The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to serve as a ground-based observatory for (very-)high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, open to a wide astrophysics community, providing a deep insight into the non-thermal high-energy universe. It foresees a factor of ~10 improvement in sensitivity above 100 GeV, with substantially better angular and spectral resolutions and wider field-of-view in comparison with currently operational experiments. The CTA consortium is investigating the different physics cases for different proposed array configurations and subsets. Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), the most numerous VHE Galactic sources, and Supernova Remnants (SNRs), believed to be the acceleration sites of the bulk of cosmic rays, will be two of the main observation targets for CTA. In this contribution, the main scientific goals regarding PWNe and SNRs are discussed, and quantitative examples of the capability of CTA to achieve these objectives are presented.