Recent Postings from Cosmology and Extragalactic

CMB and BAO constraints for an induced gravity dark energy model with a quartic potential

We study the predictions for structure formation in an induced gravity dark energy model with a quartic potential. By developing a dedicated Einstein-Boltzmann code, we study self-consistently the dynamics of homogeneous cosmology and of linear perturbations without using any parametrization. By evolving linear perturbations with initial conditions in the radiation era, we accurately recover the quasi-static analytic approximation in the matter dominated era. We use Planck 2013 data and a compilation of baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) data to constrain the coupling $\gamma$ to the Ricci curvature and the other cosmological parameters. By connecting the gravitational constant in the Einstein equation to the one measured in a Cavendish-like experiment, we find $\gamma < 0.0012$ at 95% CL with Planck 2013 and BAO data. This is the tightest cosmological constraint on $\gamma$ and on the corresponding derived post-Newtonian parameters. Because of a degeneracy between $\gamma$ and the Hubble constant $H_0$, we show how larger values for $\gamma$ are allowed, but not preferred at a significant statistical level, when local measurements of $H_0$ are combined in the analysis with Planck 2013 data.

The Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey (WAVES)

The "Wide Area VISTA Extra-galactic Survey" (WAVES) is a 4MOST Consortium Design Reference Survey which will use the VISTA/4MOST facility to spectroscopically survey ~2million galaxies to $r_{\rm AB} < 22$ mag. WAVES consists of two interlocking galaxy surveys ("WAVES-Deep" and "WAVES-Wide"), providing the next two steps beyond the highly successful 1M galaxy Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 250k Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. WAVES will enable an unprecedented study of the distribution and evolution of mass, energy, and structures extending from 1-kpc dwarf galaxies in the local void to the morphologies of 200-Mpc filaments at $z\sim1$. A key aim of both surveys will be to compare comprehensive empirical observations of the spatial properties of galaxies, groups, and filaments, against state-of-the-art numerical simulations to distinguish between various Dark Matter models.

A giant ring-like structure at 0.78<z<0.86 displayed by GRBs

According to the cosmological principle, Universal large-scale structure is homogeneous and isotropic. The observable Universe, however, shows complex structures even on very large scales. The recent discoveries of structures significantly exceeding the transition scale of 370 Mpc pose a challenge to the cosmological principle. We report here the discovery of the largest regular formation in the observable Universe; a ring with a diameter of 1720 Mpc, displayed by 9 gamma ray bursts (GRBs), exceeding by a factor of five the transition scale to the homogeneous and isotropic distribution. The ring has a major diameter of $43^o$ and a minor diameter of $30^o$ at a distance of 2770 Mpc in the 0.78<z<0.86 redshift range, with a probability of $2\times 10^{-6}$ of being the result of a random fluctuation in the GRB count rate. Evidence suggests that this feature is the projection of a shell onto the plane of the sky. Voids and string-like formations are common outcomes of large-scale structure. However, these structures have maximum sizes of 150 Mpc, which are an order of magnitude smaller than the observed GRB ring diameter. Evidence in support of the shell interpretation requires that temporal information of the transient GRBs be included in the analysis. This ring-shaped feature is large enough to contradict the cosmological principle. The physical mechanism responsible for causing it is unknown.

Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A study of energy, mass, and structure (1kpc-1Mpc) at z < 0.3

The GAMA survey has now completed its spectroscopic campaign of over 250,000 galaxies ($r<19.8$mag), and will shortly complete the assimilation of the complementary panchromatic imaging data from GALEX, VST, VISTA, WISE, and Herschel. In the coming years the GAMA fields will be observed by the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder allowing a complete study of the stellar, dust, and gas mass constituents of galaxies within the low-z Universe ($z<0.3$). The science directive is to study the distribution of mass, energy, and structure on kpc-Mpc scales over a 3billion year timeline. This is being pursued both as an empirical study in its own right, as well as providing a benchmark resource against which the outputs from numerical simulations can be compared. GAMA has three particularly compelling aspects which set it apart: completeness, selection, and panchromatic coverage. The very high redshift completeness ($\sim 98$\%) allows for extremely complete and robust pair and group catalogues; the simple selection ($r<19.8$mag) minimises the selection bias and simplifies its management; and the panchromatic coverage, 0.2$\mu$m – 1m, enables studies of the complete energy distributions for individual galaxies, well defined sub-samples, and population assembles (either directly or via stacking techniques). For further details and data releases see: http://www.gama-survey.org/

The Electroweak Vacuum Angle at Finite Temperature and Implications for Baryogenesis [Cross-Listing]

We initiate a study of cosmological implications of sphaleron-mediated CP-violation arising from the electroweak vacuum angle under the reasonable assumption that the semiclassical suppression is lifted at finite temperature. In this article, we explore the implications for existing scenarios of baryogenesis. Many compelling models of baryogenesis rely on electroweak sphalerons to relax a $(B+L)$ charge asymmetry. Depending on the sign of the CP-violating parameter, it is shown that the erasure of positive $(B+L)$ will proceed more or less quickly than the relaxation of negative $(B+L)$. This is a higher order effect in the kinetic equation for baryon number, which we derive here through order $n_{B+L}^2$. Its impact on known baryogenesis models therefore seems minor, since phenomenologically $n_{B+L}$ is much smaller than the entropy density. However, there remains an intriguing unexplored possibility that baryogenesis could be achieved with the vacuum angle alone providing the required CP-violation.

