Recent Postings from Cosmology and Nongalactic

CMB Lensing Bispectrum from Nonlinear Growth of the Large Scale Structure

We discuss detectability of the nonlinear growth of the large-scale structure in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing. Lensing signals involved in CMB anisotropies have been measured from multiple CMB experiments, such as Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), Planck, POLARBEAR, and South Pole Telescope (SPT). Reconstructed lensing signals are useful to constrain cosmology via their angular power spectrum, while detectability and cosmological application of their bispectrum induced by the nonlinear evolution are not well studied. Extending the analytic estimate of the galaxy lensing bispectrum presented in Takada and Jain (2004) to the CMB case, we show that even near term CMB experiments such as Advanced ACT, Simons Array and SPT3G could detect the CMB lensing bispectrum induced by the nonlinear growth of the large-scale structure. In the case of the CMB Stage-IV, we find that the lensing bispectrum is detectable at $\gtrsim 50\,\sigma$ statistical significance. This precisely measured lensing bispectrum has rich cosmological information, and could be used to constrain cosmology, e.g., the sum of the neutrino masses and the dark-energy properties.

Gravitational Origin of Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

Observational evidence for the existence of Dark Matter is limited to its gravitational effects. The extensive program for dedicated searches has yielded null results so far, challenging the most popular models. Here we propose that this is the case because the very existence of cold Dark Matter is a manifestation of gravity itself. The consistent bimetric theory of gravity, the only known ghost-free extension of General Relativity involving a massless and a massive spin-2 field, automatically contains a perfect Dark Matter candidate. We demonstrate that the massive spin-2 particle can be heavy, stable on cosmological scales, and that it interacts with matter only through a gravitational type of coupling. Remarkably, these features persist in the same region of parameter space where bimetric theory satisfies the current gravity tests. We show that the observed Dark Matter abundance can be generated via freeze-in and suggest possible particle physics and gravitational signatures of our bimetric Dark Matter model.

Gravitational Origin of Dark Matter

Observational evidence for the existence of Dark Matter is limited to its gravitational effects. The extensive program for dedicated searches has yielded null results so far, challenging the most popular models. Here we propose that this is the case because the very existence of cold Dark Matter is a manifestation of gravity itself. The consistent bimetric theory of gravity, the only known ghost-free extension of General Relativity involving a massless and a massive spin-2 field, automatically contains a perfect Dark Matter candidate. We demonstrate that the massive spin-2 particle can be heavy, stable on cosmological scales, and that it interacts with matter only through a gravitational type of coupling. Remarkably, these features persist in the same region of parameter space where bimetric theory satisfies the current gravity tests. We show that the observed Dark Matter abundance can be generated via freeze-in and suggest possible particle physics and gravitational signatures of our bimetric Dark Matter model.

Gravitational Origin of Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

Observational evidence for the existence of Dark Matter is limited to its gravitational effects. The extensive program for dedicated searches has yielded null results so far, challenging the most popular models. Here we propose that this is the case because the very existence of cold Dark Matter is a manifestation of gravity itself. The consistent bimetric theory of gravity, the only known ghost-free extension of General Relativity involving a massless and a massive spin-2 field, automatically contains a perfect Dark Matter candidate. We demonstrate that the massive spin-2 particle can be heavy, stable on cosmological scales, and that it interacts with matter only through a gravitational type of coupling. Remarkably, these features persist in the same region of parameter space where bimetric theory satisfies the current gravity tests. We show that the observed Dark Matter abundance can be generated via freeze-in and suggest possible particle physics and gravitational signatures of our bimetric Dark Matter model.

Gravitational Origin of Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

Observational evidence for the existence of Dark Matter is limited to its gravitational effects. The extensive program for dedicated searches has yielded null results so far, challenging the most popular models. Here we propose that this is the case because the very existence of cold Dark Matter is a manifestation of gravity itself. The consistent bimetric theory of gravity, the only known ghost-free extension of General Relativity involving a massless and a massive spin-2 field, automatically contains a perfect Dark Matter candidate. We demonstrate that the massive spin-2 particle can be heavy, stable on cosmological scales, and that it interacts with matter only through a gravitational type of coupling. Remarkably, these features persist in the same region of parameter space where bimetric theory satisfies the current gravity tests. We show that the observed Dark Matter abundance can be generated via freeze-in and suggest possible particle physics and gravitational signatures of our bimetric Dark Matter model.

Moduli Vacuum Misalignment and Precise Predictions in String Inflation [Cross-Listing]

The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kaehler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.

Moduli Vacuum Misalignment and Precise Predictions in String Inflation [Cross-Listing]

The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kaehler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.

Moduli Vacuum Misalignment and Precise Predictions in String Inflation

The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kaehler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.

