Recent Postings from Cosmology and Extragalactic

Do we care about the distance to the CMB? Clarifying the impact of second-order lensing

It has recently been shown that second-order corrections to the background distance-redshift relation can build up significantly at large redshifts, due to an aggregation of gravitational lensing events. This shifts the expectation value of the distance to the CMB by 1%. In this paper we show that this shift is already properly accounted for in standard CMB analyses. We clarify the role that the distance to the CMB plays in the presence of second-order lensing corrections.

In-Situ Performance Characterization of CRESST Detector Modules

The CRESST experiment (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) searches for dark matter via the phonon and light signal of elastic scattering processes in scintillating crystals. The discrimination between a possible dark matter signal and background requires good energy resolution of the light detector, therefore a high light yield is important. In this article, we present a method for understanding the light yield measured with entire detector modules in terms of the efficiencies of light production and detection. Based on data taken during a dark matter search phase, it considers the entire process of conversion of deposited energy into scintillation light as well as transport and collection of the light that occur in a detector module. We can confirm the results by using a cross-check method with different systematic uncertainties. We found that with the detectors operated in CRESST-II phase 1, about 20% of the produced scintillation light is detected. A part of the light loss is likely caused by light absorption creating meta-stable excitations in the scintillating crystals. We also found that, consistent with the relatively low detection efficiency, an additional light detector increases the amount of detected light within an otherwise unmodified detector module.

A possible Macronova in the late afterglow of the `long-short' burst GRB 060614

GRB 060614 was a unique burst straddling both long and short duration gamma-ray bursts and its physical origin is still debated. Here we re-examine the afterglow data of GRB 060614 and find a significant F814W-band excess at $t\sim 13.6$ day after the burst observed by the {\it Hubble Space Telescope (HST)}. This corresponds to an extremely-low luminosity $\sim 3\times 10^{40}~{\rm erg~s^{-1}}$. The excess component has a very red spectrum and a rapid decline, both unexpected within the present theoretical framework of afterglow. We examine two possible sources of this signal$-$a very weak supernova and a Li-Paczynski Macronova/kilonova. We find that the observed signal is incompatible with a weak supernova. However, it is compatible with the ejection of $\sim 0.03-0.1~M_\odot$ of $r-$process material. If this interpretation is correct GRB 060614 arose from a compact binary (most likely a black hole$-$neutron star but also possibly a double neutron star) merger.

Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the merging cluster of galaxies PLCK G036.7+14.9

We present Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of PLCK G036.7+14.9 from the Chandra-Planck Legacy Program. The high resolution X-ray observations reveal two close subclusters, G036N and G036S, which were not resolved by previous ROSAT, optical, or recent Planck observations. We perform detailed imaging and spectral analyses and use a simplified model to study the kinematics of this system. The basic picture is that PLCK G036.7+14.9 is undergoing a major merger (mass ratio close to unity) between the two massive subclusters, with the merger largely along the line-of-sight and probably at an early stage. G036N hosts a small, moderate cool-core, while G036S has at most a very weak cool-core in the central 40 kpc region. The difference in core cooling times is unlikely to be caused by the ongoing merger disrupting a pre-existing cool-core in G036S. G036N also hosts an unresolved radio source in the center, which may be heating the gas if the radio source is extended. The Planck derived mass is higher than the X-ray measured mass of either subcluster, but is lower than the X-ray measured mass of the whole cluster, due to the fact that Planck does not resolve PLCK G036.7+14.9 into subclusters and interprets it as a single cluster. This mass discrepancy could induce significant bias to the mass function if such previously unresolved systems are common in the Planck cluster sample. High resolution X-ray observations are necessary to identify the fraction of such systems and correct such a bias for the purpose of precision cosmological studies.

Counting voids to probe dark energy

We show that the number of observed voids in galaxy redshift surveys is a sensitive function of the equation of state of dark energy. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we find the error ellipses in the $w_0-w_a$ plane when the equation of state of dark energy is assumed to be of the form $w_{CPL}(z)=w_0 +w_a z/(1+z)$. We forecast the number of voids to be observed with the ESA Euclid satellite and the NASA WFIRST mission, taking into account updated details of the surveys to reach accurate estimates of their power. The theoretical model for the forecast of the number of voids is based on matches between abundances in simulations and the analytical prediction. To take into account the uncertainties within the model, we marginalize over its free parameters when calculating the Fisher matrices. The addition of the void abundance constraints to the data from Planck, HST and supernova survey data noticeably tighten the $w_0-w_a$ parameter space. We thus quantify the improvement in the constraints due to the use of voids and demonstrate that the void abundance is a sensitive new probe for the dark energy equation of state.

The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters

Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a test of the non-gravitational forces acting on dark matter. Dark matter’s lack of deceleration in the `bullet cluster collision’ constrained its self-interaction cross-section \sigma_DM/m < 1.25cm2/g (68% confidence limit) for long-ranged forces. Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes we have now observed 72 collisions, including both `major’ and `minor’ mergers. Combining these measurements statistically, we detect the existence of dark mass at 7.6\sigma significance. The position of the dark mass has remained closely aligned within 5.8+/-8.2 kpc of associated stars: implying a self-interaction cross-section \sigma_DM/m < 0.47 cm2/g (95% CL) and disfavoring some proposed extensions to the standard model.

