Recent Postings from Cosmology and Extragalactic

Multiple Images of a Highly Magnified Supernova Formed by an Early-Type Cluster Galaxy Lens

We report the discovery of the first multiply-imaged gravitationally-lensed supernova. The four images form an Einstein cross with over 2" diameter around a z=0.544 elliptical galaxy that is a member of the cluster MACSJ1149.6+2223. The supernova appeared in Hubble Space Telescope exposures taken on 3-20 November 2014 UT, as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space. The images of the supernova coincide with the strongly lensed arm of a spiral galaxy at z=1.491, which is itself multiply imaged by the cluster potential. A measurement of the time delays between the multiple images and their magnification will provide new unprecedented constraints on the distribution of luminous and dark matter in the lensing galaxy and in the cluster, as well as on the cosmic expansion rate.

BBN And The CMB Constrain Neutrino Coupled Light WIMPs

(abridged) In the presence of a light WIMP (mass m_chi < 30 MeV), there are degeneracies among the WIMP’s nature, its couplings to standard model particles, its mass, and the number of equivalent (additional) neutrinos, Delta N_nu. These degeneracies cannot be broken by the CMB constraint on the effective number of neutrinos, N_eff. However, since big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is also affected by a light WIMP and equivalent neutrinos, complementary BBN and CMB constraints can break some of the degeneracy. In a previous paper BBN and CMB were combined to explore allowed ranges for m_chi, Delta N_nu, and N_eff for light WIMPs that annihilate electromagnetically (EM) to photons and/or electrons/positrons. In this paper BBN predictions with a light WIMP that only couples to neutrinos are calculated. Recent observed abundances of ^2H and ^4He are used to limit m_chi, Delta N_nu, N_eff, and the present-day baryon density. Allowing for a neutrino coupled light WIMP and nonzero Delta N_nu, combined BBN and CMB data give lower limits to m_chi that depend little on the nature of the WIMP, with a best fit m_chi > 35 MeV, equivalent to no light WIMP at all. Without any light WIMP, BBN alone prefers Delta N_nu = 0.50 +- 0.23, favoring neither Delta N_nu = 0, nor a fully thermalized sterile neutrino (Delta N_nu = 1). This result is consistent with the CMB constraint, N_eff = 3.30 +- 0.27, limiting "new physics" between BBN and recombination. Combining BBN and CMB data gives Delta N_nu = 0.35 +- 0.16 and N_eff = 3.40 +- 0.16; while BBN and the CMB combined require Delta N_nu > 0 at ~98% confidence, they disfavor Delta N_nu > 1 at > 99% confidence. Allowing a neutrino-coupled light WIMP extends the allowed range slightly downward for Delta N_nu and slightly upward for N_eff simultaneously, leaving best-fit values unchanged.

Einstein's Equations and a Cosmology with Finite Matter [Cross-Listing]

We discuss various space-time metrics which are compatible with Einstein’s equations and a previously suggested cosmology with a finite total mass. In this alternative cosmology the matter density was postulated to be a spatial delta function at the time of the big bang thereafter diffusing outward with constant total mass. This proposal explores a departure from standard assumptions that the big bang occurred everywhere at once or was just one of an infinite number of previous and later transitions.

Einstein's Equations and a Cosmology with Finite Matter [Cross-Listing]

We discuss various space-time metrics which are compatible with Einstein’s equations and a previously suggested cosmology with a finite total mass. In this alternative cosmology the matter density was postulated to be a spatial delta function at the time of the big bang thereafter diffusing outward with constant total mass. This proposal explores a departure from standard assumptions that the big bang occurred everywhere at once or was just one of an infinite number of previous and later transitions.

Einstein's Equations and a Cosmology with Finite Matter

We discuss various space-time metrics which are compatible with Einstein’s equations and a previously suggested cosmology with a finite total mass. In this alternative cosmology the matter density was postulated to be a spatial delta function at the time of the big bang thereafter diffusing outward with constant total mass. This proposal explores a departure from standard assumptions that the big bang occurred everywhere at once or was just one of an infinite number of previous and later transitions.

Linear perturbations in K-mouflage cosmologies with massive neutrinos

We present a comprehensive derivation of linear perturbation equations for different matter species, including photons, baryons, cold dark matter, scalar fields, massless and massive neutrinos, in the presence of a generic conformal coupling. Starting from the Lagrangians, we show how the conformal transformation affects the dynamics. In particular, we discuss how to incorporate consistently the scalar coupling in the equations of the Boltzmann hierarchy for massive neutrinos and the subsequent fluid approximations. We use the recently proposed K-mouflage model as an example to demonstrate the numerical implementation of our linear perturbation equations. K-mouflage is a new mechanism to suppress the fifth force between matter particles induced by the scalar coupling, but in the linear regime the fifth force is unsuppressed and can change the clustering of different matter species in different ways. We show how the CMB, lensing potential and matter power spectra are affected by the fifth force, and find ranges of K-mouflage parameters whose effects could be seen observationally. We also find that the scalar coupling can have the nontrivial effect of shifting the amplitude of the power spectra of the lensing potential and density fluctuations in opposite directions, although both probe the overall clustering of matter. This paper can serve as a reference for those who work on generic coupled scalar field cosmology, or those who are interested in the cosmological behaviour of the K-mouflage model.

Linear perturbations in K-mouflage cosmologies with massive neutrinos [Cross-Listing]

We present a comprehensive derivation of linear perturbation equations for different matter species, including photons, baryons, cold dark matter, scalar fields, massless and massive neutrinos, in the presence of a generic conformal coupling. Starting from the Lagrangians, we show how the conformal transformation affects the dynamics. In particular, we discuss how to incorporate consistently the scalar coupling in the equations of the Boltzmann hierarchy for massive neutrinos and the subsequent fluid approximations. We use the recently proposed K-mouflage model as an example to demonstrate the numerical implementation of our linear perturbation equations. K-mouflage is a new mechanism to suppress the fifth force between matter particles induced by the scalar coupling, but in the linear regime the fifth force is unsuppressed and can change the clustering of different matter species in different ways. We show how the CMB, lensing potential and matter power spectra are affected by the fifth force, and find ranges of K-mouflage parameters whose effects could be seen observationally. We also find that the scalar coupling can have the nontrivial effect of shifting the amplitude of the power spectra of the lensing potential and density fluctuations in opposite directions, although both probe the overall clustering of matter. This paper can serve as a reference for those who work on generic coupled scalar field cosmology, or those who are interested in the cosmological behaviour of the K-mouflage model.

