also manifest unphysical properties. Finally, we find that in the full theory shear viscosity can give a substantial rise to dissipative fluxes, driving the fluid extremely far from equilibrium, where the linear Israel-Stewart theory ceases to be valid.

Errors on errors - Estimating cosmological parameter covariance

Current and forthcoming cosmological data analyses share the challenge of huge datasets alongside increasingly tight requirements on the precision and accuracy of extracted cosmological parameters. The community is becoming increasingly aware that these requirements not only apply to the central values of parameters but, equally important, also to the error bars. Due to non-linear effects in the astrophysics, the instrument, and the analysis pipeline, data covariance matrices are usually not well known a priori and need to be estimated from the data itself, or from suites of large simulations. In either case, the finite number of realisations available to determine data covariances introduces significant biases and additional variance in the errors on cosmological parameters in a standard likelihood analysis. Here, we review recent work on quantifying these biases and additional variances and discuss approaches to remedy these effects.

Dark matter-radiation interactions: the impact on dark matter haloes [Cross-Listing]

Interactions between dark matter (DM) and radiation (photons or neutrinos) in the early Universe suppress density fluctuations on small mass scales. Here we perform a thorough analysis of structure formation in the fully non-linear regime using N-body simulations for models with DM-radiation interactions and compare the results to a traditional calculation in which DM only interacts gravitationally. Significant differences arise due to the presence of interactions, in terms of the number of low-mass DM haloes and their properties, such as their spin and density profile. These differences are clearly seen even for haloes more massive than the scale on which density fluctuations are suppressed. We also show that semi-analytical descriptions of the matter distribution in the non-linear regime fail to reproduce our numerical results, emphasizing the challenge of predicting structure formation in models with physics beyond collisionless DM.

Dark matter-radiation interactions: the impact on dark matter haloes

Interactions between dark matter (DM) and radiation (photons or neutrinos) in the early Universe suppress density fluctuations on small mass scales. Here we perform a thorough analysis of structure formation in the fully non-linear regime using N-body simulations for models with DM-radiation interactions and compare the results to a traditional calculation in which DM only interacts gravitationally. Significant differences arise due to the presence of interactions, in terms of the number of low-mass DM haloes and their properties, such as their spin and density profile. These differences are clearly seen even for haloes more massive than the scale on which density fluctuations are suppressed. We also show that semi-analytical descriptions of the matter distribution in the non-linear regime fail to reproduce our numerical results, emphasizing the challenge of predicting structure formation in models with physics beyond collisionless DM.

Feynman Diagrams for Stochastic Inflation and Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter Space [Cross-Listing]

We consider a massive scalar field with quartic self-interaction $\lambda/4!\,\phi^4$ in de~Sitter spacetime and present a diagrammatic expansion that describes the field as driven by stochastic noise. This is compared with the Feynman diagrams in the Keldysh basis of the Amphichronous (Closed-Time-Path) Field Theoretical formalism. For all orders in the expansion, we find that the diagrams agree when evaluated in the leading infrared approximation, i.e. to leading order in $m^2/H^2$, where $m$ is the mass of the scalar field and $H$ is the Hubble rate. As a consequence, the correlation functions computed in both approaches also agree to leading infrared order. This perturbative correspondence shows that the stochastic Theory is exactly equivalent to the Field Theory in the infrared. The former can then offer a non-perturbative resummation of the Field Theoretical Feynman diagram expansion, including fields with $0\leq m^2\ll\sqrt \lambda H^2$ for which the perturbation expansion fails at late times.

Feynman Diagrams for Stochastic Inflation and Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter Space [Cross-Listing]

We consider a massive scalar field with quartic self-interaction $\lambda/4!\,\phi^4$ in de~Sitter spacetime and present a diagrammatic expansion that describes the field as driven by stochastic noise. This is compared with the Feynman diagrams in the Keldysh basis of the Amphichronous (Closed-Time-Path) Field Theoretical formalism. For all orders in the expansion, we find that the diagrams agree when evaluated in the leading infrared approximation, i.e. to leading order in $m^2/H^2$, where $m$ is the mass of the scalar field and $H$ is the Hubble rate. As a consequence, the correlation functions computed in both approaches also agree to leading infrared order. This perturbative correspondence shows that the stochastic Theory is exactly equivalent to the Field Theory in the infrared. The former can then offer a non-perturbative resummation of the Field Theoretical Feynman diagram expansion, including fields with $0\leq m^2\ll\sqrt \lambda H^2$ for which the perturbation expansion fails at late times.

