Recent Postings from Cosmology and Extragalactic

Generating functions for weighted Hurwitz numbers [Cross-Listing]

Weighted Hurwitz numbers for $n$-sheeted branched coverings of the Riemann sphere are introduced, together with associated weighted paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by transpositions. The generating functions for these, which include all formerly studied cases, are 2D Toda $\tau$-functions of generalized hypergeometric type. Two new types of weightings are defined by coefficients in the Taylor expansion of the exponentiated quantum dilogarithm function. These are shown to provide $q$-deformations of strictly monotonic and weakly monotonic path enumeration generating functions. The standard double Hurwitz numbers are recovered from both types in the classical limit. By suitable interpretation of the parameter $q$, the corresponding statistical mechanics of random branched covers is related to that of Bose gases.

The Superhorizon Test of Future B-mode Experiments

Inflation predicts B-mode polarization with correlations that span superhorizon scales at recombination. In contrast, the correlations set up by causal sources, such as phase transitions or defects, necessarily vanish on superhorizon scales. Motivated by BICEP2′s B-mode detection, we consider the prospects for measuring the inflationary superhorizon signature in future observations. We explain that the finite resolution of an experiment and the filtering of the raw data induces a transfer of spurious subhorizon power to superhorizon scales, and describe ways to correct for it. We also provide a detailed treatment of possible sources of noise in the measurement. Finally, we present forecasts for the detectability of the signal with future CMB polarization experiments.

Gauss-Bonnet assisted Braneworld Inflation in light of BICEP2 and Planck [Cross-Listing]

Motivated by the idea that quantum gravity corrections usually suppress the power of the scalar primordial spectrum (E-mode) more than the power of the tensor primordial spectrum (B-mode), in this Letter we construct a concrete gravitational theory in five-dimensions for which $V(\phi)\propto \phi^n$-type inflation ($n\ge 1$) generates an appropriate tensor-to-scalar ratio that may be compatible with the BICEP2 and Planck data together. The true nature of gravity is five-dimensional and described by the action $S = \int d^5{x} \sqrt{|g|} M^3 \left(- 6\lambda M^2 + R + \alpha M^{-2} {\cal R}^2\right)$ where $M$ is the five-dimensional Planck mass and ${\cal R}^2=R^2-4 R_{ab} R^{ab} + R_{abcd} R^{abcd}$ is the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. The five-dimensional `bulk’ spacetime is anti-de Sitter ($\lambda<0$) for which inflation ends naturally. The effects of ${\cal R}^2$ term on the magnitudes of scalar and tensor fluctuations and spectral indices are shown to be important at the energy scale of inflation. For GB-assisted $m^2\phi^2$-inflation, inflationary constraints from BICEP2 and Planck, such as, $n_s\simeq 0.9603~(\pm 0.0073)$, $r=0.16~(+0.06-0.05)$ and $V_*^{1/4} \sim 1.5\times 10^{16}~GeV$ are all satisfied for $ (-\lambda \alpha) \simeq (3-300)\times 10^{-5}$.

Gauss-Bonnet assisted Braneworld Inflation in light of BICEP2 and Planck [Cross-Listing]

Motivated by the idea that quantum gravity corrections usually suppress the power of the scalar primordial spectrum (E-mode) more than the power of the tensor primordial spectrum (B-mode), in this Letter we construct a concrete gravitational theory in five-dimensions for which $V(\phi)\propto \phi^n$-type inflation ($n\ge 1$) generates an appropriate tensor-to-scalar ratio that may be compatible with the BICEP2 and Planck data together. The true nature of gravity is five-dimensional and described by the action $S = \int d^5{x} \sqrt{|g|} M^3 \left(- 6\lambda M^2 + R + \alpha M^{-2} {\cal R}^2\right)$ where $M$ is the five-dimensional Planck mass and ${\cal R}^2=R^2-4 R_{ab} R^{ab} + R_{abcd} R^{abcd}$ is the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. The five-dimensional `bulk’ spacetime is anti-de Sitter ($\lambda<0$) for which inflation ends naturally. The effects of ${\cal R}^2$ term on the magnitudes of scalar and tensor fluctuations and spectral indices are shown to be important at the energy scale of inflation. For GB-assisted $m^2\phi^2$-inflation, inflationary constraints from BICEP2 and Planck, such as, $n_s\simeq 0.9603~(\pm 0.0073)$, $r=0.16~(+0.06-0.05)$ and $V_*^{1/4} \sim 1.5\times 10^{16}~GeV$ are all satisfied for $ (-\lambda \alpha) \simeq (3-300)\times 10^{-5}$.

Gauss-Bonnet assisted Braneworld Inflation in light of BICEP2 and Planck [Cross-Listing]

Motivated by the idea that quantum gravity corrections usually suppress the power of the scalar primordial spectrum (E-mode) more than the power of the tensor primordial spectrum (B-mode), in this Letter we construct a concrete gravitational theory in five-dimensions for which $V(\phi)\propto \phi^n$-type inflation ($n\ge 1$) generates an appropriate tensor-to-scalar ratio that may be compatible with the BICEP2 and Planck data together. The true nature of gravity is five-dimensional and described by the action $S = \int d^5{x} \sqrt{|g|} M^3 \left(- 6\lambda M^2 + R + \alpha M^{-2} {\cal R}^2\right)$ where $M$ is the five-dimensional Planck mass and ${\cal R}^2=R^2-4 R_{ab} R^{ab} + R_{abcd} R^{abcd}$ is the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. The five-dimensional `bulk’ spacetime is anti-de Sitter ($\lambda<0$) for which inflation ends naturally. The effects of ${\cal R}^2$ term on the magnitudes of scalar and tensor fluctuations and spectral indices are shown to be important at the energy scale of inflation. For GB-assisted $m^2\phi^2$-inflation, inflationary constraints from BICEP2 and Planck, such as, $n_s\simeq 0.9603~(\pm 0.0073)$, $r=0.16~(+0.06-0.05)$ and $V_*^{1/4} \sim 1.5\times 10^{16}~GeV$ are all satisfied for $ (-\lambda \alpha) \simeq (3-300)\times 10^{-5}$.

