Recent Postings from Cosmology and Extragalactic

Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We provide a prescription for setting initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations, which simultaneously employ Lagrangian meshes (`particles’) and Eulerian grids (`fields’). Our description is based on coordinate systems in arbitrary geometry, and can therefore be used in any metric theory of gravity. We apply our prescription to a choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, and show how already in the linear regime, particle trajectories are curved. For some viable models of modified gravity, the Dark Matter trajectories are affected at the level of 5% at Mpc scales. Moreover, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description.

Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

We provide a prescription for setting initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations, which simultaneously employ Lagrangian meshes (`particles’) and Eulerian grids (`fields’). Our description is based on coordinate systems in arbitrary geometry, and can therefore be used in any metric theory of gravity. We apply our prescription to a choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, and show how already in the linear regime, particle trajectories are curved. For some viable models of modified gravity, the Dark Matter trajectories are affected at the level of 5% at Mpc scales. Moreover, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description.

Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity [Cross-Listing]

We provide a prescription for setting initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations, which simultaneously employ Lagrangian meshes (`particles’) and Eulerian grids (`fields’). Our description is based on coordinate systems in arbitrary geometry, and can therefore be used in any metric theory of gravity. We apply our prescription to a choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, and show how already in the linear regime, particle trajectories are curved. For some viable models of modified gravity, the Dark Matter trajectories are affected at the level of 5% at Mpc scales. Moreover, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description.

The cosmological constant and entropy problems: mysteries of the present with profound roots in the past [Cross-Listing]

An accelerated universe should naturally have a vacuum energy density determined by its dynamical curvature. The cosmological constant is most likely a temporary description of a dynamical variable that has been drastically evolving from the early inflationary era to the present. In this Essay we propose a unified picture of the cosmic history implementing such an idea, in which the cosmological constant problem is fixed at early times. All the main stages, from inflation and its (“graceful”) exit into a standard radiation regime, as well as the matter and dark energy epochs, are accounted for. Finally, we show that for a generic Grand Unified Theory associated to the inflationary phase, the amount of entropy generated from primeval vacuum decay can explain the huge measured value today.

The cosmological constant and entropy problems: mysteries of the present with profound roots in the past

An accelerated universe should naturally have a vacuum energy density determined by its dynamical curvature. The cosmological constant is most likely a temporary description of a dynamical variable that has been drastically evolving from the early inflationary era to the present. In this Essay we propose a unified picture of the cosmic history implementing such an idea, in which the cosmological constant problem is fixed at early times. All the main stages, from inflation and its (“graceful”) exit into a standard radiation regime, as well as the matter and dark energy epochs, are accounted for. Finally, we show that for a generic Grand Unified Theory associated to the inflationary phase, the amount of entropy generated from primeval vacuum decay can explain the huge measured value today.

The cosmological constant and entropy problems: mysteries of the present with profound roots in the past [Cross-Listing]

An accelerated universe should naturally have a vacuum energy density determined by its dynamical curvature. The cosmological constant is most likely a temporary description of a dynamical variable that has been drastically evolving from the early inflationary era to the present. In this Essay we propose a unified picture of the cosmic history implementing such an idea, in which the cosmological constant problem is fixed at early times. All the main stages, from inflation and its (“graceful”) exit into a standard radiation regime, as well as the matter and dark energy epochs, are accounted for. Finally, we show that for a generic Grand Unified Theory associated to the inflationary phase, the amount of entropy generated from primeval vacuum decay can explain the huge measured value today.

The cosmological constant and entropy problems: mysteries of the present with profound roots in the past [Cross-Listing]

An accelerated universe should naturally have a vacuum energy density determined by its dynamical curvature. The cosmological constant is most likely a temporary description of a dynamical variable that has been drastically evolving from the early inflationary era to the present. In this Essay we propose a unified picture of the cosmic history implementing such an idea, in which the cosmological constant problem is fixed at early times. All the main stages, from inflation and its (“graceful”) exit into a standard radiation regime, as well as the matter and dark energy epochs, are accounted for. Finally, we show that for a generic Grand Unified Theory associated to the inflationary phase, the amount of entropy generated from primeval vacuum decay can explain the huge measured value today.

Weak lensing by voids in modified lensing potentials

We study lensing by voids in Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity cosmologies, which are examples of theories of gravity that modify the lensing potential. We find voids in the dark matter and halo density fields of N-body simulations and compute their lensing signal analytically from the void density profiles, which we show are well fit by a simple analytical formula. In the Cubic Galileon model, the modifications to gravity inside voids are not screened and they approximately double the size of the lensing effects compared to GR. The difference is largely determined by the direct effects of the fifth force on lensing and less so by the modified density profiles. For this model, we also discuss the subtle impact on the force and lensing calculations caused by the screening effects of haloes that exist in and around voids. In the Nonlocal model, the impact of the modified density profiles and the direct modifications to lensing are comparable, but they boost the lensing signal by only $\approx 10\%$, compared with that of GR. Overall, our results suggest that lensing by voids is a promising tool to test models of gravity that modify lensing.

Mapping the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization onto Physical Dark Energy Models [Cross-Listing]

We examine the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization, in the context of quintessence and barotropic dark energy models, to determine the subset of such models to which it can provide a good fit. The CPL parametrization gives the equation of state parameter $w$ for the dark energy as a linear function of the scale factor $a$, namely $w = w_0 + w_a(1-a)$. In the case of quintessence models, we find that over most of the $w_0$, $w_a$ parameter space the CPL parametrization maps onto a fairly narrow form of behavior for the potential $V(\phi)$, while a one-dimensional subset of parameter space, for which $w_a = \kappa (1+w_0)$, with $\kappa$ constant, corresponds to a wide range of functional forms for $V(\phi)$. For barotropic models, we show that the functional dependence of the pressure on the density, up to a multiplicative constant, depends only on $w_i = w_a + w_0$ and not on $w_0$ and $w_a$ separately. Our results suggest that the CPL parametrization is not optimal for testing either type of model.