Feynman Diagrams for Stochastic Inflation and Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter Space [Cross-Listing]

We consider a massive scalar field with quartic self-interaction $\lambda/4!\,\phi^4$ in de~Sitter spacetime and present a diagrammatic expansion that describes the field as driven by stochastic noise. This is compared with the Feynman diagrams in the Keldysh basis of the Amphichronous (Closed-Time-Path) Field Theoretical formalism. For all orders in the expansion, we find that the diagrams agree when evaluated in the leading infrared approximation, i.e. to leading order in $m^2/H^2$, where $m$ is the mass of the scalar field and $H$ is the Hubble rate. As a consequence, the correlation functions computed in both approaches also agree to leading infrared order. This perturbative correspondence shows that the stochastic Theory is exactly equivalent to the Field Theory in the infrared. The former can then offer a non-perturbative resummation of the Field Theoretical Feynman diagram expansion, including fields with $0\leq m^2\ll\sqrt \lambda H^2$ for which the perturbation expansion fails at late times.

Feynman Diagrams for Stochastic Inflation and Quantum Field Theory in de Sitter Space

We consider a massive scalar field with quartic self-interaction $\lambda/4!\,\phi^4$ in de~Sitter spacetime and present a diagrammatic expansion that describes the field as driven by stochastic noise. This is compared with the Feynman diagrams in the Keldysh basis of the Amphichronous (Closed-Time-Path) Field Theoretical formalism. For all orders in the expansion, we find that the diagrams agree when evaluated in the leading infrared approximation, i.e. to leading order in $m^2/H^2$, where $m$ is the mass of the scalar field and $H$ is the Hubble rate. As a consequence, the correlation functions computed in both approaches also agree to leading infrared order. This perturbative correspondence shows that the stochastic Theory is exactly equivalent to the Field Theory in the infrared. The former can then offer a non-perturbative resummation of the Field Theoretical Feynman diagram expansion, including fields with $0\leq m^2\ll\sqrt \lambda H^2$ for which the perturbation expansion fails at late times.

SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

SPHEREx (Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer) is a proposed all-sky spectroscopic survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA’s Astrophysics Division: probe the origin and destiny of our Universe; explore whether planets around other stars could harbor life; and explore the origin and evolution of galaxies. SPHEREx will scan a series of Linear Variable Filters systematically across the entire sky. The SPHEREx data-set will contain R=40 spectra spanning the near infrared (0.75$\mu$m$<\lambda<$ 4.83$\mu$m) for every 6.2 arcsecond pixel over the the entire-sky. In this paper, we detail the extra-galactic and cosmological studies SPHEREx will enable and present detailed systematic effect evaluations.

Constraints on the distribution and energetics of fast radio bursts using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations

We present constraints on the origins of fast radio bursts (FRBs) using one of the largest currently available cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We use these simulations to calculate contributions to the dispersion measures (DMs) of FRBs from the Milky Way, from the local Universe out to ~100Mpc, from cosmological large-scale structure and from potential FRB host galaxies, and we then compare the results of these simulations to the DMs for observed FRBs. We find that the foreground Milky Way contribution has previously been underestimated by a factor of ~2, and that the the distribution of foreground-subtracted DMs is consistent with a cosmological origin, corresponding to a population of sources observable out to a maximum redshift z~0.6-0.9. We consider models for the spatial distribution and occurrence of FRBs in which they are randomly distributed in the Universe, track the star-formation rate of their host galaxies, track total stellar mass, or require the presence of a central supermassive black hole. While the current data (nine extragalactic FRBs) do not allow us to distinguish between these possibilities, we show that the predicted distributions of DM for these different models will differ considerably once we begin detecting significant fractions of FRBs at higher DMs and higher redshifts. We additionally consider the distribution of fluences for observed FRBs, and show that the observations are consistent with the hypothesis that FRBs are standard candles, each burst producing the same radiated isotropic energy. Comparing the combined DM and fluence distributions with our cosmological model, we find that the data are consistent with a constant isotropic burst energy of ~4e40 erg if FRBs are embedded in host galaxies, or two times higher if FRBs are randomly distributed over the cosmic volume. (abridged)

Phenomenology of theories of gravity without Lorentz invariance: the preferred frame case [Cross-Listing]