Radio Galaxies Dominate the High-Energy Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background

It has been suggested that unresolved radio galaxies and radio quasars (sometimes referred to as misaligned active galactic nuclei) could be responsible for a significant fraction of the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. In this study, we use the latest data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope to characterize the gamma-ray emission from a sample of 51 radio galaxies. In addition to those sources that had previously been detected using Fermi data, we report here the first statistically significant detection of gamma-ray emission from the radio galaxies 3C 212, 3C 411, and B3 0309+411B. Combining this information with the radio fluxes, radio luminosity function, and redshift distribution of this source class, we find that radio galaxies dominate the diffuse gamma-ray background, generating 83.3^{+27.4}_{-10.1}% of this emission at energies above ~1 GeV. We discuss the implications of this result and point out that it provides support for scenarios in which IceCube's high-energy astrophysical neutrinos also originate from the same population of radio galaxies.

Radio Galaxies Dominate the High-Energy Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background [Cross-Listing]

It has been suggested that unresolved radio galaxies and radio quasars (sometimes referred to as misaligned active galactic nuclei) could be responsible for a significant fraction of the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. In this study, we use the latest data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope to characterize the gamma-ray emission from a sample of 51 radio galaxies. In addition to those sources that had previously been detected using Fermi data, we report here the first statistically significant detection of gamma-ray emission from the radio galaxies 3C 212, 3C 411, and B3 0309+411B. Combining this information with the radio fluxes, radio luminosity function, and redshift distribution of this source class, we find that radio galaxies dominate the diffuse gamma-ray background, generating 83.3^{+27.4}_{-10.1}% of this emission at energies above ~1 GeV. We discuss the implications of this result and point out that it provides support for scenarios in which IceCube's high-energy astrophysical neutrinos also originate from the same population of radio galaxies.

Revisiting the envelope approximation: gravitational waves from bubble collisions

We study the envelope approximation and its applicability to first-order phase transitions in the early universe. We demonstrate that the power laws seen in previous studies exist independent of the nucleation rate. We also compare the envelope approximation prediction to results from large-scale phase transition simulations. For phase transitions where the contribution to gravitational waves from scalar fields dominates over that from the coupled plasma of light particles, the envelope approximation is in agreement, giving a power spectrum of the same form and order of magnitude. In all other cases the form and amplitude of the gravitational wave power spectrum is markedly different and new techniques are required.

Ultraviolet Fe II Emission in Fainter Quasars: Luminosity Dependences, and the Influence of Environments

We investigate the strength of ultraviolet Fe II emission in fainter quasars compared with brighter quasars for 1.0 <= z <= 1.8, using the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) DR7QSO catalogue and spectra of Schneider et al., and the SFQS (SDSS Faint Quasar Survey) catalogue and spectra of Jiang et al. We quantify the strength of the UV Fe II emission using the W2400 equivalent width of Weymann et al., which is defined between two rest-frame continuum windows at 2240-2255 and 2665-2695 Ang. The main results are the following. (1) We find that for W2400 >~ 25 Ang. there is a universal (i.e. for quasars in general) strengthening of W2400 with decreasing intrinsic luminosity, L3000. (2) In conjunction with previous work by Clowes et al., we find that there is a further, differential, strengthening of W2400 with decreasing L3000 for those quasars that are members of Large Quasar Groups (LQGs). (3) We find that increasingly strong W2400 tends to be associated with decreasing FWHM of the neighbouring Mg II {\lambda}2798 broad emission line. (4) We suggest that the dependence of W2400 on L3000 arises from Ly{\alpha} fluorescence. (5) We find that stronger W2400 tends to be associated with smaller virial estimates from Shen et al. of the mass of the central black hole, by a factor ~ 2 between the ultrastrong emitters and the weak. Stronger W2400 emission would correspond to smaller black holes that are still growing. The differential effect for LQG members might then arise from preferentially younger quasars in the LQG environments.

Classical and quantum cosmology of the little rip abrupt event [Cross-Listing]

We analyze from a classical and quantum point of view the behavior of the universe close to a little rip, which can be interpreted as a big rip sent towards the infinite future. Like a big rip singularity, a little rip implies the destruction of all bounded structure in the Universe and is thus an event where quantum effects could be important. We present here a new phantom scalar field model for the little rip. The quantum analysis is performed in quantum geometrodynamics, with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation as its central equation. We find that the little rip can be avoided in the sense of the DeWitt criterion, that is, by having a vanishing wave function at the place of the little rip. Therefore our analysis completes the answer to the question: can quantum cosmology smoothen or avoid the divergent behavior genuinely caused by phantom matter? We show that this can indeed happen for the little rip, similar to the avoidance of a big rip and a little sibling of the big rip.