Gauss-Bonnet assisted Braneworld Inflation in light of BICEP2 and Planck

Motivated by the idea that quantum gravity corrections usually suppress the power of the scalar primordial spectrum (E-mode) more than the power of the tensor primordial spectrum (B-mode), in this Letter we construct a concrete gravitational theory in five-dimensions for which $V(\phi)\propto \phi^n$-type inflation ($n\ge 1$) generates an appropriate tensor-to-scalar ratio that may be compatible with the BICEP2 and Planck data together. The true nature of gravity is five-dimensional and described by the action $S = \int d^5{x} \sqrt{|g|} M^3 \left(- 6\lambda M^2 + R + \alpha M^{-2} {\cal R}^2\right)$ where $M$ is the five-dimensional Planck mass and ${\cal R}^2=R^2-4 R_{ab} R^{ab} + R_{abcd} R^{abcd}$ is the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. The five-dimensional `bulk’ spacetime is anti-de Sitter ($\lambda<0$) for which inflation ends naturally. The effects of ${\cal R}^2$ term on the magnitudes of scalar and tensor fluctuations and spectral indices are shown to be important at the energy scale of inflation. For GB-assisted $m^2\phi^2$-inflation, inflationary constraints from BICEP2 and Planck, such as, $n_s\simeq 0.9603~(\pm 0.0073)$, $r=0.16~(+0.06-0.05)$ and $V_*^{1/4} \sim 1.5\times 10^{16}~GeV$ are all satisfied for $ (-\lambda \alpha) \simeq (3-300)\times 10^{-5}$.

The Effective Cross-sections of a Lensing-galaxy: Singular Isothermal Sphere with External Shear

Numerical studies on the imaging and caustic properties of the singular isothermal sphere (SIS) under a wide range of external shear (from 0.0 to 2.0) are presented. Using a direct inverse-mapping formula for this lens system (Lee 2003), we investigate various lensing properties under both a low (i.e., {\gamma} < 1.0), and a high (i.e., {\gamma} > 1.0) shear case: image separations, total or individual magnifications, flux ratios of 2-images, maximum number of images, and lensing cross-sections. We systematically analyze the effective lensing cross-sections of double-lensing and quad-lensing systems based on the radio luminosity function obtained by Jodrell-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS) and Cosmic Lens ALL-Sky Survey (CLASS). We find that the limit of a survey selection bias (i.e., between a brighter- and a fainter-image) preferentially reduces the effective lensing cross-sections of 2-image lensing systems. By considering the effects of survey selection bias, we demonstrate that the long standing anomaly on the high Quads-to-Doubles ratios (i.e., JVAS & CLASS: 50% ~ 70%) can be explained by the moderate effective shear of 0.16 ~ 0.18, which is half of previous estimates. The derived inverse mapping formula could facilitate the SIS + shear lens model to be useful for galaxy-lensing simulations. *Key-words: Cosmology; Theory; Gravitational lens; Strong.

Detection of the universal effect of the large scale velocity shear on the infall directions of the galactic satellites

We report a detection of the universal effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the infall directions of the galactic satellites into their hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digial Sky Survey Data and using the velocity shear field recently reconstructed by Lee et al. in the local universe, we investigate the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the local velocity shears smoothed on the scale of $10\,h^{-1}$Mpc. Those galactic satellites which are fainter and located at larger distances from the hosts are shown to yield stronger alignments. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment as well as to the luminosity, mass, richness and morphology of the isolated hosts and their satellites, which is consistent with the recent prediction of Libeskind et al. based on a $N$-body experiment that the velocity shear effect on the satellite infall direction is universal.

The ejected mass distribution of type Ia supernovae: A significant rate of non-Chandrasekhar-mass progenitors

The ejected mass distribution of type Ia supernovae directly probes progenitor evolutionary history and explosion mechanisms, with implications for their use as cosmological probes. Although the Chandrasekhar mass is a natural mass scale for the explosion of white dwarfs as type Ia supernovae, models allowing type Ia supernovae to explode at other masses have attracted much recent attention. Using an empirical relation between the ejected mass and the light curve width, we derive ejected masses $M_\mathrm{ej}$ and $^{56}$Ni masses $M_\mathrm{Ni}$ for a sample of 337 type Ia supernovae with redshifts $z < 0.7$ used in recent cosmological analyses. We use hierarchical Bayesian inference to reconstruct the joint $M_\mathrm{ej}$-$M_\mathrm{Ni}$ distribution, accounting for measurement errors. The inferred marginal distribution of $M_\mathrm{ej}$ has a long tail towards sub-Chandrasekhar masses, but cuts off sharply above 1.4 $M_\odot$. Our results imply that 25\%-50\% of normal type Ia supernovae are inconsistent with Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, with almost all of these being sub-Chandrasekhar-mass; super-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions make up no more than 1\% of all spectroscopically normal type Ia supernovae. We interpret the type Ia supernova width-luminosity relation as an underlying relation between $M_\mathrm{ej}$ and $M_\mathrm{Ni}$, and show that the inferred relation is not naturally explained by the predictions of any single known explosion mechanism.

SIMPle Dark Matter: Self-Interactions and keV Lines [Cross-Listing]

We consider a simple supersymmetric hidden sector: pure SU(N) gauge theory. Dark matter is made up of hidden glueballinos with mass $m_X$ and hidden glueballs with mass near the confinement scale $\Lambda$. For $m_X \sim 1~\text{TeV}$ and $\Lambda \sim 100~\text{MeV}$, the glueballinos freeze out with the correct relic density and self-interact through glueball exchange to resolve small-scale structure puzzles. An immediate consequence is that the glueballino spectrum has a hyperfine splitting of order $\Lambda^2 / m_X \sim 10~\text{keV}$. We show that the radiative decays of the excited state can explain the observed 3.5 keV X-ray line signal from clusters of galaxies, Andromeda, and the Milky Way.

SIMPle Dark Matter: Self-Interactions and keV Lines

We consider a simple supersymmetric hidden sector: pure SU(N) gauge theory. Dark matter is made up of hidden glueballinos with mass $m_X$ and hidden glueballs with mass near the confinement scale $\Lambda$. For $m_X \sim 1~\text{TeV}$ and $\Lambda \sim 100~\text{MeV}$, the glueballinos freeze out with the correct relic density and self-interact through glueball exchange to resolve small-scale structure puzzles. An immediate consequence is that the glueballino spectrum has a hyperfine splitting of order $\Lambda^2 / m_X \sim 10~\text{keV}$. We show that the radiative decays of the excited state can explain the observed 3.5 keV X-ray line signal from clusters of galaxies, Andromeda, and the Milky Way.

On the running of the spectral index to all orders: a new approach to constraint the inflationary models [Cross-Listing]

In conventional approaches, the power spectrum of primordial perturbations is characterized by free parameters such as the spectral index, its running, the running of running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. In this work we show that, at least for simple inflationary potentials, one can find the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra exactly by summation over all of the running terms. In this method, we expand the power spectra about the pivot scale and then find the series terms as a function of e-folding number for models of inflation. Interestingly, for the models studied here one can sum over all terms and evaluate the exact form of power spectra. This in turn reduces the parameter space because in our method there are no spectral indexes and running terms. We compare our results to the recent CMB data and find that our new power spectra have good agreement with data although they contain less free parameters.