Bulge growth through disk instabilities in high-redshift galaxies

The role of disk instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disk galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges. This secular growth of bulges in modern disk galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudo-bulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disk instabilities at high redshift (z>1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (10^10 to a few 10^11 Msun of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift disks are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 10^8-10^9 Msun of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disk evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms, on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 10^8 yr. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick disks and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disk instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.

Spiral Galaxies as Progenitors of Pseudobulge Hosting S0s

We present observations of pseudobulges in S0 and spiral galaxies using imaging data taken with the Spitzer Infra-Red Array Camera. We have used 2-d bulge-disk-bar decomposition to determine structural parameters of 185 S0 galaxies and 31 nearby spiral galaxies. Using the Sersic index and the position on the Kormendy diagram to classify their bulges as either classical or pseudo, we find that 25 S0s (14%) and 24 spirals (77%) host pseudoblges. The fraction of pseudobulges we find in spiral galaxies is consistent with previous results obtained with optical data and show that the evolution of a large fraction of spirals is governed by secular processes rather than by major mergers. We find that the bulge effective radius is correlated with the disk scale length for pseudobulges of S0s and spirals, as expected for secular formation of bulges from disk instabilities, though the disks in S0s are significantly smaller than those in spirals. We show that early-type pseudobulge hosting spirals can transform to pseudobulge hosting S0s by simple gas stripping. However, simple gas stripping mechanism is not sufficient to transform the late-type pseudobulge hosting spirals into pseudobulge hosting S0s.

Scalar-tensor theories with an external scalar [Cross-Listing]

Scalar-tensor (ST) gravity is considered in the case where the scalar is an external field. We show that General Relativity (GR) and standard ST gravity are particular cases of the External Scalar-Tensor (EST) gravity. It is shown with a particular cosmological example that it is possible to join a part of a GR solution to a part of an ST one such that the complete solution neither belongs to GR nor to ST, but fully satisfies the EST field equations. We argue that external fields may effectively work as a type of screening mechanism for ST theories.

Scalar-tensor theories with an external scalar

Scalar-tensor (ST) gravity is considered in the case where the scalar is an external field. We show that General Relativity (GR) and standard ST gravity are particular cases of the External Scalar-Tensor (EST) gravity. It is shown with a particular cosmological example that it is possible to join a part of a GR solution to a part of an ST one such that the complete solution neither belongs to GR nor to ST, but fully satisfies the EST field equations. We argue that external fields may effectively work as a type of screening mechanism for ST theories.

Large Scale Power Suppression in a Multifield Landscape

Power suppression of the cosmic microwave background on the largest observable scales could provide valuable clues about the particle physics underlying inflation. Here we consider the prospect of power suppression in the context of the multifield landscape. Based on the assumption that our observable universe emerges from a tunnelling event and that the relevant features originate purely from inflationary dynamics, we find that the power spectrum not only contains information on single-field dynamics, but also places strong con- straints on all scalar fields present in the theory. We find that the simplest single-field models giving rise to power suppression do not generalise to multifield models in a straightforward way, as the resulting superhorizon evolution of the curvature perturbation tends to erase any power suppression present at horizon crossing. On the other hand, multifield effects do present a means of generating power suppression which to our knowledge has so far not been considered. We propose a mechanism to illustrate this, which we dub flume inflation.

Large Scale Power Suppression in a Multifield Landscape [Cross-Listing]

Power suppression of the cosmic microwave background on the largest observable scales could provide valuable clues about the particle physics underlying inflation. Here we consider the prospect of power suppression in the context of the multifield landscape. Based on the assumption that our observable universe emerges from a tunnelling event and that the relevant features originate purely from inflationary dynamics, we find that the power spectrum not only contains information on single-field dynamics, but also places strong con- straints on all scalar fields present in the theory. We find that the simplest single-field models giving rise to power suppression do not generalise to multifield models in a straightforward way, as the resulting superhorizon evolution of the curvature perturbation tends to erase any power suppression present at horizon crossing. On the other hand, multifield effects do present a means of generating power suppression which to our knowledge has so far not been considered. We propose a mechanism to illustrate this, which we dub flume inflation.

A model for accelerated expansion of the universe from $\mathcal{N}=1$ Supergravity [Cross-Listing]

In this paper we present a model for accelerated expansion of the universe, both during inflation and the present stage of the expansion, from four dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ supergravity. We evaluate the tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r\approx 0.00034$), the scalar spectral index ($n_s\approx 0.970$) and the running spetral index ($dn_s/dk\approx -6\times10^{-5}$), and we notice that these parameters are in agreement with Planck+WP+lensing data and with BICEP2/Keck and Planck joint analysis, at $95\%$ CL. The number of e-folds is $50$ or higher. The reheating period has an associated temperature $T_R\sim10^{12}$ Gev, which agrees with the one required by thermal leptogenesis. Regarding the scalar field as dark energy, the autonomous system for the scalar field in the presence of a barotropic fluid provides a stable fixed point that leads to a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe, with an equation of state that mimics the cosmological constant ($w_\Phi\approx -0.997$).