Classical and quantum cosmology of the little rip abrupt event [Cross-Listing]

We analyze from a classical and quantum point of view the behavior of the universe close to a little rip, which can be interpreted as a big rip sent towards the infinite future. Like a big rip singularity, a little rip implies the destruction of all bounded structure in the Universe and is thus an event where quantum effects could be important. We present here a new phantom scalar field model for the little rip. The quantum analysis is performed in quantum geometrodynamics, with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation as its central equation. We find that the little rip can be avoided in the sense of the DeWitt criterion, that is, by having a vanishing wave function at the place of the little rip. Therefore our analysis completes the answer to the question: can quantum cosmology smoothen or avoid the divergent behavior genuinely caused by phantom matter? We show that this can indeed happen for the little rip, similar to the avoidance of a big rip and a little sibling of the big rip.

Classical and quantum cosmology of the little rip abrupt event

We analyze from a classical and quantum point of view the behavior of the universe close to a little rip, which can be interpreted as a big rip sent towards the infinite future. Like a big rip singularity, a little rip implies the destruction of all bounded structure in the Universe and is thus an event where quantum effects could be important. We present here a new phantom scalar field model for the little rip. The quantum analysis is performed in quantum geometrodynamics, with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation as its central equation. We find that the little rip can be avoided in the sense of the DeWitt criterion, that is, by having a vanishing wave function at the place of the little rip. Therefore our analysis completes the answer to the question: can quantum cosmology smoothen or avoid the divergent behavior genuinely caused by phantom matter? We show that this can indeed happen for the little rip, similar to the avoidance of a big rip and a little sibling of the big rip.

Magnification relations of quad lenses and applications on Einstein crosses

In this work, we mainly study the magnification relations of quad lens models for cusp, fold and cross configurations. By dividing and ray-tracing in different image regions, we numerically derive the positions and magnifications of the four images for a point source lying inside of the astroid caustic. Then, based on the magnifications, we calculate the signed cusp and fold relations for the singular isothermal elliptical (SIE) lens. The signed fold relation map has positive and negative regions, and the positive region is usually larger than the negative region as has been confirmed before. It can explain that for many observed fold image pairs, the fluxes of the Fermat minimum images are apt to be larger than those of the saddle images. We define a new quantity cross relation which describes the magnification discrepancy between two minimum images and two saddle images. Distance ratio is also defined as the ratio of the distance of two saddle images to that of two minimum images. We calculate cross relations and distance ratios for nine observed Einstein cross type lensed samples. In theory, for most of the quad lens models, the cross relations decrease as the distance ratios increase. In observation, the cross relations of the nine samples do not agree with the quad lens models very well, nevertheless, the cross relations of the nine samples do not give obvious evidence for anomalous flux ratio as the cusp and fold types do. Then, we discuss several reasons for the disagreement, and expect good predictions from more precise observations and better lens models in the future.

Combined Preheating on the lattice with applications to Higgs inflation

We use classical lattice simulations in 3+1 dimensions to study the interplay between the resonant production of particles during preheating and the subsequent decay of these into a set of secondary species. We choose to work in a simplified version of Higgs inflation in which the Higgs field non-minimally coupled to gravity plays the role of the inflaton. Our numerical results extend the analytical estimates in the literature beyond the linear regime and shed some light on the limitations of the analytical techniques. The inclusion of fast and inefficient decays postpones the onset of parametric resonance by depleting the particles produced at the bottom of the potential. In spite of this delay, fermions are shown to play an important role on the destruction of the inflaton field. The limitations of our approach and its applications to a realistic Higgs inflation scenario are also discussed.

The hot gas content of fossil galaxy clusters

We investigate the properties of the hot gas in four fossil galaxy systems detected at high significance in the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) survey. XMM-Newton observations reveal overall temperatures of kT ~ 5-6 keV and yield hydrostatic masses M500,HE > 3.5 x 10e14 Msun, confirming their nature as bona fide massive clusters. We measure the thermodynamic properties of the hot gas in X-rays (out to beyond R500 in three cases) and derive their individual pressure profiles out to R ~ 2.5 R500 with the SZ data. We combine the X-ray and SZ data to measure hydrostatic mass profiles and to examine the hot gas content and its radial distribution. The average Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) concentration parameter, c500 = 3.2 +/- 0.4, is the same as that of relaxed `normal' clusters. The gas mass fraction profiles exhibit striking variation in the inner regions, but converge to approximately the cosmic baryon fraction (corrected for depletion) at R500. Beyond R500 the gas mass fraction profiles again diverge, which we interpret as being due to a difference in gas clumping and/or a breakdown of hydrostatic equilibrium in the external regions. Overall our observations point to considerable radial variation in the hot gas content and in the gas clumping and/or hydrostatic equilibrium properties in these fossil clusters, at odds with the interpretation of their being old, evolved and undisturbed. At least some fossil objects appear to be dynamically young.

Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics -- II. The Conditional Luminosity Functions of Type 2 and Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line-of-sight into the central engine. If this model is correct than there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g., the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at $z\approx 0$ and $0.9$. At both $z$, there is no statistically significant difference in the mean halo mass of Type 2 and 1 AGNs at any luminosity. There is marginal evidence that Type 1 AGNs may have larger halo masses than Type 2s, which would be consistent with an evolutionary picture where quasars are initially obscured and then subsequently reveal themselves as Type 1s. As the Type 1 lifetime is longer, the host halo will increase somewhat in mass during the Type 1 phase. The CLF technique will be a powerful way to study the properties of many AGNs subsets (e.g., radio-loud, Compton-thick) as future wide-area X-ray and optical surveys substantially increase our ability to place AGNs in their cosmological context.

Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics -- I. The Conditional Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

Deep X-ray surveys have provided a comprehensive and largely unbiased view of active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution stretching back to $z \sim 5$. However, it has been challenging to use the survey results to connect this evolution to the cosmological environment that AGNs inhabit. Exploring this connection will be crucial to understanding the triggering mechanisms of AGNs and how these processes manifest in observations at all wavelengths. In anticipation of upcoming wide-field X-ray surveys that will allow quantitative analysis of AGN environments, this paper presents a method to observationally constrain the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of AGNs at a specific $z$. Once measured, the CLF allows the calculation of the AGN bias, mean dark matter halo mass, AGN lifetime, halo occupation number, and AGN correlation function -- all as a function of luminosity. The CLF can be constrained using a measurement of the X-ray luminosity function and the correlation length at different luminosities. The method is demonstrated at $z \approx 0$ and $0.9$, and clear luminosity dependence in the AGN bias and mean halo mass is predicted at both $z$, supporting the idea that there are at least two different modes of AGN triggering. In addition, the CLF predicts that $z\approx 0.9$ quasars are hosted by haloes with $M_{\mathrm{h}} \sim 10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$. These `young cluster' environments may provide the necessary interactions between gas-rich galaxies to fuel luminous accretion. The results derived from this method will be useful to populate AGNs of different luminosities in cosmological simulations.

The LyA-LyC Connection: Evidence for an Enhanced Contribution of UV-faint Galaxies to Cosmic Reionization

The escape of ionizing Lyman Continuum (LyC) photons requires the existence of low-N_HI sightlines, which also promote escape of Lyman-Alpha (Lya). We use a suite of 2500 Lya Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulations through models of dusty, clumpy interstellar (`multiphase') media from Gronke & Dijkstra (2016), and compare the escape fractions of Lya [f_esc(Lya)] and LyC radiation [f_esc(LyC)]. We find that f_esc(LyC) and f_esc(Lya) are correlated: galaxies with a low f_esc(Lya) consistently have a low f_esc(LyC), while galaxies with a high f_esc(Lya) exhibit a large dispersion in f_esc(LyC). We argue that there is increasing observational evidence that Lya escapes more easily from UV-faint galaxies. The correlation between f_esc(LyC) and f_esc(Lya) then implies that UV-faint galaxies contribute more to the ionizing background than implied by the faint-end slope of the UV-luminosity function. In multiphase gases, the ionizing escape fraction is most strongly affected by the cloud covering factor, f_cl, which implies that f_esc(LyC) is closely connected to the observed Lya spectral line shape. Specifically, LyC emitting galaxies typically having narrower, more symmetric line profiles. This prediction is qualitatively similar to that for `shell models'.

On the Detectability of Light Dark Matter with Superfluid Helium [Cross-Listing]

We show that a two-excitation process in superfluid helium, combined with sensitivity to meV energy depositions, can probe dark matter down to the ~keV warm dark matter mass limit. This mass reach is three orders of magnitude below what can be probed with ordinary nuclear recoils in helium at the same energy resolution. The kinematics of the process requires the two athermal excitations to have nearly equal and opposite momentum, potentially providing a built-in coincidence mechanism for controlling backgrounds.

On the Detectability of Light Dark Matter with Superfluid Helium [Cross-Listing]

We show that a two-excitation process in superfluid helium, combined with sensitivity to meV energy depositions, can probe dark matter down to the ~keV warm dark matter mass limit. This mass reach is three orders of magnitude below what can be probed with ordinary nuclear recoils in helium at the same energy resolution. The kinematics of the process requires the two athermal excitations to have nearly equal and opposite momentum, potentially providing a built-in coincidence mechanism for controlling backgrounds.