On the running of the spectral index to all orders: a new approach to constraint the inflationary models

In conventional approaches, the power spectrum of primordial perturbations is characterized by free parameters such as the spectral index, its running, the running of running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. In this work we show that, at least for simple inflationary potentials, one can find the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra exactly by summation over all of the running terms. In this method, we expand the power spectra about the pivot scale and then find the series terms as a function of e-folding number for models of inflation. Interestingly, for the models studied here one can sum over all terms and evaluate the exact form of power spectra. This in turn reduces the parameter space because in our method there are no spectral indexes and running terms. We compare our results to the recent CMB data and find that our new power spectra have good agreement with data although they contain less free parameters.

On the running of the spectral index to all orders: a new approach to constraint the inflationary models [Cross-Listing]

In conventional approaches, the power spectrum of primordial perturbations is characterized by free parameters such as the spectral index, its running, the running of running and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. In this work we show that, at least for simple inflationary potentials, one can find the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra exactly by summation over all of the running terms. In this method, we expand the power spectra about the pivot scale and then find the series terms as a function of e-folding number for models of inflation. Interestingly, for the models studied here one can sum over all terms and evaluate the exact form of power spectra. This in turn reduces the parameter space because in our method there are no spectral indexes and running terms. We compare our results to the recent CMB data and find that our new power spectra have good agreement with data although they contain less free parameters.

Re-examining the Too-Big-To-Fail Problem for Dark Matter Haloes with Central Density Cores

Recent studies found the masses of dark matter (DM) subhaloes which surround nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) to be significantly lower than those of the most massive subhaloes expected around Milky Way sized galaxies in cosmological simulations, the so called "too-big-to-fail" (TBTF) problem. A caveat of previous work has been that dark substructures were assumed to contain steep density cusps in the center of DM haloes even though the central density structure of DM haloes is still under debate. In this study, we re-examine the TBTF problem for models of DM density structure with cores or shallowed cusps. Our analysis demonstrates that the TBTF problem is alleviated as the logarithmic slope of the central cusp becomes shallower. We also derive the critical logarithmic slope of the central density required in order to solve the TBTF problem.

CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a significantly smaller slope (in absolute value) in the innermost (<0.50 Mpc), highest density cluster region, than in more external, lower density regions. The number ratio of giant/subgiant galaxies is maximum in this innermost region and minimum in the adjacent region, but then gently increases again toward the cluster outskirts. This is also reflected in a decreasing radial trend of the average stellar mass per cluster galaxy. On the other hand, the stellar mass fraction, i.e., the ratio of stellar to total cluster mass, does not show any significant radial trend. Conclusions. Our results appear consistent with a scenario in which SF galaxies evolve into passive galaxies due to density-dependent environmental processes, and eventually get destroyed very near the cluster center to become part of a diffuse intracluster medium. (abridged)

The XMM-LSS survey: the Class 1 cluster sample over the extended 11 deg$^2$ and its spatial distribution

This paper presents 52 X-ray bright galaxy clusters selected within the 11 deg$^2$ XMM-LSS survey. 51 of them have spectroscopic redshifts ($0.05<z<1.06$), one is identified at $z_{\rm phot}=1.9$, and all together make the high-purity "Class 1" (C1) cluster sample of the XMM-LSS, the highest density sample of X-ray selected clusters with a monitored selection function. Their X-ray fluxes, averaged gas temperatures (median $T_X=2$ keV), luminosities (median $L_{X,500}=5\times10^{43}$ ergs/s) and total mass estimates (median $5\times10^{13} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$) are measured, adapting to the specific signal-to-noise regime of XMM-LSS observations. The redshift distribution of clusters shows a deficit of sources when compared to the cosmological expectations, regardless of whether WMAP-9 or Planck-2013 CMB parameters are assumed. This lack of sources is particularly noticeable at $0.4 \lesssim z \lesssim 0.9$. However, after quantifying uncertainties due to small number statistics and sample variance we are not able to put firm (i.e. $>3 \sigma$) constraints on the presence of a large void in the cluster distribution. We work out alternative hypotheses and demonstrate that a negative redshift evolution in the normalization of the $L_{X}-T_X$ relation (with respect to a self-similar evolution) is a plausible explanation for the observed deficit. We confirm this evolutionary trend by directly studying how C1 clusters populate the $L_{X}-T_X-z$ space, properly accounting for selection biases. We point out that a systematically evolving, unresolved, central component in clusters and groups (AGN contamination or cool core) can impact the classification as extended sources and be partly responsible for the observed redshift distribution.[abridged]

Statistical and systematic uncertainties in pixel-based source reconstruction algorithms for gravitational lensing

Gravitational lens modeling of spatially resolved sources is a challenging inverse problem with many observational constraints and model parameters. We examine established pixel-based source reconstruction algorithms for de-lensing the source and constraining lens model parameters. Using test data for four canonical lens configurations, we explore statistical and systematic uncertainties associated with gridding, source regularisation, interpolation errors, noise, and telescope pointing. Specifically, we compare two gridding schemes in the source plane: a fully adaptive grid that follows the lens mapping but is irregular, and an adaptive Cartesian grid. We also consider regularisation schemes that minimise derivatives of the source (using two finite difference methods) and introduce a scheme that minimises deviations from an analytic source profile. Careful choice of gridding and regularisation can reduce "discreteness noise" in the $\chi^2$ surface that is inherent in the pixel-based methodology. With a gridded source, some degree of interpolation is unavoidable, and errors due to interpolation need to be taken into account (especially for high signal-to-noise data). Different realisations of the noise and telescope pointing lead to slightly different values for lens model parameters, and the scatter between different "observations" can be comparable to or larger than the model uncertainties themselves. The same effects create scatter in the lensing magnification at the level of a few percent for a peak signal-to-noise ratio of 10, which decreases as the data quality improves.

Weak lensing corrections to tSZ-lensing cross correlation

The cross correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect and gravitational lensing in wide field has recently been measured. It can be used to probe the distribution of the diffuse gas in large scale structure, as well as inform us about the missing baryons. As for any lensing-based quantity, higher order lensing effects can potentially affect the signal. Here, we extend previous higher order lensing calculations to the case of tSZ-lensing cross correlations. We derive terms analogous to corrections due to the Born approximation, lens-lens coupling, and reduced shear up to fourth order in the Newtonian potential. Redshift distortions and vector modes are shown to be negligible at this order. We find that the dominant correction due to the reduced shear exceeds percent-level only at multipoles of $\ell \gtrsim 3000$.