A model for accelerated expansion of the universe from $\mathcal{N}=1$ Supergravity

In this paper we present a model for accelerated expansion of the universe, both during inflation and the present stage of the expansion, from four dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ supergravity. We evaluate the tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r\approx 0.00034$), the scalar spectral index ($n_s\approx 0.970$) and the running spetral index ($dn_s/dk\approx -6\times10^{-5}$), and we notice that these parameters are in agreement with Planck+WP+lensing data and with BICEP2/Keck and Planck joint analysis, at $95\%$ CL. The number of e-folds is $50$ or higher. The reheating period has an associated temperature $T_R\sim10^{12}$ Gev, which agrees with the one required by thermal leptogenesis. Regarding the scalar field as dark energy, the autonomous system for the scalar field in the presence of a barotropic fluid provides a stable fixed point that leads to a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe, with an equation of state that mimics the cosmological constant ($w_\Phi\approx -0.997$).

Weak Emission Line Quasars in the Context of a Modified Baldwin Effect

We investigate the relationship between the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of the C IV \lambda1549 broad-emission line, monochromatic luminosity at rest-frame 5100 A, and the Hbeta-based Eddington ratio in a sample of 99 ordinary quasars across the widest possible ranges of redshift (0 < z < 3.5) and bolometric luminosity (10^{44} <~ L <~ 10^{48} erg s^{-1}). We find that EW(C IV) is primarily anti-correlated with the Eddington ratio, a relation we refer to as a modified Baldwin effect (MBE), an extension of the result previously obtained for quasars at z < 0.5. Based on the MBE, weak emission line quasars (WLQs), typically showing EW(C IV) <~ 10 A, are expected to have extremely high Eddington ratios. By selecting all WLQs with archival Hbeta and C IV spectroscopic data, nine sources in total, we find that their Hbeta-based Eddington ratios are typical of ordinary quasars with similar redshifts and luminosities. Four of these WLQs can be accommodated by the MBE, but the other five deviate significantly from this relation, at the >~3 \sigma\ level, by exhibiting C IV lines much weaker than predicted from their Hbeta-based Eddington ratios. Assuming the supermassive black-hole masses in all quasars can be determined reliably using the single-epoch Hbeta-method, our results indicate that EW(C IV) cannot depend solely on the Eddington ratio. We briefly discuss a strategy for further investigation into the roles that basic physical properties play in controlling the relative strengths of broad-emission lines in quasars.

Truthing the stretch: Non-perturbative cosmological realizations with multiscale spherical collapse

Here we present a simple, parameter-free, non-perturbative algorithm that gives low-redshift cosmological particle realizations accurate to few-Megaparsec scales, called muscle (MUltiscale Spherical ColLapse Evolution). It has virtually the same cost as producing N-body-simulation initial conditions, since it works with the ‘stretch’ parameter {\psi}, the Lagrangian divergence of the displacement field. It promises to be useful in quickly producing mock catalogs, and to simplify computationally intensive reconstructions of galaxy surveys. muscle applies a spherical-collapse prescription on multiple Gaussian-smoothed scales. It achieves higher accuracy than perturbative schemes (Zel’dovich and 2LPT), and, by including the void-in-cloud process (voids in large-scale collapsing regions), solves problems with a single-scale spherical-collapse scheme. Additionally, we show the behavior of {\psi} for different morphologies (voids, walls, filaments, and haloes). A Python code to produce these realizations is available at http://skysrv.pha.jhu.edu/~neyrinck/muscle.html.

A Two-Parameter Matching Scheme for Massive Galaxies and Dark Matter Haloes

Halo Abundance Matching has been used to construct a one-parameter mapping between galaxies and dark matter haloes by assuming that halo mass and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass) are monotonically related. While this approach has been reasonably successful, it is known that galaxies must be described by at least two parameters, as can be seen from the two-parameter Fundamental Plane on which massive early-type galaxies lie. In this paper, we derive a connection between initial dark matter density perturbations in the early universe and present-day virialized dark matter haloes by assuming simple spherical collapse combined with conservation of mass and energy. We find that $z = 0$ halo concentration, or alternatively the inner slope of the halo density profile $\alpha$, is monotonically and positively correlated with the collapse redshift of the halo. This is qualitatively similar to the findings of some previous works based on numerical simulations, with which we compare our results. We then describe how the halo mass and concentration (or inner slope $\alpha$) can be used as two halo parameters in combination with two parameters of early-type galaxies to create an improved abundance matching scheme.

Detection of Rest-frame Optical Lines from X-shooter Spectroscopy of Weak Emission Line Quasars

Over the past 15 years, examples of exotic radio-quiet quasars with intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs) have emerged from large-scale spectroscopic sky surveys. Here, we present spectroscopy of seven such weak emission line quasars (WLQs) at moderate redshifts (z=1.4-1.7) using the X-shooter spectrograph, which provides simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy covering the rest-frame ultraviolet through optical. These new observations effectively double the number of WLQs with spectroscopy in the optical rest-frame, and they allow us to compare the strengths of (weak) high-ionization emission lines (e.g., CIV) to low-ionization lines (e.g., MgII, Hb, Ha) in individual objects. We detect broad Hb and Ha emission in all objects, and these lines are generally toward the weaker end of the distribution expected for typical quasars (e.g., Hb has rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 15-40 Ang.). However, these low-ionization lines are not exceptionally weak, as is the case for high-ionization lines in WLQs. The X-shooter spectra also display relatively strong optical FeII emission, Hb FWHM <4000 km/s, and significant CIV blueshifts (1000-5500 km/s) relative to the systemic redshift; two spectra also show elevated ultraviolet FeII emission, and an outflowing component to their (weak) MgII emission lines. These properties suggest that WLQs are exotic versions of "wind-dominated" quasars. Their BELRs either have unusual high-ionization components, or their BELRs are in an atypical photoionization state because of an unusually soft continuum.

Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable [Cross-Listing]

Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, $M_f$, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to $\Lambda$CDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find $M_f$ should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable [Cross-Listing]

Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, $M_f$, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to $\Lambda$CDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find $M_f$ should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable

Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, $M_f$, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to $\Lambda$CDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find $M_f$ should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

On the viability of m**2 phi**2 and natural inflation [Cross-Listing]

In the context of single field inflation, models with a quadratic potential and models with a natural potential with subplanckian decay constant are in tension with the Planck data. We show that, when embedded in a two-field model with an additional super massive field, they can become consistent with observations. Our results follow if the inflaton is the phase of a complex field (or an angular variable) protected by a mildly broken U(1) symmetry, and the radial component, whose mass is much greater than the Hubble scale, is stabilized at subplanckian values. The presence of the super massive field, besides modifying the effective single field potential, causes a reduction in the speed of sound of the inflaton fluctuations, which drives the prediction for the primordial spectrum towards the allowed experimental values. We discuss these effects also for the linear potential, and show that this model increases its agreement with data as well

On the viability of m**2 phi**2 and natural inflation [Replacement]

In the context of single field inflation, models with a quadratic potential and models with a natural potential with subplanckian decay constant are in tension with the Planck data. We show that, when embedded in a two-field model with an additional super massive field, they can become consistent with observations. Our results follow if the inflaton is the phase of a complex field (or an angular variable) protected by a mildly broken U(1) symmetry, and the radial component, whose mass is much greater than the Hubble scale, is stabilized at subplanckian values. The presence of the super massive field, besides modifying the effective single field potential, causes a reduction in the speed of sound of the inflaton fluctuations, which drives the prediction for the primordial spectrum towards the allowed experimental values. We discuss these effects also for the linear potential, and show that this model increases its agreement with data as well

On the viability of m**2 phi**2 and natural inflation [Replacement]

In the context of single field inflation, models with a quadratic potential and models with a natural potential with subplanckian decay constant are in tension with the Planck data. We show that, when embedded in a two-field model with an additional super massive field, they can become consistent with observations. Our results follow if the inflaton is the phase of a complex field (or an angular variable) protected by a mildly broken U(1) symmetry, and the radial component, whose mass is much greater than the Hubble scale, is stabilized at subplanckian values. The presence of the super massive field, besides modifying the effective single field potential, causes a reduction in the speed of sound of the inflaton fluctuations, which drives the prediction for the primordial spectrum towards the allowed experimental values. We discuss these effects also for the linear potential, and show that this model increases its agreement with data as well

On the viability of m**2 phi**2 and natural inflation [Cross-Listing]

In the context of single field inflation, models with a quadratic potential and models with a natural potential with subplanckian decay constant are in tension with the Planck data. We show that, when embedded in a two-field model with an additional super massive field, they can become consistent with observations. Our results follow if the inflaton is the phase of a complex field (or an angular variable) protected by a mildly broken U(1) symmetry, and the radial component, whose mass is much greater than the Hubble scale, is stabilized at subplanckian values. The presence of the super massive field, besides modifying the effective single field potential, causes a reduction in the speed of sound of the inflaton fluctuations, which drives the prediction for the primordial spectrum towards the allowed experimental values. We discuss these effects also for the linear potential, and show that this model increases its agreement with data as well

On the viability of m**2 phi**2 and natural inflation [Replacement]

In the context of single field inflation, models with a quadratic potential and models with a natural potential with subplanckian decay constant are in tension with the Planck data. We show that, when embedded in a two-field model with an additional super massive field, they can become consistent with observations. Our results follow if the inflaton is the phase of a complex field (or an angular variable) protected by a mildly broken U(1) symmetry, and the radial component, whose mass is much greater than the Hubble scale, is stabilized at subplanckian values. The presence of the super massive field, besides modifying the effective single field potential, causes a reduction in the speed of sound of the inflaton fluctuations, which drives the prediction for the primordial spectrum towards the allowed experimental values. We discuss these effects also for the linear potential, and show that this model increases its agreement with data as well

On the viability of m**2 phi**2 and natural inflation

In the context of single field inflation, models with a quadratic potential and models with a natural potential with subplanckian decay constant are in tension with the Planck data. We show that, when embedded in a two-field model with an additional super massive field, they can become consistent with observations. Our results follow if the inflaton is the phase of a complex field (or an angular variable) protected by a mildly broken U(1) symmetry, and the radial component, whose mass is much greater than the Hubble scale, is stabilized at subplanckian values. The presence of the super massive field, besides modifying the effective single field potential, causes a reduction in the speed of sound of the inflaton fluctuations, which drives the prediction for the primordial spectrum towards the allowed experimental values. We discuss these effects also for the linear potential, and show that this model increases its agreement with data as well

Morphologies of ~190,000 Galaxies at z=0-10 Revealed with HST Legacy Data I. Size Evolution