Mapping the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization onto Physical Dark Energy Models

We examine the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization, in the context of quintessence and barotropic dark energy models, to determine the subset of such models to which it can provide a good fit. The CPL parametrization gives the equation of state parameter $w$ for the dark energy as a linear function of the scale factor $a$, namely $w = w_0 + w_a(1-a)$. In the case of quintessence models, we find that over most of the $w_0$, $w_a$ parameter space the CPL parametrization maps onto a fairly narrow form of behavior for the potential $V(\phi)$, while a one-dimensional subset of parameter space, for which $w_a = \kappa (1+w_0)$, with $\kappa$ constant, corresponds to a wide range of functional forms for $V(\phi)$. For barotropic models, we show that the functional dependence of the pressure on the density, up to a multiplicative constant, depends only on $w_i = w_a + w_0$ and not on $w_0$ and $w_a$ separately. Our results suggest that the CPL parametrization is not optimal for testing either type of model.

Breaking discrete symmetries in the effective field theory of inflation [Cross-Listing]

We study the phenomenon of discrete symmetry breaking during the inflationary epoch, using a model-independent approach based on the effective field theory of inflation. We work in a context where both time reparameterization symmetry and spatial diffeomorphism invariance can be broken during inflation. We determine the leading derivative operators in the quadratic action for fluctuations that break parity and time-reversal. Within suitable approximations, we study their consequences for the dynamics of linearized fluctuations. We find that fluctuations in the scalar sector can acquire a direction-dependent phase. For the tensor sector, we show that one of the polarization modes can be significantly amplified throughout the whole period of inflation.

Breaking discrete symmetries in the effective field theory of inflation

We study the phenomenon of discrete symmetry breaking during the inflationary epoch, using a model-independent approach based on the effective field theory of inflation. We work in a context where both time reparameterization symmetry and spatial diffeomorphism invariance can be broken during inflation. We determine the leading derivative operators in the quadratic action for fluctuations that break parity and time-reversal. Within suitable approximations, we study their consequences for the dynamics of linearized fluctuations. We find that fluctuations in the scalar sector can acquire a direction-dependent phase. For the tensor sector, we show that one of the polarization modes can be significantly amplified throughout the whole period of inflation.

Breaking discrete symmetries in the effective field theory of inflation [Cross-Listing]

We study the phenomenon of discrete symmetry breaking during the inflationary epoch, using a model-independent approach based on the effective field theory of inflation. We work in a context where both time reparameterization symmetry and spatial diffeomorphism invariance can be broken during inflation. We determine the leading derivative operators in the quadratic action for fluctuations that break parity and time-reversal. Within suitable approximations, we study their consequences for the dynamics of linearized fluctuations. We find that fluctuations in the scalar sector can acquire a direction-dependent phase. For the tensor sector, we show that one of the polarization modes can be significantly amplified throughout the whole period of inflation.

Breaking discrete symmetries in the effective field theory of inflation [Cross-Listing]

We study the phenomenon of discrete symmetry breaking during the inflationary epoch, using a model-independent approach based on the effective field theory of inflation. We work in a context where both time reparameterization symmetry and spatial diffeomorphism invariance can be broken during inflation. We determine the leading derivative operators in the quadratic action for fluctuations that break parity and time-reversal. Within suitable approximations, we study their consequences for the dynamics of linearized fluctuations. We find that fluctuations in the scalar sector can acquire a direction-dependent phase. For the tensor sector, we show that one of the polarization modes can be significantly amplified throughout the whole period of inflation.

Emergence of product of constant curvature spaces in loop quantum cosmology [Cross-Listing]

The loop quantum dynamics of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime and the interior of higher genus black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant has some peculiar features not shared by various other spacetimes in loop quantum cosmology. As in the other cases, though the quantum geometric effects resolve the physical singularity and result in a non-singular bounce, after the bounce a spacetime with small spacetime curvature does not emerge in either the subsequent backward or the forward evolution. Rather, in the asymptotic limit the spacetime manifold is a product of two constant curvature spaces. Interestingly, though the spacetime curvature of these asymptotic spacetimes is very high, their effective metric is a solution to the Einstein’s field equations. Analysis of the components of the Ricci tensor shows that after the singularity resolution, the Kantowski-Sachs spacetime leads to an effective metric which can be interpreted as the `charged’ Nariai, while the higher genus black hole interior can similarly be interpreted as anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetime with a cosmological constant. These spacetimes are `charged’ in the sense that the energy momentum tensor that satisfies the Einstein’s field equations is formally the same as the one for the uniform electromagnetic field, albeit it has a purely quantum geometric origin. The asymptotic spacetimes also have an emergent cosmological constant which is different in magnitude, and sometimes even its sign, from the cosmological constant in the Kantowski-Sachs and the interior of higher genus black hole metrics. With a fine tuning of the latter cosmological constant, we show that `uncharged’ Nariai, and anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetimes with a vanishing emergent cosmological constant can also be obtained.

Emergence of product of constant curvature spaces in loop quantum cosmology

The loop quantum dynamics of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime and the interior of higher genus black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant has some peculiar features not shared by various other spacetimes in loop quantum cosmology. As in the other cases, though the quantum geometric effects resolve the physical singularity and result in a non-singular bounce, after the bounce a spacetime with small spacetime curvature does not emerge in either the subsequent backward or the forward evolution. Rather, in the asymptotic limit the spacetime manifold is a product of two constant curvature spaces. Interestingly, though the spacetime curvature of these asymptotic spacetimes is very high, their effective metric is a solution to the Einstein’s field equations. Analysis of the components of the Ricci tensor shows that after the singularity resolution, the Kantowski-Sachs spacetime leads to an effective metric which can be interpreted as the `charged’ Nariai, while the higher genus black hole interior can similarly be interpreted as anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetime with a cosmological constant. These spacetimes are `charged’ in the sense that the energy momentum tensor that satisfies the Einstein’s field equations is formally the same as the one for the uniform electromagnetic field, albeit it has a purely quantum geometric origin. The asymptotic spacetimes also have an emergent cosmological constant which is different in magnitude, and sometimes even its sign, from the cosmological constant in the Kantowski-Sachs and the interior of higher genus black hole metrics. With a fine tuning of the latter cosmological constant, we show that `uncharged’ Nariai, and anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetimes with a vanishing emergent cosmological constant can also be obtained.