The Electroweak Vacuum Angle at Finite Temperature and Implications for Baryogenesis

We initiate a study of cosmological implications of sphaleron-mediated CP-violation arising from the electroweak vacuum angle under the reasonable assumption that the semiclassical suppression is lifted at finite temperature. In this article, we explore the implications for existing scenarios of baryogenesis. Many compelling models of baryogenesis rely on electroweak sphalerons to relax a $(B+L)$ charge asymmetry. Depending on the sign of the CP-violating parameter, it is shown that the erasure of positive $(B+L)$ will proceed more or less quickly than the relaxation of negative $(B+L)$. This is a higher order effect in the kinetic equation for baryon number, which we derive here through order $n_{B+L}^2$. Its impact on known baryogenesis models therefore seems minor, since phenomenologically $n_{B+L}$ is much smaller than the entropy density. However, there remains an intriguing unexplored possibility that baryogenesis could be achieved with the vacuum angle alone providing the required CP-violation.

The Electroweak Vacuum Angle at Finite Temperature and Implications for Baryogenesis [Cross-Listing]

We initiate a study of cosmological implications of sphaleron-mediated CP-violation arising from the electroweak vacuum angle under the reasonable assumption that the semiclassical suppression is lifted at finite temperature. In this article, we explore the implications for existing scenarios of baryogenesis. Many compelling models of baryogenesis rely on electroweak sphalerons to relax a $(B+L)$ charge asymmetry. Depending on the sign of the CP-violating parameter, it is shown that the erasure of positive $(B+L)$ will proceed more or less quickly than the relaxation of negative $(B+L)$. This is a higher order effect in the kinetic equation for baryon number, which we derive here through order $n_{B+L}^2$. Its impact on known baryogenesis models therefore seems minor, since phenomenologically $n_{B+L}$ is much smaller than the entropy density. However, there remains an intriguing unexplored possibility that baryogenesis could be achieved with the vacuum angle alone providing the required CP-violation.

Theoretical Estimate of the Sensitivity of the CUORE Detector to Solar Axions

In this paper we calculate the potential sensitivity of the CUORE detector to axions produced in the Sun through the Primakoff process and detected by coherent Bragg conversion by the inverse Primakoff process. The conversion rate is calculated using density functional theory for the electron density and realistic expectations for the energy resolution and background of CUORE. Monte Carlo calculations for $5~$y$\times741~$kg=$3705~$kg y of exposure are analyzed using time correlation of individual events with the theoretical time-dependent counting rate and lead to an expected limit on the axion-photon coupling $g_{a\gamma\gamma}<3.83\times 10^{-10}~GeV^{-1}$ for axion masses less than several eV.

Theoretical Estimate of the Sensitivity of the CUORE Detector to Solar Axions [Cross-Listing]

In this paper we calculate the potential sensitivity of the CUORE detector to axions produced in the Sun through the Primakoff process and detected by coherent Bragg conversion by the inverse Primakoff process. The conversion rate is calculated using density functional theory for the electron density and realistic expectations for the energy resolution and background of CUORE. Monte Carlo calculations for $5~$y$\times741~$kg=$3705~$kg y of exposure are analyzed using time correlation of individual events with the theoretical time-dependent counting rate and lead to an expected limit on the axion-photon coupling $g_{a\gamma\gamma}<3.83\times 10^{-10}~GeV^{-1}$ for axion masses less than several eV.

Solar System Constraints on Disformal Gravity Theories [Cross-Listing]

Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to $\mathcal{M} \gtrsim 100$ eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology.

Solar System Constraints on Disformal Gravity Theories

Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to $\mathcal{M} \gtrsim 100$ eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology.

A divergence free parametrization of deceleration parameter for scalar field dark energy [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, we have considered a spatially flat FRW universe filled with pressureless matter and dark energy. We have considered a phenomenological parametrization of the deceleration parameter $q(z)$ and from this we have reconstructed the equation of state for dark energy $\omega_{\phi}(z)$. Using the combination of datasets (SN Ia + Hubble + BAO/CMB), we have constrained the transition redshift $z_t$ (at which the universe switches from a decelerating to an accelerating phase) and have found the best fit value of $z_t$. We have also found that the reconstructed results of $q(z)$ and $\omega_{\phi}(z)$ are in good agreement with the recent observations. The potential term for the present toy model is found to be functionally similar to a Higgs potential.