We present evolution of galaxy effective radius r_e obtained from the HST samples of ~190,000 galaxies at z=0-10. Our HST samples consist of 176,152 photo-z galaxies at z=0-6 from the 3D-HST+CANDELS catalogue and 10,454 LBGs at z=4-10 identified in CANDELS, HUDF09/12, and HFF parallel fields, providing the largest data set to date for galaxy size evolution studies. We derive r_e with the same technique over the wide-redshift range of z=0-10, evaluating the optical-to-UV morphological K-correction and the selection bias of photo-z galaxies+LBGs as well as the cosmological surface brightness dimming effect. We find that r_e values at a given luminosity significantly decrease towards high-z, regardless of statistics choices. For star-forming galaxies, there is no evolution of the power-law slope of the size-luminosity relation and the median Sersic index (n~1.5). Moreover, the r_e-distribution is well represented by log-normal functions whose standard deviation \sigma_{\ln{r_e}} does not show significant evolution within the range of \sigma_{\ln{r_e}}~0.45-0.75. We calculate the stellar-to-halo size ratio from our r_e measurements and the dark-matter halo masses estimated from the abundance matching study, and obtain a nearly constant value of r_e/r_vir=1.0-3.5% at z=0-8. The combination of the r_e-distribution shape+standard deviation, the constant r_e/r_vir, and n~1.5 suggests a picture that typical high-z star-forming galaxies have disk-like stellar components in a sense of dynamics and morphology over cosmic time of z~0-6. If high-z star-forming galaxies are truly dominated by disks, the r_e/r_vir value and the disk formation model indicate that the specific angular momentum of the disk normalized by the host halo is j_d/m_d=0.5-1. These are statistical results for galaxies’ major stellar components, and the detailed study of clumpy sub-components is presented in the paper II.

Precision reconstruction of the dark matter-neutrino relative velocity from N-body simulations

Discovering the mass of neutrinos is a principle goal in high energy physics and cosmology. In addition to cosmological measurements based on two-point statistics, the neutrino mass can also be estimated by observations of neutrino wakes resulting from the relative motion between dark matter and neutrinos. Such a detection relies on an accurate reconstruction of the dark matter-neutrino relative velocity which is affected by non-linear structure growth and galaxy bias. We investigate our ability to reconstruct this relative velocity using large N-body simulations where we evolve neutrinos as distinct particles alongside the dark matter. We find that the dark matter velocity power spectrum is overpredicted by linear theory whereas the neutrino velocity power spectrum is underpredicted. The magnitude of the relative velocity observed in the simulations is found to be lower than what is predicted in linear theory. Since neither the dark matter nor the neutrino velocity fields are directly observable from galaxy or 21 cm surveys, we test the accuracy of a reconstruction algorithm based on halo density fields and linear theory. Assuming prior knowledge of the halo bias, we find that the reconstructed relative velocities are highly correlated with the simulated ones with correlation coefficients of 0.94, 0.93, 0.91 and 0.88 for neutrinos of mass 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 eV. We confirm that the relative velocity field reconstructed from large scale structure observations such as galaxy or 21 cm surveys can be accurate in direction and, with appropriate scaling, magnitude.

On Higuchi Ghosts and Gradient Instabilities in Bimetric Gravity

We discuss the conditions to satisfy the Higuchi bound and to avoid gradient instabilities in the scalar sector for cosmological solutions in singly coupled bimetric gravity theories. We find that in expanding universes the ratio of the scale factors of the reference and observable metric has to increase at all times. This automatically implies a ghost-free helicity-2 sector and enforces a phantom Dark Energy. Furthermore, the condition for the absence of gradient instabilities in the scalar sector will be analyzed. Finally, we discuss whether cosmological solutions, including exotic evolutions like bouncing cosmologies, can exist, in which both the Higuchi ghost and scalar instabilities are absent at all times.

On Higuchi Ghosts and Gradient Instabilities in Bimetric Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the conditions to satisfy the Higuchi bound and to avoid gradient instabilities in the scalar sector for cosmological solutions in singly coupled bimetric gravity theories. We find that in expanding universes the ratio of the scale factors of the reference and observable metric has to increase at all times. This automatically implies a ghost-free helicity-2 sector and enforces a phantom Dark Energy. Furthermore, the condition for the absence of gradient instabilities in the scalar sector will be analyzed. Finally, we discuss whether cosmological solutions, including exotic evolutions like bouncing cosmologies, can exist, in which both the Higuchi ghost and scalar instabilities are absent at all times.

On Higuchi Ghosts and Gradient Instabilities in Bimetric Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We discuss the conditions to satisfy the Higuchi bound and to avoid gradient instabilities in the scalar sector for cosmological solutions in singly coupled bimetric gravity theories. We find that in expanding universes the ratio of the scale factors of the reference and observable metric has to increase at all times. This automatically implies a ghost-free helicity-2 sector and enforces a phantom Dark Energy. Furthermore, the condition for the absence of gradient instabilities in the scalar sector will be analyzed. Finally, we discuss whether cosmological solutions, including exotic evolutions like bouncing cosmologies, can exist, in which both the Higuchi ghost and scalar instabilities are absent at all times.

Constraints on The Dark Energy Equation of State And The Deceleration Parameter From Recent Cosmic Observations [Cross-Listing]

We study the constraints on dark energy equation of state $\omega^{X}$ and the deceleration parameter $q$ from the recent observational data including Hubble data and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation by using a model-independent deceleration parameter $q(z)=1/2-a/(1+z)^b$ and dark energy equation of state $\omega^{X}=\omega_{0}+\omega_{1}z/(1+z)$ in the scope of anisotropic Bianchi type I space-time. For the cases of Hubble dataset, CMB data, and their combination, our results indicate that the constraints on transition redshift $z_{\ast}$ are $0.62^{+1.45}_{-0.56}$, $0.34^{+0.13}_{-0.06}$, and $0.60^{+0.20}_{-0.10}$ respectively.