Emergence of product of constant curvature spaces in loop quantum cosmology [Cross-Listing]

The loop quantum dynamics of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime and the interior of higher genus black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant has some peculiar features not shared by various other spacetimes in loop quantum cosmology. As in the other cases, though the quantum geometric effects resolve the physical singularity and result in a non-singular bounce, after the bounce a spacetime with small spacetime curvature does not emerge in either the subsequent backward or the forward evolution. Rather, in the asymptotic limit the spacetime manifold is a product of two constant curvature spaces. Interestingly, though the spacetime curvature of these asymptotic spacetimes is very high, their effective metric is a solution to the Einstein’s field equations. Analysis of the components of the Ricci tensor shows that after the singularity resolution, the Kantowski-Sachs spacetime leads to an effective metric which can be interpreted as the `charged’ Nariai, while the higher genus black hole interior can similarly be interpreted as anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetime with a cosmological constant. These spacetimes are `charged’ in the sense that the energy momentum tensor that satisfies the Einstein’s field equations is formally the same as the one for the uniform electromagnetic field, albeit it has a purely quantum geometric origin. The asymptotic spacetimes also have an emergent cosmological constant which is different in magnitude, and sometimes even its sign, from the cosmological constant in the Kantowski-Sachs and the interior of higher genus black hole metrics. With a fine tuning of the latter cosmological constant, we show that `uncharged’ Nariai, and anti Bertotti-Robinson spacetimes with a vanishing emergent cosmological constant can also be obtained.

Spitzer bright, UltraVISTA faint sources in COSMOS: the contribution to the overall population of massive galaxies at z=3-7

We have analysed a sample of 574 Spitzer 4.5 micron-selected galaxies with [4.5]<23 and Ks>24 (AB) over the UltraVISTA ultra-deep COSMOS field. Our aim is to investigate whether these mid-IR bright, near-IR faint sources contribute significantly to the overall population of massive galaxies at redshifts z>=3. By performing a spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis using up to 30 photometric bands, we have determined that the redshift distribution of our sample peaks at redshifts z~2.5-3.0, and ~32% of the galaxies lie at z>=3. We have studied the contribution of these sources to the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high redshifts. We found that the [4.5]<23, Ks>24 galaxies produce a negligible change to the GSMF previously determined for Ks<24 sources at 3=<z<4, but their contribution is more important at 4=<z<5, accounting for >~50% of the galaxies with stellar masses Mst>~6 x 10^10 Msun. We also constrained the GSMF at the highest-mass end (Mst>~2 x 10^11 Msun) at z>=5. From their presence at 5=<z<6, and virtual absence at higher redshifts, we can pinpoint quite precisely the moment of appearance of the first most massive galaxies as taking place in the ~0.2 Gyr of elapsed time between z~6 and z~5. Alternatively, if very massive galaxies existed earlier in cosmic time, they should have been significantly dust-obscured to lie beyond the detection limits of current, large-area, deep near-IR surveys.

K-mouflaging Clusters of Galaxies

We investigate the effects of a K-mouflage modification of gravity on the dynamics of clusters of galaxies. We extend the description of K-mouflage to situations where the scalar field responsible for the modification of gravity is coupled to a perfect fluid with pressure. We describe the coupled system at both the background cosmology and cosmological perturbations levels, focusing on cases where the pressure emanates from small-scale nonlinear physics. We derive these properties in both the Einstein and Jordan frames, as these two frames already differ by a few percents at the background level for K-mouflage scenarios, and next compute cluster properties in the Jordan frame that is better suited to these observations. Galaxy clusters are not screened by the K-mouflage mechanism and therefore feel the modification of gravity in a maximal way. This implies that the halo mass function deviates from $\Lambda$-CDM by a factor of order one for masses $M\gtrsim 10^{14} \ h^{-1} M_\odot$. We then consider the hydrostatic equilibrium of gases embedded in galaxy clusters and the consequences of K-mouflage on the X-ray cluster luminosity, the gas temperature and the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect. We find that the cluster temperature function, and more generally number counts, are largely affected by K-mouflage, mainly due to the increased cluster abundance in these models. Other scaling relations such as the mass-temperature and the temperature-luminosity relations are only modified at the percent level due to the constraints on K-mouflage from local Solar System tests.

K-mouflaging Clusters of Galaxies [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the effects of a K-mouflage modification of gravity on the dynamics of clusters of galaxies. We extend the description of K-mouflage to situations where the scalar field responsible for the modification of gravity is coupled to a perfect fluid with pressure. We describe the coupled system at both the background cosmology and cosmological perturbations levels, focusing on cases where the pressure emanates from small-scale nonlinear physics. We derive these properties in both the Einstein and Jordan frames, as these two frames already differ by a few percents at the background level for K-mouflage scenarios, and next compute cluster properties in the Jordan frame that is better suited to these observations. Galaxy clusters are not screened by the K-mouflage mechanism and therefore feel the modification of gravity in a maximal way. This implies that the halo mass function deviates from $\Lambda$-CDM by a factor of order one for masses $M\gtrsim 10^{14} \ h^{-1} M_\odot$. We then consider the hydrostatic equilibrium of gases embedded in galaxy clusters and the consequences of K-mouflage on the X-ray cluster luminosity, the gas temperature and the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect. We find that the cluster temperature function, and more generally number counts, are largely affected by K-mouflage, mainly due to the increased cluster abundance in these models. Other scaling relations such as the mass-temperature and the temperature-luminosity relations are only modified at the percent level due to the constraints on K-mouflage from local Solar System tests.