Linear perturbations in K-mouflage cosmologies with massive neutrinos [Cross-Listing]

We present a comprehensive derivation of linear perturbation equations for different matter species, including photons, baryons, cold dark matter, scalar fields, massless and massive neutrinos, in the presence of a generic conformal coupling. Starting from the Lagrangians, we show how the conformal transformation affects the dynamics. In particular, we discuss how to incorporate consistently the scalar coupling in the equations of the Boltzmann hierarchy for massive neutrinos and the subsequent fluid approximations. We use the recently proposed K-mouflage model as an example to demonstrate the numerical implementation of our linear perturbation equations. K-mouflage is a new mechanism to suppress the fifth force between matter particles induced by the scalar coupling, but in the linear regime the fifth force is unsuppressed and can change the clustering of different matter species in different ways. We show how the CMB, lensing potential and matter power spectra are affected by the fifth force, and find ranges of K-mouflage parameters whose effects could be seen observationally. We also find that the scalar coupling can have the nontrivial effect of shifting the amplitude of the power spectra of the lensing potential and density fluctuations in opposite directions, although both probe the overall clustering of matter. This paper can serve as a reference for those who work on generic coupled scalar field cosmology, or those who are interested in the cosmological behaviour of the K-mouflage model.

Polarization Predictions for Inflationary CMB Power Spectrum Features

We conduct a model-independent analysis of temporal features during inflation in the large-scale CMB temperature power spectrum allowing for the possibility of non-negligible tensor contributions. Of 20 principal components of the inflationary history, the suppression of power at low multipoles beginning with a glitch at multipoles $\ell \sim 20-40$ implies deviations in 2-3 of them with 2-3$\sigma$ deviations in each, with larger values reflecting cases where tensors are allowed.If tensors are absent, the corresponding $E$-mode polarization features follow a similar pattern but are predicted to be up to twice as large. They offer the opportunity to soon double the significance of inflationary features or eliminate them as an explanation of temperature features. The tensor degeneracy with features in the temperature power spectrum is broken not only by $B$ but also by $E$-polarization. A precision measurement of $E$-mode polarization at multipoles from $\ell\sim 20-60$ can potentially provide an independent constraint on tensors that is less subject to dust foreground uncertainties.

The formation of massive primordial stars in rapidly rotating disks

Massive primordial halos exposed to moderate UV backgrounds are the potential birthplaces of very massive stars or even supermassive black holes. In such a halo, an initially isothermal collapse will occur, leading to high accretion rates of $\sim0.1$~M$_\odot$~yr$^{-1}$. During the collapse, the gas in the interior will turn into a molecular state, and form an accretion disk due to the conservation of angular momentum. We consider here the structure of such an accretion disk and the role of viscous heating in the presence of high accretion rates for a central star of $10$, $100$ and $10^4$~M$_\odot$. Our results show that the temperature in the disk increases considerably due to viscous heating, leading to a transition from the molecular to the atomic cooling phase. We found that the atomic cooling regime may extend out to several $100$~AU for a $10^4$~M$_\odot$ central star and provides substantial support to stabilize the disk. It therefore favors the formation of a massive central object. The comparison of clump migration and contraction time scales shows that stellar feedback from these clumps may occur during the later stages of the evolution. Overall, viscous heating provides an important pathway to obtain an atomic gas phase within the center of the halo, and helps in the formation of very massive objects.

Non-virialised clusters for detection of Dark Energy-Dark Matter interaction

In a $\Lambda$CDM universe it is expected that clusters of galaxies are not in equilibrium. In this work, we investigate the possibility to evaluate the departure from virial equilibrium in order to detect, in that balance, effects from a Dark matter–Dark energy interaction. We continue, from previous works, using a simple model of interacting dark sector, the Layzer–Irvine equation for dynamical virial evolution, and employ optical observations in order to obtain the mass profiles through weak lensing and X-ray observations giving the intracluster gas temperatures. Through a Monte Carlo method, we generate, for a set of clusters, measurements of observed virial ratios, interaction strength, rest virial ratio and departure from equilibrium factors. We found a compounded interaction strength of $-1.61^{+2.23}_{-16.34}$, compatible with no interaction, but also a compounded rest virial ratio of $-0.78 \pm 0.13$, which would entail a $2\sigma$ detection. We confirm quantitatively that clusters of galaxies are out of equilibrium but further investigation is needed to constrain a possible interaction in the dark sector.

Observations of General Relativity at strong and weak limits

Einstein’s General Relativity theory has been tested in many ways during the last hundred years as reviewed in this chapter. Two tests are discussed in detail in this article: the concept of a zero gravity surface, the roots of which go back to J\"arnefelt, Einstein and Straus, and the no-hair theorem of black holes, first proposed by Israel, Carter and Hawking. The former tests the necessity of the cosmological constant Lambda, the latter the concept of a spinning black hole. The zero gravity surface is manifested most prominently in the motions of dwarf galaxies around the Local Group of galaxies. The no-hair theorem is testable for the first time in the binary black hole system OJ287. These represent stringent tests at the limit of weak and strong gravitational fields, respectively. In this article we discuss the current observational situation and future possibilities.

The Cosmic Equation of State [Cross-Listing]

The cosmic spacetime is often described in terms of the FRW metric, though the adoption of this elegant and convenient solution to Einstein’s equations does not tell us much about the equation of state, p=w rho, in terms of the total energy density rho and pressure p of the cosmic fluid. LCDM and the R_h=ct Universe are both FRW cosmologies that partition rho into (at least) three components, matter rho_m, radiation rho_r, and a poorly understood dark energy rho_de, though the latter goes one step further by also invoking the constraint w=-1/3. This condition is required by the simultaneous application of the Cosmological principle and Weyl’s postulate. Model selection tools in one-on-one comparisons favor R_h=ct with a likelihood of ~90% versus only ~10% for LCDM. Nonetheless, the predictions of LCDM often come quite close to those of R_h=ct, suggesting that its parameters are optimized to mimic the w=-1/3 equation of state. In this paper, we demonstrate that the equation of state in R_h=ct helps us to understand why the optimized fraction Omega_m=rho_m/rho in LCDM must be ~0.27, an otherwise seemingly random variable. We show that when one forces LCDM to satisfy the equation of state w=(rho_r/3-rho_de)/rho, the value of the Hubble radius today, c/H_0, can equal its measured value ct_0 only with Omega_m~0.27 when the equation of state for dark energy is w_de=-1. This peculiar value of Omega_m therefore appears to be a direct consequence of trying to fit the data with the equation of state w=(rho_r/3-rho_de)/rho in a Universe whose principal constraint is instead R_h=ct or, equivalently, w=-1/3.