Constraints on gravity and dark energy from the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect

We calculate the constraints on dark energy and cosmic modifications to gravity achievable with upcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) surveys sensitive to the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effects. The analysis focuses on using the mean pairwise velocity of clusters as observed through the kinematic SZ effect (kSZ), an approach based on the same methods used for the first detection of the kSZ effect, and includes a detailed derivation and discussion of this statistic’s covariance under a variety of different survey assumptions. The potential of current, Stage II, and upcoming, Stage III and Stage IV, CMB observations are considered, in combination with contemporaneous spectroscopic and photometric galaxy observations. A detailed assessment is made of the sensitivity to the assumed statistical and systematic uncertainties in the optical depth determination, the magnitude and uncertainty in the minimum detectable mass, and the importance of pairwise velocity correlations at small separations, where non-linear effects can start to arise. In combination with Stage III constraints on the expansion history, such as those projected by the Dark Energy Task Force, we forecast 5\% and 2\% for fractional errors on the growth factor, $\gamma$, for Stage III and Stage IV surveys respectively, and 2\% constraints on the growth rate, $f_g$, for a Stage IV survey for $0.2<z<0.6$. The results suggest that kSZ measurements of cluster peculiar velocities, obtained from cross-correlation with upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys, could provide robust tests of dark energy and theories of gravity on cosmic scales.

On the Nature of Type Ia-CSM Supernovae: Optical and Near-Infrared Spectra of SN 2012ca and SN 2013dn

A growing subset of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show evidence for unexpected interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (SNe Ia-CSM). The precise nature of the progenitor, however, remains debated owing to spectral ambiguities arising from a strong contribution from the CSM interaction. Late-time spectra offer potential insight if the post-shock cold, dense shell becomes sufficiently thin and/or the ejecta begin to cross the reverse shock. To date, few high-quality spectra of this kind exist. Here we report on the late-time optical and infrared spectra of the SNe~Ia-CSM 2012ca and 2013dn. These SNe Ia-CSM spectra exhibit low [Fe III]/[Fe II] ratios and strong [Ca II] at late epochs. Such characteristics are reminiscent of the super-Chandrasekhar-mass (SC) candidate SN 2009dc, for which these features suggested a low-ionisation state due to high densities, although the broad Fe features admittedly show similarities to the blue "quasi-continuum" observed in some core-collapse SNe Ibn and IIn. Neither SN 2012ca nor any of the other SNe Ia-CSM show evidence for broad oxygen, carbon, or magnesium in their spectra. Similar to the interacting Type IIn SN 2005ip, a number of high-ionisation lines are identified in SN 2012ca, including [S III], [Ar III], [Ar X], [Fe VIII], [Fe X], and possibly [Fe XI]. The total bolometric energy output does not exceed 10^51 erg, but does require a large kinetic-to-radiative conversion efficiency. All of these observations taken together suggest that SNe Ia-CSM are more consistent with a thermonuclear explosion than a core-collapse event, although detailed radiative transfer models are certainly necessary to confirm these results.

On the dichotomy of Seyfert 2 galaxies: intrinsic differences and evolution

We present a study of the local environment (<200 kpc/h) of 31 Hidden Broad Line Region (HBLR) and 43 non-HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2) in the nearby universe (z<0.04). To compare our findings, we constructed two control samples that match the redshift and the morphological type distribution of the HBLR and non-HBLR samples respectively. We used the NED (NASA extragalactic database) to find all neighboring galaxies within projected radius of 200 kpc/h around each galaxy, and radial velocity difference delta_u< 500 km/s. We find that, within a projected radius of at least 150 kpc/h around each Seyfert, the fraction of non-HBLR Sy2 galaxies with a close companion is significantly higher than that of their control sample, at the 96% confidence level. Interestingly, the difference is due to the high frequency of mergers in the non-HBLR sample, seven versus only one in the control sample, while also they present a high number of hosts with signs of peculiar morphology. In sharp contrast, the HBLR sample is consistent with its control sample and furthermore, the number of their host galaxies that present peculiar morphology, which probably implies some level of interactions or merging in the past, is the lowest in all four galaxy samples. Given that the HBLR Seyfert 2 galaxies are essentially Seyfert 1 (Sy1), with their broad line region (BLR) hidden because of the obscuration by the torus, while the non-HBLR Sy2 sample probably also includes intrinsically different objects, like "true" Sy2s that lack the BLR, and heavily obscured objects that prohibit even its indirect detection, our results are discussed within the context of an evolutionary sequence of activity triggered by close galaxy interactions and merging. We argue that the non-HBLR Sy2 galaxies may represent different stages of this sequence, possibly the beginning and the end of the nuclear activity.

New Associations of Gamma-Ray Sources from the Fermi Second Source Catalog

We present the results of an all-sky radio survey between 5 and 9 GHz of the fields surrounding all unassociated gamma-ray objects listed in the Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog (2FGL). The observations were conducted in two steps, first observations with the Very Large Array and the Australia Telescope Compact Array provided localizations of weak radio point sources found in 2FGL fields at arcmin scales. Then a subset of those were followed-up with the Very Long Baseline and the Long Baseline Arrays providing detections at sub-arcsecond resolution. In total we found 865 radio sources at arcsec scales as candidates for association. Our association method is based on the fact that bright VLBI detected compact radio sources with milli-arcsecond structures are rare objects. We quantified association probabilities based on known statistics of source counts and assuming a uniform distribution of background sources. We thus report firm associations for 76 previously unknown gamma-ray active galactic nuclei based on sub-arcsec scale detections. Comparison of these new AGN associations with the predictions from using the WISE color-color diagram shows that using the color-color diagram misses half of the associations. In addition, we found that in 129 out of 588 observed gamma-ray sources not a single radio continuum source was detected above our sensitivity limit within the 3-sigma gamma-ray localization. These ‘empty’ fields were found to be concentrated around the innermost region of the galactic plane and we suggest that they are associated with an as yet unrecognized galactic population of gamma-ray emitters.

Geodesic completeness and homogeneity condition for cosmic inflation

There are two disjointed problems in cosmology within General Relativity (GR), which can be addressed simultaneously by studying the nature of geodesics around $t\rightarrow 0$, where $t$ is the physical time. One is related to the past geodesic completeness of the inflationary trajectory due to the presence of a cosmological singularity, and the other one is related to the homogeneity condition required to inflate a local space-time patch of the universe. We will show that both the problems have a common origin, arising from how the causal structure of null and timelike geodesics are structured within GR. In particular, we will show how a non-local extension of GR can address both problems, while satisfying the null energy condition for the matter sources.