Theories of gravitation without Lorentz invariance are candidates of low-energy descriptions of quantum gravity. In this review we will describe the phenomenological consequences of the candidates associated to the existence of a preferred time direction

Phenomenology of theories of gravity without Lorentz invariance: the preferred frame case [Cross-Listing]

Theories of gravitation without Lorentz invariance are candidates of low-energy descriptions of quantum gravity. In this review we will describe the phenomenological consequences of the candidates associated to the existence of a preferred time direction

Phenomenology of theories of gravity without Lorentz invariance: the preferred frame case

Theories of gravitation without Lorentz invariance are candidates of low-energy descriptions of quantum gravity. In this review we will describe the phenomenological consequences of the candidates associated to the existence of a preferred time direction

Phenomenology of theories of gravity without Lorentz invariance: the preferred frame case [Cross-Listing]

Theories of gravitation without Lorentz invariance are candidates of low-energy descriptions of quantum gravity. In this review we will describe the phenomenological consequences of the candidates associated to the existence of a preferred time direction

Early Growth in a Perturbed Universe: Exploring Dark Matter Halo Populations in 2LPT and ZA Simulations

We study the structure and evolution of dark matter halos from z = 300 to z = 6 for two cosmological N-body simulation initialization techniques. While the second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) and the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) both produce accurate present day halo mass functions, earlier collapse of dense regions in 2LPT can result in larger mass halos at high redshift. We explore the differences in dark matter halo mass and concentration due to initialization method through three 2LPT and three ZA initialized cosmological simulations. We find that 2LPT induces more rapid halo growth, resulting in more massive halos compared to ZA. This effect is most pronounced for high mass halos and at high redshift. Halo concentration is, on average, largely similar between 2LPT and ZA, but retains differences when viewed as a function of halo mass. For both mass and concentration, the difference between typical individual halos can be very large, highlighting the shortcomings of ZA-initialized simulations for high-z halo population studies.

The Reionisation of Carbon

Observations suggest that CII was more abundant than CIV in the intergalactic medium towards the end of the hydrogen reionisation epoch. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the enrichment history of intergalactic gas and the growth of the ionising background (UVB) at early times. We study how carbon absorption evolves from z=10-5 using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation that includes a self-consistent multifrequency UVB as well as a well-constrained model for galactic outflows to disperse metals. Our predicted UVB is within 2-4 times that of Haardt & Madau (2012), which is fair agreement given the uncertainties. Nonetheless, we use a calibration in post-processing to account for Lyman-alpha forest measurements while preserving the predicted spectral slope and inhomogeneity. The UVB fluctuates spatially in such a way that it always exceeds the volume average in regions where metals are found. This implies both that a spatially-uniform UVB is a poor approximation and that metal absorption is not sensitive to the epoch when HII regions overlap globally even at column densites of 10^{12} cm^{-2}. We find, consistent with observations, that the CII mass fraction drops to low redshift while CIV rises owing the combined effects of a growing UVB and continued addition of carbon in low-density regions. This is mimicked in absorption statistics, which broadly agree with observations at z=6-3 while predicting that the absorber column density distributions rise steeply to the lowest observable columns. Our model reproduces the large observed scatter in the number of low-ionisation absorbers per sightline, implying that the scatter does not indicate a partially-neutral Universe at z=6.

On the magnetic evolution in Friedmann universes and the question of cosmic magnetogenesis

We reconsider the evolution of primordial magnetic fields in spatially flat Friedmann universes and the belief that, after inflation, these fields decay adiabatically on all scales. Without abandoning classical electromagnetism or standard cosmology, we demonstrate that this is not necessarily the case for superhorizon-sized fields. The reason is causality, which confines the post-inflationary processes of electric-current formation, electric-field elimination and magnetic-flux freezing within the horizon. As a result, the adiabatic magnetic decay is not a priori guaranteed on super-Hubble scales. Instead, after inflation, large-scale magnetic fields obey a power-law solution, where one of the modes drops at a rate slower than the adiabatic. Whether this slowly decaying mode can dominate depends on the initial conditions. These are determined by the magnetic evolution during inflation and by the nature of the transition from inflation to reheating and then to radiation and dust. We discuss two alternative and complementary scenarios to illustrate the role and the implications of the initial conditions for cosmic magnetogenesis. Our main claim is that superhorizon-sized magnetic fields can be superadiabatically amplified after inflation, as long as they remain outside the horizon of a spatially flat Friedmann universe. This means that inflation-produced fields can reach astrophysically relevant residual strengths without breaking away from standard physics. Moreover, using the same causality arguments, one can constrain (and in some cases assist) the non-conventional scenarios of primordial magnetogenesis that amplify their fields during inflation. Finally, we show that our analysis does not solely apply to flat Friedmann models but extends naturally to their marginally open and marginally closed counterparts.