The Cosmic Equation of State

The cosmic spacetime is often described in terms of the FRW metric, though the adoption of this elegant and convenient solution to Einstein’s equations does not tell us much about the equation of state, p=w rho, in terms of the total energy density rho and pressure p of the cosmic fluid. LCDM and the R_h=ct Universe are both FRW cosmologies that partition rho into (at least) three components, matter rho_m, radiation rho_r, and a poorly understood dark energy rho_de, though the latter goes one step further by also invoking the constraint w=-1/3. This condition is required by the simultaneous application of the Cosmological principle and Weyl’s postulate. Model selection tools in one-on-one comparisons favor R_h=ct with a likelihood of ~90% versus only ~10% for LCDM. Nonetheless, the predictions of LCDM often come quite close to those of R_h=ct, suggesting that its parameters are optimized to mimic the w=-1/3 equation of state. In this paper, we demonstrate that the equation of state in R_h=ct helps us to understand why the optimized fraction Omega_m=rho_m/rho in LCDM must be ~0.27, an otherwise seemingly random variable. We show that when one forces LCDM to satisfy the equation of state w=(rho_r/3-rho_de)/rho, the value of the Hubble radius today, c/H_0, can equal its measured value ct_0 only with Omega_m~0.27 when the equation of state for dark energy is w_de=-1. This peculiar value of Omega_m therefore appears to be a direct consequence of trying to fit the data with the equation of state w=(rho_r/3-rho_de)/rho in a Universe whose principal constraint is instead R_h=ct or, equivalently, w=-1/3.

The Cosmic Equation of State [Cross-Listing]

The cosmic spacetime is often described in terms of the FRW metric, though the adoption of this elegant and convenient solution to Einstein’s equations does not tell us much about the equation of state, p=w rho, in terms of the total energy density rho and pressure p of the cosmic fluid. LCDM and the R_h=ct Universe are both FRW cosmologies that partition rho into (at least) three components, matter rho_m, radiation rho_r, and a poorly understood dark energy rho_de, though the latter goes one step further by also invoking the constraint w=-1/3. This condition is required by the simultaneous application of the Cosmological principle and Weyl’s postulate. Model selection tools in one-on-one comparisons favor R_h=ct with a likelihood of ~90% versus only ~10% for LCDM. Nonetheless, the predictions of LCDM often come quite close to those of R_h=ct, suggesting that its parameters are optimized to mimic the w=-1/3 equation of state. In this paper, we demonstrate that the equation of state in R_h=ct helps us to understand why the optimized fraction Omega_m=rho_m/rho in LCDM must be ~0.27, an otherwise seemingly random variable. We show that when one forces LCDM to satisfy the equation of state w=(rho_r/3-rho_de)/rho, the value of the Hubble radius today, c/H_0, can equal its measured value ct_0 only with Omega_m~0.27 when the equation of state for dark energy is w_de=-1. This peculiar value of Omega_m therefore appears to be a direct consequence of trying to fit the data with the equation of state w=(rho_r/3-rho_de)/rho in a Universe whose principal constraint is instead R_h=ct or, equivalently, w=-1/3.

Using cosmic voids to distinguish f(R) gravity in future galaxy surveys

We use properties of void populations identified in $N$-body simulations to forecast the ability of upcoming galaxy surveys to differentiate models of f(R) gravity from \lcdm~cosmology. We analyze multiple simulation realizations, which were designed to mimic the expected number densities, volumes, and redshifts of the upcoming Euclid satellite and a lower-redshift ground-based counterpart survey, using the public {\tt VIDE} toolkit. We examine void abundances, ellipicities, radial density profiles, and radial velocity profiles at redshifts 1.0 and 0.43. We find that stronger f(R) coupling strengths eliminates small voids and produces voids up to $\sim 20\%$ larger in radius, leading to a significant tilt in the void number function. Additionally, under the influence of modified gravity, voids at all scales tend to be measurably emptier with correspondingly higher compensation walls. The velocity profiles reflect this, showing increased outflows inside voids and increased inflows outside voids. Using the void number function as an example, we forecast that future surveys can constrain the modified gravity coupling strength to $\sim 3 \times 10^{-5}$ using voids.

The VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS): IGM transmission towards galaxies with 2.5<z<5.5 and the colour selection of high redshift galaxies

(arXiv abridged abstract) The observed UV rest-frame spectra of distant galaxies are the result of their intrinsic emission combined with absorption along the line of sight produced by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). Here we analyse the evolution of the mean IGM transmission Tr(Ly_alpha) and its dispersion along the line of sight for 2127 galaxies with 2.5<z<5.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We fit model spectra combined with a range of IGM transmission to the galaxy spectra using the spectral fitting algorithm GOSSIP+. We use these fits to derive the mean IGM transmission towards each galaxy for several redshift slices from z=2.5 to z=5.5. We find that the mean IGM transmission defined as Tr(Ly_alpha)=e^{-tau} (with tau the HI optical depth) is 79%, 69%, 59%, 55% and 46% at redshifts 2.75, 3,22, 3.70, 4.23, 4.77, respectively. We compare these results to measurements obtained from quasars lines of sight and find that the IGM transmission towards galaxies is in excellent agreement with quasar values up to redshift z~4. We find tentative evidence for a higher IGM transmission at z>= 4 compared to results from QSOs, but a degeneracy between dust extinction and IGM prevents to draw firm conclusions if the internal dust extinction for star-forming galaxies at z>4 takes a mean value significantly in excess of E(B-V)>0.15. Most importantly, we find a large dispersion of IGM transmission along the lines of sight towards distant galaxies with 68% of the distribution within 10 to 17% of the median value in delta z=0.5 bins, similar to what is found on the LOS towards QSOs. We demonstrate the importance of taking into account this large range of IGM transmission when selecting high redshift galaxies based on their colour properties (e.g. LBG or photometric redshift selection) or otherwise face a significant incompleteness in selecting high redshift galaxy populations.

A search for Population III galaxies in CLASH. I. Singly-imaged candidates at high redshift

Population III galaxies are predicted to exist at high redshifts and may be rendered sufficiently bright for detection with current telescopes when gravitationally lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster. Population III galaxies that exhibit strong Lya emission should furthermore be identifiable from broadband photometry because of their unusual colors. Here, we report on a search for such objects at z > 6 in the imaging data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH), covering 25 galaxy clusters in 16 filters. Our selection algorithm returns five singly-imaged candidates with Lya-like color signatures, for which ground-based spectroscopy with current 8-10 m class telescopes should be able to test the predicted strength of the Lya line. None of these five objects have been included in previous CLASH compilations of high-redshift galaxy candidates. However, when large grids of spectral synthesis models are applied to the study of these objects, we find that only two of these candidates are significantly better fitted by Population III models than by more mundane, low-metallicity stellar populations.

