Recent Postings from Cosmology and Extragalactic

The physics inside the scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters: gas clumpiness, gas mass fraction and slope of the pressure profile

In galaxy clusters, the relations between observables in X-ray and millimeter wave bands and the total mass have normalizations, slopes and redshift evolutions that are simple to estimate in a self-similar scenario. We study these scaling relations and show that they can be efficiently expressed, in a more coherent picture, by fixing the normalizations and slopes to the self-similar predictions, and advocating, as responsible of the observed deviations, only three physical mass-dependent quantities: the gas clumpiness $C$, the gas mass fraction $f_g$ and the logarithmic slope of the thermal pressure profile $\beta_P$. We use samples of the observed gas masses, temperature, luminosities, and Compton parameters in local clusters to constrain normalization and mass dependence of these 3 physical quantities, and measure: $C^{0.5} f_g = 0.110 (\pm 0.002 \pm 0.002) \left( E_z M / 5 \times 10^{14} M_{\odot} \right)^{0.198 (\pm 0.025 \pm 0.04)}$ and $\beta_P = -d \ln P/d \ln r = 3.14 (\pm 0.04 \pm 0.02) \left( E_z M / 5 \times 10^{14} M_{\odot} \right)^{0.071 (\pm 0.012 \pm 0.004)}$, where both a statistical and systematic error (the latter mainly due to the cross-calibration uncertainties affecting the \cxo\ and \xmm\ results used in the present analysis) are quoted. The degeneracy between $C$ and $f_g$ is broken by using the estimates of the Compton parameters. Together with the self-similar predictions, these estimates on $C$, $f_g$ and $\beta_P$ define an inter-correlated internally-consistent set of scaling relations that reproduces the mass estimates with the lowest residuals.

J1649+26: A Grand-Design Spiral with a Large Double-Lobed Radio Source

We report the discovery of a grand-design spiral galaxy associated with a double-lobed radio source. J1649+2635 (z = 0.0545) is a red spiral galaxy with a prominent bulge that it is associated with a L$_{1.4{\rm GHz}}\sim$10$^{24}$WHz$^{-1}$ double-lobed radio source that spans almost 100kpc. J1649+2635 has a black hole mass of M$_{\rm BH} \sim$ 3–7 $\times$ 10$^8$M$_{\odot}$ and SFR$\sim$ 0.26 — 2.6M$_{\odot}$year$^{-1}$. The galaxy hosts a $\sim$96kpc diffuse optical halo, which is unprecedented for spiral galaxies. We find that J1649+2635 resides in an overdense environment with a mass of M$_{dyn} = 7.7^{+7.9}_{-4.3} \times 10^{13}$M$_{\odot}$, likely a galaxy group below the detection threshold of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We suggest one possible scenario for the association of double-lobed radio emission from J1649+2635 is that the source may be similar to a Seyfert galaxy, located in a denser-than-normal environment. The study of spiral galaxies that host large-scale radio emission is important because although rare in the local Universe, these sources may be more common at high-redshifts.

Jet-induced star formation by a microquasar

Theoretical and observational work show that jets from AGN can trigger star formation. However, in the Milky Way the first -and so far- only clear case of relativistic jets inducing star formation has been found in the surroundings of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. Here we summarize the multiwavelength observations of two compact star formation IRAS sources axisymmetrically located and aligned with the position angle of the sub-arcsec relativistic jets from the stellar black hole binary GRS 1915+105 (Mirabel & Rodriguez 1994). The observations of these two star forming regions at centimeter (Rodriguez & Mirabel 1998), millimeter and infrared (Chaty et al. 2001) wavelengths had suggested -despite the large uncertainties in the distances a decade ago- that the jets from GRS 1915+105 are triggering along the radio jet axis the formation of massive stars in a radio lobe of bow shock structure. Recently, Reid et al.(2014) found that the jet source and the IRAS sources are at the same distance, enhancing the evidence for the physical association between the jets from GRS 1915+105 and star formation in the IRAS sources. We conclude that as jets from AGN, jets from microquasars can trigger the formation of massive stars, but at distances of a few tens of parsecs. Although star formation induced by microquasar jets may not be statistically significant in the Milky Way, jets from stellar black holes may have been important to trigger star formation during the re-ionization epoch of the universe (Mirabel et al. 2011). Because of the relative proximity of GRS 1915+105 and the associated star forming regions, they may serve as a nearby laboratory to gain insight into the physics of jet-trigger star formation elsewhere in the universe.

Light propagation in a homogeneous and anisotropic universe [Cross-Listing]

This article proposes a comprehensive analysis of light propagation in an anisotropic and spatially homogeneous Bianchi I universe. After recalling that null geodesics are easily determined in such a spacetime, we derive the expressions of the redshift and direction drifts of light sources; by solving analytically the Sachs equation, we then obtain an explicit expression of the Jacobi matrix describing the propagation of narrow light beams. As a byproduct, we recover the old formula by Saunders for the angular diameter distance in a Bianchi I spacetime, but our derivation goes further since it also provides the optical shear and rotation. These results pave the way to the analysis of both supernovae data and weak lensing by the large-scale structure in Bianchi universes.

Light propagation in a homogeneous and anisotropic universe

This article proposes a comprehensive analysis of light propagation in an anisotropic and spatially homogeneous Bianchi I universe. After recalling that null geodesics are easily determined in such a spacetime, we derive the expressions of the redshift and direction drifts of light sources; by solving analytically the Sachs equation, we then obtain an explicit expression of the Jacobi matrix describing the propagation of narrow light beams. As a byproduct, we recover the old formula by Saunders for the angular diameter distance in a Bianchi I spacetime, but our derivation goes further since it also provides the optical shear and rotation. These results pave the way to the analysis of both supernovae data and weak lensing by the large-scale structure in Bianchi universes.