On the Detectability of Light Dark Matter with Superfluid Helium

We show that a two-excitation process in superfluid helium, combined with sensitivity to meV energy depositions, can probe dark matter down to the ~keV warm dark matter mass limit. This mass reach is three orders of magnitude below what can be probed with ordinary nuclear recoils in helium at the same energy resolution. The kinematics of the process requires the two athermal excitations to have nearly equal and opposite momentum, potentially providing a built-in coincidence mechanism for controlling backgrounds.

Bayesian analysis of inflationary features in Planck and SDSS data

We perform a Bayesian analysis to study possible features in the primordial inflationary power spectrum of scalar perturbations. In particular, we analyse the possibility of detecting the imprint of these primordial features in the anisotropy temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and also in the matter power spectrum P (k). We use the most recent CMB data provided by the Planck Collaboration and P (k) measurements from the eleventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We focus our analysis on a class of potentials whose features are localised at different intervals of angular scales, corresponding to multipoles in the ranges 10 < l < 60 (Oscill-1) and 150 < l < 300 (Oscill-2). Our results show that one of the step-potentials (Oscill-1) provides a better fit to the CMB data than does the featureless LCDM scenario, with a moderate Bayesian evidence in favor of the former. Adding the P (k) data to the analysis weakens the evidence of the Oscill-1 potential relative to the standard model and strengthens the evidence of this latter scenario with respect to the Oscill-2 model.

The stellar metallicity gradients in galaxy discs in a cosmological scenario

The stellar metallicity gradients of disc galaxies provide information on the disc assembly, star formation processes and chemical evolution. They also might store information on dynamical processes which could affect the distribution of chemical elements in the gas-phase and the stellar components. We studied the stellar metallicity gradients of stellar discs in a cosmological simulation. We explored the dependence of the stellar metallicity gradients on stellar age and the size and mass of the stellar discs. We used galaxies selected from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation performed including a physically-motivated Supernova feedback and chemical evolution. The metallicity profiles were estimated for stars with different ages. We confront our numerical findings with results from the CALIFA Survey. The simulated stellar discs are found to have metallicity profiles with slopes in global agreement with observations. Low stellar-mass galaxies tend to have a larger variety of metallicity slopes. When normalized by the half-mass radius, the stellar metallicity gradients do not show any dependence and the dispersion increases significantly, regardless of galaxy mass. Galaxies with stellar masses around $10^{10}$M$_{\odot}$ show steeper negative metallicity gradients. The stellar metallicity gradients correlate with the half-mass radius. However, the correlation signal is not present when they are normalized by the half-mass radius. Stellar discs with positive age gradients are detected to have negative and positive metallicity gradients, depending on the relative importance of the recent star formation activity in the central regions. The large dispersions in the metallicity gradients as a function of stellar mass could be ascribed to the effects of dynamical processes such as mergers/interactions and/or migration as well as those regulating the conversion of gas into stars. [abridged]

Disformal transformations on the CMB [Cross-Listing]

In this work we study the role of disformal transformation on cosmological backgrounds and its relation to the speed of sound for tensor modes. A speed different from one for tensor modes can arise in several contexts, such as Galileons theories or massive gravity, nevertheless the speed is very constrained to be one by observations of gravitational wave emission. It has been shown that in inflation a disformal trans- formation allows to set the speed for tensor modes to one without making changes to the curvature power spectrum. Here we show that this invariance does not hold when considering the CMB anisotropy power spectrum. It turns out that the after doing the transformation there is an imprint on the acoustic peaks and the diffusion damping. This has interesting consequences; here we explore quartic galileon theories which allow a modified speed for tensor modes. For these theories the transformation can be used to constraint the parameter space in different regimes.

Disformal transformations on the CMB

In this work we study the role of disformal transformation on cosmological backgrounds and its relation to the speed of sound for tensor modes. A speed different from one for tensor modes can arise in several contexts, such as Galileons theories or massive gravity, nevertheless the speed is very constrained to be one by observations of gravitational wave emission. It has been shown that in inflation a disformal trans- formation allows to set the speed for tensor modes to one without making changes to the curvature power spectrum. Here we show that this invariance does not hold when considering the CMB anisotropy power spectrum. It turns out that the after doing the transformation there is an imprint on the acoustic peaks and the diffusion damping. This has interesting consequences; here we explore quartic galileon theories which allow a modified speed for tensor modes. For these theories the transformation can be used to constraint the parameter space in different regimes.

Testing the concordance model in cosmology with model-independent methods: some issues [Cross-Listing]

Since the number of dark energy models have rapidly increased over the last years, some model-independent methods have been developed in order to analyse the cosmological evolution in a phenomenological way. In this manuscript, we analyse some of these approaches and their shortcomings to provide reliable information.

Testing the concordance model in cosmology with model-independent methods: some issues

Since the number of dark energy models have rapidly increased over the last years, some model-independent methods have been developed in order to analyse the cosmological evolution in a phenomenological way. In this manuscript, we analyse some of these approaches and their shortcomings to provide reliable information.