Estimating parameters of binary black holes from gravitational-wave observations of their inspiral, merger and ringdown [Cross-Listing]

We characterize the expected statistical errors with which the parameters of black-hole binaries can be measured from gravitational-wave (GW) observations of their inspiral, merger and ringdown by a network of second-generation ground-based GW observatories. We simulate a population of black-hole binaries with uniform distribution of component masses in the interval $(3,80)~M_\odot$, distributed uniformly in comoving volume, with isotropic orientations. From signals producing signal-to-noise ratio $\geq 5$ in at least two detectors, we estimate the posterior distributions of the binary parameters using the Bayesian parameter estimation code LALInference. The GW signals will be redshifted due to the cosmological expansion and we measure only the "redshifted" masses. By assuming a cosmology, it is possible to estimate the gravitational masses by inferring the redshift from the measured posterior of the luminosity distance. We find that the measurement of the gravitational masses will be in general dominated by the error in measuring the luminosity distance. In spite of this, the component masses of more than $50\%$ of the population can be measured with accuracy better than $\sim 25\%$ using the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network. Additionally, the mass of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy $\sim 18\%$. Spin of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy $\sim 5\% ~(17\%)$ for binaries with non-spinning (aligned-spin) black holes. Additional detectors in Japan and India significantly improve the accuracy of sky localization, and moderately improve the estimation of luminosity distance, and hence, that of all mass parameters. We discuss the implication of these results on the observational evidence of intermediate-mass black holes and the estimation of cosmological parameters using GW observations.

Estimating parameters of binary black holes from gravitational-wave observations of their inspiral, merger and ringdown

We characterize the expected statistical errors with which the parameters of black-hole binaries can be measured from gravitational-wave (GW) observations of their inspiral, merger and ringdown by a network of second-generation ground-based GW observatories. We simulate a population of black-hole binaries with uniform distribution of component masses in the interval $(3,80)~M_\odot$, distributed uniformly in comoving volume, with isotropic orientations. From signals producing signal-to-noise ratio $\geq 5$ in at least two detectors, we estimate the posterior distributions of the binary parameters using the Bayesian parameter estimation code LALInference. The GW signals will be redshifted due to the cosmological expansion and we measure only the "redshifted" masses. By assuming a cosmology, it is possible to estimate the gravitational masses by inferring the redshift from the measured posterior of the luminosity distance. We find that the measurement of the gravitational masses will be in general dominated by the error in measuring the luminosity distance. In spite of this, the component masses of more than $50\%$ of the population can be measured with accuracy better than $\sim 25\%$ using the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network. Additionally, the mass of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy $\sim 18\%$. Spin of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy $\sim 5\% ~(17\%)$ for binaries with non-spinning (aligned-spin) black holes. Additional detectors in Japan and India significantly improve the accuracy of sky localization, and moderately improve the estimation of luminosity distance, and hence, that of all mass parameters. We discuss the implication of these results on the observational evidence of intermediate-mass black holes and the estimation of cosmological parameters using GW observations.

Frontier Fields Clusters: Chandra and JVLA View of the Pre-Merging Cluster MACS J0416.1-2403

Merging galaxy clusters leave long-lasting signatures on the baryonic and non-baryonic cluster constituents, including shock fronts, cold fronts, X-ray substructure, radio halos, and offsets between the dark matter and the gas components. Using observations from Chandra, the Jansky Very Large Array, the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a multiwavelength analysis of the merging Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 (z=0.396), which consists of a NE and a SW subclusters whose cores are separated on the sky by ~250 kpc. We find that the NE subcluster has a compact core and hosts an X-ray cavity, yet it is not a cool core. Approximately 450 kpc south-south west of the SW subcluster, we detect a density discontinuity that corresponds to a compression factor of ~1.5. The discontinuity was most likely caused by the interaction of the SW subcluster with a less massive structure detected in the lensing maps SW of the subcluster’s center. For both the NE and the SW subclusters, the dark matter and the gas components are well-aligned, suggesting that MACS J0416.1-2403 is a pre-merging system. The cluster also hosts a radio halo, which is unusual for a pre-merging system. The halo has a 1.4 GHz power of (1.06 +/- 0.09) x 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}, which is somewhat lower than expected based on the X-ray luminosity of the cluster. We suggest that we are either witnessing the birth of a radio halo, or have discovered a rare ultra-steep spectrum halo.

Fundamental Cosmology from Precision Spectroscopy: II. Synergies with supernovae [Cross-Listing]

In previous work [Amendola {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. D86 (2012) 063515], Principal Component Analysis based methods to constrain the dark energy equation of state using Type Ia supernovae and other low redshift probes were extended to spectroscopic tests of the stability fundamental couplings, which can probe higher redshifts. Here we use them to quantify the gains in sensitivity obtained by combining spectroscopic measurements expected from ESPRESSO at the VLT and the high-resolution ultra-stable spectrograph for the E-ELT (known as ELT-HIRES) with future supernova surveys. In addition to simulated low and intermediate redshift supernova surveys, we assess the dark energy impact of high-redshift supernovas detected by JWST and characterized by the E-ELT or TMT. Our results show that a detailed characterization of the dark energy properties beyond the acceleration phase (i.e., deep in the matter era) is viable, and may reach as deep as redshift 4.

Fundamental Cosmology from Precision Spectroscopy: II. Synergies with supernovae

In previous work [Amendola {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. D86 (2012) 063515], Principal Component Analysis based methods to constrain the dark energy equation of state using Type Ia supernovae and other low redshift probes were extended to spectroscopic tests of the stability fundamental couplings, which can probe higher redshifts. Here we use them to quantify the gains in sensitivity obtained by combining spectroscopic measurements expected from ESPRESSO at the VLT and the high-resolution ultra-stable spectrograph for the E-ELT (known as ELT-HIRES) with future supernova surveys. In addition to simulated low and intermediate redshift supernova surveys, we assess the dark energy impact of high-redshift supernovas detected by JWST and characterized by the E-ELT or TMT. Our results show that a detailed characterization of the dark energy properties beyond the acceleration phase (i.e., deep in the matter era) is viable, and may reach as deep as redshift 4.