Born-corrections to weak lensing of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarisation anisotropies

Many weak lensing calculations make use of the Born approximation where the light ray is approximated by a straight path. We examine the effect of Born-corrections for lensing of the cosmic microwave background in an analytical approach by taking perturbative corrections to the geodesic into account. The resulting extra power in the lensing potential spectrum is comparable to the power generated by nonlinear structure formation and affects especially the polarisation spectra, leading to relative changes of the order of one per cent for the $E$-mode spectrum and up to 10 per cent on all scales to the $B$-mode spectrum. In contrast, there is only little change of spectra involving the CMB temperature. Additionally, the corrections excite one more degree of freedom resulting in a deflection component which can not be described as a gradient of the lensing potential as it is related to image rotation in lens-lens coupling. We estimate the magnitude of this effect on the CMB-spectra and find it to be negligible.

Testing Gravity using Void Profiles

We investigate void properties in $f(R)$ models using N-body simulations, focusing on their differences from General Relativity (GR) and their detectability. In the Hu-Sawicki $f(R)$ modified gravity (MG) models, the halo number density profiles of voids are not distinguishable from GR. In contrast, the same $f(R)$ voids are more empty of dark matter, and their profiles are steeper. This can in principle be observed by weak gravitational lensing of voids, for which the combination of a spectroscopic redshift and a lensing photometric redshift survey over the same sky is required. Neglecting the lensing shape noise, the $f(R)$ model parameter amplitudes $|f_{R0}|=10^{-5}$ and $10^{-4}$ may be distinguished from GR using the lensing tangential shear signal around voids by 4 and 8$\sigma$ for a volume of 1~(Gpc/$h$)$^3$. The line-of-sight projection of large-scale structure is the main systematics that limits the significance of this signal for the near future wide angle and deep lensing surveys. For this reason, it is challenging to distinguish $|f_{R0}|=10^{-6}$ from GR. We expect that this can be overcome with larger volume. The halo void abundance being smaller and the steepening of dark matter void profiles in $f(R)$ models are unique features that can be combined to break the degeneracy between $|f_{R0}|$ and $\sigma_8$.

Probing Models of Extended Gravity using Gravity Probe B and LARES experiments

We consider models of Extended Gravity and in particular, generic models containing scalar-tensor and higher-order curvature terms, as well as a model derived from noncommutative spectral geometry. Studying, in the weak-field approximation, the geodesic and Lense-Thirring processions, we impose constraints on the free parameters of such models by using the recent experimental results of the Gravity Probe B and LARES satellites.

Probing Models of Extended Gravity using Gravity Probe B and LARES experiments [Cross-Listing]

We consider models of Extended Gravity and in particular, generic models containing scalar-tensor and higher-order curvature terms, as well as a model derived from noncommutative spectral geometry. Studying, in the weak-field approximation, the geodesic and Lense-Thirring processions, we impose constraints on the free parameters of such models by using the recent experimental results of the Gravity Probe B and LARES satellites.

Probing Models of Extended Gravity using Gravity Probe B and LARES experiments [Cross-Listing]

We consider models of Extended Gravity and in particular, generic models containing scalar-tensor and higher-order curvature terms, as well as a model derived from noncommutative spectral geometry. Studying, in the weak-field approximation, the geodesic and Lense-Thirring processions, we impose constraints on the free parameters of such models by using the recent experimental results of the Gravity Probe B and LARES satellites.

Void Dynamics

Cosmic voids are becoming key players in testing the physics of our Universe. Here we concentrate on the abundances and the dynamics of voids as these are among the best candidates to provide information on cosmological parameters. Cai, Padilla \& Li (2014) use the abundance of voids to tell apart Hu \& Sawicki $f(R)$ models from General Relativity. An interesting result is that even though, as expected, voids in the dark matter field are emptier in $f(R)$ gravity due to the fifth force expelling away from the void centres, this result is reversed when haloes are used to find voids. The abundance of voids in this case becomes even lower in $f(R)$ compared to GR for large voids. Still, the differences are significant and this provides a way to tell apart these models. The velocity field differences between $f(R)$ and GR, on the other hand, are the same for halo voids and for dark matter voids. Paz et al. (2013), concentrate on the velocity profiles around voids. First they show the necessity of four parameters to describe the density profiles around voids given two distinct void populations, voids-in-voids and voids-in-clouds. This profile is used to predict peculiar velocities around voids, and the combination of the latter with void density profiles allows the construction of model void-galaxy cross-correlation functions with redshift space distortions. When these models are tuned to fit the measured correlation functions for voids and galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, small voids are found to be of the void-in-cloud type, whereas larger ones are consistent with being void-in-void. This is a novel result that is obtained directly from redshift space data around voids. These profiles can be used to remove systematics on void-galaxy Alcock-Pacinsky tests coming from redshift-space distortions.

Matter Bounce Loop Quantum Cosmology from $F(R)$ Gravity

Using the reconstruction method, we investigate which $F(R)$ theories, with or without the presence of matter fluids, can produce the matter bounce scenario of holonomy corrected Loop Quantum Cosmology. We focus our study in two limits of the cosmic time, the large cosmic time limit and the small cosmic time limit. For the former, we found that, in the presence of non-interacting and non-relativistic matter, the $F(R)$ gravity that reproduces the late time limit of the matter bounce solution is actually the Einstein-Hilbert gravity plus a power law term. In the early time limit, since it corresponds to large spacetime curvatures, assuming that the Jordan frame is described by a general metric that when it is conformally transformed to the Einstein frame, produces an accelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we found explicitly the scalar field dependence on time. After demonstrating that the solution in the Einstein frame is indeed accelerating, we calculate the spectral index derived from the Einstein frame scalar-tensor counterpart theory of the $F(R)$ theory and compare it with the Planck experiment data. In order to implement the resulting picture, we embed the $F(R)$ gravity explicitly in a Loop Quantum Cosmology framework by introducing holonomy corrections to the $F(R)$ gravity. In this way, the resulting inflation picture corresponding to the $F(R)$ gravity can be corrected in order it coincides to some extent with the current experimental data.