Constraints on The Dark Energy Equation of State And The Deceleration Parameter From Recent Cosmic Observations

We study the constraints on dark energy equation of state $\omega^{X}$ and the deceleration parameter $q$ from the recent observational data including Hubble data and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation by using a model-independent deceleration parameter $q(z)=1/2-a/(1+z)^b$ and dark energy equation of state $\omega^{X}=\omega_{0}+\omega_{1}z/(1+z)$ in the scope of anisotropic Bianchi type I space-time. For the cases of Hubble dataset, CMB data, and their combination, our results indicate that the constraints on transition redshift $z_{\ast}$ are $0.62^{+1.45}_{-0.56}$, $0.34^{+0.13}_{-0.06}$, and $0.60^{+0.20}_{-0.10}$ respectively.

Lorentz-violating inflationary magnetogenesis [Cross-Listing]

A non-conformally invariant coupling between the inflaton and the photon in the minimal Lorentz-violating standard model extension is analyzed. For specific forms of the Lorentz-violating background tensor, the strong coupling and backreaction problems of magnetogenesis in de Sitter inflation with scale $\sim 10^{16}$GeV are evaded, the electromagnetic-induced primordial spectra of (Gaussian and non-Gaussian) scalar and tensor curvature perturbations are compatible with cosmic microwave background observations, and the inflation-produced magnetic field directly accounts for cosmic magnetic fields.

Lorentz-violating inflationary magnetogenesis

A non-conformally invariant coupling between the inflaton and the photon in the minimal Lorentz-violating standard model extension is analyzed. For specific forms of the Lorentz-violating background tensor, the strong coupling and backreaction problems of magnetogenesis in de Sitter inflation with scale $\sim 10^{16}$GeV are evaded, the electromagnetic-induced primordial spectra of (Gaussian and non-Gaussian) scalar and tensor curvature perturbations are compatible with cosmic microwave background observations, and the inflation-produced magnetic field directly accounts for cosmic magnetic fields.

Equation of state of dark energy in f(R) gravity [Cross-Listing]

f(R) gravity is one of the simplest generalizations of general relativity, which may explain accelerated cosmic expansion without introducing a cosmological constant. Transformed into the Einstein frame, a new scalar degree of freedom appears and it couples with matter fields. In order for f(R) theories to pass the local tests of general relativity, it has been known that the chameleon mechanism with a so-called thin-shell solution must operate. If the thin-shell constraint is applied to a cosmological situation, it has been claimed that the equation of state parameter of dark energy w must be extremely close to -1. We argue this is due to incorrect use of the Poisson’s equation which is valid only in the static case. By solving the correct Klein-Gordon equation perturbatively, we show that a thin-shell solution exists even if w deviates from -1 appreciably.

Equation of state of dark energy in f(R) gravity

f(R) gravity is one of the simplest generalizations of general relativity, which may explain accelerated cosmic expansion without introducing a cosmological constant. Transformed into the Einstein frame, a new scalar degree of freedom appears and it couples with matter fields. In order for f(R) theories to pass the local tests of general relativity, it has been known that the chameleon mechanism with a so-called thin-shell solution must operate. If the thin-shell constraint is applied to a cosmological situation, it has been claimed that the equation of state parameter of dark energy w must be extremely close to -1. We argue this is due to incorrect use of the Poisson’s equation which is valid only in the static case. By solving the correct Klein-Gordon equation perturbatively, we show that a thin-shell solution exists even if w deviates from -1 appreciably.

f(R) gravity on non-linear scales: The post-Friedmann expansion and the vector potential

Many modified gravity theories are under consideration in cosmology as the source of the accelerated expansion of the universe and linear perturbation theory, valid on the largest scales, has been examined in many of these models. However, smaller non-linear scales offer a richer phenomenology with which to constrain modified gravity theories. Here, we consider the Hu-Sawicki form of $f(R)$ gravity and apply the post-Friedmann approach to derive the leading order equations for non-linear scales, i.e. the equations valid in the Newtonian-like regime. We reproduce the standard equations for the scalar field, gravitational slip and the modified Poisson equation in a coherent framework. In addition, we derive the equation for the leading order correction to the Newtonian regime, the vector potential. We measure this vector potential from $f(R)$ N-body simulations at redshift zero and one, for two values of the $f_{R_0}$ parameter. We find that the vector potential at redshift zero in $f(R)$ gravity can be close to 50\% larger than in GR on small scales for $|f_{R_0}|=1.289\times10^{-5}$, although this is less for larger scales, earlier times and smaller values of the $f_{R_0}$ parameter. Similarly to in GR, the small amplitude of this vector potential suggests that the Newtonian approximation is highly accurate for $f(R)$ gravity, and also that the non-linear cosmological behaviour of $f(R)$ gravity can be completely described by just the scalar potentials and the $f(R)$ field.

f(R) gravity on non-linear scales: The post-Friedmann expansion and the vector potential [Cross-Listing]