On the magnetic evolution in Friedmann universes and the question of cosmic magnetogenesis [Cross-Listing]

We reconsider the evolution of primordial magnetic fields in spatially flat Friedmann universes and the belief that, after inflation, these fields decay adiabatically on all scales. Without abandoning classical electromagnetism or standard cosmology, we demonstrate that this is not necessarily the case for superhorizon-sized fields. The reason is causality, which confines the post-inflationary processes of electric-current formation, electric-field elimination and magnetic-flux freezing within the horizon. As a result, the adiabatic magnetic decay is not a priori guaranteed on super-Hubble scales. Instead, after inflation, large-scale magnetic fields obey a power-law solution, where one of the modes drops at a rate slower than the adiabatic. Whether this slowly decaying mode can dominate depends on the initial conditions. These are determined by the magnetic evolution during inflation and by the nature of the transition from inflation to reheating and then to radiation and dust. We discuss two alternative and complementary scenarios to illustrate the role and the implications of the initial conditions for cosmic magnetogenesis. Our main claim is that superhorizon-sized magnetic fields can be superadiabatically amplified after inflation, as long as they remain outside the horizon of a spatially flat Friedmann universe. This means that inflation-produced fields can reach astrophysically relevant residual strengths without breaking away from standard physics. Moreover, using the same causality arguments, one can constrain (and in some cases assist) the non-conventional scenarios of primordial magnetogenesis that amplify their fields during inflation. Finally, we show that our analysis does not solely apply to flat Friedmann models but extends naturally to their marginally open and marginally closed counterparts.

Neutrino Masses and Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter from the PeV Scale [Cross-Listing]

The Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV is suggestive of superpartners at the PeV scale. We show that new physics at this scale can also produce active neutrino masses via a modified, low energy seesaw mechanism and provide a sterile neutrino dark matter candidate with keV-GeV scale mass. These emerge in a straightforward manner if the right-handed neutrinos are charged under a new symmetry broken by a scalar field vacuum expectation value at the PeV scale. The dark matter relic abundance can be obtained through active-sterile oscillation, freeze-in through the decay of the heavy scalar, or freeze-in via non-renormalizable interactions at high temperatures. The theory also contains two heavier sterile neutrinos, which can decay before BBN and remain consistent with cosmological observations. The low energy effective theory maps onto the widely studied \nuMSM framework.

Neutrino Masses and Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter from the PeV Scale

The Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV is suggestive of superpartners at the PeV scale. We show that new physics at this scale can also produce active neutrino masses via a modified, low energy seesaw mechanism and provide a sterile neutrino dark matter candidate with keV-GeV scale mass. These emerge in a straightforward manner if the right-handed neutrinos are charged under a new symmetry broken by a scalar field vacuum expectation value at the PeV scale. The dark matter relic abundance can be obtained through active-sterile oscillation, freeze-in through the decay of the heavy scalar, or freeze-in via non-renormalizable interactions at high temperatures. The theory also contains two heavier sterile neutrinos, which can decay before BBN and remain consistent with cosmological observations. The low energy effective theory maps onto the widely studied \nuMSM framework.

Lyman-$\alpha$ emitters gone missing: evidence for late reionization?

We combine high resolution hydrodynamical simulations with an intermediate resolution, dark matter only simulation and an analytical model for the growth of ionized regions to estimate the large scale distribution and redshift evolution of the visibility of Ly$\alpha$ emission in $6 \leq z\leq 8$ galaxies. The inhomogeneous distribution of neutral hydrogen during the reionization process results in significant fluctuations in the Ly$\alpha$ transmissivity on large scales, and is sensitive not only to the ionized fraction of the intergalactic medium by volume and amplitude of the local ionizing background, but also to the relative velocity shift of the Ly$\alpha$ emission line due to resonant scattering. We reproduce a decline in the space density of Ly$\alpha$ emitting galaxies as rapid as observed with a volume-weighted neutral fraction of $\sim 30$ (50) per cent at $z=7$ ($z=8$), and a typical Ly$\alpha$ line velocity offset of $100\rm\,km\,s^{-1}$ redward of systemic at $z=6$ which decreases toward higher redshift. The latest preliminary (12/2014) Planck results indicate such a recent end to reionization is no longer disfavoured by constraints from the cosmic microwave background.