Matter Bounce Loop Quantum Cosmology from $F(R)$ Gravity [Cross-Listing]

Using the reconstruction method, we investigate which $F(R)$ theories, with or without the presence of matter fluids, can produce the matter bounce scenario of holonomy corrected Loop Quantum Cosmology. We focus our study in two limits of the cosmic time, the large cosmic time limit and the small cosmic time limit. For the former, we found that, in the presence of non-interacting and non-relativistic matter, the $F(R)$ gravity that reproduces the late time limit of the matter bounce solution is actually the Einstein-Hilbert gravity plus a power law term. In the early time limit, since it corresponds to large spacetime curvatures, assuming that the Jordan frame is described by a general metric that when it is conformally transformed to the Einstein frame, produces an accelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we found explicitly the scalar field dependence on time. After demonstrating that the solution in the Einstein frame is indeed accelerating, we calculate the spectral index derived from the Einstein frame scalar-tensor counterpart theory of the $F(R)$ theory and compare it with the Planck experiment data. In order to implement the resulting picture, we embed the $F(R)$ gravity explicitly in a Loop Quantum Cosmology framework by introducing holonomy corrections to the $F(R)$ gravity. In this way, the resulting inflation picture corresponding to the $F(R)$ gravity can be corrected in order it coincides to some extent with the current experimental data.

Matter Bounce Loop Quantum Cosmology from $F(R)$ Gravity [Cross-Listing]

Using the reconstruction method, we investigate which $F(R)$ theories, with or without the presence of matter fluids, can produce the matter bounce scenario of holonomy corrected Loop Quantum Cosmology. We focus our study in two limits of the cosmic time, the large cosmic time limit and the small cosmic time limit. For the former, we found that, in the presence of non-interacting and non-relativistic matter, the $F(R)$ gravity that reproduces the late time limit of the matter bounce solution is actually the Einstein-Hilbert gravity plus a power law term. In the early time limit, since it corresponds to large spacetime curvatures, assuming that the Jordan frame is described by a general metric that when it is conformally transformed to the Einstein frame, produces an accelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we found explicitly the scalar field dependence on time. After demonstrating that the solution in the Einstein frame is indeed accelerating, we calculate the spectral index derived from the Einstein frame scalar-tensor counterpart theory of the $F(R)$ theory and compare it with the Planck experiment data. In order to implement the resulting picture, we embed the $F(R)$ gravity explicitly in a Loop Quantum Cosmology framework by introducing holonomy corrections to the $F(R)$ gravity. In this way, the resulting inflation picture corresponding to the $F(R)$ gravity can be corrected in order it coincides to some extent with the current experimental data.

Jets in AGN at extremely high redshifts

A brief review of VLBI structures in extremely high-redshift AGN.

Star formation quenching in simulated group and cluster galaxies: When, how, and why?

Star formation is observed to be suppressed in group and cluster galaxies compared to the field. To gain insight into the quenching process, we have analysed ~2000 galaxies formed in the GIMIC suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The time of quenching varies from ~2 Gyr before accretion (first crossing of r200,c) to >4 Gyr after, depending on satellite and host mass. Once begun, quenching is rapid (>~ 500 Myr) in low-mass galaxies (M* < 10^10 M_Sun), but significantly more protracted for more massive satellites. The simulations predict a substantial role of outflows driven by ram pressure — but not tidal forces — in removing the star-forming interstellar matter (ISM) from satellite galaxies, especially dwarfs (M* ~ 10^9 M_Sun) where they account for nearly two thirds of ISM loss in both groups and clusters. Immediately before quenching is complete, this fraction rises to ~80% even for Milky Way analogues (M* ~ 10^10.5 M_Sun) in groups (M_host ~ 10^13.5 M_Sun). We show that (i) ISM stripping was significantly more effective at early times than at z = 0; (ii) approximately half the gas is stripped from `galactic fountains’ and half directly from the star forming disk; (iii) galaxies undergoing stripping experience ram pressure up to ~100 times the average at a given group/cluster-centric radius, because they are preferentially located in overdense ICM regions. Remarkably, stripping causes at most half the loss of the extended gas haloes surrounding our simulated satellites. These results contrast sharply with the current picture of strangulation — removal of the ISM through star formation after stripping of the hot halo — being the dominant mechanism quenching group and cluster satellites.

Non-Equilibrium Electrons in the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters

The analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel\’dovich measurements of the intracluster medium (ICM) assumes that electrons are in thermal equilibrium with ions in the plasma. However, electron-ion equilibration timescales can be comparable to the Hubble time in the low density galaxy cluster outskirts, leading to differences between the electron and ion temperatures. This temperature difference can lead to systematic biases in cluster mass estimates and mass-observable scaling relations. To quantify the impact of non-equilibrium electrons on the ICM profiles in cluster outskirts, we use a high resolution cosmological simulation with a two-temperature model assuming the Spitzer equilibration timescale for the electrons. First, we show how the radial profile of this temperature bias depends on both the mass and mass accretion rate of the cluster; the bias is most pronounced in the most massive and most rapidly accreting clusters. For the most extreme case in our sample, we find that the bias is of order 10% at half of the cluster virial radius and increases to 40% at the edge of the cluster. We also find that gas in filaments is less susceptible to the non-equilibrium effect, leading to azimuthal variations at large cluster-centric radii. By analyzing mock Chandra observations of simulated clusters, we show that such azimuthal variations can be probed with deep X-ray observations. Finally, the mass-dependent temperature bias introduces biases in hydrostatic mass and cluster temperature, which has implications for cluster-based cosmological inferences. We provide a mass-dependent model for the temperature bias profile which can be useful for modeling the effect of electron-ion equilibration in galaxy clusters.

Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

We report the discovery of 47 low surface brightness objects in deep images of a 3 x 3 degree field centered on the Coma cluster, obtained with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The objects have central surface brightness mu(g,0) ranging from 24 – 26 mag/arcsec^2 and effective radii r_e = 3"-10", as measured from archival Canada France Hawaii Telescope images. From their spatial distribution we infer that most or all of the objects are galaxies in the Coma cluster. This relatively large distance is surprising as it implies that the galaxies are very large: with r_e = 1.5 – 4.6 kpc their sizes are similar to those of L* galaxies even though their median stellar mass is only ~6 x 10^7 Solar masses. The galaxies are relatively red and round, with <g-i> = 0.8 and <b/a> = 0.74. One of the 47 galaxies is fortuitously covered by a deep Hubble Space Telescope ACS observation. The ACS imaging shows a large spheroidal object with a central surface brightness mu(g,0) = 25.8 mag/arcsec^2, a Sersic index n=0.6, and an effective radius of 7", corresponding to 3.4 kpc at the distance of Coma. The galaxy is unresolved, as expected for a Coma cluster object. To our knowledge such "ultra-diffuse galaxies" have not been predicted in any modern galaxy formation model. We speculate that UDGs may have lost their gas supply at early times, possibly resulting in very high dark matter fractions.

Searching for Inflationary B-modes: Can dust emission properties be extrapolated from 350 GHz to 150 GHz?

Recent Planck results have shown that the path to isolating an inflationary B-mode signal in microwave polarization passes through understanding and modeling the interstellar dust polarized emission foreground, even in regions of the sky with the lowest level of dust emission. One of the most commonly used ways to remove the dust foreground is to extrapolate the polarized dust emission signal from frequencies where it dominates (e.g., 350 GHz) to frequencies commonly targeted by cosmic microwave background experiments (e.g., 150 GHz). We show, using a simple 2-cloud model, that if more than one cloud is present along the line-of-sight, with even mildly different temperature and dust column density, but severely misaligned magnetic field, then the 350 GHz polarized sky map is not predictive of that at 150 GHz. This problem is intrinsic to all microwave experiments and is due to information loss due to line-of-sight integration. However, it can be alleviated through interstellar medium tomography: a reconstruction of the dust column and magnetic fields at different distances, which could be achieved through the measurement of dust-absorption–induced polarization properties of starlight from stars at known distances in the optical and infrared.

Fast and Reliable Time Delay Estimation of Strong Lens Systems Using Method of Smoothing and Cross-Correlation

The observable time delays between the multiple images of strong lensing systems with time variable sources can provide us with some valuable information to probe the expansion history of the Universe. Estimation of these time delays can be very challenging due to complexities of the observed data where there are seasonal gaps, various noises and systematics such as unknown microlensing effects. In this paper we introduce a novel approach to estimate the time delays for strong lensing systems implementing various statistical methods of data analysis including the method of smoothing and cross-correlation. The method we introduce in this paper has been recently used in TDC0 and TDC1 Strong Lens Time Delay Challenges and has shown its power in reliable and precise estimation of time delays dealing with data with different complexities.

Cosmic Neutrino Secret Interactions, Enhancement and Total Cross Section [Cross-Listing]

The scattering of neutrinos assuming a "secret" interaction at low energy is considered. To leading order in energy, the two-body potential is a delta-potential, and it is used to model all short-range elastic interactions between neutrinos. The scattering cross section depends only on the renormalized strength of the potential, while the Sommerfeld enhancement factor also depends on the short-range length scale of the interaction. If this potential is repulsive, it can lead to a decrease in the total cross section, resulting in an enhancement of the neutrino density. For attractive potentials, substantial Sommerfeld enhancement can appear.

Cosmic Neutrino Secret Interactions, Enhancement and Total Cross Section

The scattering of neutrinos assuming a "secret" interaction at low energy is considered. To leading order in energy, the two-body potential is a delta-potential, and it is used to model all short-range elastic interactions between neutrinos. The scattering cross section depends only on the renormalized strength of the potential, while the Sommerfeld enhancement factor also depends on the short-range length scale of the interaction. If this potential is repulsive, it can lead to a decrease in the total cross section, resulting in an enhancement of the neutrino density. For attractive potentials, substantial Sommerfeld enhancement can appear.

Cosmic Neutrino Secret Interactions, Enhancement and Total Cross Section [Cross-Listing]

The scattering of neutrinos assuming a "secret" interaction at low energy is considered. To leading order in energy, the two-body potential is a delta-potential, and it is used to model all short-range elastic interactions between neutrinos. The scattering cross section depends only on the renormalized strength of the potential, while the Sommerfeld enhancement factor also depends on the short-range length scale of the interaction. If this potential is repulsive, it can lead to a decrease in the total cross section, resulting in an enhancement of the neutrino density. For attractive potentials, substantial Sommerfeld enhancement can appear.

Probing WIMP particle physics and astrophysics with direct detection and neutrino telescope data

With positive signals from multiple direct detection experiments it will, in principle, be possible to measure the mass and cross sections of weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. Recent work has shown that, with a polynomial parameterisation of the WIMP speed distribution, it is possible to make an unbiased measurement of the WIMP mass, without making any astrophysical assumptions. However, direct detection experiments are not sensitive to low-speed WIMPs and, therefore, any model-independent approach will lead to a bias in the cross section. This problem can be solved with the addition of measurements of the flux of neutrinos from the Sun. This is because the flux of neutrinos produced from the annihilation of WIMPs which have been gravitationally captured in the Sun is sensitive to low-speed WIMPs. Using mock data from next-generation direct detection experiments and from the IceCube neutrino telescope, we show that the complementary information from IceCube on low-speed WIMPs breaks the degeneracy between the cross section and the speed distribution. This allows unbiased determinations of the WIMP mass and spin-independent and spin-dependent cross sections to be made, and the speed distribution to be reconstructed. We use two parameterisations of the speed distribution: binned and polynomial. While the polynomial parameterisation can encompass a wider range of speed distributions, this leads to larger uncertainties in the particle physics parameters.