A divergence free parametrization of deceleration parameter for scalar field dark energy

In this paper, we have considered a spatially flat FRW universe filled with pressureless matter and dark energy. We have considered a phenomenological parametrization of the deceleration parameter $q(z)$ and from this we have reconstructed the equation of state for dark energy $\omega_{\phi}(z)$. Using the combination of datasets (SN Ia + Hubble + BAO/CMB), we have constrained the transition redshift $z_t$ (at which the universe switches from a decelerating to an accelerating phase) and have found the best fit value of $z_t$. We have also found that the reconstructed results of $q(z)$ and $\omega_{\phi}(z)$ are in good agreement with the recent observations. The potential term for the present toy model is found to be functionally similar to a Higgs potential.

Evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields: From Generation Till Today

In this presentation we summarize our previous results concerning the evolution of primordial magnetic fields with and without helicity during the expansion of the Universe. We address different magnetogenesis scenarios such as inflation, electroweak and QCD phase transitions magnetogenesis. A high Reynolds number in the early Universe ensures strong coupling between magnetic field and fluid motions. After generation the subsequent dynamics of the magnetic field is governed by decaying hydromagnetic turbulence. We claim that primordial magnetic fields can be considered as a seeds for observed magnetic fields in galaxies and clusters. Magnetic field strength bounds obtained in our analysis are consistent with the upper and lower limits of extragalactic magnetic fields.

ANNz2 - Photometric redshift and probability density function estimation using machine learning methods

We present ANNz2, a new implementation of the public software for photometric redshift (photo-z) estimation of Collister and Lahav (2004). Large photometric galaxy surveys are important for cosmological studies, and in particular for characterizing the nature of dark energy. The success of such surveys greatly depends on the ability to measure photo-zs, based on limited spectral data. ANNz2 utilizes multiple machine learning methods, such as artificial neural networks, boosted decision/regression trees and k-nearest neighbours. The objective of the algorithm is to dynamically optimize the performance of the photo-z estimation, and to properly derive the associated uncertainties. In addition to single-value solutions, the new code also generates full probability density functions (PDFs) in two different ways. In addition, estimators are incorporated to mitigate possible problems of spectroscopic training samples which are not representative or are incomplete. ANNz2 is also adapted to provide optimized solutions to general classification problems, such as star/galaxy separation. We illustrate the functionality of the code using data from the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. The code is available for download at https://github.com/IftachSadeh/ANNZ

Variation of the baryon-to-photon ratio due to decay of dark matter particles

The influence of dark matter particle decay on the baryon-to-photon ratio has been studied for different cosmological epochs. We consider different parameter values of dark matter particles such as mass, lifetime, the relative fraction of dark matter particles. It is shown that the modern value of the dark matter density $\Omega_{\rm CDM}=0.26$ is enough to lead to variation of the baryon-to-photon ratio up to $\Delta \eta / \eta \sim 0.01 \div 1$ for decays of the particles with masses 10 GeV $\div$ 1 TeV. However, such processes can also be accompanied by emergence of an excessive gamma ray flux. The observational data on the diffuse gamma ray background are used to making constraints on the dark matter decay models and on the maximum possible variation of the baryon-to-photon ratio $\Delta\eta/\eta\lesssim10^{-5}$. Detection of such variation of the baryon density in future cosmological experiments can serve as a powerful means of studying properties of dark matter particles.

Dark matter, Mach's ether and the QCD vacuum [Cross-Listing]

Here is proposed the idea of linking the dark matter issue, (considered as a major problem of contemporary research in physics) with two other open theoretical questions, one, almost centenary about the existence of an unavoidable ether in general relativity agreeing with the Mach’s principle, and one more recent about the properties of the quantum vacuum of the quantum field theory of strong interactions, QuantumChromodynamics (QCD). According to this idea, on the one hand, dark matter and dark energy that, according to the current standard model of cosmology represent about 95% of the universe content, can be considered as two distinct forms of the Mach’s ether, and, on the other hand, dark matter, as a perfect fluid emerging from the QCD vacuum could be modeled as a Bose Einstein condensate.

Physical Dust Models for the Extinction toward Supernova 2014J in M82

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powerful cosmological "standardizable candles" and the most precise distance indicators. However, a limiting factor in their use for precision cosmology rests on our ability to correct for the dust extinction toward them. SN 2014J in the starburst galaxy M82, the closest detected SN~Ia in three decades, provides unparalleled opportunities to study the dust extinction toward an SN Ia. In order to derive the extinction as a function of wavelength, we model the color excesses toward SN 2014J, which are observationally derived over a wide wavelength range in terms of dust models consisting of a mixture of silicate and graphite. The resulting extinction laws steeply rise toward the far ultraviolet, even steeper than that of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We infer a visual extinction of $A_V \approx 1.9~\rm mag$, a reddening of $E(B-V)\approx1.1~ \rm mag$, and a total-to-selective extinction ratio of $R_V \approx 1.7$, consistent with that previously derived from photometric, spectroscopic, and polarimetric observations. The size distributions of the dust in the interstellar medium toward SN 2014J are skewed toward substantially smaller grains than that of the Milky Way and the SMC.