Effects of electrically charged dark matter on cosmic microwave background anisotropies [Cross-Listing]

We examine the possibility that dark matter (DM) consists of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) in view of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The evolution of cosmological perturbations of CHAMP with other components is followed in a self-consistent manner, without assuming that CHAMP and baryons are tightly coupled. We incorporate for the first time the "kinetic re-coupling" of the Coulomb scattering, which is characteristic of heavy CHAMPs. By a direct comparison of the predicted CMB temperature/polarization auto-correlations in CHAMP models and the observed spectra in the Planck mission, we show that CHAMPs leave sizable effects on CMB spectra if they are lighter than $10^{11}\,{\rm GeV}$. Our result can be applicable to any CHAMP as long as its lifetime is much longer than the cosmic time at the recombination ($\sim 4 \times 10^{5}\, {\rm yr}$). An application to millicharged particles is also discussed.

Effects of electrically charged dark matter on cosmic microwave background anisotropies

We examine the possibility that dark matter (DM) consists of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) in view of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The evolution of cosmological perturbations of CHAMP with other components is followed in a self-consistent manner, without assuming that CHAMP and baryons are tightly coupled. We incorporate for the first time the "kinetic re-coupling" of the Coulomb scattering, which is characteristic of heavy CHAMPs. By a direct comparison of the predicted CMB temperature/polarization auto-correlations in CHAMP models and the observed spectra in the Planck mission, we show that CHAMPs leave sizable effects on CMB spectra if they are lighter than $10^{11}\,{\rm GeV}$. Our result can be applicable to any CHAMP as long as its lifetime is much longer than the cosmic time at the recombination ($\sim 4 \times 10^{5}\, {\rm yr}$). An application to millicharged particles is also discussed.

What are $Omh^2(z_1,z_2)$ and $Om(z_1,z_2)$ diagnostics telling us in light of $H(z)$ data?

Two-point diagnostics $Om(z_i,z_j)$ and $Omh^2(z_i,z_j)$ have been introduced as an interesting tool for testing the validity of the $\Lambda$CDM model. Quite recently, Sahni, Shafieloo $\&$ Starobinsky (2014) combined two independent measurements of $H(z)$ from BAO data with the value of the Hubble constant $H_0$, and used the second of these diagnostics to test the $\Lambda$CDM model. Their result indicated a considerable tension between observations and predictions of the $\Lambda$CDM model. Since reliable data concerning expansion rates of the Universe at different redshifts $H(z)$ are crucial for the successful application of this method, we investigate both two-point diagnostics on the most comprehensive set of $N=36$ measurements of $H(z)$ coming from the BAO and differential ages (DA) of passively evolving galaxies. We discuss the uncertainties of two-point diagnostics and find that they are strongly non-Gaussian and follow the patterns deeply rooted in their very construction. Therefore we propose that non-parametric median statistics is the most appropriate way of treating this problem. Our results support the claims that $\Lambda$CDM is in tension with $H(z)$ data according to the two-point diagnostics developed by Shafieloo, Sahni and Starobinsky. However, other alternatives to the $\Lambda$CDM, such as wCDM or CPL models perform even worse. We also notice that there are serious systematic differences between BAO and DA methods which ought to be better understood before $H(z)$ measurements can become competitive to the other probes.

Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\cal P}^s_T\sim ({\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.

Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production

We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\cal P}^s_T\sim ({\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.

Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\cal P}^s_T\sim ({\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.

Gravitational Waves in Bouncing Cosmologies from Gauge Field Production [Cross-Listing]

We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to $F \tilde F$ term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, ${\cal P}^s_T\sim ({\cal P}^v_T)^2$, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to $F^2$ term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), $n_T\gtrsim 0$, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.

Cosmology from large scale galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

We present cosmological constraints from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) using a combined analysis of angular clustering of red galaxies and their cross-correlation with weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies. We use a 139 square degree contiguous patch of DES data from the Science Verification (SV) period of observations. Using large scale measurements, we constrain the matter density of the Universe as Omega_m = 0.31 +/- 0.09 and the clustering amplitude of the matter power spectrum as sigma_8 = 0.74 +/- 0.13 after marginalizing over seven nuisance parameters and three additional cosmological parameters. This translates into S_8 = sigma_8(Omega_m/0.3)^{0.16} = 0.74 +/- 0.12 for our fiducial lens redshift bin at 0.35 <z< 0.5, while S_8 = 0.78 +/- 0.09 using two bins over the range 0.2 <z< 0.5. We study the robustness of the results under changes in the data vectors, modelling and systematics treatment, including photometric redshift and shear calibration uncertainties, and find consistency in the derived cosmological parameters. We show that our results are consistent with previous cosmological analyses from DES and other data sets and conclude with a joint analysis of DES angular clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Planck CMB data, Baryon Accoustic Oscillations and Supernova type Ia measurements.