On the importance of using appropriate spectral models to derive physical properties of galaxies at 0.7<z<2.8

Interpreting observations of distant galaxies in terms of constraints on physical parameters – such as stellar mass, star-formation rate (SFR) and dust optical depth – requires spectral synthesis modelling. We analyse the reliability of these physical parameters as determined under commonly adopted `classical’ assumptions: star-formation histories assumed to be exponentially declining functions of time, a simple dust law and no emission-line contribution. Improved modelling techniques and data quality now allow us to use a more sophisticated approach, including realistic star-formation histories, combined with modern prescriptions for dust attenuation and nebular emission (Pacifici et al. 2012). We present a Bayesian analysis of the spectra and multi-wavelength photometry of 1048 galaxies from the 3D-HST survey in the redshift range 0.7<z<2.8 and in the stellar mass range 9<log(M/Mo)<12. We find that, using the classical spectral library, stellar masses are systematically overestimated (~0.1 dex) and SFRs are systematically underestimated (~0.6 dex) relative to our more sophisticated approach. We also find that the simultaneous fit of photometric fluxes and emission-line equivalent widths helps break a degeneracy between SFR and optical depth of the dust, reducing the uncertainties on these parameters. Finally, we show how the biases of classical approaches can affect the correlation between stellar mass and SFR for star-forming galaxies (the `Star-Formation Main Sequence’). We conclude that the normalization, slope and scatter of this relation strongly depend on the adopted approach and demonstrate that the classical, oversimplified approach cannot recover the true distribution of stellar mass and SFR.

The evolution of clustering length, large-scale bias and host halo mass at 2<z<5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS)

We investigate the evolution of galaxy clustering for galaxies in the redshift range 2.0<$z$<5.0 using the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We present the projected (real-space) two-point correlation function $w_p(r_p)$ measured by using 3022 galaxies with robust spectroscopic redshifts in two independent fields (COSMOS and VVDS-02h) covering in total 0.8 deg$^2$. We quantify how the scale dependent clustering amplitude $r_0$ changes with redshift making use of mock samples to evaluate and correct the survey selection function. Using a power-law model $\xi(r) = (r/r_0)^{-\gamma}$ we find that the correlation function for the general population is best fit by a model with a clustering length $r_0$=3.95$^{+0.48}_{-0.54}$ h$^{-1}$Mpc and slope $\gamma$=1.8$^{+0.02}_{-0.06}$ at $z$~2.5, $r_0$=4.35$\pm$0.60 h$^{-1}$Mpc and $\gamma$=1.6$^{+0.12}_{-0.13}$ at $z$~3.5. We use these clustering parameters to derive the large-scale linear galaxy bias $b_L^{PL}$, between galaxies and dark matter. We find $b_L^{PL}$ = 2.68$\pm$0.22 at redshift $z$~3 (assuming $\sigma_8$ = 0.8), significantly higher than found at intermediate and low redshifts. We fit an HOD model to the data and we obtain that the average halo mass at redshift $z$~3 is $M_h$=10$^{11.75\pm0.23}$ h$^{-1}$M$_{\odot}$. From this fit we confirm that the large-scale linear galaxy bias is relatively high at $b_L^{HOD}$ = 2.82$\pm$0.27. Comparing these measurements with similar measurements at lower redshifts we infer that the star-forming population of galaxies at $z$~3 should evolve into the massive and bright ($M_r$<-21.5) galaxy population which typically occupy haloes of mass $\langle M_h\rangle$ = 10$^{13.9}$ h$^{-1}$ $M_{\odot}$ at redshift $z$=0.

The evolving SFR-M_star relation and sSFR since z~5 from the VUDS spectroscopic survey

We study the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR) – stellar mass (M_star) relation and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of star forming galaxies (SFGs) since a redshift z~5.5 using 2435 (4531) galaxies with highly reliable (reliable) spectroscopic redshifts in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS). It is the first time that these relations can be followed over such a large redshift range from a single homogeneously selected sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. The log(SFR) – log(M_star) relation for SFGs remains roughly linear all the way up to z=5 but the SFR steadily increases at fixed mass with increasing redshift. We find that for stellar masses M_star>3.2 x 10^9 M_sun the SFR increases by a factor ~13 between z=0.4 and z=2.3. We extend this relation up to z=5, finding an additional increase in SFR by a factor 1.7 from z=2.3 to z=4.8 for masses M_star > 10^10 M_sun. We observe a turn-off in the SFR-M_star relation at the highest mass end up to a redshift z~3.5. We interpret this turn-off as the signature of a strong on-going quenching mechanism and rapid mass growth. The sSFR increases strongly up to z~2 but it grows much less rapidly in 2<z<5. We find that the shape of the sSFR evolution is not well reproduced by cold gas accretion-driven models or the latest hydrodynamical models. Below z~2 these models have a flatter evolution (1+z)^{Phi} with Phi=2-2.25 compared to the data which evolves more rapidly with Phi=2.8+-0.2. Above z~2, the reverse is happening with the data evolving more slowly with Phi=1.2+-0.1. The observed sSFR evolution over a large redshift range 0<z<5 and our finding of a non linear main sequence at high mass both indicate that the evolution of SFR and M_star is not solely driven by gas accretion. The results presented in this paper emphasize the need to invoke a more complex mix of physical processes {abridge}

Cosmological Tests Using the Angular Size of Galaxy Clusters [Cross-Listing]

We use measurements of the galaxy-cluster angular size versus redshift to test and compare the standard model (LCDM) and the R_h=ct Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.786 for a Hubble constant H_0= 72.6 (-3.4+3.8) km/s/Mpc, and H_0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal flat LCDM model, with two free parameters (including Omega_m=0.50 and H_0=73.9 (-9.5+10.6) km/s/Mpc), fits the angular-size data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.806. On the basis of their chi^2_dof values alone, both models appear to account for the data very well in spite of the fact that the R_h=ct Universe expands at a constant rate, while LCDM does not. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Bayes Information Criterion, favour R_h=ct over LCDM with a likelihood of ~86% versus ~14%. These results impact the question of galaxy growth at large redshifts. Previous work suggested an inconsistency with the underlying cosmological model unless elliptical and disk galaxies grew in size by a surprisingly large factor ~6 from z~3 to 0. The fact that both LCDM and R_h=ct fit the cluster-size measurements quite well casts some doubt on the suggestion that the unexpected result with individual galaxies may be due to the use of an incorrect expansion scenario, rather than astrophysical causes, such as mergers and/or selection effects.

Cosmological Tests Using the Angular Size of Galaxy Clusters [Cross-Listing]

We use measurements of the galaxy-cluster angular size versus redshift to test and compare the standard model (LCDM) and the R_h=ct Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.786 for a Hubble constant H_0= 72.6 (-3.4+3.8) km/s/Mpc, and H_0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal flat LCDM model, with two free parameters (including Omega_m=0.50 and H_0=73.9 (-9.5+10.6) km/s/Mpc), fits the angular-size data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.806. On the basis of their chi^2_dof values alone, both models appear to account for the data very well in spite of the fact that the R_h=ct Universe expands at a constant rate, while LCDM does not. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Bayes Information Criterion, favour R_h=ct over LCDM with a likelihood of ~86% versus ~14%. These results impact the question of galaxy growth at large redshifts. Previous work suggested an inconsistency with the underlying cosmological model unless elliptical and disk galaxies grew in size by a surprisingly large factor ~6 from z~3 to 0. The fact that both LCDM and R_h=ct fit the cluster-size measurements quite well casts some doubt on the suggestion that the unexpected result with individual galaxies may be due to the use of an incorrect expansion scenario, rather than astrophysical causes, such as mergers and/or selection effects.