The Relic Neutralino Surface at a 100 TeV collider

We map the parameter space for MSSM neutralino dark matter which freezes out to the observed relic abundance, in the limit that all superpartners except the neutralinos and charginos are decoupled. In this space of relic neutralinos, we show the dominant dark matter annihilation modes, the mass splittings among the electroweakinos, direct detection rates, and collider cross-sections. The mass difference between the dark matter and the next-to-lightest neutral and charged states is typically much less than electroweak gauge boson masses. With these small mass differences, the relic neutralino surface is accessible to a future 100 TeV hadron collider, which can discover inter-neutralino mass splittings down to 1~GeV and thermal relic dark matter neutralino masses up to 1.5 TeV with a few inverse attobarns of luminosity. This coverage is a direct consequence of the increased collider energy: the Standard Model events with missing transverse momentum in the TeV range have mostly hard electroweak radiation, distinct from the soft radiation shed in compressed electroweakino decays. We exploit this kinematic feature in final states including photons and leptons, tailored to the 100 TeV collider environment.

The Relic Neutralino Surface at a 100 TeV collider [Cross-Listing]

We map the parameter space for MSSM neutralino dark matter which freezes out to the observed relic abundance, in the limit that all superpartners except the neutralinos and charginos are decoupled. In this space of relic neutralinos, we show the dominant dark matter annihilation modes, the mass splittings among the electroweakinos, direct detection rates, and collider cross-sections. The mass difference between the dark matter and the next-to-lightest neutral and charged states is typically much less than electroweak gauge boson masses. With these small mass differences, the relic neutralino surface is accessible to a future 100 TeV hadron collider, which can discover inter-neutralino mass splittings down to 1~GeV and thermal relic dark matter neutralino masses up to 1.5 TeV with a few inverse attobarns of luminosity. This coverage is a direct consequence of the increased collider energy: the Standard Model events with missing transverse momentum in the TeV range have mostly hard electroweak radiation, distinct from the soft radiation shed in compressed electroweakino decays. We exploit this kinematic feature in final states including photons and leptons, tailored to the 100 TeV collider environment.

Measuring primordial non-Gaussianity in the galaxy power spectrum: general relativity makes a difference [Cross-Listing]

Non-Gaussianity in the primordial fluctuations that seeded structure formation can produce a signal in the galaxy power spectrum on very large scales. This signal contains vital information about the primordial Universe, but it is very challenging to extract, because of cosmic variance and large-scale systematics – especially after the Planck experiment has already ruled out a large amplitude for the signal. Cosmic variance and experimental systematics can be alleviated by the multi-tracer method. Here we address another systematic that is introduced by not using the correct relativistic analysis of the power spectrum on very large scales. In order to reduce the errors on f_NL, we need to include measurements on the largest possible scales. Failure to include the relativistic effects on these scales can introduce significant bias in the best-fit value of f_NL.

Measuring primordial non-Gaussianity in the galaxy power spectrum: general relativity makes a difference

Non-Gaussianity in the primordial fluctuations that seeded structure formation can produce a signal in the galaxy power spectrum on very large scales. This signal contains vital information about the primordial Universe, but it is very challenging to extract, because of cosmic variance and large-scale systematics – especially after the Planck experiment has already ruled out a large amplitude for the signal. Cosmic variance and experimental systematics can be alleviated by the multi-tracer method. Here we address another systematic that is introduced by not using the correct relativistic analysis of the power spectrum on very large scales. In order to reduce the errors on f_NL, we need to include measurements on the largest possible scales. Failure to include the relativistic effects on these scales can introduce significant bias in the best-fit value of f_NL.

On strong coupling scales in massive gravity

We revisit the construction of generic Lorentz-invariant massive gravity models and clarify the structure of their higher order self-interactions. We explicitly construct a non-redundant expansion for these models and confirm that ghost-free (dRGT) massive gravity is the unique two-parameter family of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity theories with a strong coupling scale not lower than $\Lambda_3 =(M_P m^2)^{1/3}$. We then discuss the so-called minimal model and whether the strong coupling scale can be raised in such a setup. We find that there are always scalar-tensor interactions beyond the $\Lambda_3$ decoupling limit at a scale arbitrarily close to $\Lambda_3$, establishing that $\Lambda_3$ is effectively the maximal strong coupling scale for generic Lorentz-invariant massive gravity models, even in the absence of vector modes.