The formation history of massive cluster galaxies as revealed by CARLA

We use a sample of 37 of the densest clusters and protoclusters across $1.3 \le z \le 3.2$ from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) survey to study the formation of massive cluster galaxies. We use optical $i’$-band and infrared 3.6$\mu$m and 4.5$\mu$m images to statistically select sources within these protoclusters and measure their median observed colours; $\langle i’-[3.6] \rangle$. We find the abundance of massive galaxies within the protoclusters increases with decreasing redshift, suggesting these objects may form an evolutionary sequence, with the lower redshift clusters in the sample having similar properties to the descendants of the high redshift protoclusters. We find that the protocluster galaxies have an approximately unevolving observed-frame $i’-[3.6]$ colour across the examined redshift range. We compare the evolution of the $\langle i’-[3.6] \rangle$ colour of massive cluster galaxies with simplistic galaxy formation models. Taking the full cluster population into account, we show that the formation of stars within the majority of massive cluster galaxies occurs over at least 2Gyr, and peaks at $z \sim 2$-3. From the median $i’-[3.6]$ colours we cannot determine the star formation histories of individual galaxies, but their star formation must have been rapidly terminated to produce the observed red colours. Finally, we show that massive galaxies at $z>2$ must have assembled within 0.5Gyr of them forming a significant fraction of their stars. This means that few massive galaxies in $z>2$ protoclusters could have formed via dry mergers.

Predicted multiply-imaged X-ray AGNs in the XXL survey

We estimate the incidence of multiply-imaged AGNs among the optical counterparts of X-ray selected point-like sources in the XXL field. We also derive the expected statistical properties of this sample, such as the redshift distribution of the lensed sources and of the deflectors that lead to the formation of multiple images, modelling the deflectors using both spherical (SIS) and ellipsoidal (SIE) singular isothermal mass distributions. We further assume that the XXL survey sample has the same overall properties as the smaller XMM-COSMOS sample restricted to the same flux limits and taking into account the detection probability of the XXL survey. Among the X-ray sources with a flux in the [0.5-2] keV band larger than 3.0×10$^{-15}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and with optical counterparts brighter than an r-band magnitude of 25, we expect ~20 multiply-imaged sources. Out of these, ~16 should be detected if the search is made among the seeing-limited images of the X-ray AGN optical counterparts and only one of them should be composed of more than two lensed images. Finally, we study the impact of the cosmological model on the expected fraction of lensed sources.

Turbulent Amplification and Structure of the Intracluster Magnetic Field

We compare DNS calculations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence with the statistical properties of intra-cluster turbulence from the Matryoshka Run (Miniati 2014) and find remarkable similarities between their inertial ranges. This allowed us to use the time dependent statistical properties of intra-cluster turbulence to evaluate dynamo action in the intra-cluster medium, based on earlier results from numerically resolved nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamic turbulent dynamo (Beresnyak 2012). We argue that this approach is necessary (a) to properly normalize dynamo action to the available intra-cluster turbulent energy and (b) to overcome the limitations of low Re affecting current numerical models of the intra-cluster medium. We find that while the properties of intra-cluster magnetic field are largely insensitive to the value and origin of the seed field, the resulting values for the Alfven speed and the outer scale of the magnetic field are consistent with current observational estimates, basically confirming the idea that magnetic field in today’s galaxy clusters is a record of its past turbulent activity.

Initial Conditions for Imperfect Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

We discuss initial conditions for the recently proposed Imperfect Dark Matter (Modified Dust). We show that they are adiabatic under fairly moderate assumptions about the cosmological evolution of the Universe at the relevant times.

Initial Conditions for Imperfect Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

We discuss initial conditions for the recently proposed Imperfect Dark Matter (Modified Dust). We show that they are adiabatic under fairly moderate assumptions about the cosmological evolution of the Universe at the relevant times.

Initial Conditions for Imperfect Dark Matter

We discuss initial conditions for the recently proposed Imperfect Dark Matter (Modified Dust). We show that they are adiabatic under fairly moderate assumptions about the cosmological evolution of the Universe at the relevant times.

Cyclic universe from Loop Quantum Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We discuss how a cyclic model for the flat universe can be constructively derived from Loop Quantum Gravity. This model has a lower bounce, at small values of the scale factor, which shares many similarities with that of Loop Quantum Cosmology. We find that quantum gravity corrections can be also relevant at energy densities much smaller than the Planckian one and that they can induce an upper bounce at large values of the scale factor.

Cyclic universe from Loop Quantum Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We discuss how a cyclic model for the flat universe can be constructively derived from Loop Quantum Gravity. This model has a lower bounce, at small values of the scale factor, which shares many similarities with that of Loop Quantum Cosmology. We find that quantum gravity corrections can be also relevant at energy densities much smaller than the Planckian one and that they can induce an upper bounce at large values of the scale factor.

Cyclic universe from Loop Quantum Gravity

We discuss how a cyclic model for the flat universe can be constructively derived from Loop Quantum Gravity. This model has a lower bounce, at small values of the scale factor, which shares many similarities with that of Loop Quantum Cosmology. We find that quantum gravity corrections can be also relevant at energy densities much smaller than the Planckian one and that they can induce an upper bounce at large values of the scale factor.