Cosmological Tests Using the Angular Size of Galaxy Clusters

We use measurements of the galaxy-cluster angular size versus redshift to test and compare the standard model (LCDM) and the R_h=ct Universe. We show that the latter fits the data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.786 for a Hubble constant H_0= 72.6 (-3.4+3.8) km/s/Mpc, and H_0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal flat LCDM model, with two free parameters (including Omega_m=0.50 and H_0=73.9 (-9.5+10.6) km/s/Mpc), fits the angular-size data with a reduced chi^2_dof=0.806. On the basis of their chi^2_dof values alone, both models appear to account for the data very well in spite of the fact that the R_h=ct Universe expands at a constant rate, while LCDM does not. However, because of the different number of free parameters in these models, selection tools, such as the Bayes Information Criterion, favour R_h=ct over LCDM with a likelihood of ~86% versus ~14%. These results impact the question of galaxy growth at large redshifts. Previous work suggested an inconsistency with the underlying cosmological model unless elliptical and disk galaxies grew in size by a surprisingly large factor ~6 from z~3 to 0. The fact that both LCDM and R_h=ct fit the cluster-size measurements quite well casts some doubt on the suggestion that the unexpected result with individual galaxies may be due to the use of an incorrect expansion scenario, rather than astrophysical causes, such as mergers and/or selection effects.

Inflation, de Sitter Landscape and Super-Higgs effect [Cross-Listing]

We continue developing models which provide a simple unified description of inflation and the current acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context. We describe here a general class of models with a positive cosmological constant at the minimum of the potential, such that supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in the direction of the nilpotent superfield S. In the unitary gauge, these models have a simple action where all highly non-linear fermionic terms of the classical Volkov-Akulov action disappear. We present masses for bosons and fermions in these theories.

Inflation, de Sitter Landscape and Super-Higgs effect [Cross-Listing]

We continue developing models which provide a simple unified description of inflation and the current acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context. We describe here a general class of models with a positive cosmological constant at the minimum of the potential, such that supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in the direction of the nilpotent superfield S. In the unitary gauge, these models have a simple action where all highly non-linear fermionic terms of the classical Volkov-Akulov action disappear. We present masses for bosons and fermions in these theories.

Inflation, de Sitter Landscape and Super-Higgs effect

We continue developing models which provide a simple unified description of inflation and the current acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context. We describe here a general class of models with a positive cosmological constant at the minimum of the potential, such that supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in the direction of the nilpotent superfield S. In the unitary gauge, these models have a simple action where all highly non-linear fermionic terms of the classical Volkov-Akulov action disappear. We present masses for bosons and fermions in these theories.

Inflation, de Sitter Landscape and Super-Higgs effect [Cross-Listing]

We continue developing models which provide a simple unified description of inflation and the current acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context. We describe here a general class of models with a positive cosmological constant at the minimum of the potential, such that supersymmetry is spontaneously broken in the direction of the nilpotent superfield S. In the unitary gauge, these models have a simple action where all highly non-linear fermionic terms of the classical Volkov-Akulov action disappear. We present masses for bosons and fermions in these theories.

New Higgs Inflation in a No-Scale Supersymmetric SU(5) GUT [Cross-Listing]

Higgs inflation is attractive because it identifies the inflaton with the electroweak Higgs boson. In this work, we construct a new class of supersymmetric Higgs inflationary models in the no-scale supergravity with an SU(5) GUT group. Extending the no-scale Kahler potential and SU(5) GUT superpotential, we derive a generic potential for Higgs inflation that includes the quadratic monomial potential and a Starobinsky-type potential as special limits. This type of models can accommodate a wide range of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r = O(10^{-3}-10^{-1})$, as well as a scalar spectral index $n_s \sim 0.96$.

New Higgs Inflation in a No-Scale Supersymmetric SU(5) GUT [Cross-Listing]

Higgs inflation is attractive because it identifies the inflaton with the electroweak Higgs boson. In this work, we construct a new class of supersymmetric Higgs inflationary models in the no-scale supergravity with an SU(5) GUT group. Extending the no-scale Kahler potential and SU(5) GUT superpotential, we derive a generic potential for Higgs inflation that includes the quadratic monomial potential and a Starobinsky-type potential as special limits. This type of models can accommodate a wide range of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r = O(10^{-3}-10^{-1})$, as well as a scalar spectral index $n_s \sim 0.96$.

New Higgs Inflation in a No-Scale Supersymmetric SU(5) GUT

Higgs inflation is attractive because it identifies the inflaton with the electroweak Higgs boson. In this work, we construct a new class of supersymmetric Higgs inflationary models in the no-scale supergravity with an SU(5) GUT group. Extending the no-scale Kahler potential and SU(5) GUT superpotential, we derive a generic potential for Higgs inflation that includes the quadratic monomial potential and a Starobinsky-type potential as special limits. This type of models can accommodate a wide range of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r = O(10^{-3}-10^{-1})$, as well as a scalar spectral index $n_s \sim 0.96$.

The Cosmological Effect of CMB/BAO Measurements

In this paper, the CMB/BAO measurements which cover the 13 redshift data in the regime $0.106 \leq z \leq 2.34$ are given out. The CMB/BAO samples are based on the BAO distance ratios $r_{s}(z_d)/D_{V}(z)$ and the CMB acoustic scales $l_{A}$. It could give out the accelerating behaviors of the $\Lambda$CDM, $w$CDM and o$\Lambda$CDM models. As the direction of the degeneracy of $\Omega_{m0}-w$ and $\Omega_{m0}-\Omega_{k0}$ are different for the CMB/BAO and BAO data, the CMB/BAO data show ability of breaking parameter degeneracy. Our tightest constraining results is from the BAO+Planck/BAO+$\Omega_{b}h^2$+$\Omega_{m}h^2$ data which has $\Omega_{m0}$ tension, but doesn’t have $H_{0}$ tension with the Planck result. The extending parameters $w$ and $\Omega_{k0}$ could alleviate the $\Omega_{m0}$ tensions slightly.