Loop Corrections to Standard Model Fields in Inflation

We calculate 1-loop corrections to the Schwinger-Keldysh propagators of Standard-Model-like fields of spin-0, 1/2, and 1, with all renormalizable interactions during inflation. We pay special attention to the late-time divergences of loop corrections, and show that the divergences can be resummed into finite results in the late-time limit using dynamical renormalization group method. This is our first step toward studying both the standard model and new physics in the primordial universe.

Loop Corrections to Standard Model Fields in Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We calculate 1-loop corrections to the Schwinger-Keldysh propagators of Standard-Model-like fields of spin-0, 1/2, and 1, with all renormalizable interactions during inflation. We pay special attention to the late-time divergences of loop corrections, and show that the divergences can be resummed into finite results in the late-time limit using dynamical renormalization group method. This is our first step toward studying both the standard model and new physics in the primordial universe.

Loop Corrections to Standard Model Fields in Inflation [Cross-Listing]

We calculate 1-loop corrections to the Schwinger-Keldysh propagators of Standard-Model-like fields of spin-0, 1/2, and 1, with all renormalizable interactions during inflation. We pay special attention to the late-time divergences of loop corrections, and show that the divergences can be resummed into finite results in the late-time limit using dynamical renormalization group method. This is our first step toward studying both the standard model and new physics in the primordial universe.

A new method to break the mass sheet degeneracy using aperture moments

Mass determinations from gravitational lensing shear and the higher order estimator flexion are both subject to the mass sheet degeneracy. Mass sheet degeneracy refers to the ambiguity that arises due to the fact that the addition of a constant surface mass density sheet does not alter the lensing observables. We propose a new technique to break the mass sheet degeneracy. The method uses mass moments of the shear or flexion fields in combination with convergence information derived from number counts which exploit the magnification bias. The difference between the measured mass moments provides an estimator for the magnitude of the additive constant that is the mass-sheet. For demonstrating this, we derive relations that hold true in general for n-th order moments and show how they can be employed effectively to break the degeneracy. We investigate the detectability of this degeneracy parameter from our method and find that the degeneracy parameter can be feasibly determined from stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing data and cluster lensing data. Furthermore, we compare the signal-to-noise ratios of convergence information from number counts with shear and flexion for SIS and NFW models. We find that the combination of shear and flexion performs best on galaxy and cluster scales and the convergence information can therefore be used to break the mass sheet degeneracy without quality loss in the mass reconstruction. In summary, there is power in the combination of shear, flexion, convergence and their higher order moments. With the anticipated wealth of lensing data from upcoming and future satellite missions - EUCLID and WFIRST - this technique will be feasible.

Spectral Line De-confusion in an Intensity Mapping Survey

Spectral line intensity mapping has been proposed as a promising tool to efficiently probe the cosmic reionization and the large-scale structure. Without detecting individual sources, line intensity mapping makes use of all available photons and measures the integrated light in the source confusion limit, to efficiently map the three-dimensional matter distribution on large scales as traced by a given emission line. One particular challenge is the separation of desired signals from astrophysical continuum foregrounds and line interlopers. Here we present a technique to extract large-scale structure information traced by emission lines from different redshifts, embedded in a three-dimensional intensity mapping data cube. The line redshifts are distinguished by the anisotropic shape of the power spectra when projected onto a common coordinate frame. We consider the case where high-redshift [CII] lines are confused with multiple low-redshift CO rotational lines. We present a semi-analytic model for [CII] and CO line estimates based on the cosmic infrared background measurements, and show that with a modest instrumental noise level and survey geometry, the large-scale [CII] and CO power spectrum amplitudes can be successfully extracted from a confusion-limited data set, without external information. We discuss the implications and limits of this technique for possible line intensity mapping experiments.

BUDHIES III: The fate of HI and the quenching of galaxies in evolving environments

In a hierarchical Universe clusters grow via the accretion of galaxies from the field, groups and even other clusters. As this happens, galaxies can lose their gas reservoirs via different mechanisms, eventually quenching their star-formation. We explore the diverse environmental histories of galaxies through a multi-wavelength study of the combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and group "processing" in Abell 963, a massive growing cluster at $z=0.2$ from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES). We incorporate hundreds of new optical redshifts (giving a total of 566 cluster members), as well as Subaru and XMM-Newton data from LoCuSS, to identify substructures and evaluate galaxy morphology, star-formation activity, and HI content (via HI deficiencies and stacking) out to $3\times R_{200}$. We find that Abell 963 is being fed by at least 7 groups, that contribute to the large number of passive galaxies outside the cluster core. More massive groups have a higher fraction of passive and HI-poor galaxies, while low-mass groups host younger (often interacting) galaxies. For cluster galaxies not associated with groups we corroborate our previous finding that HI gas (if any) is significantly stripped via ram-pressure during their first passage through the intra-cluster medium, and find mild evidence for a starburst associated with this event. In addition, we find an overabundance of morphologically peculiar and/or star-forming galaxies near the cluster core. We speculate that these arise as groups pass through the cluster (post-processing). Our study highlights the importance of environmental quenching and the complexity added by evolving environments.

