1 's: Schroeder (Columbia)
The current standard model of cosmology (SMoC) requires The Dual Dwarf Galaxy Theorem to be true. According to this theorem two types of dwarf galaxies must exist: primordial dark-matter (DM) dominated (type A) dwarf galaxies, and tidal-dwarf and ram-pressure-dwarf (type B) galaxies void of DM. In the model, type A dwarfs are distributed approximately spherically following the shape of the host galaxy DM halo, while type B dwarfs are typically correlated in phase-space. Type B dwarfs must exist in any cosmological theory in which galaxies interact. Only one type of dwarf galaxy is observed to exist on the baryonic Tully-Fisher plot and in the radius-mass plane. The Milky Way satellite system forms a vast phase-space-correlated structure that includes globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams. Similar arguments apply to Andromeda. Other galaxies also have phase-space correlated satellite systems. Therefore, The Dual Galaxy Theorem is falsified by observation and dynamically relevant cold or warm DM on galactic scales cannot exist. It is shown that the SMoC is incompatible with a large set of other extragalactic observations. Other theoretical solutions to cosmological observations exist, which yield an excellent description of astronomical observations. In particular, alone the empirical mass-discrepancy-acceleration correlation constitutes convincing evidence that galactic-scale dynamics cannot be Einsteinian/Newtonian. Major problems with inflationary big bang cosmologies remain unresolved.