Anisotropic inflation reexamined: upper bound on broken rotational invariance during inflation [Cross-Listing]

The presence of a light vector field coupled to a scalar field during inflation makes a distinct prediction: the observed correlation functions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) become statistically anisotropic. We study the implications of the current bound on statistical anisotropy derived from the Planck 2013 CMB temperature data for such a model. The previous calculations based on the attractor solution indicate that the magnitude of anisotropy in the power spectrum is proportional to $N^2$, where $N$ is the number of $e$-folds of inflation counted from the end of inflation. In this paper, we show that the attractor solution is not compatible with the current bound, and derive new predictions using another branch of anisotropic inflation. In addition, we improve upon the calculation of the mode function of perturbations by including the leading-order slow-roll corrections. We find that the anisotropy is roughly proportional to $[2(\varepsilon_H+4\eta_H)/3-4(c-1)]^{-2}$, where $\varepsilon_H$ and $\eta_H$ are the usual slow-roll parameters and $c$ is the parameter in the model, regardless of the form of potential of an inflaton field. The bound from Planck implies that breaking of rotational invariance during inflation (characterized by the background homogeneous shear divided by the Hubble rate) is limited to be less than ${\cal O}(10^{-9})$. This bound is many orders of magnitude smaller than the amplitude of breaking of time translation invariance, which is observed to be ${\cal O}(10^{-2})$.

Anisotropic inflation reexamined: upper bound on broken rotational invariance during inflation

The presence of a light vector field coupled to a scalar field during inflation makes a distinct prediction: the observed correlation functions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) become statistically anisotropic. We study the implications of the current bound on statistical anisotropy derived from the Planck 2013 CMB temperature data for such a model. The previous calculations based on the attractor solution indicate that the magnitude of anisotropy in the power spectrum is proportional to $N^2$, where $N$ is the number of $e$-folds of inflation counted from the end of inflation. In this paper, we show that the attractor solution is not compatible with the current bound, and derive new predictions using another branch of anisotropic inflation. In addition, we improve upon the calculation of the mode function of perturbations by including the leading-order slow-roll corrections. We find that the anisotropy is roughly proportional to $[2(\varepsilon_H+4\eta_H)/3-4(c-1)]^{-2}$, where $\varepsilon_H$ and $\eta_H$ are the usual slow-roll parameters and $c$ is the parameter in the model, regardless of the form of potential of an inflaton field. The bound from Planck implies that breaking of rotational invariance during inflation (characterized by the background homogeneous shear divided by the Hubble rate) is limited to be less than ${\cal O}(10^{-9})$. This bound is many orders of magnitude smaller than the amplitude of breaking of time translation invariance, which is observed to be ${\cal O}(10^{-2})$.

Anisotropic inflation reexamined: upper bound on broken rotational invariance during inflation [Cross-Listing]

The presence of a light vector field coupled to a scalar field during inflation makes a distinct prediction: the observed correlation functions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) become statistically anisotropic. We study the implications of the current bound on statistical anisotropy derived from the Planck 2013 CMB temperature data for such a model. The previous calculations based on the attractor solution indicate that the magnitude of anisotropy in the power spectrum is proportional to $N^2$, where $N$ is the number of $e$-folds of inflation counted from the end of inflation. In this paper, we show that the attractor solution is not compatible with the current bound, and derive new predictions using another branch of anisotropic inflation. In addition, we improve upon the calculation of the mode function of perturbations by including the leading-order slow-roll corrections. We find that the anisotropy is roughly proportional to $[2(\varepsilon_H+4\eta_H)/3-4(c-1)]^{-2}$, where $\varepsilon_H$ and $\eta_H$ are the usual slow-roll parameters and $c$ is the parameter in the model, regardless of the form of potential of an inflaton field. The bound from Planck implies that breaking of rotational invariance during inflation (characterized by the background homogeneous shear divided by the Hubble rate) is limited to be less than ${\cal O}(10^{-9})$. This bound is many orders of magnitude smaller than the amplitude of breaking of time translation invariance, which is observed to be ${\cal O}(10^{-2})$.

Anisotropic inflation reexamined: upper bound on broken rotational invariance during inflation [Cross-Listing]

The presence of a light vector field coupled to a scalar field during inflation makes a distinct prediction: the observed correlation functions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) become statistically anisotropic. We study the implications of the current bound on statistical anisotropy derived from the Planck 2013 CMB temperature data for such a model. The previous calculations based on the attractor solution indicate that the magnitude of anisotropy in the power spectrum is proportional to $N^2$, where $N$ is the number of $e$-folds of inflation counted from the end of inflation. In this paper, we show that the attractor solution is not compatible with the current bound, and derive new predictions using another branch of anisotropic inflation. In addition, we improve upon the calculation of the mode function of perturbations by including the leading-order slow-roll corrections. We find that the anisotropy is roughly proportional to $[2(\varepsilon_H+4\eta_H)/3-4(c-1)]^{-2}$, where $\varepsilon_H$ and $\eta_H$ are the usual slow-roll parameters and $c$ is the parameter in the model, regardless of the form of potential of an inflaton field. The bound from Planck implies that breaking of rotational invariance during inflation (characterized by the background homogeneous shear divided by the Hubble rate) is limited to be less than ${\cal O}(10^{-9})$. This bound is many orders of magnitude smaller than the amplitude of breaking of time translation invariance, which is observed to be ${\cal O}(10^{-2})$.

Determination of a pressure discontinuity at the position of the Coma relic from Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect data

Radio relics are Mpc-scale diffuse synchrotron sources found in galaxy cluster outskirts. They are believed to be associated with large-scale shocks propagating through the intra-cluster medium, although the connection between radio relics and the cluster merger shocks is not yet proven conclusively. We present a first tentative detection of a pressure jump in the well-known relic of the Coma cluster through Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect imaging. The SZ data is extracted from the first public all-sky data release of Planck and we use high-frequency radio data at 2.3 GHz to constrain the shock-front geometry. The SZ data provides evidence for a pressure discontinuity, consistent with the relic position, without requiring any additional prior on the shock-front location. The derived Mach number M = 2.9 (+0.8/-0.6) is consistent with X-ray and radio results. A high-pressure "filament" without any pressure discontinuity is disfavoured by X-ray measurements and a "sub-cluster" model based on the infalling group NGC 4839 can be ruled out considering the published mass estimates for this group. These results signify a first attempt towards directly measuring the pressure discontinuity for a radio relic and the first SZ-detected shock feature observed near the virial radius of a galaxy cluster.

The HI dominated Low Surface Brightness Galaxy KKR17

We present new narrow-band (H$\alpha$ and [OIII]) imagings and optical spectrophotometry of HII regions for a gas-rich low surface brightness irregular galaxy, KKR 17. The central surface brightness of the galaxy is $\mu_0(B)$ = 24.15 $\pm$0.03 mag~sec$^{-2}$. The galaxy was detected by \emph{Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey} (ALFALFA), and its mass is dominated by neutral hydrogen (HI) gas. In contrast, both the stellar masses of the bright HII and diffuse stellar regions are small. In addition, the fit to the spectral energy distribution to each region shows the stellar populations of HII and diffuse regions are different. The bright HII region contains a large fraction of O-type stars, revealing the recent strong star formation, whereas the diffuse region is dominated by median age stars, which has a typical age of $\sim$ 600 Myrs. Using the McGaugh’s abundance model, we found that the average metallicity of KKR 17 is 12 + (O/H) = 8.0 $\pm$ 0.1. The star formation rate of KKR 17 is 0.21$\pm$0.04 M$_{\odot}$/yr, which is $\sim$1/5 of our Milky Way’s. Based on the analysis results to young stellar clusters in HII region, it is found that the bright HII region showed two sub-components with different velocities and metallicities. This may be caused by the outflow of massive stars or merging events. However, the mechanism of triggering star formation in the HII region is still uncertain.