Strong Candidate for AGN Feedback: VLT/X-shooter Observations of BALQSO SDSS J0831+0354

We measure the location and energetics of a SIV BALQSO outflow. This ouflow has a velocity of 10,800 km s$^{-1}$ and a kinetic luminosity of $10^{45.7}$ erg s$^{-1}$, which is 5.2% of the Eddington luminosity of the quasar. From collisional excitation models of the observed SIV$/$SIV* absorption troughs, we measure a hydrogen number density of $n_\mathrm{\scriptscriptstyle H}=10^{4.3}$ cm$^{-3}$, which allows us to determine that the outflow is located 110 pc from the quasar. Since SIV is formed in the same ionization phase as CIV, our results can be generalized to the ubiquitous CIV BALs. Our accumulated distance measurements suggest that observed BAL outflows are located much farther away from the central source than is generally assumed (0.01-0.1 pc).

The nature of voids: II. Tracing underdensities with biased galaxies

Cosmic voids may be very useful in testing fundamental aspects of cosmology. Yet observationally voids can only be seen as regions with a deficit of bright galaxies. To study how biased galaxies trace matter underdensities and how the properties of voids depend on those of the tracer galaxy population, we use a $\Lambda$CDM N-body simulation populated with mock galaxies based on the halo occupation distribution (HOD) model. We identify voids in these mocks using the ZOBOV void finder and measure their abundances, sizes, tracer densities, and dark matter content. To separate the effects of bias from those of sampling density, we do the same for voids traced by randomly down-sampled subsets of the dark matter particles in the simulation. We find that galaxy bias reduces the total number of voids by $\sim50\%$ and can dramatically change their size distribution. The matter content of voids in biased and unbiased tracers also differs. Using simulations to accurately estimate the cosmological constraints that can be obtained from voids therefore requires the use of realistic mock galaxy catalogues. We discuss aspects of the dark matter content of voids that can be deduced from properties of the tracer distribution, such as the void size and the minimum tracer number density. In particular we consider the compensation of the total mass deficit in voids and find that the distinction between over- and under-compensated voids is not a function of void size alone, as has previously been suggested. However, we find a simple linear relationship between the average density of tracers in the void and the total mass compensation on much larger scales. The existence of this linear relationship holds independent of the bias and sampling density of the tracers. This provides a universal tool to classify void environments and will be important for the use of voids in observational cosmology.

Downsizing from the point of view of merging model (preliminary discussion)

In four-particle scattering processes with transfer of mass, unlike mergers in which mass can only increase, mass of the most massive galaxies may be reduced. Elementary model describing such process is considered. In this way, it is supposed to explain observed phenomenon of downsizing when increasing of characteristic mass the heaviest galaxies over cosmological time replaces by its reduction.

Dynamics of Peccei-Quinn Breaking Field after Inflation and Axion Isocurvature Perturbations [Cross-Listing]

The Peccei-Quinn mechanism suffers from the problem of the isocurvature perturbations. The isocurvature perturbations are suppressed if the Peccei-Quinn breaking scale is large during inflation. The oscillation of the Peccei-Quinn breaking field after inflation, however, leads to the formation of domain walls due to the parametric resonance effect. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of the Peccei-Quinn breaking field after inflation in detail, and propose a model where the parametric resonance is ineffective and hence domain walls are not formed. We also discuss consistency of our model with supersymmetric theory.

Dynamics of Peccei-Quinn Breaking Field after Inflation and Axion Isocurvature Perturbations

The Peccei-Quinn mechanism suffers from the problem of the isocurvature perturbations. The isocurvature perturbations are suppressed if the Peccei-Quinn breaking scale is large during inflation. The oscillation of the Peccei-Quinn breaking field after inflation, however, leads to the formation of domain walls due to the parametric resonance effect. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of the Peccei-Quinn breaking field after inflation in detail, and propose a model where the parametric resonance is ineffective and hence domain walls are not formed. We also discuss consistency of our model with supersymmetric theory.

The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation [Cross-Listing]

In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau inflation, which suggests the use of Pad\’e approximants instead. We propose a novel method that provides analytic solutions of the flow equations for a given parametrization of the Hubble function. This method is illustrated in the Taylor and Pad\’e cases, for low order expansions. We then present the results of a full numerical treatment scanning larger order expansions, and compare these parametrizations in terms of convergence, prior dependence, predictivity and compatibility with the data. Finally, we highlight the implications for potential reconstruction methods.

The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau inflation, which suggests the use of Pad\’e approximants instead. We propose a novel method that provides analytic solutions of the flow equations for a given parametrization of the Hubble function. This method is illustrated in the Taylor and Pad\’e cases, for low order expansions. We then present the results of a full numerical treatment scanning larger order expansions, and compare these parametrizations in terms of convergence, prior dependence, predictivity and compatibility with the data. Finally, we highlight the implications for potential reconstruction methods.