Many modified gravity theories are under consideration in cosmology as the source of the accelerated expansion of the universe and linear perturbation theory, valid on the largest scales, has been examined in many of these models. However, smaller non-linear scales offer a richer phenomenology with which to constrain modified gravity theories. Here, we consider the Hu-Sawicki form of $f(R)$ gravity and apply the post-Friedmann approach to derive the leading order equations for non-linear scales, i.e. the equations valid in the Newtonian-like regime. We reproduce the standard equations for the scalar field, gravitational slip and the modified Poisson equation in a coherent framework. In addition, we derive the equation for the leading order correction to the Newtonian regime, the vector potential. We measure this vector potential from $f(R)$ N-body simulations at redshift zero and one, for two values of the $f_{R_0}$ parameter. We find that the vector potential at redshift zero in $f(R)$ gravity can be close to 50\% larger than in GR on small scales for $|f_{R_0}|=1.289\times10^{-5}$, although this is less for larger scales, earlier times and smaller values of the $f_{R_0}$ parameter. Similarly to in GR, the small amplitude of this vector potential suggests that the Newtonian approximation is highly accurate for $f(R)$ gravity, and also that the non-linear cosmological behaviour of $f(R)$ gravity can be completely described by just the scalar potentials and the $f(R)$ field.

Falsifying leptogenesis for a TeV scale $W^{\pm}_{R}$ at the LHC [Cross-Listing]

We study the left-right symmetric extensions of the Standard Model (LRSM) and point out that the discovery of a right-handed charged gauge boson $W_R^\pm$ with mass in the TeV range will have profound consequences for leptogenesis. We consider the LRSM with both triplet and doublet Higgs scalars, and in both the cases we find that if the $W_R^\pm$ with mass of around a few TeV is found, for example through a signal of two leptons and two jets that has been reported by CMS to have a 2.8$\sigma$ local excess over the Standard Model background at the LHC, then it will rule out all possibilities of leptogenesis. In that case, the baryon asymmetry of the universe has to be generated after the electroweak phase transition and from the baryon number violation that can give rise to neutron-antineutron oscillation or ($B – L$) violating proton decay.

Falsifying leptogenesis for a TeV scale $W^{\pm}_{R}$ at the LHC

We study the left-right symmetric extensions of the Standard Model (LRSM) and point out that the discovery of a right-handed charged gauge boson $W_R^\pm$ with mass in the TeV range will have profound consequences for leptogenesis. We consider the LRSM with both triplet and doublet Higgs scalars, and in both the cases we find that if the $W_R^\pm$ with mass of around a few TeV is found, for example through a signal of two leptons and two jets that has been reported by CMS to have a 2.8$\sigma$ local excess over the Standard Model background at the LHC, then it will rule out all possibilities of leptogenesis. In that case, the baryon asymmetry of the universe has to be generated after the electroweak phase transition and from the baryon number violation that can give rise to neutron-antineutron oscillation or ($B – L$) violating proton decay.

A Multi-Wavelength Mass Analysis of RCS2 J232727.6-020437, a ~3x10$^{15}$M$_{\odot}$ Galaxy Cluster at z=0.7

We present an initial study of the mass and evolutionary state of a massive and distant cluster, RCS2 J232727.6-020437. This cluster, at z=0.6986, is the richest cluster discovered in the RCS2 project. The mass measurements presented in this paper are derived from all possible mass proxies: X-ray measurements, weak-lensing shear, strong lensing, Sunyaev Zel’dovich effect decrement, the velocity distribution of cluster member galaxies, and galaxy richness. While each of these observables probe the mass of the cluster at a different radius, they all indicate that RCS2 J232727.6-020437 is among the most massive clusters at this redshift, with an estimated mass of M_200 ~3 x10^15 h^-1 Msun. In this paper, we demonstrate that the various observables are all reasonably consistent with each other to within their uncertainties. RCS2 J232727.6-020437 appears to be well relaxed — with circular and concentric X-ray isophotes, with a cool core, and no indication of significant substructure in extensive galaxy velocity data.

Natural inflation and moduli stabilization in heterotic orbifolds

We study moduli stabilization in combination with inflation in heterotic orbifold compactifications in the light of a large Hubble scale and the favored tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \approx 0.05$. To account for a trans-Planckian field range we implement aligned natural inflation. Although there is only one universal axion in heterotic constructions, further axions from the geometric moduli can be used for alignment and inflation. We argue that such an alignment is rather generic on orbifolds, since all non-perturbative terms are determined by modular weights of the involved fields and the Dedekind $\eta$ function. We present two setups inspired by the mini-landscape models of the $\mathbb Z_{6-\text{II}}$ orbifold which realize aligned inflation and stabilization of the relevant moduli. One has a supersymmetric vacuum after inflation, while the other includes a gaugino condensate which breaks supersymmetry at a high scale.

Natural inflation and moduli stabilization in heterotic orbifolds [Cross-Listing]

We study moduli stabilization in combination with inflation in heterotic orbifold compactifications in the light of a large Hubble scale and the favored tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \approx 0.05$. To account for a trans-Planckian field range we implement aligned natural inflation. Although there is only one universal axion in heterotic constructions, further axions from the geometric moduli can be used for alignment and inflation. We argue that such an alignment is rather generic on orbifolds, since all non-perturbative terms are determined by modular weights of the involved fields and the Dedekind $\eta$ function. We present two setups inspired by the mini-landscape models of the $\mathbb Z_{6-\text{II}}$ orbifold which realize aligned inflation and stabilization of the relevant moduli. One has a supersymmetric vacuum after inflation, while the other includes a gaugino condensate which breaks supersymmetry at a high scale.