Quantum corrections to gravity in the expanding universe [Cross-Listing]

The influence of the quantum corrections to gravity on the dynamics of the expansion of the universe is studied on the example of the exactly solvable quantum model. The quantum corrections to the energy density and pressure lead to the emergence of an additional attraction (dark matter?) or repulsion (dark energy?) in the system of the gravitating matter and radiation. The model explains the accelerating expansion (inflation) in the early universe (the domain of comparatively small values of quantum numbers) and a later transition from the decelerating expansion to the accelerating expansion of the universe (the domain of the very large values of quantum numbers) from a single approach. The generation of primordial fluctuations of the energy density at the expense of the change of sign of the quantum correction to the pressure is discussed.

Quantum corrections to gravity in the expanding universe

The influence of the quantum corrections to gravity on the dynamics of the expansion of the universe is studied on the example of the exactly solvable quantum model. The quantum corrections to the energy density and pressure lead to the emergence of an additional attraction (dark matter?) or repulsion (dark energy?) in the system of the gravitating matter and radiation. The model explains the accelerating expansion (inflation) in the early universe (the domain of comparatively small values of quantum numbers) and a later transition from the decelerating expansion to the accelerating expansion of the universe (the domain of the very large values of quantum numbers) from a single approach. The generation of primordial fluctuations of the energy density at the expense of the change of sign of the quantum correction to the pressure is discussed.

Higgs-otic Inflation and String Theory

We propose that inflation is driven by a (complex) neutral Higgs of the MSSM extension of the SM, in a chaotic-like inflation setting. The SUSY breaking soft term masses are of order $10^{12}-10^{13}$ GeV, which is identified with the inflaton mass scale and is just enough to stabilise the SM Higgs potential. The fine-tuned SM Higgs has then a mass around 126 GeV, in agreement with LHC results. We point out that the required large field excursions of chaotic inflation may be realised in string theory with the (complex) inflaton/Higgs identified with a continuous Wilson line or D-brane position. We show specific examples and study in detail a IIB orientifold with D7-branes at singularities, with SM gauge group and MSSM Higgs sector. In this case the inflaton/Higgs fields correspond to D7-brane positions along a two-torus transverse to them. Masses and monodromy are induced by closed string $G_3$ fluxes, and the inflaton potential can be computed directly from the DBI+CS action. We show how this action sums over Planck suppressed corrections, which amount to a field dependent rescaling of the inflaton fields, leading to a linear potential in the large field regime. We study the evolution of the two components of the Higgs/inflaton and compute the slow-roll parameters for purely adiabatic perturbations. For large regions of initial conditions slow roll inflation occurs and 50-60 efolds are obtained with r>0.07, testable in forthcoming experiments. Our scheme is economical in the sense that both EWSB and inflation originate in the same sector of the theory, all inflaton couplings are known and reheating occurs efficiently.

Higgs-otic Inflation and String Theory [Cross-Listing]

We propose that inflation is driven by a (complex) neutral Higgs of the MSSM extension of the SM, in a chaotic-like inflation setting. The SUSY breaking soft term masses are of order $10^{12}-10^{13}$ GeV, which is identified with the inflaton mass scale and is just enough to stabilise the SM Higgs potential. The fine-tuned SM Higgs has then a mass around 126 GeV, in agreement with LHC results. We point out that the required large field excursions of chaotic inflation may be realised in string theory with the (complex) inflaton/Higgs identified with a continuous Wilson line or D-brane position. We show specific examples and study in detail a IIB orientifold with D7-branes at singularities, with SM gauge group and MSSM Higgs sector. In this case the inflaton/Higgs fields correspond to D7-brane positions along a two-torus transverse to them. Masses and monodromy are induced by closed string $G_3$ fluxes, and the inflaton potential can be computed directly from the DBI+CS action. We show how this action sums over Planck suppressed corrections, which amount to a field dependent rescaling of the inflaton fields, leading to a linear potential in the large field regime. We study the evolution of the two components of the Higgs/inflaton and compute the slow-roll parameters for purely adiabatic perturbations. For large regions of initial conditions slow roll inflation occurs and 50-60 efolds are obtained with r>0.07, testable in forthcoming experiments. Our scheme is economical in the sense that both EWSB and inflation originate in the same sector of the theory, all inflaton couplings are known and reheating occurs efficiently.

Higgs-otic Inflation and String Theory [Cross-Listing]

We propose that inflation is driven by a (complex) neutral Higgs of the MSSM extension of the SM, in a chaotic-like inflation setting. The SUSY breaking soft term masses are of order $10^{12}-10^{13}$ GeV, which is identified with the inflaton mass scale and is just enough to stabilise the SM Higgs potential. The fine-tuned SM Higgs has then a mass around 126 GeV, in agreement with LHC results. We point out that the required large field excursions of chaotic inflation may be realised in string theory with the (complex) inflaton/Higgs identified with a continuous Wilson line or D-brane position. We show specific examples and study in detail a IIB orientifold with D7-branes at singularities, with SM gauge group and MSSM Higgs sector. In this case the inflaton/Higgs fields correspond to D7-brane positions along a two-torus transverse to them. Masses and monodromy are induced by closed string $G_3$ fluxes, and the inflaton potential can be computed directly from the DBI+CS action. We show how this action sums over Planck suppressed corrections, which amount to a field dependent rescaling of the inflaton fields, leading to a linear potential in the large field regime. We study the evolution of the two components of the Higgs/inflaton and compute the slow-roll parameters for purely adiabatic perturbations. For large regions of initial conditions slow roll inflation occurs and 50-60 efolds are obtained with r>0.07, testable in forthcoming experiments. Our scheme is economical in the sense that both EWSB and inflation originate in the same sector of the theory, all inflaton couplings are known and reheating occurs efficiently.

Finding the First Cosmic Explosions. IV. 90 - 140 M$_{\odot}$ Pair-Instability Supernovae

Population III stars that die as pair-instability supernovae are usually thought to fall in the mass range of 140 – 260 M$_{\odot}$. But several lines of work have now shown that rotation can build up the He cores needed to encounter the pair instability at stellar masses as low as 90 $_{\odot}$. Depending on the slope of the initial mass function of Population III stars, there could be 4 – 5 times as many stars from 90 – 140 $_{\odot}$ in the primordial universe than in the usually accepted range. We present numerical simulations of the pair-instability explosions of such stars performed with the MESA, FLASH and RAGE codes. We find that they will be visible to supernova factories such as Pan-STARRS and LSST in the optical out to z $\sim$ 1 – 2 and to JWST and the 30 m-class telescopes in the NIR out to $z \sim$ 7 – 10. Such explosions will thus probe the stellar populations of the first galaxies and cosmic star formation rates in the era of cosmological reionization. These supernovae are also easily distinguished from more massive pair-instability explosions, underscoring the fact that there is far greater variety to the light curves of these events than previously understood.