The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation [Cross-Listing]

In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau inflation, which suggests the use of Pad\’e approximants instead. We propose a novel method that provides analytic solutions of the flow equations for a given parametrization of the Hubble function. This method is illustrated in the Taylor and Pad\’e cases, for low order expansions. We then present the results of a full numerical treatment scanning larger order expansions, and compare these parametrizations in terms of convergence, prior dependence, predictivity and compatibility with the data. Finally, we highlight the implications for potential reconstruction methods.

Modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld Gravity with a Trace Term

In this paper, a modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory with a pure trace term $g_{\mu\nu}R$ being added to the determinantal action is analysed from a cosmological point of view. It corresponds to the most general action constructed from a rank two tensor that contains up to first order terms in curvature. This term can equally be seen as a conformal factor multiplying the metric $g_{\mu\nu}$. This very interesting type of amendment has not been considered within the Palatini formalism despite the large amount of works on the Born-Infeld-inspired theory of gravity. This model can provide smooth bouncing solutions which were not allowed in the EiBI model for the same EiBI coupling. Most interestingly, for a radiation filled universe there are some regions of the parameter space that can naturally lead to a de Sitter inflationary stage without the need of any exotic matter field. Finally, in this model we discover a new type of cosmic "quasi-sudden" singularity, where the cosmic time derivative of the Hubble rate becomes very large but finite at a finite cosmic time.

Modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld Gravity with a Trace Term [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, a modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory with a pure trace term $g_{\mu\nu}R$ being added to the determinantal action is analysed from a cosmological point of view. It corresponds to the most general action constructed from a rank two tensor that contains up to first order terms in curvature. This term can equally be seen as a conformal factor multiplying the metric $g_{\mu\nu}$. This very interesting type of amendment has not been considered within the Palatini formalism despite the large amount of works on the Born-Infeld-inspired theory of gravity. This model can provide smooth bouncing solutions which were not allowed in the EiBI model for the same EiBI coupling. Most interestingly, for a radiation filled universe there are some regions of the parameter space that can naturally lead to a de Sitter inflationary stage without the need of any exotic matter field. Finally, in this model we discover a new type of cosmic "quasi-sudden" singularity, where the cosmic time derivative of the Hubble rate becomes very large but finite at a finite cosmic time.

Modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld Gravity with a Trace Term [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, a modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory with a pure trace term $g_{\mu\nu}R$ being added to the determinantal action is analysed from a cosmological point of view. It corresponds to the most general action constructed from a rank two tensor that contains up to first order terms in curvature. This term can equally be seen as a conformal factor multiplying the metric $g_{\mu\nu}$. This very interesting type of amendment has not been considered within the Palatini formalism despite the large amount of works on the Born-Infeld-inspired theory of gravity. This model can provide smooth bouncing solutions which were not allowed in the EiBI model for the same EiBI coupling. Most interestingly, for a radiation filled universe there are some regions of the parameter space that can naturally lead to a de Sitter inflationary stage without the need of any exotic matter field. Finally, in this model we discover a new type of cosmic "quasi-sudden" singularity, where the cosmic time derivative of the Hubble rate becomes very large but finite at a finite cosmic time.

Modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld Gravity with a Trace Term [Cross-Listing]

In this paper, a modified Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) theory with a pure trace term $g_{\mu\nu}R$ being added to the determinantal action is analysed from a cosmological point of view. It corresponds to the most general action constructed from a rank two tensor that contains up to first order terms in curvature. This term can equally be seen as a conformal factor multiplying the metric $g_{\mu\nu}$. This very interesting type of amendment has not been considered within the Palatini formalism despite the large amount of works on the Born-Infeld-inspired theory of gravity. This model can provide smooth bouncing solutions which were not allowed in the EiBI model for the same EiBI coupling. Most interestingly, for a radiation filled universe there are some regions of the parameter space that can naturally lead to a de Sitter inflationary stage without the need of any exotic matter field. Finally, in this model we discover a new type of cosmic "quasi-sudden" singularity, where the cosmic time derivative of the Hubble rate becomes very large but finite at a finite cosmic time.

Dust attenuation in z $\sim$ 1 galaxies from Herschel and 3D-HST H$\alpha$ measurements [Replacement]