Probing WIMP particle physics and astrophysics with direct detection and neutrino telescope data [Cross-Listing]

With positive signals from multiple direct detection experiments it will, in principle, be possible to measure the mass and cross sections of weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. Recent work has shown that, with a polynomial parameterisation of the WIMP speed distribution, it is possible to make an unbiased measurement of the WIMP mass, without making any astrophysical assumptions. However, direct detection experiments are not sensitive to low-speed WIMPs and, therefore, any model-independent approach will lead to a bias in the cross section. This problem can be solved with the addition of measurements of the flux of neutrinos from the Sun. This is because the flux of neutrinos produced from the annihilation of WIMPs which have been gravitationally captured in the Sun is sensitive to low-speed WIMPs. Using mock data from next-generation direct detection experiments and from the IceCube neutrino telescope, we show that the complementary information from IceCube on low-speed WIMPs breaks the degeneracy between the cross section and the speed distribution. This allows unbiased determinations of the WIMP mass and spin-independent and spin-dependent cross sections to be made, and the speed distribution to be reconstructed. We use two parameterisations of the speed distribution: binned and polynomial. While the polynomial parameterisation can encompass a wider range of speed distributions, this leads to larger uncertainties in the particle physics parameters.

CMB hemispherical asymmetry from non-linear isocurvature perturbations

We investigate whether non-adiabatic perturbations from inflation could produce an asymmetric distribution of temperature anisotropies on large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We use a generalised non-linear $\delta N$ formalism to calculate the non-Gaussianity of the primordial density and isocurvature perturbations due to the presence of non-adiabatic, but approximately scale-invariant field fluctuations during multi-field inflation. This local-type non-Gaussianity leads to a correlation between very long wavelength inhomogeneities, larger than our observable horizon, and smaller scale fluctuations in the radiation and matter density. Matter isocurvature perturbations contribute primarily to low CMB multipoles and hence can lead to a hemispherical asymmetry on large angular scales, with negligible asymmetry on smaller scales. In curvaton models, where the matter isocurvature perturbation is partly correlated with the primordial density perturbation, we are unable to obtain a significant asymmetry on large angular scales while respecting current observational constraints on the observed quadrupole. However in the axion model, where the matter isocurvature and primordial density perturbations are uncorrelated, we find it may be possible to obtain a significant asymmetry due to isocurvature modes on large angular scales. Such an isocurvature origin for the hemispherical asymmetry would naturally give rise to a distinctive asymmetry in the CMB polarisation on large scales.

CMB hemispherical asymmetry from non-linear isocurvature perturbations [Cross-Listing]

We investigate whether non-adiabatic perturbations from inflation could produce an asymmetric distribution of temperature anisotropies on large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We use a generalised non-linear $\delta N$ formalism to calculate the non-Gaussianity of the primordial density and isocurvature perturbations due to the presence of non-adiabatic, but approximately scale-invariant field fluctuations during multi-field inflation. This local-type non-Gaussianity leads to a correlation between very long wavelength inhomogeneities, larger than our observable horizon, and smaller scale fluctuations in the radiation and matter density. Matter isocurvature perturbations contribute primarily to low CMB multipoles and hence can lead to a hemispherical asymmetry on large angular scales, with negligible asymmetry on smaller scales. In curvaton models, where the matter isocurvature perturbation is partly correlated with the primordial density perturbation, we are unable to obtain a significant asymmetry on large angular scales while respecting current observational constraints on the observed quadrupole. However in the axion model, where the matter isocurvature and primordial density perturbations are uncorrelated, we find it may be possible to obtain a significant asymmetry due to isocurvature modes on large angular scales. Such an isocurvature origin for the hemispherical asymmetry would naturally give rise to a distinctive asymmetry in the CMB polarisation on large scales.

The cluster environments of radio-loud AGN

Radio-loud AGN play an important r\^ole in galaxy evolution. We need to understand their properties, and the processes that affect their behaviour in order to model galaxy formation and development. We here present preliminary results of an investigation into the cluster environments of radio galaxies. We have found evidence of a strong correlation between radio luminosity and environment richness for low excitation radio galaxies, and no evidence of evolution of the environment with redshift. Conversely, for high excitation radio galaxies, we found no correlation with environment richness, and tentative evidence of evolution of the cluster environment.

Observing the Inflationary Reheating

Reheating is the the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot Big-Bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is however observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models taken in Encyclopaedia Inflationaris. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires to incorporate information about its reheating history.

Observing the Inflationary Reheating [Cross-Listing]

Reheating is the the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot Big-Bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is however observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models taken in Encyclopaedia Inflationaris. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires to incorporate information about its reheating history.

Observing the Inflationary Reheating [Cross-Listing]

Reheating is the the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot Big-Bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is however observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models taken in Encyclopaedia Inflationaris. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires to incorporate information about its reheating history.

Observing the Inflationary Reheating [Cross-Listing]

Reheating is the the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot Big-Bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is however observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models taken in Encyclopaedia Inflationaris. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires to incorporate information about its reheating history.

Three Einstein rings: explicit solution and numerical simulation

We investigated the effects of gravitational lensing for a system in which a lens is a point mass and a homogeneous disc with a central hole. In such system there is a variety of cases resulting in formation of one, two and three Einstein rings. We found an explicit solution and considered conditions for existence of the second Einstein ring arising on the disc. Numerical modelling of the images was made for various ratios of the central mass to the disc one and for various values of the disc surface density. We also analysed dependence of the magnification factor on a source position for such system. The result of our work can be used in search of astrophysical objects with a toroidal (ring) structure.

SALT spectroscopic observations of galaxy clusters detected by ACT and a Type II quasar hosted by a brightest cluster galaxy

We present Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) follow-up observations of seven massive clusters detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) on the celestial equator using the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. We conducted multi-object spectroscopic observations with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph in order to measure galaxy redshifts in each cluster field, determine the cluster line-of-sight velocity dispersions, and infer the cluster dynamical masses. We find that the clusters, which span the redshift range 0.3 < z < 0.55, range in mass from (5 — 20) x 10$^{14}$ solar masses (M200c). Their masses, given their SZ signals, are similar to those of southern hemisphere ACT clusters previously observed using Gemini and the VLT. We note that the brightest cluster galaxy in one of the systems studied, ACT-CL J0320.4+0032 at z = 0.38, hosts a Type II quasar. To our knowledge, this is only the third such system discovered, and therefore may be a rare example of a very massive halo in which quasar-mode feedback is actively taking place.