Geodesic completeness and homogeneity condition for cosmic inflation [Cross-Listing]

There are two disjointed problems in cosmology within General Relativity (GR), which can be addressed simultaneously by studying the nature of geodesics around $t\rightarrow 0$, where $t$ is the physical time. One is related to the past geodesic completeness of the inflationary trajectory due to the presence of a cosmological singularity, and the other one is related to the homogeneity condition required to inflate a local space-time patch of the universe. We will show that both the problems have a common origin, arising from how the causal structure of null and timelike geodesics are structured within GR. In particular, we will show how a non-local extension of GR can address both problems, while satisfying the null energy condition for the matter sources.

Geodesic completeness and homogeneity condition for cosmic inflation [Cross-Listing]

There are two disjointed problems in cosmology within General Relativity (GR), which can be addressed simultaneously by studying the nature of geodesics around $t\rightarrow 0$, where $t$ is the physical time. One is related to the past geodesic completeness of the inflationary trajectory due to the presence of a cosmological singularity, and the other one is related to the homogeneity condition required to inflate a local space-time patch of the universe. We will show that both the problems have a common origin, arising from how the causal structure of null and timelike geodesics are structured within GR. In particular, we will show how a non-local extension of GR can address both problems, while satisfying the null energy condition for the matter sources.

Suzaku observation of IRAS 00521-7054, a peculiar type-II AGN with a very broad feature at 6 keV

IRAS 00521$-$7054 is the first Seyfert 2 in which the presence of an extremely large Fe K$\alpha$ line has been claimed. We report here on the analysis of a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the source. We confirm the existence of a very strong excess over the power-law X-ray continuum at $E\sim6$ keV ($EW\simeq 800$ eV), extending down to $\sim 4.5$ keV, and found that the X-ray spectrum of the source can be explained by two different models. i) An absorption scenario, in which the X-ray source is obscured by two fully-covering ionized absorbers, with a strong reflection component from neutral material ($R\sim 1.7$), a black body component and four narrow Gaussian lines (corresponding to Fe K$\alpha$, Fe K$\beta$, Fe xxv and Fe xxvi). ii) A reflection scenario, in which the X-ray spectrum is dominated by an obscured ($\log N_{\rm\,H}\sim 22.9$) blurred reflection produced in an ionized disk around a rotating supermassive black hole with a spin of $a \geq 0.73$, and affected by light-bending ($R\sim 2.7$), plus two narrow Gaussian lines (corresponding to Fe K$\alpha$ and Fe K$\beta$). The narrow Fe K$\alpha$ and K$\beta$ lines are consistent with being produced by ionized iron, and in particular by Fe xiv-Fe xvi and Fe xii-Fe xvi for the absorption and reflection scenario, respectively. While the X-ray continuum varies significantly during the observation, the intensity of the broad feature appears to be constant, in agreement with both the absorption and reflection scenarios. For both scenarios we obtained a steep power-law emission ($\Gamma\sim 2.2-2.3$), and we speculate that the source might be an obscured narrow-line Seyfert 1.

Galaxy And Mass Assembly: Deconstructing Bimodality - I. Red ones and blue ones

We measure the mass functions for generically red and blue galaxies, using a z < 0.12 sample of log M* > 8.7 field galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our motivation is that, as we show, the dominant uncertainty in existing measurements stems from how ‘red’ and ‘blue’ galaxies have been selected/defined. Accordingly, we model our data as two naturally overlapping populations, each with their own mass function and colour-mass relation, which enables us characterise the two populations without having to specify a priori which galaxies are ‘red’ and ‘blue’. Our results then provide the means to derive objective operational definitions for the terms ‘red’ and ‘blue’, which are based on the phenomenology of the colour-mass diagrams. Informed by this descriptive modelling, we show that: 1.) after accounting for dust, the stellar colours of ‘blue’ galaxies do not depend strongly on mass; 2.) the tight, flat ‘dead sequence’ does not extend much below log M* ~ 10.5; instead, 3.) the stellar colours of ‘red’ galaxies vary rather strongly with mass, such that lower mass ‘red’ galaxies have bluer stellar populations; 4.) below log M* ~ 9.3, the ‘red’ population dissolves into obscurity, and it becomes problematic to talk about two distinct populations; as a consequence, 5.) it is hard to meaningfully constrain the shape, including the possibility of an upturn, of the ‘red’ galaxy mass function below log M* ~ 9. Points 1-4 provide meaningful targets for models of galaxy formation and evolution to aim for.

AKARI IRC 2.5-5 um Spectroscopy of Infrared Galaxies over a Wide Luminosity Range

We present the result of a systematic infrared 2.5-5 um spectroscopic study of 22 nearby infrared galaxies over a wide infrared luminosity range (10 < log(L_IR / Lsun) < 13) obtained from AKARI Infrared Camera (IRC). The unique band of the AKARI IRC spectroscopy enables us to access both the 3.3 um polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature from star forming activity and the continuum of torus-dust emission heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Applying our AGN diagnostics to the AKARI spectra, we discover 14 buried AGNs. The large fraction of buried AGNs suggests that AGN activity behind the dust is almost ubiquitous in ultra-/luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). We also find that both the fraction and energy contribution of buried AGNs increase with infrared luminosity from 10 < log(L_IR / Lsun) < 13, including normal infrared galaxies with log (L_IR / Lsun) < 11. The energy contribution from AGNs in the total infrared luminosity is only ~7% in LIRGs and ~20% in ULIRGs, suggesting that the majority of the infrared luminosity originates from starburst activity. Using the PAH emission, we investigate the luminosity relation between star formation and AGN. We find that these infrared galaxies exhibit higher star formation rates than optically selected Seyfert galaxies with the same AGN luminosities, implying that infrared galaxies could be an early evolutionary phase of AGN.