We combined the spectroscopic information from the 3D-HST survey with the PEP/Herschel data to characterize the H\alpha dust attenuation properties of a sample of 79 normal star-forming galaxies at $0.7\leq z\leq1.5$ in the GOODS-S field. The sample was selected in the far-IR, at \lambda=100 and/or 160 \mu m, and only includes galaxies with a secure H\alpha detection (S/N>3). From the low resolution 3D-HST spectra we measured z and F(H\alpha) for the whole sample, rescaling the observed flux by a constant factor of 1.2 to remove the contamination by [NII]. The stellar masses, infrared and UV luminosities were derived from the SEDs by fitting multi-band data from GALEX near-UV to SPIRE500 \mu m. We derived the continuum extinction Estar(B-V) from both the IRX ratio and the UV-slope, and found an excellent agreement among them. Galaxies in the sample have 2.6×10^9$\leq$M*$\leq$3.5×10^11 Msun, intense infrared luminosity (L_IR>1.2×10^10 Lsun), high level of dust obscuration (0.1$\leq$Estar(B-V)$\leq$1.1) and strong H\alpha emission (typical observed fluxes Fobs(H\alpha)$\geq$4.1×10^-17 erg/s/cm2). The nebular extinction was estimated by comparing the observed SFR_H\alpha and the SFR_UV. We obtained f=Estar(B-V)/Eneb(B-V)=0.93$\pm$0.06, i.e. higher than the value measured in the local Universe. This result could be partially due to the adopted selection criteria, picking up the most obscured but also the H\alpha brightest sources. The derived dust correction produces a good agreement between H\alpha and IR+UV SFRs for objects with SFR$\gtrsim$20 Msun/yr and M*$\gtrsim$5×10^10 Msun, while sources with lower SFR and M* seem to require a smaller f-factor (i.e. higher H\alpha extinction correction). Our results then imply that for our sample the nebular and optical-UV extinctions are comparable and suggest that the f-factor is a function of both M* and SFR, according with previous studies.

Dust attenuation in z $\sim$ 1 galaxies from Herschel and 3D-HST H$\alpha$ measurements

We combined the spectroscopic information from the 3D-HST survey with the PEP/Herschel data to characterize the H\alpha dust attenuation properties of a sample of 79 normal star-forming galaxies at $0.7\leq z\leq1.5$ in the GOODS-S field. The sample was selected in the far-IR, at \lambda=100 and/or 160 \mu m, and only includes galaxies with a secure H\alpha detection (S/N>3). From the low resolution 3D-HST spectra we measured z and F(H\alpha) for the whole sample, rescaling the observed flux by a constant factor of 1.2 to remove the contamination by [NII]. The stellar masses, infrared and UV luminosities were derived from the SEDs by fitting multi-band data from GALEX near-UV to SPIRE500 \mu m. We derived the continuum extinction Estar(B-V) from both the IRX ratio and the UV-slope, and found an excellent agreement among them. Galaxies in the sample have 2.6×10^9$\leq$M*$\leq$3.5×10^11 Msun, intense infrared luminosity (L_IR>1.2×10^10 Lsun), high level of dust obscuration (0.1$\leq$Estar(B-V)$\leq$1.1) and strong H\alpha emission (typical observed fluxes Fobs(H\alpha)$\geq$4.1×10^-17 erg/s/cm2). The nebular extinction was estimated by comparing the observed SFR_H\alpha and the SFR_UV. We obtained f=Estar(B-V)/Eneb(B-V)=0.93$\pm$0.06, i.e. higher than the value measured in the local Universe. This result could be partially due to the adopted selection criteria, picking up the most obscured but also the H\alpha brightest sources. The derived dust correction produces a good agreement between H\alpha and IR+UV SFRs for objects with SFR$\gtrsim$20 Msun/yr and M*$\gtrsim$5×10^10 Msun, while sources with lower SFR and M* seem to require a smaller f-factor (i.e. higher H\alpha extinction correction). Our results then imply that for our sample the nebular and optical-UV extinctions are comparable and suggest that the f-factor is a function of both M* and SFR, according with previous studies.

Non-Gaussian Structure of B-mode Polarization after Delensing

The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large scales has been considered as a probe of gravitational waves from the cosmic inflation. Ongoing and future experiments will, however, suffer from contamination due to the B-modes of non-primordial origins, one of which is the lensing induced B-mode polarization. Subtraction of the lensing B-modes, usually referred to as delensing, will be required for further improvement of detection sensitivity of the gravitational waves. In such experiments, knowledge of statistical properties of the B-modes after delensing is indispensable to likelihood analysis particularly because the lensing B-modes are known to be non-Gaussian. In this paper, we study non-Gaussian structure of the delensed B-modes on large scales, comparing them with those of the lensing B-modes. In particular, we investigate the power spectrum correlation matrix and the probability distribution function (PDF) of the power spectrum amplitude. Assuming an experiment in which the quadratic delensing is an almost optimal method, we find that delensing reduces correlations of the lensing B-mode power spectra between different multipoles, and that the PDF of the power spectrum amplitude is well described as a normal distribution function with a variance larger than that in the case of a Gaussian field. These features are well captured by an analytic model based on the 4th order Edgeworth expansion. As a consequence of the non-Gaussianity, the constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio after delensing is degraded within approximately a few percent, which depends on the multipole range included in the analysis.