Fundamental Cosmology from Precision Spectroscopy: II. Synergies with supernovae [Cross-Listing]

In previous work [Amendola {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. D86 (2012) 063515], Principal Component Analysis based methods to constrain the dark energy equation of state using Type Ia supernovae and other low redshift probes were extended to spectroscopic tests of the stability fundamental couplings, which can probe higher redshifts. Here we use them to quantify the gains in sensitivity obtained by combining spectroscopic measurements expected from ESPRESSO at the VLT and the high-resolution ultra-stable spectrograph for the E-ELT (known as ELT-HIRES) with future supernova surveys. In addition to simulated low and intermediate redshift supernova surveys, we assess the dark energy impact of high-redshift supernovas detected by JWST and characterized by the E-ELT or TMT. Our results show that a detailed characterization of the dark energy properties beyond the acceleration phase (i.e., deep in the matter era) is viable, and may reach as deep as redshift 4.

Fundamental Cosmology from Precision Spectroscopy: II. Synergies with supernovae [Cross-Listing]

In previous work [Amendola {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. D86 (2012) 063515], Principal Component Analysis based methods to constrain the dark energy equation of state using Type Ia supernovae and other low redshift probes were extended to spectroscopic tests of the stability fundamental couplings, which can probe higher redshifts. Here we use them to quantify the gains in sensitivity obtained by combining spectroscopic measurements expected from ESPRESSO at the VLT and the high-resolution ultra-stable spectrograph for the E-ELT (known as ELT-HIRES) with future supernova surveys. In addition to simulated low and intermediate redshift supernova surveys, we assess the dark energy impact of high-redshift supernovas detected by JWST and characterized by the E-ELT or TMT. Our results show that a detailed characterization of the dark energy properties beyond the acceleration phase (i.e., deep in the matter era) is viable, and may reach as deep as redshift 4.

Decaying dark matter and the tension in $\sigma_8$ [Cross-Listing]

We consider decaying dark matter (DDM) as a resolution to the possible tension between cosmic microwave background (CMB) and weak lensing (WL) based determinations of the amplitude of matter fluctuations, $\sigma_8$. We perform N-body simulations in a model where dark matter decays into dark radiation and develop an accurate fitting formula for the non-linear matter power spectrum, which enables us to test the DDM model by the combined measurements of CMB, WL and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to examine the overlap of posterior distributions of the cosmological parameters, comparing CMB alone with WL+BAO. We find an overlap that is significantly larger in the DDM model than in the standard CDM model. This may be hinting at DDM, although current data is not constraining enough to unambiguously favour a non-zero dark matter decay rate $\Gamma$. From the combined CMB+WL data, we obtain a lower bound $\Gamma^{-1}\ge 97$ Gyr at 95 % C.L, which is less tight than the constraint from CMB alone.

Decaying dark matter and the tension in $\sigma_8$

We consider decaying dark matter (DDM) as a resolution to the possible tension between cosmic microwave background (CMB) and weak lensing (WL) based determinations of the amplitude of matter fluctuations, $\sigma_8$. We perform N-body simulations in a model where dark matter decays into dark radiation and develop an accurate fitting formula for the non-linear matter power spectrum, which enables us to test the DDM model by the combined measurements of CMB, WL and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to examine the overlap of posterior distributions of the cosmological parameters, comparing CMB alone with WL+BAO. We find an overlap that is significantly larger in the DDM model than in the standard CDM model. This may be hinting at DDM, although current data is not constraining enough to unambiguously favour a non-zero dark matter decay rate $\Gamma$. From the combined CMB+WL data, we obtain a lower bound $\Gamma^{-1}\ge 97$ Gyr at 95 % C.L, which is less tight than the constraint from CMB alone.

Decaying dark matter and the tension in $\sigma_8$ [Cross-Listing]

We consider decaying dark matter (DDM) as a resolution to the possible tension between cosmic microwave background (CMB) and weak lensing (WL) based determinations of the amplitude of matter fluctuations, $\sigma_8$. We perform N-body simulations in a model where dark matter decays into dark radiation and develop an accurate fitting formula for the non-linear matter power spectrum, which enables us to test the DDM model by the combined measurements of CMB, WL and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to examine the overlap of posterior distributions of the cosmological parameters, comparing CMB alone with WL+BAO. We find an overlap that is significantly larger in the DDM model than in the standard CDM model. This may be hinting at DDM, although current data is not constraining enough to unambiguously favour a non-zero dark matter decay rate $\Gamma$. From the combined CMB+WL data, we obtain a lower bound $\Gamma^{-1}\ge 97$ Gyr at 95 % C.L, which is less tight than the constraint from CMB alone.

Cosmic reionization after Planck

Cosmic reionization holds the key to understand structure formation in the Universe, and can inform us about the properties of the first sources, as their star formation efficiency and escape fraction of ionizing photons. By combining the recent release of Planck electron scattering optical depth data with observations of high-redshift quasar absorption spectra, we obtain strong constraints on viable reionization histories. We show that inclusion of Planck data favors a reionization scenario with a single stellar population. The mean $x_{\rm HI}$ drops from $\sim0.9$ at $z=10.6$ to $\sim0.02$ at $z=5.8$ and reionization is completed around $5.8\lesssim z\lesssim9.3$ (2-$\sigma$), thus indicating a significant reduction in contributions to reionization from high redshift sources. We can put independent constraints on the escape fraction $f_{\rm esc}$ of ionizing photons by incorporating the high-redshift galaxy luminosity function data into our analysis. We find that $f_{\rm esc}$ increases moderately from $9\%$ to $20\%$ in the redshift range $z=6-9$. Such result is however consistent at 2-$\sigma$ confidence level with a non-evolving escape fraction.