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Technical Overview

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project (SDSS-RM) is a dedicated multi-object RM experiment that has spectroscopically monitored a sample of 849 broad-line quasars in a single 7 deg$^2$ field with the SDSS-III BOSS spectrograph. The RM quasar sample is flux-limited to i_psf=21.7 mag, and covers a redshift range of 0.1<z<4.5. Optical spectroscopy was performed during 2014 Jan-Jul dark/grey time, with an average cadence of ~4 days, totaling more than 30 epochs. Supporting photometric monitoring in the g and i bands was conducted at multiple facilities including the CFHT and the Steward Observatory Bok telescopes in 2014, with a cadence of ~2 days and covering all lunar phases. The RM field (RA, DEC=14:14:49.00, +53:05:00.0) lies within the CFHT-LS W3 field, and coincides with the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field MD07, with three prior years of multi-band PS1 light curves. The SDSS-RM 6-month baseline program aims to detect time lags between the quasar continuum and broad line region (BLR) variability on timescales of up to several months (in the observed frame) for ~10% of the sample, and to anchor the time baseline for continued monitoring in the future to detect lags on longer timescales and at higher redshift. SDSS-RM is the first major program to systematically explore the potential of RM for broad-line quasars at z>0.3, and will investigate the prospects of RM with all major broad lines covered in optical spectroscopy. SDSS-RM will provide guidance on future multi-object RM campaigns on larger scales, and is aiming to deliver more than tens of BLR lag detections for a homogeneous sample of quasars. We describe the motivation, design and implementation of this program, and outline the science impact expected from the resulting data for RM and general quasar science.

Inflation and Uplifting with Nilpotent Superfields

Recently it was found that a broad class of existing inflationary models based on supergravity can be significantly simplified if some of the standard, unconstrained chiral superfields are replaced by nilpotent superfields, associated with Volkov-Akulov supersymmetry. The same method allows to simplify the existing models of uplifting of AdS vacua in string theory. In this paper we will show that one can go well beyond simplifying the models that already exist. We will propose a broad class of new models of chaotic inflation based on supergravity with nilpotent superfields, which simultaneously incorporate both inflation and uplifting. They provide a simple unified description of inflation and the present acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context.

Inflation and Uplifting with Nilpotent Superfields [Cross-Listing]

Recently it was found that a broad class of existing inflationary models based on supergravity can be significantly simplified if some of the standard, unconstrained chiral superfields are replaced by nilpotent superfields, associated with Volkov-Akulov supersymmetry. The same method allows to simplify the existing models of uplifting of AdS vacua in string theory. In this paper we will show that one can go well beyond simplifying the models that already exist. We will propose a broad class of new models of chaotic inflation based on supergravity with nilpotent superfields, which simultaneously incorporate both inflation and uplifting. They provide a simple unified description of inflation and the present acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context.

Inflation and Uplifting with Nilpotent Superfields [Cross-Listing]

Recently it was found that a broad class of existing inflationary models based on supergravity can be significantly simplified if some of the standard, unconstrained chiral superfields are replaced by nilpotent superfields, associated with Volkov-Akulov supersymmetry. The same method allows to simplify the existing models of uplifting of AdS vacua in string theory. In this paper we will show that one can go well beyond simplifying the models that already exist. We will propose a broad class of new models of chaotic inflation based on supergravity with nilpotent superfields, which simultaneously incorporate both inflation and uplifting. They provide a simple unified description of inflation and the present acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context.

Inflation and Uplifting with Nilpotent Superfields [Cross-Listing]

Recently it was found that a broad class of existing inflationary models based on supergravity can be significantly simplified if some of the standard, unconstrained chiral superfields are replaced by nilpotent superfields, associated with Volkov-Akulov supersymmetry. The same method allows to simplify the existing models of uplifting of AdS vacua in string theory. In this paper we will show that one can go well beyond simplifying the models that already exist. We will propose a broad class of new models of chaotic inflation based on supergravity with nilpotent superfields, which simultaneously incorporate both inflation and uplifting. They provide a simple unified description of inflation and the present acceleration of the universe in the supergravity context.

Does the Jet Production Efficiency of Radio Galaxies Control Their Optical AGN Types?

The jet production efficiency of radio galaxies can be quantified by comparison of their kinetic jet powers P_jet and Bondi accretion powers P_B. These two parameters are known to be related linearly, with the jet power resulting from the Bondi power by multiplication with an efficiency factor of order 1%. Using a recently published (Nemmen + Tchekhovskoy 2014) high-quality sample of 27 radio galaxies, I construct a P_B-P_jet diagram that includes information on optical AGN types as far as available. This diagram indicates that the jet production efficiency is a function of AGN type: Seyfert 2 galaxies seem to be systematically (with a false alarm probability of 0.043%) less efficient, by about one order of magnitude, in powering jets than Seyfert 1 galaxies, LINERs, or the remaining radio galaxies. This suggests an evolutionary sequence from Sy2s to Sy1s and LINERs, controlled by an interplay of jets on the one hand and dust and gas in galactic nuclei on the other hand. When taking this effect into account, the P_B-P_jet relation is probably much tighter intrinsically than currently assumed.

Wideband VLA Observations of Abell 2256 I: Continuum, Rotation Measure and Spectral Imaging

We report new observations of Abell 2256 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at frequencies between 1 and 8 GHz. These observations take advantage of the 2:1 bandwidths available for a single observation to study the spectral index, polarization and Rotation Measure as well as using the associated higher sensitivity to image total intensity features down to ~0.5" resolution. We find the Large Relic, which dominates the cluster, is made up of a complex of filaments which show correlated distributions in intensity, spectral index, and fractional polarization. The Rotation Measure varies across the face of the Large Relic but is not well correlated with the other properties of the source. The shape of individual filaments suggests that the Large Relic is at least 25 kpc thick. We detect a low surface brightness arc connecting the Large Relic to the Halo and other radio structures suggesting a physical connection between these features. The center of the F-complex is dominated by a very steep-spectrum, polarized, ring-like structure, F2, without an obvious optical identification, but the entire F-complex has interesting morphological similarities to the radio structure of NGC1265. Source C, the Long Tail, is unresolved in width near the galaxy core and is </~100pc in diameter there. This morphology suggests either that C is a one-sided jet or that the bending of the tails takes place very near the core, consistent with the parent galaxy having undergone extreme stripping. Overall it seems that many of the unusual phenomena can be understood in the context of Abell 2256 being near the pericenter of a slightly off-axis merger between a cluster and a smaller group. Given the lack of evidence for a strong shock associated with the Large Relic, other models should be considered, such as reconnection between two large-scale magnetic domains.

The Power Spectrum of Inflationary Attractors

Inflationary attractors predict the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio to take specific values that are consistent with Planck. An example is the universal attractor for models with a generalised non-minimal coupling, leading to Starobinsky inflation. In this letter we demonstrate that it also predicts a specific relation between the amplitude of the power spectrum and the number of e-folds. The length and height of the inflationary plateau are related via the non-minimal coupling: in a wide variety of examples, the observed power normalisation leads to at least 55 flat e-foldings. Prior to this phase, the inflationary predictions vary and can account for the observational indications of power loss at large angular scales.