Tachyon inflation in the $N$--formalism [Cross-Listing]

We study tachyon inflation within the $N$–formalism, which takes a prescription for the small Hubble flow slow–roll parameter $\epsilon_1$ as a function of the large number of $e$-folds $N$. This leads to a classification of models through their behaviour at large-$N$. In addition to the perturbative $N$ class, we introduce the polynomial and exponential classes for the $\epsilon_1$ parameter. With this formalism we reconstruct a large number of potentials used previously in the literature for tachyon field inflation. We also obtain new families of potentials form the polynomial class. We characterize the realizations of Tachyon inflation by computing the usual cosmological observables at first and second order in the Hubble flow slow–roll parameters. This allows us to look at observable differences between tachyon and canonical scalar field inflation. The analysis of observables in light of the Planck 2015 data shows the viability of some of these models, mostly for certain realization of the polynomial and exponential classes.

Tachyon inflation in the $N$--formalism [Cross-Listing]

We study tachyon inflation within the $N$–formalism, which takes a prescription for the small Hubble flow slow–roll parameter $\epsilon_1$ as a function of the large number of $e$-folds $N$. This leads to a classification of models through their behaviour at large-$N$. In addition to the perturbative $N$ class, we introduce the polynomial and exponential classes for the $\epsilon_1$ parameter. With this formalism we reconstruct a large number of potentials used previously in the literature for tachyon field inflation. We also obtain new families of potentials form the polynomial class. We characterize the realizations of Tachyon inflation by computing the usual cosmological observables at first and second order in the Hubble flow slow–roll parameters. This allows us to look at observable differences between tachyon and canonical scalar field inflation. The analysis of observables in light of the Planck 2015 data shows the viability of some of these models, mostly for certain realization of the polynomial and exponential classes.

Tachyon inflation in the $N$--formalism

We study tachyon inflation within the $N$–formalism, which takes a prescription for the small Hubble flow slow–roll parameter $\epsilon_1$ as a function of the large number of $e$-folds $N$. This leads to a classification of models through their behaviour at large-$N$. In addition to the perturbative $N$ class, we introduce the polynomial and exponential classes for the $\epsilon_1$ parameter. With this formalism we reconstruct a large number of potentials used previously in the literature for tachyon field inflation. We also obtain new families of potentials form the polynomial class. We characterize the realizations of Tachyon inflation by computing the usual cosmological observables at first and second order in the Hubble flow slow–roll parameters. This allows us to look at observable differences between tachyon and canonical scalar field inflation. The analysis of observables in light of the Planck 2015 data shows the viability of some of these models, mostly for certain realization of the polynomial and exponential classes.

The ERA Method with Idealizing PSF for Precise Weak Gravitational Lensing Shear Analysis

We generalize ERA method of PSF correction for more realistic situations. The method re-smears the observed galaxy image(galaxy image smeared by PSF) and PSF image by an appropriate function called Re-Smearing Function(RSF) to make new images which have the same ellipticity with the lensed (before smeared by PSF) galaxy image. It has been shown that the method avoids a systematic error arising from an approximation in the usual PSF correction in moment method such as KSB for simple PSF shape. By adopting an idealized PSF we generalize ERA method applicable for arbitrary PSF. This is confirmed with simulated complex PSF shapes. We also consider the effect of pixel noise and found that the effect causes systematic overestimation.

Inflation, evidence and falsifiability

In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes’ theorem along the following nested chain of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a chain the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior’s normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive an essential modification when evaluating paradigms, in view of the issue of falsifiability. By considering toy models we illustrate how unfalsifiable models and paradigms are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. We propose a measure of falsifiability (which we term predictivity), and a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, suitably penalising unfalsifiability. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently difficult to falsify and thus to be construed as a scientific theory, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.

Inflation, evidence and falsifiability [Cross-Listing]

In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes’ theorem along the following nested chain of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a chain the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior’s normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive an essential modification when evaluating paradigms, in view of the issue of falsifiability. By considering toy models we illustrate how unfalsifiable models and paradigms are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. We propose a measure of falsifiability (which we term predictivity), and a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, suitably penalising unfalsifiability. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently difficult to falsify and thus to be construed as a scientific theory, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.

Inflation, evidence and falsifiability [Cross-Listing]

In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes’ theorem along the following nested chain of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a chain the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior’s normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive an essential modification when evaluating paradigms, in view of the issue of falsifiability. By considering toy models we illustrate how unfalsifiable models and paradigms are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. We propose a measure of falsifiability (which we term predictivity), and a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, suitably penalising unfalsifiability. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently difficult to falsify and thus to be construed as a scientific theory, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.

A new halo model for clusters of galaxies

This paper presents a model for the dark halos of galaxy clusters in the framework of Weyl geometric scalar tensor theory with a MOND-like approximation in the weak field static limit. The basics of this approach are introduced in the first part of the paper; then a three component halo model is derived (without presupposing prior knowledge of Weyl geometric gravity). The cluster halo is constituted by the scalar field energy and the phantom energy of the gravitational structure, thus transparent rather than "dark". It is completely determined by the baryonic mass distribution of hot gas and stars. The model is tested against recent observational data for 19 clusters. The total mass of Coma and 15 other clusters is correctly predicted on the basis of data on baryonic mass in the bounds of the error intervals (1 sigma); one cluster lies in the 2 sigma interval, two more in 3 sigma.

 

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