Constraining the Parameter Space of the Dark Energy Equation of State Using Alternative Cosmic Tracers

We propose to use HII galaxies (HIIG) to trace the redshift-distance relation, by means of their $L(\mathrm{H}\beta) – \sigma$ correlation, in an attempt to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter solution space, as an alternative to the cosmological use of type Ia supernovae. For a sample of 128 local compact HIIG with high equivalent widths of their Balmer emission lines we obtained ionised gas velocity dispersion from high S/N, high-dispersion spectroscopy (Subaru-HDS and ESO VLT-UVES) and integrated H$\beta$ fluxes from low dispersion wide aperture spectrophotometry. We find that the $L(\mathrm{H}\beta) – \sigma$ relation is strong and stable against restrictions in the sample. The size of the starforming region is an important second parameter, while adding the emission line equivalent width or the continuum colour and metallicity, produces the solution with the smallest rms scatter. We have used the $L(\mathrm{H}\beta) – \sigma$ relation from a local sample of HIIG and a local calibration or `anchor’, given by giant HII regions in nearby galaxies which have accurate distance measurements determined via primary indicators, to obtain a value of $H_0$. Using our best sample of 69 HIIG and 23 Giant HII regions in 9 galaxies we obtain $H_{0}=74.3 \pm 3.1$ (statistical)$\pm$ 2.9 (systematic) km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, in excellent agreement with, and independently confirming, the most recent SNa Ia based results. Using a local sample (107 sources) and a sample of 21 high redshift HIIG, 6 of them with medium-dispersion spectroscopy (ESO VLT-XShooter) and 17 taken from the literature, we have obtained constraints on the planes $H_0 – \Omega_m$, $\Omega_m – w_0$ and $w_0 – w_1$ (CPL model).

Weak Lensing with Sizes, Magnitudes and Shapes

Weak lensing can be observed through a number of effects on the images of distant galaxies; their shapes are sheared, their sizes and fluxes (magnitudes) are magnified and their positions on the sky are modified by the lensing field. Galaxy shapes probe the shear field whilst size, magnitude and number density probe the convergence field. Both contain cosmological information. In this paper we are concerned with the magnification of the size and magnitude of individual galaxies as a probe of cosmic convergence. We develop a Bayesian approach for inferring the convergence field from a measured size, magnitude and redshift and demonstrate that the inference on convergence requires detailed knowledge of the joint distribution of intrinsic sizes and magnitudes. We build a simple parameterised model for the size-magnitude distribution and estimate this distribution for CFHTLenS galaxies. In light of the measured distribution, we show that the typical dispersion on convergence estimation is ~0.8, compared to ~0.38 for shear. We discuss the possibility of physical systematics for magnification (similar to intrinsic alignments for shear) and compute the expected gains in the Dark Energy Figure-of-Merit (FoM) from combining magnification with shear for different scenarios regarding systematics: when accounting for intrinsic alignments but no systematics on the magnification signal, including magnification could improve the FoM by upto a factor of ~2.5, whilst when accounting for physical systematics in both shear and magnification we anticipate a gain between ~25% and ~65%. In addition to the statistical gains, the fact that cosmic shear and magnification are subject to different systematics makes magnification an attractive complement to any cosmic shear analysis.

First background-free limit from a directional dark matter experiment: results from a fully fiducialised DRIFT detector [Cross-Listing]

The addition of O2 to gas mixtures in time projection chambers containing CS2 has recently been shown to produce multiple negative ions that travel at slightly different velocities. This allows a measurement of the absolute position of ionising events in the z (drift) direction. In this work, we apply the z-fiducialisation technique to a directional dark matter search. In particular, we present results from a 46.3 live-day source-free exposure of the DRIFT-IId detector run in this completely new mode. With full-volume fiducialisation, we have achieved the first background-free operation of a directional detector. The resulting exclusion curve for spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions reaches 0.9 pb at 100 GeV/c2, a factor of 2 better than our previous work. We describe the automated analysis used here, and argue that detector upgrades, implemented after the acquisition of these data, will bring an additional factor of >3 improvement in the near future.

Magnetic horizons of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

The propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in extragalactic magnetic fields can be diffusive, depending on the strength and properties of the fields. In some cases the propagation time of the particles can be comparable to the age of the universe, causing a suppression in the flux measured on Earth. In this work we use magnetic field distributions from cosmological simulations to assess the existence of a magnetic horizon at energies around 10$^{18}$ eV.

Forecasts on the Dark Energy and Primordial Non-Gaussianity Observations with the Tianlai Cylinder Array

The Tianlai experiment is dedicated to the observation of large scale structures (LSS) by the 21 cm intensity mapping technique. In this paper we make forecasts on its capability at observing or constraining the dark energy parameters and the primordial non-Gaussianity. From the LSS data one can use the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and the growth rate derived from the redshift space distortion (RSD) to measure the dark energy density and equation of state. The primordial non-Gaussianity can be constrained either by looking for scale-dependent bias in the power spectrum, or by using the bispectrum. Here we consider three cases: the Tianlai cylinder array pathfinder which is currently being built, an upgrade of the pathfinder array with more receiver units, and the full-scale Tianlai cylinder array. Using the full-scale Tianlai experiment, we expect $\sigma_{w_0} \sim 0.082$ and $\sigma_{w_a} \sim 0.21$ from the BAO and RSD measurements, $\sigma_{\rm f_{NL}}^{\rm local} \sim 14$ from the power spectrum measurements with scale-dependent bias, and $\sigma_{\rm f_{NL}}^{\rm local} \sim 22$ and $\sigma_{\rm f_{NL}}^{\rm equil} \sim 157$ from the bispectrum measurements.