Is cosmography a useful tool for testing cosmology? [Cross-Listing]

Model-independent methods in cosmology have become an essential tool in order to deal with an increasing number of theoretical alternatives for explaining the late-time acceleration of the Universe. In principle, this provides a way of testing the Cosmological Concordance (or $\Lambda$CDM) model under different assumptions and to rule out whole classes of competing theories. One such model-independent method is the so-called cosmographic approach, which relies only in the homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe on large scales. We show that this method suffers from many shortcomings, providing biased results depending on the auxiliary variable used in the series expansion and is unable to rule out models or adequately reconstruct theories with higher-order derivatives in either the gravitational or matter sector. Consequently, in its present form, this method seems unable to provide reliable or useful results for cosmological applications.

Is cosmography a useful tool for testing cosmology?

Model-independent methods in cosmology have become an essential tool in order to deal with an increasing number of theoretical alternatives for explaining the late-time acceleration of the Universe. In principle, this provides a way of testing the Cosmological Concordance (or $\Lambda$CDM) model under different assumptions and to rule out whole classes of competing theories. One such model-independent method is the so-called cosmographic approach, which relies only in the homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe on large scales. We show that this method suffers from many shortcomings, providing biased results depending on the auxiliary variable used in the series expansion and is unable to rule out models or adequately reconstruct theories with higher-order derivatives in either the gravitational or matter sector. Consequently, in its present form, this method seems unable to provide reliable or useful results for cosmological applications.

The Cheshire Cat Gravitational Lens: The Formation of a Massive Fossil Group

The Cheshire Cat is a relatively poor group of galaxies dominated by two luminous elliptical galaxies surrounded by at least four arcs from gravitationally lensed background galaxies that give the system a humorous appearance. Our combined optical/X-ray study of this system reveals that it is experiencing a line of sight merger between two groups with a roughly equal mass ratio with a relative velocity of ~1350 km/s. One group was most likely a low-mass fossil group, while the other group would have almost fit the classical definition of a fossil group. The collision manifests itself in a bimodal galaxy velocity distribution, an elevated central X-ray temperature and luminosity indicative of a shock, and gravitational arc centers that do not coincide with either large elliptical galaxy. One of the luminous elliptical galaxies has a double nucleus embedded off-center in the stellar halo. The luminous ellipticals should merge in less than a Gyr, after which observers will see a massive 1.2-1.5 x 10^14 solar mass fossil group with an M_r = -24.0 brightest group galaxy at its center. Thus, the Cheshire Cat offers us the first opportunity to study a fossil group progenitor. We discuss the limitations of the classical definition of a fossil group in terms of magnitude gaps between the member galaxies. We also suggest that if the merging of fossil (or near-fossil) groups is a common avenue for creating present-day fossil groups, the time lag between the final galactic merging of the system and the onset of cooling in the shock-heated core could account for the observed lack of well-developed cool cores in some fossil groups.

Gravitational Wave Background in the Quasi-Steady State Cosmology [Cross-Listing]

This paper calculates the expected gravitational wave background (GWB) in the quasi-steady state cosmology (QSSC). The principal sources of gravitational waves in the QSSC are the minicreation events (MCE). With suitable assumptions the GWB can be computed both numerically and with analytical methods. It is argued that the GWB in QSSC differs from that predicted for the standard cosmology and a future technology of detectors will be able to decide between the two predictions. We also derive a formula for the flux density of a typical extragalactic source of gravitational waves.

Gravitational Wave Background in the Quasi-Steady State Cosmology

This paper calculates the expected gravitational wave background (GWB) in the quasi-steady state cosmology (QSSC). The principal sources of gravitational waves in the QSSC are the minicreation events (MCE). With suitable assumptions the GWB can be computed both numerically and with analytical methods. It is argued that the GWB in QSSC differs from that predicted for the standard cosmology and a future technology of detectors will be able to decide between the two predictions. We also derive a formula for the flux density of a typical extragalactic source of gravitational waves.

The Subaru-XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) VIII.: Multi-wavelength Identification, Optical/NIR Spectroscopic Properties, and Photometric Redshifts of X-ray Sources

We report the multi-wavelength identification of the X-ray sources found in the Subaru-XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) using deep imaging data covering the wavelength range between the far-UV to the mid-IR. We select a primary counterpart of each X-ray source by applying the likelihood ratio method to R-band, 3.6micron, near-UV, and 24micron source catalogs as well as matching catalogs of AGN candidates selected in 1.4GHz radio and i’-band variability surveys. Once candidates of Galactic stars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources in a nearby galaxy, and clusters of galaxies are removed there are 896 AGN candidates in the sample. We conduct spectroscopic observations of the primary counterparts with multi-object spectrographs in the optical and NIR; 65\% of the X-ray AGN candidates are spectroscopically-identified. For the remaining X-ray AGN candidates, we evaluate their photometric redshift with photometric data in 15 bands. Utilising the multi-wavelength photometric data of the large sample of X-ray selected AGNs, we evaluate the stellar masses, M*, of the host galaxies of the narrow-line AGNs. The distribution of the stellar mass is remarkably constant from z=0.1 to 4.0. The relation between M* and 2–10 keV luminosity can be explained with strong cosmological evolution of the relationship between the black hole mass and M*. We also evaluate the scatter of the UV-MIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of the X-ray AGNs as a function of X-ray luminosity and absorption to the nucleus. The scatter is compared with galaxies which have redshift and stellar mass distribution matched with the X-ray AGN. The UV-NIR SEDs of obscured X-ray AGNs are similar to those of the galaxies in the matched sample. In the NIR-MIR range, the median SEDs of X-ray AGNs are redder, but the scatter of the SEDs of the X-ray AGN broadly overlaps that of the galaxies in the matched sample.

The offsets between galaxies and their dark matter in {\Lambda}CDM

We use the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" ( EAGLE ) suite of hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to measure offsets between the centres of stellar and dark matter components of galaxies. We find that the vast majority (>95%) of the simulated galaxies display an offset smaller than the gravitational softening length of the simulations ($\epsilon = 700$ pc), both for field galaxies and satellites in clusters and groups. We also find no systematic trailing or leading of the dark matter along a galaxy’s direction of motion. The offsets are consistent with being randomly drawn from a Maxwellian distribution with $\sigma = 196$ pc. Since astrophysical effects produce no feasible analogues for the $1.62^{+0.47}_{-0.49}$ kpc offset recently observed in Abell 3827, this observational result is in tension with the collisionless cold dark matter model assumed in the simulations.