The Power Spectrum of Inflationary Attractors [Cross-Listing]

Inflationary attractors predict the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio to take specific values that are consistent with Planck. An example is the universal attractor for models with a generalised non-minimal coupling, leading to Starobinsky inflation. In this letter we demonstrate that it also predicts a specific relation between the amplitude of the power spectrum and the number of e-folds. The length and height of the inflationary plateau are related via the non-minimal coupling: in a wide variety of examples, the observed power normalisation leads to at least 55 flat e-foldings. Prior to this phase, the inflationary predictions vary and can account for the observational indications of power loss at large angular scales.

HST-COS Observations of AGN. II. Extended Survey of Ultraviolet Composite Spectra from 159 Active Galactic Nuclei

The ionizing fluxes from quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) are critical for interpreting their emission-line spectra and for photoionizing and heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Using far-ultraviolet spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we directly measure the rest-frame ionizing continua and emission lines for 159 AGN at redshifts 0.001 < z_AGN < 1.476 and construct a composite spectrum from 475-1875A. We identify the underlying AGN continuum and strong EUV emission lines from ions of oxygen, neon, and nitrogen after masking out absorption lines from the HI Lya forest, 7 Lyman-limit systems (N_HI > 10^17.2 cm^-2) and 214 partial Lyman-limit systems (15.0 < log N_HI < 17.2). The 159 AGN exhibit a wide range of FUV/EUV spectral shapes, F_nu \propto nu^(alpha_nu), typically with -2 < alpha_nu < 0 and no discernible continuum edges at 912A (H I) or 504A (He I). The composite rest-frame continuum shows a gradual break at 1000 A, with mean spectral index alpha_nu = -0.83 +/- 0.09 in the FUV (1200-2000A) steepening to alpha_nu = -1.41 +/- 0.15 in the EUV (500-1000A). We discuss the implications of the UV flux turnovers and lack of continuum edges for the structure of accretion disks, AGN mass inflow rates, and luminosities relative to Eddington values.

Starburst-AGN mixing: II. Optically-selected active galaxies

We use 4 galaxies from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey with clear signs of accretion onto supermassive black holes to investigate the relative contribution of star-formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity to the line-emission of each galaxy as a function of radius. The combination of star-formation and AGN activity produces curved "mixing sequences" on standard optical diagnostic diagrams, and the fraction of emission due to AGN activity decreases smoothly with distance from the centre of the galaxy. We use the AGN activity profiles to calculate the size of the AGN narrow line regions, which have radii of ~ 6.3 kpc. We calculate the fractional contribution of the star-formation and the AGN activity to the global Halpha, [O II] $\lambda \lambda$ 3727,3729 and [O III] $\lambda$ 5007 luminosities of each galaxy, and show that both ionization sources contribute significantly to the emission in all three lines. We use weighted combinations of stellar and AGN photoionization models to produce mixing models, which are consistent with observations for 85 percent of spaxels across the galaxies in our sample. We also present a new diagnostic for starburst-AGN mixing which requires only the [O II], [O III] and Hbeta emission lines, and can therefore be used to calculate AGN fractions up to z ~ 0.85 in the optical and z ~ 3.5 in the near-infrared. We anticipate that this diagnostic will facilitate studies of the properties of AGN ionizing radiation fields and the relative optical contribution of star-formation and AGN activity over cosmic time.

Higher Order Lagrangians inspired in the Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator and their cosmological applications [Cross-Listing]

We study higher derivative terms associated to an scalar field cosmology. We consider a coupling between the scalar field and the geometry inspired in the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator given by $\alpha\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial_{\nu}\partial^{\nu}\phi.$ We investigate the cosmological dynamics in a phase space. For $\alpha>0$ we provide conditions for the stability of de Sitter solutions. For $\alpha<0,$ which is the portion of the parameter space where the crossing of the phantom divide $w_{DE}=-1$ and the cyclic behavior are possible, we present regions in the parameter space where the ghost has benign or malicious behavior, according to Smilga’s classification.

Higher Order Lagrangians inspired in the Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator and their cosmological applications

We study higher derivative terms associated to an scalar field cosmology. We consider a coupling between the scalar field and the geometry inspired in the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator given by $\alpha\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial_{\nu}\partial^{\nu}\phi.$ We investigate the cosmological dynamics in a phase space. For $\alpha>0$ we provide conditions for the stability of de Sitter solutions. For $\alpha<0,$ which is the portion of the parameter space where the crossing of the phantom divide $w_{DE}=-1$ and the cyclic behavior are possible, we present regions in the parameter space where the ghost has benign or malicious behavior, according to Smilga’s classification.

Higher Order Lagrangians inspired in the Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator and their cosmological applications [Cross-Listing]

We study higher derivative terms associated to an scalar field cosmology. We consider a coupling between the scalar field and the geometry inspired in the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator given by $\alpha\partial_{\mu}\partial^{\mu}\phi\partial_{\nu}\partial^{\nu}\phi.$ We investigate the cosmological dynamics in a phase space. For $\alpha>0$ we provide conditions for the stability of de Sitter solutions. For $\alpha<0,$ which is the portion of the parameter space where the crossing of the phantom divide $w_{DE}=-1$ and the cyclic behavior are possible, we present regions in the parameter space where the ghost has benign or malicious behavior, according to Smilga’s classification.

A Proposal for Testing Gravity's Rainbow [Cross-Listing]

Various approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity and Horava-Lifshitz gravity predict modifications of the energy-momentum dispersion relation. Magueijo and Smolin incorporated the modified dispersion relation (MDR) with the general theory of relativity to yield a theory of gravity’s rainbow. In this paper, we investigate the Schwarzschild metric in the context of gravity’s rainbow. We investigate rainbow functions from three known modified dispersion relations that were introduced by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [arXiv:hep-th/9605211, arXiv:0806.0339v2 [gr-qc], arXiv:astro-ph/9712103] and by Magueijo-Smolin in [arXiv:hep-th/0112090]. We study the effect of the rainbow functions on the deflection of light, photon time delay, gravitational red-shift, time dilation, and the weak equivalence principle. We compare our results with experiments to obtain upper bounds on the parameters of the rainbow functions.

A Proposal for Testing Gravity's Rainbow [Cross-Listing]

Various approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity and Horava-Lifshitz gravity predict modifications of the energy-momentum dispersion relation. Magueijo and Smolin incorporated the modified dispersion relation (MDR) with the general theory of relativity to yield a theory of gravity’s rainbow. In this paper, we investigate the Schwarzschild metric in the context of gravity’s rainbow. We investigate rainbow functions from three known modified dispersion relations that were introduced by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [arXiv:hep-th/9605211, arXiv:0806.0339v2 [gr-qc], arXiv:astro-ph/9712103] and by Magueijo-Smolin in [arXiv:hep-th/0112090]. We study the effect of the rainbow functions on the deflection of light, photon time delay, gravitational red-shift, time dilation, and the weak equivalence principle. We compare our results with experiments to obtain upper bounds on the parameters of the rainbow functions.