The High $\mathrm{A_V}$ Quasar Survey: Reddened Quasi Stellar Objects selected from optical/near-infrared photometry - II

Quasi Stellar Objects (QSOs) whose spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are reddened by dust either in their host galaxies or in intervening absorber galaxies are to a large degree missed by optical color selection criteria like the ones used by the SDSS. To overcome this bias against red QSOs, we employ a combined optical and near-infrared color selection. In this paper, we present a spectroscopic follow-up campaign of a sample of red candidate QSOs which were selected from the SDSS and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The spectroscopic data and SDSS/UKIDSS photometry are supplemented by photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In our sample of 159 candidates, 154 (97 %) are confirmed to be QSOs. We use a statistical algorithm to identify sightlines with plausible intervening absorption systems and identify 9 such cases assuming dust in the absorber similar to Large Magellanic Cloud sightlines. We find absorption systems towards 30 QSOs, two of which are consistent with the best-fit absorber redshift from the statistical modelling. Furthermore, we observe a broad range in SED properties of the QSOs as probed by the rest-frame 2 $\mu$m flux. We find QSOs with a strong excess as well as QSOs with a large deficit at rest-frame 2 $\mu$m relative to a QSO template. Potential solutions to these discrepancies are discussed. Overall, our study demonstrates the high efficiency of the optical/near-infrared selection of red QSOs.

A new spin on disks of satellite galaxies

We investigate the angular and kinematic distributions of satellite galaxies around a large sample of bright isolated primaries in the spectroscopic and photometric catalogues of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We detect significant anisotropy in the spatial distribution of satellites. To test whether this anisotropy could be related to the rotating disks of satellites recently found by Ibata et al. in a sample of SDSS galaxies, we repeat and extend their analysis. Ibata et al. found an excess of satellites on opposite sides of their primaries having anticorrelated radial velocities. We find that this excess is sensitive to small changes in the sample selection criteria which can greatly reduce its significance. In addition, we find no evidence for correspondingly correlated velocities for satellites observed on the same side of their primaries, which would be expected for rotating disks of satellites. We conclude that the detection of coherent rotation in the satellite population in current observational samples is not robust. We compare our data to the $\Lambda$CDM Millennium simulations populated with galaxies according to the semi-analytic model of Guo et al. We find excellent agreement with the spatial distribution of satellites in the SDSS data and the lack of a strong signal from coherent rotation.

Measuring angular diameter distances of strong gravitational lenses

The distance-redshift relation plays a fundamental role in constraining cosmological models. In this paper, we show that measurements of positions and time delays of strongly lensed images of a background galaxy, as well as those of the velocity dispersion and mass profile of a lens galaxy, can be combined to extract the angular diameter distance of the lens galaxy. Physically, as the velocity dispersion and the time delay give a gravitational potential ($GM/r$) and a mass ($GM$) of the lens, respectively, dividing them gives a physical size ($r$) of the lens. Comparing the physical size with the image positions of a lensed galaxy gives the angular diameter distance to the lens. A mismatch between the exact locations at which these measurements are made can be corrected by measuring a local slope of the mass profile. We expand on the original idea put forward by Paraficz and Hjorth, who analyzed singular isothermal lenses, by allowing for an arbitrary slope of a power-law spherical mass density profile, an external convergence, and an anisotropic velocity dispersion. We find that the effect of external convergence cancels out when dividing the time delays and velocity dispersion measurements. We derive a formula for the uncertainty in the angular diameter distance in terms of the uncertainties in the observables. As an application, we use two existing strong lens systems, B1608+656 ($z_{\rm L}=0.6304$) and RXJ1131$-$1231 ($z_{\rm L}=0.295$), to show that the uncertainty in the inferred angular diameter distances is dominated by that in the velocity dispersion, $\sigma^2$, and its anisotropy. We find that the current data on these systems should yield about 16% uncertainty in $D_A$ per object. This improves to 13% when we measure $\sigma^2$ at the so-called sweet-spot radius. Achieving 7% is possible if we can determine $\sigma^2$ with 5% precision.

Shaping the X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters with AGN feedback and turbulence

The hot plasma filling galaxy clusters emits copious radiation in the X-ray band. The classic unheated and unperturbed cooling flow model predicts dramatic cooling rates and an isobaric X-ray spectrum with constant differential luminosity distribution, $dL_{\rm x}/dT \propto (T/T_{\rm hot})^0$. Combining past observations, it is however clear that the cores of clusters (and groups) show a strong deficit of emission increasing toward the soft X-ray band: $dL_{\rm x}/dT \propto (T/T_{\rm hot})^{\alpha=2\pm1}$. Using 3D hydrodynamic simulations, we show that the deficit arises from the competition of thermal instability condensation and AGN outflow injection. During tight self-regulated feedback, the average luminosity distribution slope is $\alpha\approx2$, oscillating within the observed $1<\alpha<3$. In the absence of thermal instability (i.e. breaking self-regulation), the spectrum remains nearly isothermal ($\alpha>8$), while pure cooling drives a too shallow slope, $\alpha<1$. We disentangle the role of heating and turbulence via controlled experiments. Distributed heating alone induces a declining X-ray spectrum with $1<\alpha<2$. Since AGN heating is tied to inside-out energy deposition, relatively more heat is released in the inner, cooler phase. Turbulence plays an important role. The turbulent Mach number in the hot phase is subsonic, while it becomes transonic in the cooler phase, shifting the perturbation mode from isobaric toward adiabatic. Such increase in the $d\ln P/d\ln T$ index leads to the further suppression of the soft X-ray spectrum up to $\alpha\approx3$, with scatter widening to 1 dex. The non-isobaric scenario is also valid in unheated cooling flows, as thermal instability condensation excites turbulent motions. Self-regulated mechanical AGN feedback is able to solve both the mass sink and soft X-ray problem through the interplay of heating and turbulence.