On strong coupling scales in massive gravity [Cross-Listing]

We revisit the construction of generic Lorentz-invariant massive gravity models and clarify the structure of their higher order self-interactions. We explicitly construct a non-redundant expansion for these models and confirm that ghost-free (dRGT) massive gravity is the unique two-parameter family of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity theories with a strong coupling scale not lower than $\Lambda_3 =(M_P m^2)^{1/3}$. We then discuss the so-called minimal model and whether the strong coupling scale can be raised in such a setup. We find that there are always scalar-tensor interactions beyond the $\Lambda_3$ decoupling limit at a scale arbitrarily close to $\Lambda_3$, establishing that $\Lambda_3$ is effectively the maximal strong coupling scale for generic Lorentz-invariant massive gravity models, even in the absence of vector modes.

On strong coupling scales in massive gravity [Cross-Listing]

We revisit the construction of generic Lorentz-invariant massive gravity models and clarify the structure of their higher order self-interactions. We explicitly construct a non-redundant expansion for these models and confirm that ghost-free (dRGT) massive gravity is the unique two-parameter family of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity theories with a strong coupling scale not lower than $\Lambda_3 =(M_P m^2)^{1/3}$. We then discuss the so-called minimal model and whether the strong coupling scale can be raised in such a setup. We find that there are always scalar-tensor interactions beyond the $\Lambda_3$ decoupling limit at a scale arbitrarily close to $\Lambda_3$, establishing that $\Lambda_3$ is effectively the maximal strong coupling scale for generic Lorentz-invariant massive gravity models, even in the absence of vector modes.

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Type IIb Supernovae: Diversity and the Impact of Circumstellar Material

We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-epoch ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the bright Type IIb SN 2013df, and undertake a comprehensive anal- ysis of the set of four Type IIb supernovae for which HST UV spectra are available (SN 1993J, SN 2001ig, SN 2011dh, and SN 2013df). We find strong diversity in both continuum levels and line features among these objects. We use radiative-transfer models that fit the optical part of the spectrum well, and find that in three of these four events we see a UV continuum flux excess, apparently unaffected by line absorption. We hypothesize that this emission originates above the photosphere, and is related to interaction with circumstel- lar material (CSM) located in close proximity to the SN progenitor. In contrast, the spectra of SN 2001ig are well fit by single-temperature models, display weak continuum and strong reverse-fluorescence features, and are similar to spectra of radioactive 56Ni-dominated Type Ia supernovae. A comparison of the early shock-cooling components in the observed light curves with the UV continuum levels which we assume trace the strength of CSM interaction suggests that events with slower cooling have stronger CSM emission. The radio emission from events having a prominent UV excess is perhaps consistent with slower blast-wave velocities, as expected if the explosion shock was slowed down by the CSM that is also responsible for the strong UV, but this connection is currently speculative as it is based on only a few events.

A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Gravitational Lensing Potential from 100 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data

We present a measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) gravitational lensing potential using data from the first two seasons of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The observations used in this work cover 100 deg$^2$ of sky with arcminute resolution at 150 GHz. Using a quadratic estimator, we make maps of the CMB lensing potential from combinations of CMB temperature and polarization maps. We combine these lensing potential maps to form a minimum-variance (MV) map. The lensing potential is measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than one for angular multipoles between $100< L <250$. This is the highest signal-to-noise mass map made from the CMB to date and will be powerful in cross-correlation with other tracers of large-scale structure. We calculate the power spectrum of the lensing potential for each estimator, and we report the value of the MV power spectrum between $100< L <2000$ as our primary result. We constrain the ratio of the spectrum to a fiducial $\Lambda$CDM model to be $A_{\rm MV}=0.92 \pm 0.14 {\rm\, (Stat.)} \pm 0.08 {\rm\, (Sys.)}$. Restricting ourselves to polarized data only, we find $A_{\rm POL}=0.93 \pm 0.25 {\rm\, (Stat.)} \pm 0.11 {\rm\, (Sys.)}$. This measurement rejects the hypothesis of no lensing at $5.8 \sigma$ using polarization data alone, and at $14 \sigma$ using both temperature and polarization data.

 

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