Chiral Alfv\'en Wave [Cross-Listing]

We study the hydrodynamic regime of chiral plasmas at high temperature. We find a new type of gapless collective excitation induced by chiral effects in an external magnetic field. This is a transverse wave and is present even in incompressible fluids, unlike the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical waves. The velocity is proportional to the coefficient of the gravitational anomaly. We briefly discuss possible relevance of this "chiral Alfv\’en wave" in physical systems.

Chiral Alfv\'en Wave

We study the hydrodynamic regime of chiral plasmas at high temperature. We find a new type of gapless collective excitation induced by chiral effects in an external magnetic field. This is a transverse wave and is present even in incompressible fluids, unlike the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical waves. The velocity is proportional to the coefficient of the gravitational anomaly. We briefly discuss possible relevance of this "chiral Alfv\’en wave" in physical systems.

Chiral Alfv\'en Wave

We study the hydrodynamic regime of chiral plasmas at high temperature. We find a new type of gapless collective excitation induced by chiral effects in an external magnetic field. This is a transverse wave and is present even in incompressible fluids, unlike the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical waves. The velocity is proportional to the coefficient of the gravitational anomaly. We briefly discuss possible relevance of this "chiral Alfv\’en wave" in physical systems.

Chiral Alfv\'en Wave [Cross-Listing]

We study the hydrodynamic regime of chiral plasmas at high temperature. We find a new type of gapless collective excitation induced by chiral effects in an external magnetic field. This is a transverse wave and is present even in incompressible fluids, unlike the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical waves. The velocity is proportional to the coefficient of the gravitational anomaly. We briefly discuss possible relevance of this "chiral Alfv\’en wave" in physical systems.

The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Hierarchical scaling and biasing

We investigate the higher-order correlation properties of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) to test the hierarchical scaling hypothesis at z~1 and the dependence on galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift. We also aim to assess deviations from the linearity of galaxy bias independently from a previously performed analysis of our survey (Di Porto et al. 2014). We have measured the count probability distribution function in cells of radii 3 < R < 10 Mpc/h, deriving $\sigma_{8g}$, the volume-averaged two-,three-,and four-point correlation functions and the normalized skewness $S_{3g}$ and kurtosis $S_{4g}$ for volume-limited subsamples covering the ranges $-19.5 \le M_B(z=1.1)-5log(h) \le -21.0$, $9.0 < log(M*/M_{\odot} h^{-2}) \le 11.0$, $0.5 \le z < 1.1$. We have thus performed the first measurement of high-order correlations at z~1 in a spectroscopic redshift survey. Our main results are the following. 1) The hierarchical scaling holds throughout the whole range of scale and z. 2) We do not find a significant dependence of $S_{3g}$ on luminosity (below z=0.9 $S_{3g}$ decreases with luminosity but only at 1{\sigma}-level). 3) We do not detect a significant dependence of $S_{3g}$ and $S_{4g}$ on scale, except beyond z~0.9, where the dependence can be explained as a consequence of sample variance. 4) We do not detect an evolution of $S_{3g}$ and $S_{4g}$ with z. 5) The linear bias factor $b=\sigma_{8g}/\sigma_{8m}$ increases with z, in agreement with previous results. 6) We quantify deviations from the linear bias by means of the Taylor expansion parameter $b_2$. Our results are compatible with a null non-linear bias term, but taking into account other available data we argue that there is evidence for a small non-linear bias term.

Measuring line-of-sight dependent Fourier-space clustering using FFTs

Observed galaxy clustering exhibits local transverse statistical isotropy around the line-of-sight (LOS). The variation of the LOS across a galaxy survey complicates the measurement of the observed clustering as a function of the angle to the LOS, as Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) based on cartesian grids, cannot individually allow for this. Recent advances in methodology for calculating LOS-dependent clustering in Fourier space include the realisation that power spectrum LOS-dependent moments can be constructed from sums over galaxies, based on approximating the LOS to each pair of galaxies by the LOS to one of them. We show that we can implement this method using multiple FFTs, each measuring the LOS-weighted clustering along different axes. The N log(N) nature of FFTs means that the computational speed-up is a factor of >1000 compared with summing over galaxies. This development should be beneficial for future projects such as DESI and Euclid which will provide an order of magnitude more galaxies than current surveys.

Inflationary Magnetogenesis in $R^{2}$-Inflation after Planck 2015

We study the primordial magnetic field generated by the simple model $f^2 FF$ in Starobinsky, $R^2$-inflationary, model. The scale invariant PMF is achieved at relatively high power index of the coupling function, $\left| \alpha \right| \approx 7.44$. This model does not suffer from the backreaction problem as long as, the rate of inflationary expansion, $H$, is in the order of or less than the upper bound reported by Planck ($\le 3.6 \times 10^{-5} M_\rm{Pl}$) in both de Sitter and power law expansion, which show similar results. We calculate the lower limit of the reheating parameter, $R_\rm{rad} > 6.888$ in $R^2$-inflation. Based on the upper limit obtained from CMB, we find that the upper limits of magnetic field and reheating energy density as, $\left(\rho_{B_\rm{end}} \right)_\rm{CMB} < 1.184 \times 10^{-20} M_\rm{Pl}^4$ and $\left(\rho_\rm{reh} \right)_\rm{CMB} < 8.480 \times 10^{-22} M_\rm{Pl}^4$. All of foregoing results are well more than the lower limit derived from WMAP7 for both large and small field inflation. By using the Planck inflationary constraints, 2015 in the context of ${R^2}$-inflation, the upper limit of reheating temperature and energy density for all possible values of $w _\rm{reh}$ are respectively constrained as, $T_\rm{reh} < 4.32 \times 10^{13} \rm{GeV}$ and $\rho_\rm{reh} < 3.259 \times 10^{-18} M_\rm{Pl}^4$ at $n_\rm{s} \approx 0.9674$. This value of spectral index is well consistent with Planck, 2015 results. Adopting $T_\rm{reh}$, enables us to constrain the reheating e-folds number, $N_\rm{reh}$ on the range $1 < N_\rm{reh} < 8.3$, for $- 1/3 < w_\rm{reh} < 1$. By using the scale invariant PMF generated by $f^2 FF$, we find that the upper limit of present magnetic field, $B_0 < 8.058 \times 10^{-9} \rm{G}$.