Natural inflation and moduli stabilization in heterotic orbifolds [Cross-Listing]

We study moduli stabilization in combination with inflation in heterotic orbifold compactifications in the light of a large Hubble scale and the favored tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \approx 0.05$. To account for a trans-Planckian field range we implement aligned natural inflation. Although there is only one universal axion in heterotic constructions, further axions from the geometric moduli can be used for alignment and inflation. We argue that such an alignment is rather generic on orbifolds, since all non-perturbative terms are determined by modular weights of the involved fields and the Dedekind $\eta$ function. We present two setups inspired by the mini-landscape models of the $\mathbb Z_{6-\text{II}}$ orbifold which realize aligned inflation and stabilization of the relevant moduli. One has a supersymmetric vacuum after inflation, while the other includes a gaugino condensate which breaks supersymmetry at a high scale.

Strong Optimized Conservative Fermi-LAT Constraints on Dark Matter Models from the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

We set conservative, robust constraints on the annihilation and decay of dark matter into various Standard Model final states under various assumptions about the distribution of the dark matter in the Milky Way halo. We use the inclusive photon spectrum observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope through its main instrument, the Large-Area Telescope (LAT). We use simulated data to first find the "optimal" regions of interest in the gamma-ray sky, where the expected dark matter signal is largest compared with the expected astrophysical foregrounds. We then require the predicted dark matter signal to be less than the observed photon counts in the a priori optimal regions. This yields a very conservative constraint as we do not attempt to model or subtract astrophysical foregrounds. The resulting limits are competitive with other existing limits, and, for some final states with cuspy dark-matter distributions in the Galactic Center region, disfavor the typical cross section required during freeze-out for a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) to obtain the observed relic abundance.

Strong Optimized Conservative Fermi-LAT Constraints on Dark Matter Models from the Inclusive Photon Spectrum [Cross-Listing]

We set conservative, robust constraints on the annihilation and decay of dark matter into various Standard Model final states under various assumptions about the distribution of the dark matter in the Milky Way halo. We use the inclusive photon spectrum observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope through its main instrument, the Large-Area Telescope (LAT). We use simulated data to first find the "optimal" regions of interest in the gamma-ray sky, where the expected dark matter signal is largest compared with the expected astrophysical foregrounds. We then require the predicted dark matter signal to be less than the observed photon counts in the a priori optimal regions. This yields a very conservative constraint as we do not attempt to model or subtract astrophysical foregrounds. The resulting limits are competitive with other existing limits, and, for some final states with cuspy dark-matter distributions in the Galactic Center region, disfavor the typical cross section required during freeze-out for a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) to obtain the observed relic abundance.

Photon underproduction crisis: Are QSOs sufficient to resolve it?

We investigate the recent claim of ‘photon underproduction crisis’ by Kollmeier et al. (2014) which suggests that the known sources of ultra-violet (UV) radiation may not be sufficient to generate the inferred hydrogen photoionization rate ($\Gamma_{\rm HI}$) in the low redshift inter-galactic medium. Using the updated QSO emissivities from the recent studies and our radiative transfer code developed to estimate the UV background, we show that the QSO contribution to $\Gamma_{\rm HI}$ is higher by a factor ~2 as compared to the previous estimates. Using self-consistently computed combinations of star formation rate density and dust attenuation, we show that a typical UV escape fraction of 4% from star forming galaxies should be sufficient to explain the inferred $\Gamma_{\rm HI}$ by Kollmeier et al. (2014). Interestingly, we find that the contribution from QSOs alone can explain the recently inferred $\Gamma_{\rm HI}$ by Shull et al. (2015) which used the same observational data but different simulation. Therefore, we conclude that the crisis is not as severe as it was perceived before and there seems no need to look for alternate explanations such as low luminosity hidden QSOs or decaying dark matter particles.

Innermost stable circular orbits of spinning test particles in Schwarzschild and Kerr space-times [Cross-Listing]

We consider the motion of classical spinning test particles in Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics and investigate innermost stable circular orbits (ISCO). The main goal of this work is to find analytically the small-spin corrections for the parameters of ISCO (radius, total angular momentum, energy) of spinning test particles in the case of vectors of black hole spin, particle spin and orbital angular momentum being collinear to each other. We analytically derive the small-spin linear corrections for arbitrary Kerr parameter $a$. The cases of Schwarzschild, slowly rotating and extreme Kerr black hole are considered in details. For a slowly rotating black hole the ISCO parameters are obtained up to quadratic in $a$ and particle’s spin $s$ terms. From the formulae obtained it is seen that the spin-orbital coupling has attractive character when spin and angular momentum are parallel and repulsive when they are antiparallel. For the case of the extreme Kerr black hole with co-rotating particle we succeed to find the exact (on spin) analytical solution for the limiting ISCO parameters. It has been shown that the limiting value of ISCO radius does not depend on the particle’s spin. We have also considered circular orbits of arbitrary radius and have found small-spin linear corrections for the total angular momentum and energy at given radius. System of equations for numerical calculation of ISCO parameters for arbitrary $a$ and $s$ is also explicitly written.

 

You need to log in to vote

The blog owner requires users to be logged in to be able to vote for this post.

Alternatively, if you do not have an account yet you can create one here.

Powered by Vote It Up

^ Return to the top of page ^