A Proposal for Testing Gravity's Rainbow

Various approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity and Horava-Lifshitz gravity predict modifications of the energy-momentum dispersion relation. Magueijo and Smolin incorporated the modified dispersion relation (MDR) with the general theory of relativity to yield a theory of gravity’s rainbow. In this paper, we investigate the Schwarzschild metric in the context of gravity’s rainbow. We investigate rainbow functions from three known modified dispersion relations that were introduced by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [arXiv:hep-th/9605211, arXiv:0806.0339v2 [gr-qc], arXiv:astro-ph/9712103] and by Magueijo-Smolin in [arXiv:hep-th/0112090]. We study the effect of the rainbow functions on the deflection of light, photon time delay, gravitational red-shift, time dilation, and the weak equivalence principle. We compare our results with experiments to obtain upper bounds on the parameters of the rainbow functions.

Line-driven radiative outflows in luminous quasars [Replacement]

An analysis of ~19500 narrow (<200 km/s) CIV 1548.2,1550.8 absorbers in ~34000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra is presented. The statistics of the number of absorbers as a function of outflow-velocity shows that in approximately two-thirds of outflows, with multiple CIV absorbers present, absorbers are line-locked at the 500 km/s velocity separation of the CIV absorber doublet; appearing as ‘triplets’ in the quasar spectra. Line-locking is an observational signature of radiative line driving in outflowing material, where the successive shielding of ‘clouds’ of material in the outflow locks the clouds together in outflow velocity. Line-locked absorbers are seen in both broad absorption line quasars (BALs) and non-BAL quasars with comparable frequencies and with velocities out to at least 20000 km/s. There are no detectable differences in the absorber properties and the dust content of single CIV doublets and line-locked CIV doublets. The gas associated with both single and line-locked CIV absorption systems includes material with a wide range of ionization potential (14-138 eV). Both single and line-locked CIV absorber systems show strong systematic trends in their ionization as a function of outflow velocity, with ionization decreasing rapidly with increasing outflow velocity. Initial simulations, employing CLOUDY, demonstrate that a rich spectrum of line-locked signals at various velocities may be expected due to significant opacities from resonance lines of Li-, He- and H-like ions of O, C and N, along with contributions from HeII and HI resonance lines. The simulations confirm that line driving can be the dominant acceleration mechanism for clouds with N(HI) ~ 10^19 cm^-2.

Line-driven radiative outflows in luminous quasars

An analysis of ~19500 narrow (<200 km/s) CIV 1548.2,1550.8 absorbers in ~34000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra is presented. The statistics of the number of absorbers as a function of outflow-velocity shows that in approximately two-thirds of outflows, with multiple CIV absorbers present, absorbers are line-locked at the 500 km/s velocity separation of the CIV absorber doublet; appearing as ‘triplets’ in the quasar spectra. Line-locking is an observational signature of radiative line driving in outflowing material, where the successive shielding of ‘clouds’ of material in the outflow locks the clouds together in outflow velocity. Line-locked absorbers are seen in both broad absorption line quasars (BALs) and non-BAL quasars with comparable frequencies and with velocities out to at least 20000 km/s. There are no detectable differences in the absorber properties and the dust content of single CIV doublets and line-locked CIV doublets. The gas associated with both single and line-locked CIV absorption systems includes material with a wide range of ionization potential (14-138 eV). Both single and line-locked CIV absorber systems show strong systematic trends in their ionization as a function of outflow velocity, with ionization decreasing rapidly with increasing outflow velocity. Initial simulations, employing CLOUDY, demonstrate that a rich spectrum of line-locked signals at various velocities may be expected due to significant opacities from resonance lines of Li-, He- and H-like ions of O, C and N, along with contributions from HeII and HI resonance lines. The simulations confirm that line driving can be the dominant acceleration mechanism for clouds with N(HI) ~ 10^19 cm^-2.

On the significance of power asymmetries in Planck CMB data at all scales

We perform an analysis of the CMB temperature data taken by the Planck satellite investigating if there is any significant deviation from cosmological isotropy. We look for differences between two opposite hemispheres with respect to particular directions, comparing with simulations. We apply a mask symmetrized in antipodal directions to avoid possible biases and smoothed on a 10′ scale to avoid spurious extra power on small scales induced by sharp edges. We properly take into account of Doppler and aberration effects due to our peculiar velocity and of the anisotropy of the noise, since these effects induce a significant "hemispherical asymmetry". We are thus able to probe scales all the way to $\ell = 2000$. After such treatment we find no evidence for significant hemispherical anomalies along any of the analyzed directions (i.e., deviations are less than 2$\sigma$ in the full range of $\ell$). Then we find results on a "dipolar modulation" of the the power spectrum of amplitude $A_{mod}$. Along the most asymmetric direction we find $A_{mod} = 0.0044 \pm 0.0014$ for $1 < \ell < 2000$, which represents a 3.3$\sigma$ discrepancy compared to simulations. If taking into account of the extra parameter the dipolar modulation model is preferred over the isotropic model with a $2.6 \sigma$ preference. However this is an overestimate of the real statistical significance, because of the a posteriori choice of such a direction. Interestingly, without proper removal of Doppler and aberration effects there are spurious discrepancies at high $\ell$ which can go up to 4.9$\sigma$ for the dipolar modulation. Even when considering only $\ell < 600$ we find that the boost is non-negligible and alleviates the discrepancy on the modulation from 3.3$\sigma$ to 2.9$\sigma$.

Frame Dependence of Quantum Corrections in Cosmology [Cross-Listing]

We investigate the equivalence between two different parametrizations of fields in cosmology – the so-called Jordan frame and Einstein frame – in the framework of a general scalar-tensor theory. While it is clear that both parametrizations are mathematically equivalent at the level of the classical action, the question about their mathematical equivalence at the quantum level as well as their physical equivalence is still a matter of debate in cosmology. We analyze whether the mathematical equivalence still holds when the first quantum corrections are taken into account. We therefore explicitly calculate the one-loop divergences in both parametrizations by using the generalized Schwinger-DeWitt algorithm and compare both results. We find that the quantum corrections do not coincide and hence induce an off-shell dependence on the parametrization. An explanation of the origin of this frame dependence is suggested to be found within a geometrical approach in the more general field theoretical framework. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of this analysis and its consequences for cosmology.

 

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