Inflationary Magnetogenesis in $R^{2}$-Inflation after Planck 2015 [Cross-Listing]

We study the primordial magnetic field generated by the simple model $f^2 FF$ in Starobinsky, $R^2$-inflationary, model. The scale invariant PMF is achieved at relatively high power index of the coupling function, $\left| \alpha \right| \approx 7.44$. This model does not suffer from the backreaction problem as long as, the rate of inflationary expansion, $H$, is in the order of or less than the upper bound reported by Planck ($\le 3.6 \times 10^{-5} M_\rm{Pl}$) in both de Sitter and power law expansion, which show similar results. We calculate the lower limit of the reheating parameter, $R_\rm{rad} > 6.888$ in $R^2$-inflation. Based on the upper limit obtained from CMB, we find that the upper limits of magnetic field and reheating energy density as, $\left(\rho_{B_\rm{end}} \right)_\rm{CMB} < 1.184 \times 10^{-20} M_\rm{Pl}^4$ and $\left(\rho_\rm{reh} \right)_\rm{CMB} < 8.480 \times 10^{-22} M_\rm{Pl}^4$. All of foregoing results are well more than the lower limit derived from WMAP7 for both large and small field inflation. By using the Planck inflationary constraints, 2015 in the context of ${R^2}$-inflation, the upper limit of reheating temperature and energy density for all possible values of $w _\rm{reh}$ are respectively constrained as, $T_\rm{reh} < 4.32 \times 10^{13} \rm{GeV}$ and $\rho_\rm{reh} < 3.259 \times 10^{-18} M_\rm{Pl}^4$ at $n_\rm{s} \approx 0.9674$. This value of spectral index is well consistent with Planck, 2015 results. Adopting $T_\rm{reh}$, enables us to constrain the reheating e-folds number, $N_\rm{reh}$ on the range $1 < N_\rm{reh} < 8.3$, for $- 1/3 < w_\rm{reh} < 1$. By using the scale invariant PMF generated by $f^2 FF$, we find that the upper limit of present magnetic field, $B_0 < 8.058 \times 10^{-9} \rm{G}$.

Testing modified Newtonian dynamics in the Milky Way

Modified Newtonian dynamics (MoND) is an empirical theory originally proposed to explain the rotation curves of spiral galaxies by modifying the gravitational acceleration, rather than by invoking dark matter. Here, we set constraints on MoND using an up-to-date compilation of kinematic tracers of the Milky Way and a comprehensive collection of morphologies of the baryonic component in the Galaxy. In particular, we find that the so-called "standard" interpolating function cannot explain at the same time the rotation curve of the Milky Way and that of external galaxies for any of the baryonic models studied, while the so-called "simple" interpolating function remains viable for a subset of models. Upcoming astronomical observations will refine our knowledge on the morphology of baryons and will ultimately confirm or rule out the validity of MoND in the Milky Way. We also present constraints on MoND-like theories without making any assumptions on the interpolating function.

Strong Ultraviolet Pulse From a Newborn Type Ia Supernova

Type Ia supernovae are destructive explosions of carbon oxygen white dwarfs. Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances, the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious, One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion. Here we report observations of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a Type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star, and therefore provides evidence that some Type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.

The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA resolves the bright-end of the sub-millimeter number counts

We present high-resolution 870-um ALMA continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1-square degrees 850-um maps from the SCUBA–2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median SCUBA2 flux S_850=8.7+/-0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4-sigma significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In 61+/-17% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of >=2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra–Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with L_IR>10^12 Lo. The brightest SMG contributes on average 80+/-4% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing >=2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes 25+/-3% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S_870>7.5mJy, and by 60% at S_870>12mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the counts are well-described by a double power-law with a break at 8.5+/-0.6mJy. The break corresponds to a luminosity of ~6×10^12Lsol or a star-formation rate of ~1000Mo/yr. For the typical sizes of these SMGs, which are resolved in our ALMA data with r=1.2+/-0.1kpc, this yields a limiting SFR density of ~100Msol/yr/kpc2. Finally, the number density of S_870>2mJy SMGs is 80+/-30 times higher than that derived from blank-field counts. An over-abundance of faint SMGs is inconsistent with line-of-sight projections dominating multiplicity in the brightest SMGs, and indicates that a significant proportion of these high-redshift ULIRGs must be physically associated.

Dynamical de Sitter phase and nontrivial holonomy in strongly coupled gauge theories in expanding Universe [Cross-Listing]

We discuss a new scenario for early cosmology when the inflationary de Sitter phase emerges dynamically. This genuine quantum effect occurs as a result of dynamics of the topologically nontrivial sectors in a strongly coupled QCD- like gauge theory in an expanding universe. We test these ideas by explicit computations in hyperbolic space $ \mathbb{H}^3_{\kappa}\times \mathbb{S}^1_{\kappa^{-1}}$. We argue that the key element for this idea to work is the presence of nontrivial holonomy computed along $\mathbb{S}^1_{\kappa^{-1}}$. The effect is non-local in nature, non-analytical in coupling constant and can not be described in terms of any local propagating degree of freedom such as scalar inflaton field $\Phi(x)$. We discuss some profound phenomenological consequences of this scenario for inflationary cosmology. We also suggest to test these ideas in a tabletop experiment by measuring some specific corrections to the Casimir pressure in the Maxwell theory formulated on a topologically nontrivial manifold.

 

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