Models of 750 GeV quarkonium and the LHC excesses [Cross-Listing]

We investigate models involving a vector-like quark X, which forms a 750 GeV bound state and reproduces the observed diphoton signals at the LHC, in connection with other excesses in the LHC data. An exotic hypercharge of -4/3 is required to fit the signal cross section, which indicates that there is additional particle(s) that mediates the decay of X in the full theory. We find that, introducing an SU(2) doublet vector-like quark of mass around 600 GeV in our UV-complete framework can accommodate not only the diphoton but also the on-Z excess (and potentially a slight excess in the monojet events). Our models also include a dark matter candidate. The most useful way to probe the models at the LHC is via monojet searches. The relic dark matter density is largely determined by coannihilation effects, and indirect detection of dark matter annihilation signals is the alternative and complementary probe of our models.

Models of 750 GeV quarkonium and the LHC excesses

We investigate models involving a vector-like quark X, which forms a 750 GeV bound state and reproduces the observed diphoton signals at the LHC, in connection with other excesses in the LHC data. An exotic hypercharge of -4/3 is required to fit the signal cross section, which indicates that there is additional particle(s) that mediates the decay of X in the full theory. We find that, introducing an SU(2) doublet vector-like quark of mass around 600 GeV in our UV-complete framework can accommodate not only the diphoton but also the on-Z excess (and potentially a slight excess in the monojet events). Our models also include a dark matter candidate. The most useful way to probe the models at the LHC is via monojet searches. The relic dark matter density is largely determined by coannihilation effects, and indirect detection of dark matter annihilation signals is the alternative and complementary probe of our models.

Models of 750 GeV quarkonium and the LHC excesses [Cross-Listing]

We investigate models involving a vector-like quark X, which forms a 750 GeV bound state and reproduces the observed diphoton signals at the LHC, in connection with other excesses in the LHC data. An exotic hypercharge of -4/3 is required to fit the signal cross section, which indicates that there is additional particle(s) that mediates the decay of X in the full theory. We find that, introducing an SU(2) doublet vector-like quark of mass around 600 GeV in our UV-complete framework can accommodate not only the diphoton but also the on-Z excess (and potentially a slight excess in the monojet events). Our models also include a dark matter candidate. The most useful way to probe the models at the LHC is via monojet searches. The relic dark matter density is largely determined by coannihilation effects, and indirect detection of dark matter annihilation signals is the alternative and complementary probe of our models.

A shock at the radio relic position in Abell 115

We analyzed a deep Chandra observation (334 ks) of the galaxy cluster Abell 115 and detected a shock co-spatial with the radio relic. The X-ray surface brightness profile across the shock region presents a discontinuity, corresponding to a density compression factor $\mathcal{C}=2.0\pm0.1$ leading to a Mach number $\mathcal{M}=1.7\pm0.1$ ($\mathcal{M}=1.4-2$ including systematics). Temperatures measured in the upstream and downstream regions are consistent with what expected for such a shock: $T_u=4.3^{+1.0}_{-0.6}\:\rm{keV}$ and $T_d=7.9^{+1.4}_{-1.1}\:\rm{keV}$ respectively, implying a Mach number $\mathcal{M}=1.8^{+0.5}_{-0.4}$. So far, only few other shocks discovered in galaxy clusters are consistently detected from both density and temperature jumps. The spatial coincidence between this discontinuity and the radio relic edge strongly supports the view that shocks play a crucial role in powering these synchrotron sources. We suggest that the relic is originated by shock re-acceleration of relativistic electrons rather than acceleration from the thermal pool. The position and curvature of the shock and the associated relic are consistent with an off-axis merger with unequal mass ratio where the shock is expected to bend around the core of the less massive cluster.

Comic Visions Dark Energy: Technology

A strong instrumentation and detector R&D program has enabled the current generation of cosmic frontier surveys. A small investment in R&D will continue to pay dividends and enable new probes to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. Instrumentation and detector R&D provide critical training opportunities for future generations of experimentalists, skills that are important across the entire Department of Energy High Energy Physics program.

An introduction to cosmology [Cross-Listing]

Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.

 

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