Model-independent evidence in favor of an end to reionization by z~6

We present new upper limits on the volume-weighted neutral hydrogen fraction, <xHI>, at z~5-6 derived from spectroscopy of bright quasars. The fraction of the Lyman-alpha and Lyman-beta forests that is "dark" (with zero flux) provides the only model-independent upper limit on <xHI>, requiring no assumptions about the physical conditions in the intergalactic medium or the quasar’s unabsorbed UV continuum. In this work we update our previous results using a larger sample (22 objects) of medium-depth (~ few hours) spectra of high-redshift quasars obtained with the Magellan, MMT, and VLT. This significantly improves the upper bound on <xHI> derived from dark pixel analysis to <xHI> <= 0.06 + 0.05 (1{\sigma}) at z=5.9, and <xHI> <= 0.04 + 0.05 (1{\sigma}) at z=5.6. These results provide robust constraints for theoretical models of reionization, and provide the strongest available evidence that reionization has completed (or is very nearly complete) by z~6.

The Relation between Dynamical Mass-to-Light Ratio and Color for Massive Quiescent Galaxies out to z~2 and Comparison with Stellar Population Synthesis Models

We explore the relation between the dynamical mass-to-light ratio ($M/L$) and rest-frame color of massive quiescent galaxies out to z~2. We use a galaxy sample with measured stellar velocity dispersions in combination with Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based multi-band photometry. Our sample spans a large range in $\log M_{dyn}/L_{g}$ (of 1.6~dex) and $\log M_{dyn}/L_{K}$ (of 1.3~dex). There is a strong, approximately linear correlation between the $M/L$ for different wavebands and rest-frame color. The root-mean-scatter scatter in $\log~M_{dyn}/L$ residuals implies that it is possible to estimate the $M/L$ with an accuracy of ~0.25 dex from a single rest-frame optical color. Stellar population synthesis (SPS) models with a Salpeter stellar initial mass function (IMF) can not simultaneously match $M_{dyn}/L_{g}$ vs. $(g-z)_{rest-frame}$ and $M_{dyn}/L_{K}$ vs. $(g-K)_{rest-frame}$. By changing the slope of the IMF we are still unable to explain the M/L of the bluest and reddest galaxies. We find that an IMF with a slope between $\alpha=2.35$ and $\alpha=1.35$ provides the best match. We also explore a broken IMF with a Salpeter slope at $M<1M_{\odot}$ and $M>4M_{\odot}$ and a slope $\alpha$ in the intermediate region. The data favor a slope of $\alpha=1.35$ over $\alpha=2.35$. Nonetheless, our results show that variations between different SPS models are comparable to the IMF variations. In our analysis we assume that the variation in $M/L$ and color is driven by differences in age, and that other contributions (e.g., metallicity evolution, dark matter) are small. These assumptions may be an important source of uncertainty as galaxies evolve in more complex ways.

Inflationary dynamics of kinetically-coupled gauge fields [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless $U(1)$ gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can be quantized using the standard creation, annihilation operator algebra. This second constraint limits us to scenarios where the system can be diagonalized into the sum of two decoupled, massless, vector fields with a varying kinetic-term coefficient. Such a system might be interesting for magnetogenesis because of how the strong coupling problem generalizes. We explore this idea by assuming that one of the gauge fields is the Standard Model $U(1)$ field and that the other dark gauge field has no particles charged under its gauge group. We consider whether it would be possible to transfer a magnetic field from the dark sector, generated perhaps before the coupling was turned on, to the visible sector. We also investigate whether the simple existence of the mixing provides more opportunities to generate magnetic fields. We find that neither possibility works efficiently, consistent with the well-known difficulties in inflationary magnetogenesis.

Inflationary dynamics of kinetically-coupled gauge fields [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless $U(1)$ gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can be quantized using the standard creation, annihilation operator algebra. This second constraint limits us to scenarios where the system can be diagonalized into the sum of two decoupled, massless, vector fields with a varying kinetic-term coefficient. Such a system might be interesting for magnetogenesis because of how the strong coupling problem generalizes. We explore this idea by assuming that one of the gauge fields is the Standard Model $U(1)$ field and that the other dark gauge field has no particles charged under its gauge group. We consider whether it would be possible to transfer a magnetic field from the dark sector, generated perhaps before the coupling was turned on, to the visible sector. We also investigate whether the simple existence of the mixing provides more opportunities to generate magnetic fields. We find that neither possibility works efficiently, consistent with the well-known difficulties in inflationary magnetogenesis.

Inflationary dynamics of kinetically-coupled gauge fields [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless $U(1)$ gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can be quantized using the standard creation, annihilation operator algebra. This second constraint limits us to scenarios where the system can be diagonalized into the sum of two decoupled, massless, vector fields with a varying kinetic-term coefficient. Such a system might be interesting for magnetogenesis because of how the strong coupling problem generalizes. We explore this idea by assuming that one of the gauge fields is the Standard Model $U(1)$ field and that the other dark gauge field has no particles charged under its gauge group. We consider whether it would be possible to transfer a magnetic field from the dark sector, generated perhaps before the coupling was turned on, to the visible sector. We also investigate whether the simple existence of the mixing provides more opportunities to generate magnetic fields. We find that neither possibility works efficiently, consistent with the well-known difficulties in inflationary magnetogenesis.

Inflationary dynamics of kinetically-coupled gauge fields

We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless $U(1)$ gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can be quantized using the standard creation, annihilation operator algebra. This second constraint limits us to scenarios where the system can be diagonalized into the sum of two decoupled, massless, vector fields with a varying kinetic-term coefficient. Such a system might be interesting for magnetogenesis because of how the strong coupling problem generalizes. We explore this idea by assuming that one of the gauge fields is the Standard Model $U(1)$ field and that the other dark gauge field has no particles charged under its gauge group. We consider whether it would be possible to transfer a magnetic field from the dark sector, generated perhaps before the coupling was turned on, to the visible sector. We also investigate whether the simple existence of the mixing provides more opportunities to generate magnetic fields. We find that neither possibility works efficiently, consistent with the well-known difficulties in inflationary magnetogenesis.

 

You need to log in to vote

The blog owner requires users to be logged in to be able to vote for this post.

Alternatively, if you do not have an account yet you can create one here.

Powered by Vote It Up

^ Return to the top of page ^