Effect of primordial non-Gaussianities on the far-UV luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies: implications for cosmic reionization

[Abridged] Understanding how the intergalactic medium (IGM) was reionized at z > 6 is one of the big challenges of current high redshift astronomy. It requires modelling the collapse of the first astrophysical objects (Pop III stars, first galaxies) and their interaction with the IGM, while at the same time pushing current observational facilities to their limits. The observational and theoretical progress of the last few years have led to the emergence of a coherent picture in which the budget of hydrogen-ionizing photons is dominated by low-mass star-forming galaxies, with little contribution from Pop III stars and quasars. The reionization history of the Universe therefore critically depends on the number density of low-mass galaxies at high redshift. In this work, we explore how changes in the statistical properties of initial density fluctuations affect the formation of early galaxies. Following Habouzit et al. (2014), we run 5 N-body simulations with Gaussian and (scale-dependent) non-Gaussian initial conditions, all consistent with Planck constraints. By appealing to a galaxy formation model and to a population synthesis code, we compute the far-UV galaxy luminosity function down to M_UV = -14 at redshift 7 < z < 15. We find that models with strong primordial non-Gaussianities on < Mpc scales show a far-UV luminosity function significantly enhanced in low-mass galaxies. We adopt a reionization model calibrated from state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations and show that such non-Gaussianities leave a clear imprint on the Universe reionization history and electron Thomson scattering optical depth tau_E. Although current uncertainties in the physics of reionization and on the determination of tau_E still dominate the signatures of non-Gaussianities, our results suggest that tau_E could ultimately be used to constrain the statistical properties of initial density fluctuations.

Excited dark matter reconciles conflicting observations of 3.5 keV X-rays

Tentative evidence of a 3.5 keV X-ray line has been found in the stacked spectra of galaxy clusters, individual clusters, the Andromeda galaxy and the galactic center, leading to speculation that it could be due to decays of metastable dark matter such as sterile neutrinos. However searches for the line in other systems such as dwarf satellites of the Milky Way have given negative or ambiguous results. We reanalyze both the positive and negative searches from the point of view that the line is due to inelastic scattering of dark matter to an excited state that subsequently decays—the mechanism of excited dark matter (XDM). Unlike the metastable dark matter scenario, XDM gives a stronger signal in systems with higher velocity dispersions, such as galaxy clusters. We show that the predictions of XDM can be consistent with null searches from dwarf satellites, while the signal from the closest individual galaxies can be detectable having a flux consistent with that from clusters. We discuss the impact of our new fits to the data for two specific realizations of XDM.

Excited dark matter reconciles conflicting observations of 3.5 keV X-rays [Cross-Listing]

Tentative evidence of a 3.5 keV X-ray line has been found in the stacked spectra of galaxy clusters, individual clusters, the Andromeda galaxy and the galactic center, leading to speculation that it could be due to decays of metastable dark matter such as sterile neutrinos. However searches for the line in other systems such as dwarf satellites of the Milky Way have given negative or ambiguous results. We reanalyze both the positive and negative searches from the point of view that the line is due to inelastic scattering of dark matter to an excited state that subsequently decays—the mechanism of excited dark matter (XDM). Unlike the metastable dark matter scenario, XDM gives a stronger signal in systems with higher velocity dispersions, such as galaxy clusters. We show that the predictions of XDM can be consistent with null searches from dwarf satellites, while the signal from the closest individual galaxies can be detectable having a flux consistent with that from clusters. We discuss the impact of our new fits to the data for two specific realizations of XDM.

Post-Newtonian Approximation of Teleparallel Gravity Coupled with a Scalar Field [Cross-Listing]

We use the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism to explore the weak field approximation of teleparallel gravity non-minimally coupling to a scalar field $\phi$, with arbitrary coupling function $\omega(\phi)$ and potential $V(\phi)$. We find that all the PPN parameters are identical to general relativity (GR), which makes this class of theories compatible with the Solar System experiments. This feature also makes the theories quite different from the scalar-tensor theories, which might be subject to stringent constraints on the parameter space, or need some screening mechanisms to pass the Solar System experimental constraints.

Post-Newtonian Approximation of Teleparallel Gravity Coupled with a Scalar Field [Cross-Listing]

We use the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism to explore the weak field approximation of teleparallel gravity non-minimally coupling to a scalar field $\phi$, with arbitrary coupling function $\omega(\phi)$ and potential $V(\phi)$. We find that all the PPN parameters are identical to general relativity (GR), which makes this class of theories compatible with the Solar System experiments. This feature also makes the theories quite different from the scalar-tensor theories, which might be subject to stringent constraints on the parameter space, or need some screening mechanisms to pass the Solar System experimental constraints.

Post-Newtonian Approximation of Teleparallel Gravity Coupled with a Scalar Field

We use the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism to explore the weak field approximation of teleparallel gravity non-minimally coupling to a scalar field $\phi$, with arbitrary coupling function $\omega(\phi)$ and potential $V(\phi)$. We find that all the PPN parameters are identical to general relativity (GR), which makes this class of theories compatible with the Solar System experiments. This feature also makes the theories quite different from the scalar-tensor theories, which might be subject to stringent constraints on the parameter space, or need some screening mechanisms to pass the Solar System experimental constraints.

Bimetric Extension of General Relativity and Phenomenology of Dark Matter [Cross-Listing]

We propose a relativistic model of dark matter reproducing at once the concordance cosmological model $\Lambda$-Cold-Dark-Matter ($\Lambda$-CDM) at cosmological scales, and the phenomenology of the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) at galactic scales. To achieve this we postulate a non-standard form of dark matter, consisting of two different species of particles coupled to gravity via a bimetric extension of general relativity, and linked together through an internal vector field (a "graviphoton") generated by the mass of these particles. We prove that this dark matter behaves like ordinary cold dark matter at the level of first order cosmological perturbation, while a pure cosmological constant plays the role of dark energy. The MOND equation emerges in the non-relativistic limit through a mechanism of gravitational polarization of the dark matter medium in the gravitational field of ordinary matter. Finally we show that the model is viable in the solar system as it predicts the same parametrized post-Newtonian parameters as general relativity.

 

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